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Sample records for nervio mediano ramo

  1. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  2. An examination of nervios among Mexican seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret; Mysyk, Avis; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine a process model of the nervios experience of 30 Mexican seasonal farm workers. Focused interviews were conducted in Spanish to determine the workers' perspectives on their experiences of nervios while residing in rural, southwest Ontario. Data for analysis originated from variables created to represent key themes that had emerged from open coding of the interviews. Simultaneous entry, multiple regression analyses revealed that provocation, control salience, and cognitive sensory motor distress directly explained 67.2% of the variation in worker expressions of negative affectivity. The combination fear, feeling trapped, and giving in mediated the relationship of provocation, control salience and cognitive sensory motor distress to expressions of negative affectivity (R(2) = 88.1%). Control salience and its dampening effect on other elements of the nervios experience, however, appeared to be key to whether subjects experienced negative reactions to being provoked or distressed. This evidence points to nervios being a powerful, holistic idiom of distress with at least six variables contributing to its affective negativity. This information is important to our understanding of how nervios unfolds and for accurate specification of a nervios model for clinical practice and research. It also sets the stage for improved therapeutic alliances with nervios sufferers, and social action to reduce factors that provoke nervios.

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of "Ataque de Nervios" in Puerto Rico: Further Examination of a Cultural Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Febo San Miguel, Vivian E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa J.; Ramirez, Rafael R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative analysis and assessment of the symptoms of "ataque de nervios." A sample of 121 individuals living in Puerto Rico provided qualitative and structured data on "ataques de nervios" and psychiatric correlates. A total of 77 participants reported having an "ataque de nervios" during…

  4. ATAQUE DE NERVIOS AS A MARKER OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHIATRIC VULNERABILITY: RESULTS FROM THE NLAAS

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Shrout, Patrick; Guo, Jing; Torres, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Background This article presents the first epidemiological portrait of ataques de nervios among Latinos in the mainland United States. Much of the previous literature has focused on Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Aims This study examines the social and psychiatric correlates of ataque de nervios in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States. Methods This study employs data from the Latino sample [N=2554] of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Analyses examined the associations between ataques de nervios and a range of social and migration variables, as well as psychiatric diagnoses and measures of mental health need. Results Ataques de nervios were reported by 7 to 15% of the different Latino groups, with Puerto Ricans reporting the highest frequency. Ataques de nervios were more frequent in women, those with disrupted marital status, and those more acculturated the U.S. The frequency of those who met criteria for affective, anxiety and substance abuse disorders was higher among those reporting an ataque de nervios. Conclusions Ataque de nervios can serve as an important indicator of social and psychiatric vulnerability in future epidemiological and clinical studies with Latino populations. PMID:19592438

  5. Beyond Anxious Predisposition: Do Padecer de Nervios and Ataque de Nervios Add Incremental Validity to Predictions of Current Distress among Mexican Mothers?

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Carmela; Abelson, James L.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nervios (PNRV) and ataque de nervios (ATQ) are culture-bound syndromes with overlapping symptoms of anxiety, depression, and dissociation, shown to have inconsistent associations to psychiatric disorder. Few studies test the basic assumption that PNRV and ATQ are uniformly linked to distress outcomes across Latina/o immigrant groups. This study examined: (a) the extent to which acculturative stress, Latino/U.S. American acculturation, and anxious predisposition were associated with lifetime history of ATQ and PNRV, and (b) the extent to which ATQ and PNRV add incremental validity in explaining acculturative stress and psychological distress beyond measures of anxious predisposition. Method Participants (n = 82) included Mexican mothers who completed surveys on acculturation, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, lifetime ATQ/PNRV, psychological distress, and acculturative stress. Results Lifetime PNRV, but not lifetime ATQ, was significantly predictive of psychological distress. PNRV was also linked to trait anxiety. Psychometric measures of anxious predisposition (trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity) were more robust predictors of distress outcomes than lifetime history of ATQ/PNRV. Conclusions Inquiry into lifetime history of nervios may be a useful point of entry in talking to Mexican immigrant mothers about stress and distress. However, standard tools for assessing anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety appear most useful in identifying and explaining presence of psychological distress. Further research is needed to determine the cross-cultural relevance of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, and its implications for the development of anxiety treatments that are effective across cultures. PMID:21769996

  6. "Nervios" and "Modern Childhood": Migration and Shifting Contexts of Child Life in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribilsky, Jason

    2001-01-01

    Argues that beyond explanations predicated on psychological ideas of separation and attachment, "nervios," a depression-like disorder among children in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, reflects the limits of children's abilities to accept terms of family life increasingly defined through transnational migration and new consumption…

  7. Ramos-Arroyo syndrome: confirmation of an entity.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Madeleine J; Cosgrove, Mike; Laws, David E; Pilz, Daniela T

    2011-10-01

    In 1987, Ramos-Arroyo et al. described a family with a previously unreported combination of features, which included corneal anesthesia, short stature, sensorineural deafness, learning difficulties, and a characteristic facial appearance. The family was reviewed in 2008 and additional features were noted. The name Ramos-Arroyo syndrome was proposed. The condition can be delineated by corneal anesthesia, absence of the peripapillary choriocapillaris and retinal pigment epithelium, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, unusual facial appearance, persistent ductus arteriosus, Hirschprung disease, short stature, and intellectual disability. No other patient has been described since. Here, we report on a 5-year-old girl with features consistent with Ramos-Arroyo syndrome. We propose an overlap of this condition with dysautonomia syndromes.

  8. Afrobethylus Ramos & Azevedo, gen. nov., a new remarkable Afrotropical genus of Bethylinae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Magno S; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-04-04

    Afrobethylus Ramos & Azevedo, gen. nov. (type species Afrobethylus zulu Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov.) with six new species, Afrobethylus antankarana Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Madagascar), A. antemoro Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Madagascar), A. bapedi Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov. (South Africa), A. swazi Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov. (South Africa), A. vezo Ramos & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Madagascar), A. zulu Ramos & Azevedo sp. nov. (South Africa) are described and illustrated. This genus is characterized by having the antenna with ten flagellomeres; the forewing with second radial cell closed; the female genitalia with dorsal ramus of second valvula broadly enlarged, and the presence of proximal projection starting from the base of second valvifer. A key to the species of Afrobethylus based on females is provided.

  9. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  10. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities.

    PubMed

    Alzate-Guarín, Fernando; Murillo-Serna, Jhon Steven

    2016-01-01

    ramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986). There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen's similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species), further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems.

  11. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities

    PubMed Central

    Alzate-Guarín, Fernando; Murillo-Serna, Jhon Steven

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Páramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986). There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen’s similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species), further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems. PMID:27829798

  12. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  13. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J; Richardson, James E

    2013-10-09

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800-4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations.

  14. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J.; Richardson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800–4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations. PMID:24130570

  15. Analysis of the drought recovery of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Vicente; Morales, Oscar; Cisneros, Felipe; Bauwens, Willy; Wyseure, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l., known as páramo, offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. The most important of these is the water supply of excellent quality to many cities and villages in the inter-Andean valleys and along the coast. The páramo ecosystem and especially its soils are under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this study, the recovery speed of the páramo soils after drought periods are analysed. The observation period includes the droughts of 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 together with intermediate wet periods. Two experimental catchments - one with and one without páramo - were investigated. The Probability Distributed Moisture (PDM) model was calibrated and validated in both catchments. Drought periods and its characteristics were identified and quantified by a threshold level approach and complemented by means of a drought propagation analysis. At the plot scale in the páramo region, the soil water content measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes dropped from a normal value of about 0.84 to ˜ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was 2-3 months. This did not occur at lower altitudes (Cumbe) where the soils are mineral. Although the soil moisture depletion observed in these soils was similar to that of the Andosols (27 %), decreasing from a normal value of about 0.54 to ˜ 0.39 cm3 cm-3, the recovery was much slower and took about 8 months for the drought in 2010. At the catchment scale, however, the soil water storage simulated by the PDM model and the drought analysis was not as pronounced. Soil moisture droughts occurred mainly in the dry season in both catchments. The deficit for all cases is small and progressively reduced during the wet season. Vegetation stress periods correspond mainly to the months of September, October and November, which coincides with the dry season. The maximum number of consecutive dry days were reached during the drought of

  16. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    PubMed

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-05-06

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos.

  17. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    PubMed Central

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  18. Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanming; Zhang, Ning; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Jiang, Wenhuan; Yang, Li V; Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Jun Q; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Label-free and rapid classification of cells can have awide range of applications in biology. We report a robust method of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) for achieving this goal. Coherently scattered light signals are acquired from single cells excited by a polarized laser beam in the form of two cross-polarized diffraction images. Image texture and intensity parameters are extracted with a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to obtain an optimized set of feature parameters as the morphological "fingerprints" for automated cell classification. We selected the Jurkat T cells and Ramos B cells to test the p-DIFC method's capacity for cell classification. After detailed statistical analysis, we found that the optimized feature vectors yield accuracies of classification between the Jurkat and Ramos ranging from 97.8% to 100% among different cell data sets. Confocal imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction were applied to gain insights on the ability of p-DIFC method for classifying the two cell lines of highly similar morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the p-DIFC method has the capacity to discriminate cells of high similarity in their morphology with "fingerprints" features extracted from the diffraction images, which may be attributed to subtle but statistically significant differences in the nucleus-to-cell volume ratio in the case of Jurkat and Ramos cells.

  19. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  20. Role of carbon and climate in forming the Páramo, an Andean evolutionary hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    According to a number of genetic diversification measures the Páramo grasslands of the high equatorial Andes show the greatest rates of speciation on the planet. This is probably driven by contrasting ranges of the ecosystem between glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. During the warm interglacial periods the treeline is high in the Andes restricting the Páramos to the highest regions of the Andean mountain chain, while in the cool glacial periods the Páramo areas expand and probably coalesce, bringing isolated populations into contact with each other. The origin of the Páramo ecosystem is placed close to the end of the Pliocene and has been related to the finale of regional Andean mountain building. However, this formation date is also coincident with the global cooling at the end of the Pliocene, as Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the bipolar Pleistocene ice ages begin. Furthermore, it is estimated that atmospheric CO2 concentrations dropped from the 400 ppmv typical of the Pliocene to values more typical of the Pleistocene at around this time. Global climate model simulations, coupled with a high resolution biome model, give us the opportunity to test these competing hypotheses for the formation of the Páramo ecosystem. A series of HadCM3 climate model simulations are presented here varying the height of the highest altitude Andes and the global climate from its pre-industrial state to the Pliocene. The climate are topographic changes are varied both independently and together. These climatologies are then used to drive a high-resolution biome model, BIOME4, and simulate the impact on Andean vegetation. These models seem to reproduce the observed changes in high altitude grassland biomes during the Pliocene. The climate and biome modelling presented here show that the climate changes associated with the Plio-Pleistocene boundary are the primary cause of the initial formation of this unique and important ecosystem. Although the reduction

  1. Analysis of the drought resilience of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, V.; Morales, O.; Cisneros, F.; Bauwens, W.; Wyseure, G.

    2015-11-01

    The neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l. known as "páramo" offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. Most important is the water supply - of excellent quality - to many cities and villages established in the lowlands of the inter-Andean valleys and to the coast. However, the páramo ecosystem is under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this paper we study the resilience of its soils for drought periods during the period 2007-2013. In addition, field measurements and hydrological conceptual modelling at the catchment-scale are comparing two contrasting catchments in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Both were intensively monitored during two and a half years (2010-2012) in order to analyse the temporal variability of the soil moisture storage. A typical catchment on the páramo at 3500 m a.s.l. was compared to a lower grassland one at 2600 m a.s.l. The main aim was to estimate the resilience capacity of the soils during a drought period and the recovery during a subsequent wet period. Local soil water content measurements in the top soil (first 30 cm) through TDR were used as a proxy for the catchment's average soil moisture storage. The local measurements were compared to the average soil water storage as estimated by the probabilistic soil moisture (PDM) model. This conceptual hydrological model with 5 parameters was calibrated and validated for both catchments. The study reveals the extraordinary resilience capacity of this type of shallow organic soils during the droughts in 2009 and 2010. During these droughts, the soil water content dropped from a normal value of about 0.80 to ~ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was only two to three months.

  2. Assessing somatic hypermutation in Ramos B cells after overexpression or knockdown of specific genes.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dana C; Unniraman, Shyam

    2011-11-01

    B cells start their life with low affinity antibodies generated by V(D)J recombination. However, upon detecting a pathogen, the variable (V) region of an immunoglobulin (Ig) gene is mutated approximately 100,000-fold more than the rest of the genome through somatic hypermutation (SHM), resulting in high affinity antibodies. In addition, class switch recombination (CSR) produces antibodies with different effector functions depending on the kind of immune response that is needed for a particular pathogen. Both CSR and SHM are initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which deaminates cytosine residues in DNA to produce uracils. These uracils are processed by error-prone forms of repair pathways, eventually leading to mutations and recombination. Our current understanding of the molecular details of SHM and CSR come from a combination of studies in mice, primary cells, cell lines, and cell-free experiments. Mouse models remain the gold standard with genetic knockouts showing critical roles for many repair factors (e.g. Ung, Msh2, Msh6, Exo1, and polymerase η). However, not all genes are amenable for knockout studies. For example, knockouts of several double-strand break repair proteins are embryonically lethal or impair B-cell development. Moreover, sometimes the specific function of a protein in SHM or CSR may be masked by more global defects caused by the knockout. In addition, since experiments in mice can be lengthy, altering expression of individual genes in cell lines has become an increasingly popular first step to identifying and characterizing candidate genes. Ramos - a Burkitt lymphoma cell line that constitutively undergoes SHM - has been a popular cell-line model to study SHM. One advantage of Ramos cells is that they have a built-in convenient semi-quantitative measure of SHM. Wild type cells express IgM and, as they pick up mutations, some of the mutations knock out IgM expression. Therefore, assaying IgM loss by fluorescence

  3. Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement. Quality/Calidad/Qualite Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Debbie

    The Manuela Ramos Movement began in the 1970s when seven women in Lima, Peru, started meeting each Tuesday to reconsider their assumptions about everyday life. By 1980, the group formed a nongovernmental organization whose strategy was to train women community leaders in Lima's barrios through workshops focusing on the following themes: identity…

  4. Soil CO2 emissions from Northern Andean páramo ecosystems: effects of fallow agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cabaneiro, Ana; Fernandez, Irene; Pérez-Ventura, Luis; Carballas, Tarsy

    2008-03-01

    The effects of fallow agriculture on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and CO2 emissions were assessed in the tropical Andean páramo ecosystem. Possible changes during the cultivation-fallow cycle were monitored in four areas of the Quebrada Piñuelas valley (Venezuela). Uncultivated soils and plots at different stages of a complete cultivation--fallow cycle were incubated, and SOM mineralization kinetics was determined. Soils exhibited a low SOM mineralization activity, total CO2 evolved never reaching 3% of soil carbon, pointing to a stabilized SOM. Potential soil CO2 effluxes differed significantly according to their plot aspect: northeast (NE)-aspect soils presented higher CO2 effluxes than southwest (SW)-aspect soils. Soil CO2 emissions decreased after ploughing as compared to virgin páramo; low CO2 effluxes were still observed during cropping periods, increasing progressively to reach the highest values after 4-5 y of fallow. In all cases, experimental C mineralization data was fitted to a double exponential kinetic model. High soil labile C pool variability was observed, and two different trends were identified: NE-oriented soils showed more labile C and a wider range of values than SW-facing soils. Labile C positively correlated with CO2 effluxes and negatively with its instantaneous mineralization rate. The instantaneous mineralization rate of the recalcitrant C pool positively correlated with %C evolved as CO2 and negatively with soil C and Al2O3 contents, suggesting the importance of aluminum on SOM stability. The CO2 effluxes from these ecosystems, as well as the proportion of soil C released to the atmosphere, seem to depend not only on the size of the labile C pool but also on the accessibility of the more stabilized SOM. Therefore, fallow agriculture produces moderate changes in SOM quality and temporarily alters the CO2 emission capacity of these soils.

  5. A electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor for Ramos cancer cell using DNA encapsulated Ru(bpy)₃Cl₂ as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Hun, Xu; Chen, Huaicheng; Wang, Wei

    2011-05-15

    A label-free sensing technology for detection of Ramos cell was developed based on a signal probe Ru(bpy)3Cl2 (Ru) encapsulated by DNA. Gold electrode or magnetic bead as the sensing surface was firstly modified with long-strand DNA with five repeating units. Then two kinds of short-strand DNA are grafted onto the long-strand DNA to form DNA strands A and B (L-A and L-B) through the hybridization, respectively. The addition of aptamer initiates hybridization of L-A and L-B with the aptamer sequence. As the hybridization proceeds, the four kinds of DNA would finally transform into a three-dimensional network structure and the signal probe Ru was encapsulated by DNA simultaneously. When Ramos cells are introduced to interact with the aptamer, the signal probe is released. In order to confirm the generality of this method the ferrocenecarboxylic acid and luminol selected as a signal probe mode were also tested. The Ru used as a signal probe for electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) detection was detailedly studied. With this ECL biosensor, detection limit as low as 58 cells/mL was achieved for Ramos cell. The biosensor also exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity.

  6. Model quantification of the CO2 storage in the Los Páramos site (Duero basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Albert; Grandia, Fidel; Abarca, Elena; Motis, Kilian; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The Duero basin in NW Spain is one the most promising basin for CO2 storage in the Iberian Peninsula due to the existence of favourable deep aquifers close to large CO2 emission point sources. A number of projects are presently active either for scientific research (e.g., the Hontomín site, OXI-CFB300 EPRR project) or commercial purposes (e.g., Sahagún and Los Páramos projects). The project called Los Páramos intends to assess the injection of CO2 in a group of dome-shaped structures with an estimated total capacity of 200 Mt (ranked 2nd in the Iberian Peninsula, IGME 2010). These domes were studied in the past for hydrocarbon exploration and a large body of information is available from seismic profiles (over 170 km) and 3 deep wells. The Los Páramos site is emplaced in the San Pedro Folded Band (SPFB) that consists mainly of thick-skinned thrusts of Mesozoic rocks (Triassic and Upper Cretaceous) sealed by a thick (1200-1500 m), undeformed cover of Tertiary claystones. Dome-like structures are related to thrusts leading to favourable reservoirs. The target horizon for CO2 storage is the Utrillas Fm sandstone with high porosity (13-20%) and thickness (225-250 m). In three of the domes, the Utrillas Fm is below -800m, allowing thus the storage of CO2(sc). This sandstone hosts an aquifer containing saline water, up to 50 g·L-1, according to the data from drill wells. The presence of saline groundwater is explained by water interaction with Triassic evaporite layers just underlying the Utrillas Fm sandstones. The CO2 storage at Los Paramos site is planned via injection of supercritical CO2 (CO2(sc)) in the Utrillas Fm. In general, the next four trapping mechanisms are expected, which are of increasing importance through time (1) structural, (2) residual saturation, (3) dissolution, and (4) mineral. The prediction of the mass of CO2 stored through time in any storage systems is an essential parameter in the pre-injection assessment of a geological storage. For

  7. High mountain soil sequence at the Páramos of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Francelino, Marcio; Muselli Barbosa, Alexandre; Adnet Moura, Pedro; Adent Moura, Tom; Correia, Guilherme; Cunha Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about high-mountain cryopedogenesis under Páramo vegetation in the Andes. We studied soils along a typical topossequence at the periglacial zone on the northern flank of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, emphasizing the cryopedogenesis process and altitudinal soil climatic regime, in soils ranging from 3980 to 4885m, above the tree line and below the snow line. At each site, a complete set of instruments (sensors and datalogger) were installed to monitoring air and soil temperatures and moisture, at five soil depths, in three different elevation points; in addition we selected, described and sampled six representative soil profiles, according to local variations in vegetation cover, topography, presence of snow and elevation; soils were studied concerning the petrographic composition, mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of different soil fractions. The geology of the Cotopaxi volcano is complex due to recent volcanic activity. Petrographically, the most recent ejected material is of Andesite-rhyolitic composition, with large deposits of tephra, and solifluxion lobes forming a mixed debris mantle. The landforms are characteristic of a stratovolcano, with conical and symmetric formations, with a dissected, broad base with gentle slopes, changing to steep slopes and eroded, rugged peaks, displaying periglacial erosional features. Also, we find cumulative sedimentary materials of periglacial origin in the lower parts of the landscape. Soil monitoring temperatures for one year showed that the surface soil is warmer than the air temperature for the three elevations, even under snow cover, indicating a strong thermal insulation of these volcanic soils. No permafrost was detected at the 200 cm section. The volcanic soils are stratified, with alternating layers of ash and lapilli, with pumices, with predominantly coarse textures and low clay content, features that may contribute to the observed insulation. Mineralogical analyzes indicated the

  8. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  9. Hydrological interaction between glacier and páramos in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacís, Marcos; Cadier, Eric; Mena, Sandra; Anaguano, Marcelo; Calispa, Marlon; Maisisncho, Luis; Galárraga, Remigio; Francou, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Preliminary hydro glacier estimates indicate that glacier contribution to the average annual consumption (5.6 m3 s-1) of the city of Quito (Capital of Ecuador, ~2'500.000 inhabitants, 2800 masl) represents only about 2%-4% of the total supply for human consumption. However, at the local level at the Antizana volcano (0°28'S, 78°09'W), the mass balance analysis of the system composed by the Humboldt catchment (area of 15.1 km2, 15% of glaciarized area, 5% of moraines area, 80% of the area is páramo-endemic ecosystem of the tropical Andes, range from 5670 masl to 4000 masl) and Los Crespos catchment (area of 2.4 km2, 67% glaciarized area, 27% moraines area, range from 5670 masl to 4500 masl), which is nested into the Humboldt catchment, allows us to identify that due to the presence of the glacier reservoirs there is an additional contribution of 24% to the annual volume at the Humboldt catchment and it helps to regulate the runoff during the dry season, where the daily additional glacier contribution from November to February in some cases could reach t 40%. The Humboldt catchment has similar physiographic characteristics than the sites where new diversions will be built in the future in order to satisfy the increasing demand of water for human consumption of the city of Quito and its surrounding populations. Based on detail hydrological observations (every 15 minutes measurements) during 2005 to 2009 and sporadic environmental trace analysis during the same period, the annual percentage of glacier contribution from the Humboldt catchment could potentially be as high as 37% due in part to the glacier melt contribution that gets infiltrated over 4750 masl it is then delivered around 4100 masl through underground circulation. Some of the sites where the glacier contribution reaches de surface has been identified through field work and the glacier origin of this water have been confirmed using a conductivity measurement, which seems to be a good indicator in when

  10. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  11. A brief look at the Odonata from the Páramo ecosystems in Colombia, with the descriptions of Oxyallagma colombianum sp. nov. and Rhionaeschna caligo sp. nov. (Odonata: Coenagrionidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Bota-Sierra, Cornelio Andrés

    2014-08-22

    Here I present the results of field work and collections of Odonata made in several páramos of Colombia between 2007 and 2014. Two undescribed species, in the genera Oxyallagma Kennedy, 1920, and Rhionaeschna Förster, 1909, respectively, were found, as well as two species not previously recorded from Colombia: Rhionaeschna peralta (Ris, 1918) and Oxyallagma dissidens (Selys, 1876). Descriptions and diagnoses of the new species, photographs, maps, illustrations, natural history notes, and comments on morphological plasticity are presented.

  12. ramo de Belmira as an important centre of endemism in the northern Colombian Andes: new evidence from Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Satyrini).

    PubMed

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Clavijo, Alejandra; Uribe, Sandra; Marin, Mario A; Alvarez, Carlos F; Zubek, Anna

    2016-10-28

    ramo de Belmira (Páramo de Santa Inés) is the highest part of the Andean Central Cordillera in the Colombian department of Antioquia. It harbours a pocket of highlands grassland vegetation isolated from the nearest southerly other large paramo extensions by some 150 km. Butterflies sampling was carried out for over three years in the cloud forest-paramo mosaic and open grassland at 2650-3350 m. As a result, several new taxa of various butterflies groups were identified, including three species and two subspecies belonging to the Satyrinae subtribe Pronophilina, described herein: Lymanopoda casneri n. sp., L. ionius lilliput n. ssp., Panyapedaliodes rojasi n. sp., Pedaliodes nutabe n. sp. and Apexacuta orsedice mariadelmarae n. ssp. L. casneri is particularly interesting from the biogeographical perspective as its nearest relative is L. hazelana Brown, found in south-central Ecuador, some 1000 km southwards. Overall, 48 species of Pronophilina were identified. Considering the occurrence of several endemic species and subspecies of butterflies in the extremely restricted paramo grasslands in the study area, and the anthropogenic pressure from surrounding locations, it is worth attributing the Páramo de Belmira a protection area status.

  13. [Relationship between ultrasound measurements of the median nerve and electrophysiological severity in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urriés, Miguel; Haddad-Garay, María; Estébanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-García, César; Ruiz-de-Escudero Zapico, Alazne

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La ecografia es una herramienta que ha experimentado un gran desarrollo en el diagnostico de patologias compresivas neurales, como el sindrome del tunel carpiano (STC). Para planificar el tratamiento es importante establecer la gravedad de la patologia, por lo que seria relevante conocer la capacidad de la ecografia para discriminar el grado de afectacion del nervio mediano a este nivel. Objetivo. Investigar la correlacion de las mediciones ecograficas con la gravedad electrofisiologica en pacientes con STC. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron mediciones ecograficas en 59 sujetos (97 muñecas) remitidos para recibir un electroneurograma (ENG) por sospecha de STC. Segun el ENG, los sujetos se clasificaron como sanos, STC leve, moderado o grave. Posteriormente, se analizo la relacion entre las mediciones ecograficas y los resultados del ENG segun su gravedad. Tambien se calcularon las curvas ROC (receiver operaing characteristic) para los valores de corte optimos en cada grupo atendiendo a su gravedad. Resultados. Ambas mediciones ecograficas mostraron correlacion con la gravedad del STC determinada por el ENG. El area de seccion transversal del nervio mediano en la muñeca (AST-M) mostro la mayor correlacion (r = 0,613). Conclusiones. Existe relacion entre las mediciones ecograficas del nervio mediano, especialmente en el AST-M, y la gravedad del STC en un contexto clinico. Dichas mediciones podrian ser complementarias para diagnosticar el STC y determinar su gravedad.

  14. [Diagnostic validity of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Haddad-Garay, María; Tricas-Moreno, José M; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urries, Miguel; Estebanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-Garcia, César; Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, Alazne

    2015-07-01

    Introduccion. La ecografia ha emergido como una herramienta diagnostica alternativa de las neuropatias perifericas, como el sindrome del tunel carpiano (STC). Sin embargo, faltan datos sobre la validez diagnostica de las diferentes mediciones ecograficas para la deteccion del STC en entornos clinicos. Objetivo. Hallar la validez diagnostica de las mediciones ecograficas del area de seccion transversal del nervio mediano en la muñeca (AST-M) y de la ratio del area del nervio mediano entre la muñeca y el antebrazo (R-MA) en el diagnostico del STC, utilizando como tecnica de referencia el electroneurograma (ENG). Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron mediciones ecograficas en 59 sujetos (97 muñecas) referidos para someterse a un ENG por sospecha de STC. Los examinadores que realizaron la ecografia desconocian los resultados del ENG. Posteriormente, se calcularon los puntos de corte mediante curvas ROC para cada una de las mediciones (AST-M y R-MA) y se analizo su validez diagnostica. Resultados. Con un punto de corte de 9,15 mm2, la medicion AST-M obtuvo una sensibilidad del 75,81%, una especificidad del 74,29%, una ratio de probabilidad positiva de 2,95 y una ratio de probabilidad negativa de 0,33. Para la medicion R-MA y un punto de corte de 1,56, los valores de sensibilidad, especificidad y ratios de probabilidad positiva y negativa fueron 70,97%, 71,43%, 2,48 y 0,4, respectivamente. Conclusion. Tanto el AST-M como la R-MA parecen ser medidas utiles en el diagnostico del STC tomando como prueba de referencia el ENG.

  15. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in Chiari malformation].

    PubMed

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, María A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Rahnama, Kimia; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2013-06-16

    Introduccion. La malformacion de Chiari (MC) incluye una serie de anomalias congenitas que tienen como comun denominador la ectopia de las amigdalas del cerebelo por debajo del foramen magno, lo que puede condicionar fenomenos compresivos del troncoencefalo, la medula espinal alta y los nervios craneales, alterando las respuestas de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tronco cerebral (PEATC) y de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales (PESS). Sin embargo, las indicaciones de ambas exploraciones en las MC han sido motivo de estudio en un numero limitado de publicaciones, centradas en series cortas y heterogeneas de pacientes. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los PEATC y los PESS en los estudios publicados en pacientes con MC tipo 1 (MC-1) o tipo 2 (MC-2), y su indicacion en el diagnostico, tratamiento y seguimiento, especialmente en la MC-1. Desarrollo. Es un estudio de revision realizado mediante analisis de los estudios publicados en Medline desde 1966, localizados mediante PubMed, utilizando combinaciones de las palabras clave 'Chiari malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari malformation', 'Chiari type 1 malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation', 'evoked potentials', 'brainstem auditory evoked potentials' y 'somatosensory evoked potentials', asi como informacion de pacientes con MC-1 valorados en los servicios de neurocirugia y neurofisiologia clinica del Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos mas comunes de los PESS son la reduccion en la amplitud cortical para el nervio tibial posterior, la reduccion o ausencia del potencial cervical del nervio mediano y el aumento del intervalo N13-N20. En el caso de los PEATC, los hallazgos mas frecuentes descritos son el aumento del intervalo I-V y la alteracion periferica o coclear.

  16. Philippine Counterinsurgency during the Presidencies of Magsaysay, Marcos, and Ramos: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Juan, Kelley, Kevin, Lee, Max, Mike, and TW, for making this year, one of the best years in my life. Fourth, I would like to thank my friends...soldiers and officers in my last assignment for making sure that my family would be able to join me before graduation. Fifth, I would like to thank my...their inspiration and sacrifices. Their short stay at Leavenworth makes my stay here more meaningful and complete. Above all, I would like to

  17. Lumley and Miller Student Scholarships Awarded to Ramos-Garcés and Ahmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    As part of the strategic plan, AGU works to enhance engagement and involvement of students and early-career scientists with the scientific community and uses its position as a diverse and inclusive organization to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. Student travel grants, awards, and scholarships are a few of the essential ways students and early-career scientists get involved in AGU every year.

  18. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous radio galaxies & type-2 quasars (Ramos Almeida+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Bessiere, P. S.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Inskip, K. J.; Morganti, R.; Dicken, D.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.

    2016-04-01

    Our sample of 46 PRGs was imaged with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) on the 8.1-m Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon under good seeing conditions [median seeing full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.8-arcsec, ranging from 0.4 to 1.1-arcsec. Deep optical imaging data for the 20 objects were obtained using GMOS-S and exactly the same instrumental configuration as for the 2-Jy sample. The observations were carried out in queue mode between 2009 August and 2011 September in good seeing conditions, with a median value of FWHM=0.8-arcsec, ranging between 0.5 and 1.1-arcsec. (4 data files).

  20. [The record of sensitive nerve action potentials. Interelectrode distance in healthy children].

    PubMed

    Arango-Aguilar, Jaime; Fraire-Martínez, María Inés; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Ana

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: estudios en adultos muestran que con 3 o 4 cm de distancia entre los electrodos activo y de referencia se obtienen los valores ma´ximos de amplitud y latencia de los potenciales de accio´n nerviosos sensitivos. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar en niños sanos, las distancia entre los electrodos con la cual los valores de amplitud y latencia pico no difieren significativamente de los obtenidos con la distancia entre los electrodos a la cual se obtienen los valores máximos. ME´TODOS: se colocaron cuatro electrodos de referencia a 1, 2, 3 y 4 cm del electrodo activo. La señal del electrodo activo se registró simultáneamente con un puente físico entre los cuatro canales. Se analizó una muestra de 66 nervios medianos en niños de cinco a nueve años. Los valores máximos de amplitud y latencia se obtuvieron con 4 cm entre los electrodos. Se compararon los valores obtenidos con 4 cm entre los electrodos y con 1, 2 y 3 cm.

  1. A genome wide study of genetic adaptation to high altitude in feral Andean Horses of the páramo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life at high altitude results in physiological and metabolic challenges that put strong evolutionary pressure on performance due to oxidative stress, UV radiation and other factors dependent on the natural history of the species. To look for genes involved in altitude adaptation in a large herbivore, this study explored genome differentiation between a feral population of Andean horses introduced by the Spanish in the 1500s to the high Andes and their Iberian breed relatives. Results Using allelic genetic models and Fst analyses of ~50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the horse genome, 131 candidate genes for altitude adaptation were revealed (Bonferoni of p ≤ 2 × 10–7). Significant signals included the EPAS1 in the hypoxia-induction-pathway (HIF) that was previously discovered in human studies (p = 9.27 × 10-8); validating the approach and emphasizing the importance of this gene to hypoxia adaptation. Strong signals in the cytochrome P450 3A gene family (p = 1.5 ×10-8) indicate that other factors, such as highly endemic vegetation in altitude environments are also important in adaptation. Signals in tenuerin 2 (TENM2, p = 7.9 × 10-14) along with several other genes in the nervous system (gene categories representation p = 5.1 × 10-5) indicate the nervous system is important in altitude adaptation. Conclusions In this study of a large introduced herbivore, it becomes apparent that some gene pathways, such as the HIF pathway are universally important for high altitude adaptation in mammals, but several others may be selected upon based on the natural history of a species and the unique ecology of the altitude environment. PMID:24344830

  2. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First…

  3. Integrated taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the subgenus Trichodagmia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Páramo Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Sofia A; Moncada, Ligia I; Murcia, Carlos H; Lotta, Ingrid A; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2015-01-30

    A new species of simuliid from the Andean Mountains of Colombia is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, larvae, polytene chromosomes, and COI and ITS2 DNA sequences. Simulium (Trichodagmia) chimguazaense new species is structurally, chromosomally, and molecularly distinct from its nearest relatives, S. muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos and S. sumapazense Coscarón & Py-Daniel. 

  4. [Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P; Pulido, Karen L; Vanegas, Leidy J

    2013-03-01

    Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an edge effect that could penetrate 17m inside the fragments. We conclude that P cuadrijuga is a plastic species, able to overcome the stress conditions from anthropogenic transformations, species able to be used in high Andean forest restoration programs

  5. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la cirugía de la obesidad comprende diversos procedimientos gastrointestinales. El bypass gástrico en Y de Roux es el prototipo de los procedimientos mixtos y el más practicado en el mundo en sus diversas variedades. Una técnica similar y novedosa es la adoptada por Cardoso-Ramos y Galvao denominada "bypass simplificado" que rápidamente se aceptó por la mayor facilidad y resultados muy parecidos a la técnica convencional. Objetivo: describir los resultados a un año del bypass gástrico simplificado para el tratamiento de la obesidad mórbida. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de todos los pacientes a quienes se realizó bypass gástrico de enero de 2008 a julio de 2012, en la clínica de obesidad de un hospital privado de la Ciudad de México. Resultados: se estudiaron 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de obesidad mórbida, con límites de edad de 18 y 65 años, operados para bypass gástrico simplificado. En 10% de los pacientes hubo complicaciones, las más frecuentes fueron: hemorragia y hernia interna. Durante el periodo de estudio la mortalidad fue de 0%. La pérdida de peso promedio a los 12 meses fue de 72.7%. Conclusión: el bypass gástrico simplificado laparoscópico es una cirugía segura, con buenos resultados a mediano plazo, y con una pérdida del exceso de peso adecuada en 71% de los casos.

  6. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  7. A resolution commemorating the lives and work of Jesuit Fathers Ignacio Ellacuria, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Segundo Montes, Amando Lopez, Juan Ramon Moreno, Joaquin Lopez y Lopez, and housekeeper Julia Elba Ramos and her daughter Celina Mariset Ramos on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of their deaths on November 16, 1989, at the Universidad Centroamericana Jose Simeon Canas located in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feingold, Russell D. [D-WI

    2009-10-26

    10/26/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S10741-10742; text as passed Senate: CR S10741-10742; text of measure as introduced: CR S10737-10738) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Determinants of Conflict in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    too may prompt violence.10 A. DETERMINANTS OF CONFLICT In the National Unification Commission (NUC) Report to President Fidel V. Ramos in 1993...National Unification Commission (Philippines), National Unification Commission Report to President Fidel V. Ramos on the Pursuit of a Comprehensive...12 National Unification Commission, NUC Report to PRES. FIDEL V. RAMOS on the Pursuit of a Comprehensive Peace Process (Quezon

  9. [First case described of isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy heralding multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, Moisés; Benito-León, Julián; Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando; García-Soldevilla, Miguel Ángel; Izquierdo-Esteban, Laura; Tejeiro-Martínez, José; Cabrera-Valdivia, Francisco; García-Albea Ristol, Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El mieloma multiple es la neoplasia de celulas plasmaticas mas frecuente. Al ser incurable, el tratamiento persigue obtener el mayor tiempo de supervivencia libre de clinica. Constituye una causa extremadamente rara de afectacion de los nervios craneales y es producido habitualmente por un plasmocitoma intracraneal. Presentamos un caso de mieloma multiple, que asociaba un plasmocitoma intracraneal y que comenzo clinicamente con paralisis aislada, completa y fluctuante del III nervio craneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años que acudio a urgencias por presentar un cuadro clinico oscilante, consistente en diplopia binocular horizontal y, posteriormente, cefalea. La exploracion neurooftalmologica revelo una paralisis completa del III nervio craneal derecho. Se solicito una tomografia axial computarizada craneal urgente, que revelo multiples lesiones osteoliticas diploicas, asociando una de ellas componente de partes blandas en la hendidura esfenoidal derecha. La paciente fue ingresada, y se le diagnostico posteriormente un mieloma multiple IgA-kappa. Tras recibir induccion quimioterapica y ser sometida a un trasplante autologo de progenitores hematopoyeticos, alcanzo la remision completa. Conclusiones. El mieloma multiple es un trastorno raro de los nervios craneales, una causa muy infrecuente de paralisis aislada y completa del III nervio craneal y menos aun fluctuante, y no se ha encontrado ningun caso publicado con este inicio clinico. Tener en cuenta las posibles manifestaciones neurooftalmologicas del mieloma multiple puede contribuir a un diagnostico precoz y a una incidencia positiva sobre el curso de esta enfermedad.

  10. Regional Solutions for Regional Problems: East Timor and Solomon Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    Government that they could no longer control the situation and on May 24, 2006, East Timor’s Foreign Minister, José Ramos- Horta , requested assistance...culminating in a February 11, 2008 assassination attempt on President Gusmao and Prime Minister Jose Ramos Horta , during which the rebel leader...Conflict, Security & Development 9 (2 June 2009), 280. Prime Minister Jose Ramos Horta suffered three gunshot wounds to the torso and was regarded as

  11. Observation of Wave Energy Evolution in Coastal Areas Using HF Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Observation of Wave Energy Evolution in Coastal Areas Using HF Radar RAFAEL J. RAMOS , HANS C. GRABER, AND BRIAN K. HAUS Applied Marine Physics...and variations resulting from wave–current interaction. Finally, conclusions are drawn in section 5. Corresponding author address: Rafael J. Ramos ...states) showed that Eq. (1) produced adequate estimates for low sea states but significantly overestimated the values in the range Hs . 2.97 m ( Ramos

  12. Computer Generated Pictorial Stores Management Displays for Fighter Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Dynamics Laboratory 6i )ria L. Calhoan -mimett L. Herron The Bunker Ramo Corporation Electronic Systems Division Westlake Viliage, California lay 1983 Fi’a...Herron of the Bunker Ramo Corporation provided pilot inputs to the work efforts, and Ms. Gloria Calhoun of the same company provided statistical and...experimental design support. Software support was provided by Mr. Tim Berry and Mrs. Debra Park of the Bunker Ramo Corporation; hardware support was

  13. Credible Mobilization Crucial for the Defense of the Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    technological research is much less likely. 24 Simon Ramo, "National Security and our Technology Edge", Harvard Business Review , (Nov/Dec...CEOs, and community leaders call for massive educational reform. Simon Ramo, frequent contributor to the Harvard Business Review , best...Simon Ramo, "National Security and our Technology Edge", Harvard Business Review , Nov/Dec, 1989. James E. Sinclair and Robert Parker

  14. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree, Victor... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013,...

  15. China in International Institutions: Challenges and Opportunities for Singapore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    analysts have interpreted the evolution of the Chinese population’s self-perception in various ways. Then-editor of TIME magazine Joshua Ramo writes......Chinese population is recovering an appropriate sense of confidence in its global position. In contrast to Ramo , Harvard professor Joseph Nye contends

  16. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as…

  17. Schooling and a "Blamable Desire for Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher the author often wishes that his students were more curious. Yet, Alice Ramos (this issue) proposes that curiosity can be a vice. She writes that there are times when a student might be motivated by a "blamable desire for knowledge." Ramos bases this claim on a distinction made by Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth-century Aristotelian…

  18. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  19. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  20. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-21

    3 The New Phase of “Constitutional” Struggle in Venezuela R. Evan Ellis1 The magnitude of the victory by the Venezuelan opposition in the December 6...politician Henry Ramos Allup to preside over the Assembly. Indeed, the first acts of Ramos and the new assembly included the removal of the...unconstitutional, or otherwise invalidate laws passed by the new National Assembly. While the appointment of the new judges by the Chavista-dominated

  1. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 2: Installations and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    after 1945 153 Theories of the Future 155 The Role of the German Scientists 162 Watson Laboratories, New Jersey 176 Cambridge Research Laboratories...the Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee (better known as the Teapot Committee), included engineers Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge. The military...Corporation was the intermediate firm that ARDC hired for the job. Both Dr. Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge had worked for Hughes Aircraft in Southern

  2. Tanker Avionics/Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE). Phase 0. Analysis and Mockup. Volume I. Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    AIRCREW COMPLEMENT EVALUATION (TAACE) PHASE 0 - ANALYSIS AND MOCKUP C) VOLUME I: RESULTS !x The Bunker Ramo Corporation - Electronic Systems Division...data, is not to be re- garded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation , or conveying any...adro Iftj William Ret randt - A./Sexton ( 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT.P E T. TASK Bunker Ramo, Corporation 4130 Linden Ave. 112 Dayton, Ohio 45432

  3. DNA nanopore functionalized with aptamer and cell-penetrating peptide for tumor cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Lin; Yuan, Dan-Dan; Song, Ting; Li, Xue-Mei

    2017-04-03

    In the present work, DNA nanopore was composed of a bundle of six DNA duplexes folded from six DNA strands and functionalized with Ramos cell aptamer and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Herein, we present a unique dually conjugated molecule with an aptamer and cell-penetrating peptide for targeting and recognition of Ramos cells. The aptamer sequence was specific bound to Ramos cell, at the meanwhile the nanopore assembly was taken onto the surface of cell membrane and then got into the cells with the help of CPP. Specific targeting and increased intracellular uptake of nanostructures by Ramos cells were aimed. The intracellular uptake of the structure was determined using confocal microscopy. This study is the first to describe the recognition of tumor cells with functional DNA nanopores, establishing the foundation for the tumor cell detection with low cytotoxic agents. Graphical abstract DNA nanopore was composed of a bundle of six DNA duplexes folded from six DNA strands and functionalized with Ramos cell aptamer and cell-penetrating peptide. The dually conjugated molecule was found to show both improved cellular uptake and effective Ramos cell targeting.

  4. Adaptation and convergent evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus complex in high-elevation biodiverse Andean hotspots.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot.

  5. Adaptation and Convergent Evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus Complex in High-Elevation Biodiverse Andean Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25340770

  6. Association of Trauma-Related Disorders and Dissociation with Four Idioms of Distress Among Latino Psychiatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Gorritz, Magdaliz; Raggio, Greer A.; Peláez, Clara; Chen, Henian; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Past research on idioms of distress among U.S. Latinos has revealed that ataque de nervios and altered perceptions, such as hearing and seeing things when alone, are independent markers of higher morbidity and mental health utilization despite having no one-to-one relationships with any single psychiatric diagnosis. It has been proposed that the idioms exert this effect because they are signs of distressing dissociative capacity associated with traumatic exposure. This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dissociative capacity and four cultural idioms of distress associated with the popular overall category of nervios. We particularly explore how these relationships change with varied measures of traumatic exposure, including trauma severity and timing or persistence of trauma. A series of adjusted bivariate regressions assessed the matrix of associations between the idioms and the clinical variables. In this highly traumatized population, we identified a strong ‘nexus’ of associations between dissociation and three of the idioms: currently being ill with nerves, ataque de nervios and altered perceptions. These idioms were largely independent from PTSD and depression and were associated with trauma persistence and severity. A fourth idiom, being nervous since childhood, was not associated with any other variable and may represent a personality trait rather than a diagnosable condition. Our results validate the clinical utility of the construct of nervios as a set of specific idioms associated with dissociation that are useful markers of mental health need among Latinos independently of their association with clinical diagnoses. PMID:20414799

  7. Association of trauma-related disorders and dissociation with four idioms of distress among Latino psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Raggio, Greer A; Peláez, Clara; Chen, Henian; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Past research on idioms of distress among U.S. Latinos has revealed that ataque de nervios and altered perceptions, such as hearing and seeing things when alone, are independent markers of higher morbidity and mental health utilization despite having no one-to-one relationships with any single psychiatric diagnosis. It has been proposed that the idioms exert this effect because they are signs of distressing dissociative capacity associated with traumatic exposure. This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dissociative capacity and four cultural idioms of distress associated with the popular overall category of nervios. We particularly explore how these relationships change with varied measures of traumatic exposure, including trauma severity and timing or persistence of trauma. A series of adjusted bivariate regressions assessed the matrix of associations between the idioms and the clinical variables. In this highly traumatized population, we identified a strong 'nexus' of associations between dissociation and three of the idioms: currently being ill with nerves, ataque de nervios and altered perceptions. These idioms were largely independent from PTSD and depression and were associated with trauma persistence and severity. A fourth idiom, being nervous since childhood, was not associated with any other variable and may represent a personality trait rather than a diagnosable condition. Our results validate the clinical utility of the construct of nervios as a set of specific idioms associated with dissociation that are useful markers of mental health need among Latinos independently of their association with clinical diagnoses.

  8. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  9. Performance on Selected Candidate Screening Test Procedures Before and After Army Basic and Advanced Individual Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM MOS Cluster Lifting Capacity Aerobic Capacity ALPHA >40 kg >2.25 1/min BRAVO >40 kg 1.5 -2.25 1/min CHARLIE >40 kg ə.50 1/min...between tests. Isometric Handgrip Strength (HG) The handgrip apparatus and procedure was that of Knapik and Ramos (17). This test was selected because it...endurance training programs. In: Exercise and Sport Science Reviews. J.H.Wilmore (Ed). Academic Press, NY, NY. V1:15 188, 1973. 17. Ramos ,M.U., J.J.Knapik

  10. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.

  11. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine. PMID:28228682

  12. Kyol Goeu (‘Wind Overload’) Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2009-01-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, ‘wind overload’) is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios. PMID:20808711

  13. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  14. Spatio-temporal Theory of Lasing Action in Optically-Pumped Rotationally Excited Molecular Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    are vibrational transitions which arise due to collisions with the cell wall. Readers should note that all notations in the main body of the paper are...MICINN through Ramón y Cajal program, grant no. RyC-2009-05489. Song-Liang Chua ac- knowledges the financial support from the DSO National Laboratories

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joaquim Varela Rangel, Joao Manuel Martins, Joao Ernesto dos Santos, Jose Cesar Augusto Joao Ernesto Saraiva de Carvalho, Jose Teixeira de Matos...Moises Justine) Pedro de Castro van Dunem, Paulo Miguel Junior, Roberto Leal Ramos Monteiro Rui Guilherme Cardoso de Matos, Rafael Sapilinha

  16. The Art of Storytelling: The Co-Construction of Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andres

    2010-01-01

    According to van der Veer and Valsiner (1991), a creative individual is a co-constructor of culture, rather then a mere follower of the efforts of others. This instructional resource discusses the work of Juan Miguel Ramos (b. 1971), a Post-Chicano artist, who makes use of representations to produce new meanings about the world in which he lives.…

  17. Loss of Talent? Citizenship and Higher Education Access for Undocumented Students. The Claremont Letter. Volume 4, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, William

    2009-01-01

    The author began studying undocumented students in the spring of 2006 to better understand the educational experiences of those who wanted to go to college or who were already in college. He invited three of his CGU (Claremont Graduate University) students--Richard Cortes, Heidi Coronado, and Karina Ramos--to join his research team. To better…

  18. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Concussion/Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    FNP , COL, AN Angela Klar, RN, MSN, ANP-CS Mary Ramos, RN, PhD FACILITATOR: Oded Susskind, MPH RESEARCH: Jessica Cohen, M.S., M.P.H. Jennifer...Roger Brooke Drive Fort Sam Houston,TX 78234-6200 Phone: 210-916-3955 Email: douglas.cooper2@amedd.army.mil   Ernest Degenhardt, RN, MSN, ANP- FNP

  19. Reflections on Urban Science Teacher-Student Self-Efficacy Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Maulucci, Maria S. Rivera; Ramos, S. Lizette

    2011-01-01

    This forum article consists of commentaries--authored by Sumi Hagiwara, Maria S. Rivera Maulucci and Lizette Ramos--on the feature article by Virginia Jennings Bolshakova, Carla C. Johnson, and Charlene M. Czerniak. We reflect on a series of questions that take retrospective, introspective, and prospective views of self-efficacy in science…

  20. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  1. Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources (BEAR) Mission Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    FL BEAR Holloman AFB, NM Kadena, JP McAlester, OK Diego Garcia Saipan Munitions Storage Location General WRM Storage Location Capabilities • BEAR...Global BEAR Management MSgt Pedro Ramos , Supt, Global BEAR E i t & S (2G MSgt) (Vacant), Global BEAR Systems and Readiness Management (2G MSgt

  2. Liability Issues of the Design Profession.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    underwater construction of a tunnel . The bulkhead subsequently leaked, damaging several pieces of equipment of another contractor. The courts found that the...case, Ramos v Shumavon (21 ,XD. 2d 4), the designer was not liable for the collapse of some formwork . However, in Mi//er v Dew/ti (37 IIl. 2d 273

  3. 78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... recommendations, alternatives and possible solutions to management of off-road vehicles at Big Cypress National Preserve. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Pedro Ramos, Superintendent, Big Cypress National Preserve, 33100 Tamiami Trail E, Ochopee, Florida 34141; (239) 695-1103. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  4. Equity and Inclusion in Practice: Administrative Responsibility for Fostering Undocumented Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Cassie; Ramos, Marisol; Reyes, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cassie Barnhardt, Marisol Ramos, and Kimberly Reyes share a case study of an undocumented student's academic success to demonstrate the importance of administrative commitment, clarity, and consistency in supporting such students in the unique challenges they face. (Contains 13 notes.)

  5. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  6. Artificial Intelligence -- Research and Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    subsequently the analyst can examine them on line. Each Pl station has three components: a light table, a film chip viewer, and a Bunker -Ramo BR-90...MONROVIA LI 7512140800 TALLEYRAND 1 BALTIMORE US 0000000000 LONDON UK 7512010600 TAIESIS 1 LONDON UK 0000000000 LE HAVRE FR 7601120800 TAMPA I LONDON

  7. Transcriptional Regulation of BRCA1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Ramos , L., Villasenor, M. R., Anders, K. H., Press, M. F., Clarke, K., Karlan, B., Chen, J. J., Scully, R., Livingston, D., Zuch, R. H., Kanter, M. H...Chem 274(44), 3 1297-304 22. Thakur, S., Lin, H. C., Tseng, W. T., Kumar, S., Bravo , R., Foss, F., Gelinas, C., and Rabson, A. B. (1994) Oncogene 9(8

  8. Medical Entomology Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Angola), from Prof. H. Ribeiro and Dr. H. da Cunha Ramos, 9 Instituto de Higiene e MedLcina Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal; (4) 48 adults, (Senegal...Research Center 1 2 2 India Institude de Higiene e Medcina 1 3 Lisboa, Portugal Biosystematic Research Institute I I Vial innatures Ottawa, Ontario

  9. Electrical Stimulation of the Midbrain to Promote Recovery from Traumatic Forebrain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 3 Table of Contents...rats, Br J Pharmacol, 135 (2002) 1783-93. 12 Ramos, B.P., Birnbaum, S.G., Lindenmayer , I., Newton, S.S., Duman, R.S. and Arnsten, A.F., Dysregulation

  10. A Primer on Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) for Behavioral Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of statistical procedures (e.g., Bangert & Baumberger, 2005; Kieffer, Reese, & Thompson, 2001; Warne, Lazo, Ramos, & Ritter, 2012) show that one of the most common multivariate statistical methods in psychological research is multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). However, MANOVA and its associated procedures are often not…

  11. Encouraging Risk and Embracing Uncertainty, The Need to Change US Army Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Training of Officers. Free Press, New York 1990. Department of the Army Pamphlet 600-3 Commissioned Officer Development and Career Management. Freire ... Paulo . (Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum Publishing, New York 1990. Graham, Bradley. Pentagon Plans a Redirection in

  12. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  13. Explosives Dissolved from Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Limestone underlies the eas- ternmost isthmus of the island, and Lugo et al. (2004) notes that all Puerto Rican limestones have karst features, which...Colón, J. H. Schellekens, O. Ramos, and E. Helmer. 2004. Puerto Rican karst – a vital resource. General Technical Report WO-65, Washington, DC: USDA

  14. Leaders' Perceptions of Mobile Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristin R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…

  15. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  16. DOD Rapid Innovation Program: Some Technologies Have Transitioned to Military Users, but Steps Can Be Taken to Improve Program Metrics and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Michele Mackin, (202) 512-4841or mackinm@gao.gov In addition to the contact named above, John Oppenheim (Assistant Director), Marie P. Ahearn, LeAnna...Parkey, Kenneth E. Patton, Mark F. Ramage, Jose Ramos, Robert Swierczek, and Oziel A. Trevino made key contributions to this report. Appendix III

  17. Developing Law Students' Communicative-Linguistic Competence: Analysis of Eight Spanish Legal Textbooks from a Sociopragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Joseba Ezeiza

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study carried out on eight Spanish legal textbooks in order to draw up an inventory of educational resources available to support the development of law students' communicative competence, taking into account the law degree curricula at Spanish universities (Ezeiza Ramos forthcoming a, forthcoming b). The analysis was…

  18. Template-Directed Crystallization of High Energy Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    LONGER EMPLOYED BY YOUR ORGANIZATION. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of...using joint beam time awarded to Chad Stoltz (Indian Head), Kyle Ramos and Dan Hooks ( LANL ). This was a good learning opportunity, however, the

  19. Explosive radiation in high Andean Hypericum—rates of diversification among New World lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nürk, Nicolai M.; Scheriau, Charlotte; Madriñán, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The páramos, high-elevation Andean grasslands ranging from ca. 2800 m to the snow line, harbor one of the fastest evolving biomes worldwide since their appearance in the northern Andes 3–5 million years (Ma) ago. Hypericum (St. John's wort), with over 65% of its Neotropical species, has a center of diversity in these high Mountain ecosystems. Using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of a broad sample of New World Hypericum species we investigate phylogenetic patterns, estimate divergence times, and provide the first insights into diversification rates within the genus in the Neotropics. Two lineages appear to have independently dispersed into South America around 3.5 Ma ago, one of which has radiated in the páramos (Brathys). We find strong support for the polyphyly of section Trigynobrathys, several species of which group within Brathys, while others are found in temperate lowland South America (Trigynobrathys s.str.). All páramo species of Hypericum group in one clade. Within these páramo Hypericum species enormous phenotypic evolution has taken place (life forms from arborescent to prostrate shrubs) evidently in a short time frame. We hypothesize multiple mechanisms to be responsible for the low differentiation in the ITS region contrary to the high morphological diversity found in Hypericum in the páramos. Amongst these may be ongoing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, as well as the putative adaptive radiation, which can explain the contrast between phenotypic diversity and the close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24062764

  20. [Management of bilateral vocal cord paralysis with laser cordectomy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Oropeza, Luz del Carmen; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Góvea-Camacho, Luis Humberto; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales se caracteriza por inmovilidad de las cuerdas en aducción o abducción completa secundaria a lesión del nervio vago a través de los nervios laríngeos recurrentes. Se manifiesta por disnea con estridor variable que puede ocasionar la muerte si no se despeja la vía aérea. Existen técnicas intra y extralaríngeas para aumentar la luz glótica y mejorar la ventilación, la deglución y la posibilidad de decanulación y emisión de voz funcional. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de serie de casos en el que se incluyeron pacientes con parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales tratados mediante cordectomía posterior entre enero de 2004 y enero de 2010. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos para obtener los datos y registros endolaringoscópicos de control pre y posquirúrgico.

  1. [Acute optic neuropathy: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Buompadre, María Celeste

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. La alteracion funcional del nervio optico se caracteriza por un deficit en la agudeza visual, en la vision cromatica y en el campo visual, defecto pupilar aferente y, en algunos casos, edema del nervio o atrofia y palidez. Objetivo. Describir el espectro de neuropatias opticas agudas, su clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento, con mayor interes en aquellas de presentacion en la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. La neuritis optica puede ser monofasica, recurrente o el componente de un cuadro desmielinizante polisintomatico. El objetivo del tratamiento es reducir el numero y la gravedad de los ataques y prevenir discapacidad. La infecciosa es secundaria a diferentes microorganismos (bacterias, virus, hongos y protozoos). El tratamiento depende de la etiologia. La isquemica anterior no arteritica o idiopatica es la forma mas frecuente y es secundaria a enfermedad de pequeños vasos (ciliares posteriores). La neuropatia optica hereditaria o de Leber representa una causa importante de afectacion visual cronica y se caracteriza por la afectacion selectiva de las celulas ganglionares de la retina. Hasta el momento, la terapia solo es de apoyo. En el papiledema asociado a hipertension endocraneal, la agudeza visual generalmente se conserva pero existe aumento de la mancha ciega. El tratamiento se basa en disminuir la hipertension y el factor etiologico si existe. Conclusiones. Las neuropatias opticas agudas constituyen un amplio grupo de entidades, de etiologia diversa y con un pronostico visual variable. La presencia de signos del examen neurologico, fondo de ojo y neuroimagenes pueden orientar hacia el diagnostico y tratamiento oportuno.

  2. Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Rivera, Edwin; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    We examined the therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted form of CBT (CA-CBT) for PTSD as compared to applied muscle relaxation (AMR) for female Latino patients with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants were randomized to receive either CA-CBT (n = 12) or AMR (n = 12), and were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at a 12-week follow-up. The treatments were manualized and delivered in the form of group therapy across 14 weekly sessions. Assessments included a measure of PTSD, anxiety, culturally relevant idioms of distress (nervios and ataque de nervios), and emotion regulation ability. Patients receiving CA-CBT improved significantly more than in the AMR condition. Effect size estimates showed very large reductions in PTSD symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment in the CA-CBT group (Cohen's d = 2.6) but only modest improvements in the AMR group (0.8). These results suggest that CA-CBT can be beneficial for previously treatment-resistant PTSD in Latino women.

  3. [An unusual presentation of painful tic convulsive].

    PubMed

    Romano-Feinholz, S; Medina, M P; Nares-Lopez, F E; Soto-Hernandez, J L; Revuelta-Gutierrez, R

    2017-03-16

    Introduccion. La presentacion clinica de un espasmo hemifacial asociado a neuralgia trigeminal ipsilateral se conoce como tic convulsivo doloroso. La causa mas comun de esta patologia es la compresion vascular de los nervios craneales V y complejo VII-VIII en la zona de entrada y salida de las raices en el tronco del encefalo, pero existen informes de diversas etiologias. Su tratamiento, aunque aun esta en discusion, se basa en la descompresion microvascular quirurgica. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años, con un cuadro de evolucion de 14 años de neuralgia trigeminal, con predominio en distribucion de la rama maxilar (V2) izquierda, asociado durante mas de 10 años a espasmo hemifacial ipsilateral. Tras fallar el tratamiento medico, se sometio a cirugia por abordaje microasterional, y en un primer momento se realizo una diseccion de adherencias aracnoideas firmes rodeando complejos nerviosos. En un segundo tiempo quirurgico se insertaron fragmentos de teflon en los sitios de entrada de los nervios V y complejo VII-VIII, y se logro una resolucion completa de la sintomatologia durante mas de un año. Conclusion. La etiologia del tic convulsivo doloroso en esta paciente fue aracnoiditis basal, lo cual la convierte en el unico caso comunicado hasta el momento con dicha etiologia.

  4. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae): a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Janet C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS) and cpDNA (rpl16), for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only Colombian species

  5. Thrusting, halotectonics, and sedimentation in the Spanish Pyrenees

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasio, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Spanish Pyrenees are a linked system of regional thrust sheets and intermontane basins which formed during the Tertiary collision of the European and Iberian plates. The structural evolution of the Pyrenees was controlled by Mesozoic extensional structures and evaporite-bearing strata which served as the regional decollement and produced widespread pre- to postthrusting halotectonic folds. Palinspastic restoration of Cretaceous strata from the Pyrenean realm delineates a large normal-faulted embayment in the northern Iberian margin. Thicker sediments within the bay, coupled with the southward emplacement of the Cotiella-Montsec thrust sheet, caused underlying evaporites to flow toward the basin margins, producing folds such as the Mediano anticline.

  6. Structural optimization of diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (DPPYs) as potent Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors with improved activity toward B leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Huang, Shanshan; Qu, Menghua; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Li, Zhen; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin; Li, Yanxia; Ma, Xiaodong; Shu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-27

    A new series of diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (DPPYs) bearing various aniline side chains at the C-2 position of pyrimidine core were synthesized as potent BTK inhibitors. Most of these inhibitors displayed improved activity against B leukemia cell lines compared with lead compound spebrutinib. Subsequent studies showed that the peculiar inhibitor 7j, with IC50 values of 10.5 μM against Ramos cells and 19.1 μM against Raji cells, also displayed slightly higher inhibitory ability than the novel agent ibrutinib. Moreover, compound 7j is not sensitive to normal cells PBMC, indicating low cell cytotoxicity. In addition, flow cytometry analysis indicated that 7j significantly induced the apoptosis of Ramos cells, and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. These explorations provided new clues to discover pyrimidine scaffold as more effective BTK inhibitors.

  7. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided. PMID:21594032

  8. Efficient Probability Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-18

    Ungar (2014), to produce a distinct forecasting system. The system consists of the method for eliciting individual subjective forecasts together with...E. Stone, and L. H. Ungar (2014). Two reasons to make aggregated probability forecasts more extreme. Decision Analysis 11 (2), 133–145. Bickel, J. E...Letters 91 (3), 425–429. Mellers, B., L. Ungar , J. Baron, J. Ramos, B. Gurcay, K. Fincher, S. E. Scott, D. Moore, P. Atanasov, S. A. Swift, et al. (2014

  9. Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-02

    793–810. 39. Wagatsuma H, Yamaguchi Y (2007) Neural dynamics of the cognitive map in the hippocampus. Cognitive Neurodynamics 1: 119–141. 40. Kifer Y...Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making Mikhail I. Rabinovich1*, Ramón Huerta1,2, Pablo Varona2, Valentin S. Afraimovich3 1...Óptica, UASLP, San Luis de Potosı́, Mexico Abstract The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively

  10. A Strategy for Mexico?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    and U.S. Relations, Andrew Selee, Woodrow Wilson Center (Washington D.C.), p 1. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid., p 35. 24 Congressional Research Service. U.S...drastic action was in response to incidents like the one that occurred in Los Ramones and General Teran . An entire police force in Los Ramos quit...after they suffered a well-coordinated attack on their headquarters.33 In General Teran transnational criminal organizations conducted coordinated

  11. 18-Electron Resonance Structures in the BCC Transition Metals and Their CsCl-type Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2017-03-06

    Bonding in elemental metals and simple alloys has long been thought of as involving intense delocalization, with little connection to the localized bonds of covalent systems. In this Article, we show that the bonding in body-centered cubic (bcc) structures of the group 6 transition metals can in fact be represented, via the concepts of the 18-n rule and isolobal bonding, in terms of two balanced resonance structures. We begin with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis of elemental Mo in its bcc structure. The raMO analysis indicates that, despite the low electron count (six valence electrons per Mo atom), nine electron pairs can be associated with any given Mo atom, corresponding to a filled 18-electron configuration. Six of these electron pairs take part in isolobal bonds along the second-nearest neighbor contacts, with the remaining three (based on the t2g d orbitals) interacting almost exclusively with first-nearest neighbors. In this way, each primitive cubic network defined by the second-nearest neighbor contacts comprises an 18-n electron system with n = 6, which essentially describes the full electronic structure of the phase. Of course, either of the two interpenetrating primitive cubic frameworks of the bcc structure can act as a basis for this discussion, leading us to write two resonance structures with equal weights for bcc-Mo. The electronic structures of CsCl-type variants with the same electron count can then be interpreted in terms of changing the relative weights of these two resonance structures, as is qualitatively confirmed with raMO analysis. This combination of raMO analysis with the resonance concept offers an avenue to extend the 18-n rule into other transition metal-rich structures.

  12. Proceedings of the 2009 Antenna Applications Symposium, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-12

    Repository (USA), 28 Dec., 1984. [11] Ramo et al., Fields and Waves in Modern Radio , Second Edition, pp.388-390, John Wiley and Sons, New York...wire monocone) in Trans-Atlantic experiments [4], and Carter’s version for wideband short wave radio [5]. An excellent survey of various topics in...Proceedings of the 2009 Antenna Applications Symposium is a collection of state-of-the art papers relating to antenna arrays and elements, millimeter wave

  13. Multiscale Modeling and Multifunctional Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-17

    8) Here, Frs and Drs represent stress and the strain influence functions. The phase transformation fields, ,λ µ , appearing in Eqs...concentration factors Ar , Br , and influence functions Drs , Frs , , 1,=r s Q . Two applications are presented; one is a benchmark, classical...Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering 8, 69-80. Berger, H., Kari S., Gabbert U., Rodriguez- Ramos , R., Guinovart, R., Otero, J.A., Bravo

  14. Role of Regulatory Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis of Schistosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-15

    167. Yang, Z., Day, Y.J., Toufektsian, M.C., Xu, Y., Ramos, S.I., Marshall, M.A., French, B.A., and Linden, J. (2006). Myocardial infarct -sparing...O.OOl 3000 P =0.001 P=O.Ol D P=O,OOl P=O.OOl E 蓐 P = om ., g 0 ~ ~ 50 Chapter 2 Role of primed schistosome-specific CD4 + T cells on the growth and

  15. Effects of Continuous Military Operations on Physical Fitness Capacity and Physical Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    howitzer guncrews (8 men per gun) designated as Alpha, Bravo , and Charlie. All subjects were fully briefed regarding the purpose and nature of the study...flexors and knee extensors at angular velocities of 300/s and 1800/s was determined using the Cybex isokinetli dynamometer ( Ramos and Knapik 1980...the baseline level. The baseline heart rates were not significantly different among gunarews and averaged (±SD) 77±2, 76±3, and 81±3 for Alpha, Bravo

  16. Affiliation of Naval Veterans with the Selected Reserve in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Navy has replaced RAMOS with Enlisted Classification and Manning Objective ( ECMO ) categories to determine overmanned ratings. b. Recruiter Goals...determined since Shiells’ study (1986), and now determines these closed ratings using Enlisted Career Management Objectives ( ECMO ) categories...Despite the name change, the concept remains the same and it would seem that individuals in closed ECMO categories should be excluded from the data set

  17. Apogee, Perigee, and Recovery: Chronology of Army Exploitation of Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    pp. vii and 24-25; Stares, p. 28. 12S. Ramo, The Business of Science: Winning and Losing in the High-Tech Age, Hill and Wang, New York, 1988, p. 78...technical, economic , and foreign policy goals. It recognized and encouraged U.S. commercial development of space as well as coordinating military...1989, pp. 1, 7., 19Downey, p. 43., -76 - requires orderly development, long-range planning, and deliberate action, followed by investment of Army

  18. Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de

  19. Dynamic Adaptive Binning: An Improved Quantification Technique for NMR Spectroscopic Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    adaptive intelligent binning, which recursively identifies bin edges in existing bins (De Meyer et al. 2008). Another dynamic binning method is...43. Cancino-De-Greiff, H. F., Ramos-Garcia, R., & Lorenzo -Ginori, J. V. (2002). Signal de-noising in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet...for metabolomics data using the undecimated wavelet transform. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 85, 144–154. De Meyer , T., Sinnaeve, D

  20. Improved Microprocessor Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    RADC) contract F30602-80-C-0171. Work described herein wasn performed by Planning Research Corporation (PRCO, McLean, Virginia, in support of Rome...IDHS) environment. 2.1.1 History of the MPC. Beginning in 1966, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) and Planning Research Corporation (PRC) personnel...on-line, real-time, data base update and applications support being provided by 16 Bunker Ramo graphics consoles (BR-90s) and 32 Radio Corporation of

  1. Seasonal Variability of Particulate Organic Matter in a Mountain Stream in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, Salvador; Robles, Santiago; Casado, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the influence of environmental characteristics of the Mediterranean climate on seasonal variability of particulate organic matter abundance in a mountain stream. Coarse and fine fractions of both suspended and benthic particulate organic matter were determined on 14 occasions between February 1998 and November 1999 in a second-order Mediterranean stream in Central Spain (Arroyo Mediano). Temporal variability of suspended organic matter followed a seasonal pattern, attributed to litter-fall inputs, instream processing, and the hydrological regime. Suspended organic matter (SOM) and its seasonal variability fall well within the range reported for streams in temperate non-Mediterranean deciduous forest. However, we found no seasonal trend in benthic organic matter (BOM) storage, and it seems that the amount of BOM remained fairly constant throughout the year. Reach retention (evaluated as the ratio between BOM and SOM per m2) was higher in summer during reduced stream flow, mainly due to coarse particulate organic matter storage. These observations do not differ from those reported for other headwater streams in temperate forested biomes, from which we conclude that there was no evidence of a Mediterranean influence on particulate organic matter dynamics in the Mediano stream, nor probably in other headwater Mediterranean streams.

  2. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  3. Examination of Land Use, Hydrology, and Perceptions of Use and Management of the Colombian Paramo with Implications for Water Quality and Availability Concerns for Affected Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. F.; Covino, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern and Central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system on Earth. In particular, páramo ecosystems, high elevation grasslands of the tropical Andes of Colombia, are undergoing rapid conversion to cropland and pasture. These systems have strong hydrologic buffering capacity and have historically provided consistent freshwater flows to downstream communities. Therefore, loss of these systems could threaten the viability of freshwater resources in the region. While this region has some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, the resiliency of these hydrologic systems and the influence LULC change may have on them remains poorly understood. Here we seek to develop a deeper understanding of these relationships through quantitative analyses of LULC change and impacts on the quantity and quality of water exported from páramo landscapes of Colombia. Our results indicate the intensity and spatial distribution of LULC change, build upon past remote sensing studies of the region, and aid in prioritizing areas of concern for hydrologic research on the ground. This information provides an initial framework for characterizing the degree of modification and impact to water quantity/quality, as well as the long-term sustainability of water resources in the region. We highlight the complexities of watershed management practices in the Colombian páramo and the need to account for the impact of human activity on changes in water quantity and quality in the region.

  4. Pointers from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem.

  5. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  6. A qualitative analysis of posttraumatic stress among Mexican victims of disaster.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H; Weisshaar, D L; Conrad, M L; Diaz, E M; Murphy, A D; Lbañez, G E

    2001-10-01

    In unstructured interviews, 24 Mexicans described survivors' responses to disasters in Guadalajara, Jalisco (n = 9), Homestead, Florida (n = 6), and Puerto Angel, Oaxaca (n = 9). This analysis assessed the extent to which symptom descriptions corresponded to the 17 criterion symptoms of PTSD. Nineteen participants (79%) mentioned from 1 to 9 criterion symptoms. Event-related distress, hypervigilance, recurrent recollections, and avoiding reminders were described most often. Only 3 criterion symptoms were never described. Twenty participants (83%) provided 109 separate expressions that could not be classified specifically as criterion symptoms. These phrases were sorted by 9 independent Mexican volunteers and cluster analyzed. Clusters composed of ataques de nervios, depression, lasting trauma, and somatic complaints provided the best description of the data.

  7. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  8. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  9. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  10. [Encephalopathy and neuromyelitis optica: the importance of recognising atypical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Hervás-García, José V; Grau-López, Laia; Doménech-Puigcerver, Sira; Ramo-Tello, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La neuromielitis optica (NMO) o enfermedad de Devic es un trastorno autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que afecta principal y caracteristicamente al nervio optico y a la medula espinal. Los anticuerpos antiacuaporina-4 (AQ-4) son un biomarcador especifico de esta entidad y, desde su descubrimiento, se ha ampliado el numero de sintomas y datos radiologicos de la enfermedad y se ha definido el concepto de espectro clinico de NMO. Caso clinico. Mujer de 66 años diagnosticada de NMO por haber sufrido brotes de neuritis optica y mielitis de repeticion junto con anticuerpos AQ-4 positivos. Presento un cuadro de disminucion del nivel de conciencia, con resonancia magnetica cerebral que mostro multiples lesiones en la sustancia blanca, sin realce de contraste, que se resolvio sin tratamiento. Un mes despues, sufrio empeoramiento del estado general, sindrome confusional y ceguera. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral se observaron nuevas lesiones en la sustancia blanca y aumento del tamaño de otras ya existentes. Se emitio el diagnostico de encefalopatia en el contexto de NMO y se trato a la paciente con corticoides e inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, con lo que se produjo mejoria clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. Desde el descubrimiento de los anticuerpos AQ-4, ha aumentado el numero de manifestaciones clinicas y radiologicas de la NMO mas alla de la afectacion del nervio optico y de la medula espinal, entre ellas las manifestaciones cerebrales. Reconocerlas es muy importante para hacer un diagnostico precoz, evitar pruebas complementarias no necesarias e instaurar el tratamiento adecuado.

  11. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  12. [Therapeutic possibilities in refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Puertas-Martin, Verónica; Carreras-Saez, Inmaculada; Marana, Ana; Ruiz-Falco Rojas, M Luz; Cantarin-Extremera, Verónica; Calleja-Gero, M Lourdes

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. El complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) cursa frecuentemente con epilepsia de dificil control, lo que condiciona la calidad de vida y el nivel cognitivo de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas epidemiologicas, clinicas y el tratamiento de los pacientes afectos de CET con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se han revisado retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 30 pacientes menores de 18 años, diagnosticados de CET y epilepsia registrados en nuestra base de datos. Resultados. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en los pacientes con CET en nuestra serie esta comprendida entre el primer mes de vida y los 4 años. Todos comenzaron con crisis parciales. Dos presentaron sindrome de West y cuatro, espasmos infantiles sin hipsarritmia. En 19 de los pacientes, la epilepsia se comporto como farmacorresistente. Respecto al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, 11 estan en monoterapia, 10 en biterapia, siete en triterapia y uno con cuatro farmacos. Dos recibieron ACTH, dos tienen implantado un estimulador del nervio vago, cuatro reciben tratamiento con everolimus y ocho han sido sometidos a cirugia. Conclusiones. La epilepsia es un problema muy frecuente y de inicio en los primeros años de vida en el CET. Las opciones terapeuticas actuales son muchas, sin embargo el 63,3% de los pacientes tiene una epilepsia no controlada y la mayoria de ellos presenta crisis diarias. El mal control de las crisis se correlaciona con retraso mental y trastorno del espectro autista. Señalar la respuesta positiva obtenida con otras posibilidades terapeuticas: inhibidores de la via mTOR, cirugia y el estimulador del nervio vago.

  13. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. Los pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) frecuentemente desarrollan disfuncion anorrectal. Las estructuras neuromusculares del suelo pelvico y los mecanismos de control voluntario de la defecacion pueden afectarse por las lesiones parcheadas de la EM o secundarias a la discapacidad del paciente. La implicacion multifactorial limita la comprension de la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en la EM. Tests neurofisiologicos especificos valoran la funcionalidad de los elementos del sistema nervioso central y periferico implicados en las disfunciones anorrectales. Objetivo. Proponer un protocolo diagnostico de estudios neurofisiologicos estandarizados del suelo pelvico para caracterizar la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron estudios de electromiografia de esfinter anal externo, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales desde el nervio pudendo interno, registro de reflejos sacros anales y neurografia del nervio pudendo a 16 pacientes con EM definida y criterios de estreñimiento o incontinencia fecal. Resultados. Las caracteristicas clinicas y neurofisiologicas fueron heterogeneas. Nueve pacientes presentaron estreñimiento; dos, incontinencia fecal aislada; y cinco, combinacion de ambos. La abolicion o el retraso de la latencia de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales fue el hallazgo mas frecuente (n = 12), seguido de la deteccion de contraccion paradojica (n = 11) y de reclutamiento deficitario (n = 8) en la electromiografia de esfinter anal externo. Conclusiones. La correcta interpretacion de cada test neurofisiologico disponible y la correlacion de los hallazgos en conjunto permiten comprender la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal. La protocolizacion de estudios neurofisiologicos del suelo pelvico permite ajustar el diagnostico al identificar la lesion nerviosa, central o periferica, determinante de disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse component by western blotting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J C; Choi, E I; Pagano, J S

    1985-01-01

    We report the use of monoclonal antibody against the early antigen diffuse component (anti-EA-D) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to analyze, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the expression of EA-D in various human lymphoblastoid cell lines activated by chemical inducers. The kinetics of synthesis of EA-D in P3HR-1, B95-8, and Ramos/AW cells were similar in that they all reached the peak of synthesis on day 5 after induction. Surprisingly, no expression of EA-D was found in induced BJAB/GC, an EBV-genome-containing cell line. EBV-negative cell lines, BJAB and Ramos, were negative for EA-D. Raji cells had no detectable EA-D but responded rapidly to induction, reaching a peak on day 3. Superinfection of Raji cells also resulted in marked induction of EA-D, which reached a plateau between 8 to 12 h postinfection. Western blotting coupled with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to identify polypeptides representing EA-D. A family of four polypeptides with molecular weights of 46,000 (46K protein), 49,000, 52,000, and 55,000 were identified to be reactive with monoclonal anti-EA-D antiserum. The pattern of EA-D polypeptides expressed in each cell line was different. Of particular interest was the expression of a large quantity of 46K protein both in induced Raji and P3HR-1 cells, but not in superinfected Raji cells. A 49K doublet was expressed in activated p3HR-1, B95-8, and Ramos/AW cells and in superinfected Raji cells. In addition, two distinct 52K and 55K polypeptides were expressed in induced Ramos/AW and superinfected Raji cells. However, none of these EA-D polypeptides was detectable in BJAB/GC, BJAB, Ramos, and mock-infected Raji cells. To approximate relative concentrations of EA-D in cell extracts, we employed the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot dot methods by using one of the purified EA-D components to construct a standard curve. Depending upon the cell lines, it was estimated that ca. 1 to 3% (determined by the enzyme

  15. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  16. Insights into the water mean transit time in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Giovanny M.; Segura, Catalina; Vaché, Kellie B.; Windhorst, David; Breuer, Lutz; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of the mean transit time (MTT) of water and its spatial variability in a tropical high-elevation ecosystem (wet Andean páramo). The study site is the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2) located in southern Ecuador. A lumped parameter model considering five transit time distribution (TTD) functions was used to estimate MTTs under steady-state conditions (i.e., baseflow MTT). We used a unique data set of the δ18O isotopic composition of rainfall and streamflow water samples collected for 3 years (May 2011 to May 2014) in a nested monitoring system of streams. Linear regression between MTT and landscape (soil and vegetation cover, geology, and topography) and hydrometric (runoff coefficient and specific discharge rates) variables was used to explore controls on MTT variability, as well as mean electrical conductivity (MEC) as a possible proxy for MTT. Results revealed that the exponential TTD function best describes the hydrology of the site, indicating a relatively simple transition from rainfall water to the streams through the organic horizon of the wet páramo soils. MTT of the streams is relatively short (0.15-0.73 years, 53-264 days). Regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between the catchment's average slope and MTT (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.05). MTT showed no significant correlation with hydrometric variables, whereas MEC increases with MTT (R2 = 0.89, p < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that (1) baseflow MTT confirms that the hydrology of the ecosystem is dominated by shallow subsurface flow; (2) the interplay between the high storage capacity of the wet páramo soils and the slope of the catchments provides the ecosystem with high regulation capacity; and (3) MEC is an efficient predictor of MTT variability in this system of catchments with relatively homogeneous geology.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of RMnO3/AMnO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rong; Yunoki, Seiji; Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio

    2009-09-01

    The ground-state properties of RMnO3/AMnO3 (RMO/AMO) heterostructures (with R=La,Pr,… , a trivalent rare-earth cation and A=Sr,Ca,… , a divalent alkaline cation) are studied using a two-orbital double-exchange model including the superexchange coupling and Jahn-Teller lattice distortions. To describe the charge transfer across the interface, the long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account at the mean-field level, by self-consistently solving the Poisson’s equation. The calculations are carried out numerically on finite clusters. We find that the state stabilized near the interface of the heterostructure is similar to the state of the bulk compound (R,A)MO at electronic density close to 0.5. For instance, a charge and orbitally ordered CE state is found at the interface if the corresponding bulk (R,A)MO material is a narrow-to-intermediate bandwidth manganite. But instead the interface regime accommodates an A-type antiferromagnetic state with a uniform x2-y2 orbital order, if the bulk (R,A)MO corresponds to a wide bandwidth manganite. We argue that these results explain some of the properties of long-period (RMO)m/(AMO)n superlattices, such as (PrMnO3)m/(CaMnO3)n and (LaMnO3)m/(SrMnO3)n . We also remark that the intermediate states in between the actual interface and the bulklike regimes of the heterostructure are dependent on the bandwidth and the screening of the Coulomb interaction. In these regions of the heterostructures, states are found that do not have an analog in experimentally known bulk phase diagrams. These new states of the heterostructures provide a natural interpolation between magnetically ordered states that are stable in the bulk at different electronic densities.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of RMnO3 AMnO3 heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Rong; Yunoki, Seiji; Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state properties of RMnO3 /AMnO3 RMO/AMO heterostructures with R=La,Pr, . . ., a trivalent rare-earth cation and A=Sr,Ca, . . ., a divalent alkaline cation are studied using a two-orbital doubleexchange model including the superexchange coupling and Jahn-Teller lattice distortions. To describe the charge transfer across the interface, the long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account at the mean-field level, by self-consistently solving the Poisson s equation. The calculations are carried out numerically on finite clusters. We find that the state stabilized near the interface of the heterostructure is similar to the state of the bulk compound R,AMO at electronic density close to 0.5. For instance, a charge and orbitally ordered CE state is found at the interface if the corresponding bulk R,AMO material is a narrow-to-intermediate bandwidth manganite. But instead the interface regime accommodates an A-type antiferromagnetic state with a uniform x2 y2 orbital order, if the bulk R,AMO corresponds to a wide bandwidth manganite. We argue that these results explain some of the properties of long-period RMOm/ AMOn superlattices, such as PrMnO3m/ CaMnO3n and LaMnO3m/ SrMnO3n. We also remark that the intermediate states in between the actual interface and the bulklike regimes of the heterostructure are dependent on the bandwidth and the screening of the Coulomb interaction. In these regions of the heterostructures, states are found that do not have an analog in experimentally known bulk phase diagrams. These new states of the heterostructures provide a natural interpolation between magnetically ordered states that are stable in the bulk at different electronic densities.

  19. Mcl-1 and YY1 inhibition and induction of DR5 by the BH3-mimetic Obatoclax (GX15-070) contribute in the sensitization of B-NHL cells to TRAIL apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Paniagua, Melisa A; Baritaki, Stavroula; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney F; González-Bonilla, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The pan Bcl-2 family antagonist Obatoclax (GX15-070), currently in clinical trials, was shown to sensitize TRAIL-resistant tumors to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via the release of Bak and Bim from Mcl-1 or Bcl-2/Bcl-XL complexes or by the activation of Bax, though other mechanisms were not examined. Herein, we hypothesize that Obatoclax-mediated sensitization to TRAIL apoptosis may also result from alterations of the apoptotic pathways. The TRAIL-resistant B-cell line Ramos was used as a model for investigation. Treatment of Ramos cells with obatoclax significantly inhibited the expression of several members of the Bcl-2 family, dissociated Bak from Mcl-1 and inhibited the NFκB activity. Cells treated with Mcl-1 siRNA were sensitized to TRAIL apoptosis. We examined whether the sensitization of Ramos to TRAIL by Obatoclax resulted from signaling of the DR4 and/or DR5. Transfection with DR5 siRNA, but not with DR4 siRNA, sensitized the cells to apoptosis following treatment with Obatoclax and TRAIL. The signaling via DR5 correlated with Obatoclax-induced inhibition of the DR5 repressor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Transfection with YY1 siRNA sensitized the cells to TRAIL apoptosis following treatment with Obatoclax and TRAIL. Overall, the present findings reveal a new mechanism of Obatoclax-induced sensitization to TRAIL apoptosis and the involvement of the inhibition of NFκB activity and downstream Mcl-1 and YY1 expressions and activities. PMID:21822052

  20. The use of circulation weather types to predict upwelling activity along the Western Iberian Peninsula coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a phenomenon that occurs in most western oceanic coasts due to the presence of mid-latitude high-pressure systems that generate equatorward winds along the coast and consequent offshore displacement of surface waters that in turn cause deeper, colder, nutrient-rich waters to arise. In western Iberian Peninsula (IP) the high-pressure system associated to northerly winds occurs mainly during spring and summer. Upwelling systems are economically relevant, being the most productive regions of the world ocean and crucial for fisheries. In this work, we evaluate the intra- and inter-annual variability of the Upwelling Index (UI) off the western coast of the IP considering four locations at various latitudes: Rias Baixas, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz and Cabo da Roca. In addition, the relationship between the variability of the occurrence of several circulation weather types (Ramos et al., 2011) and the UI variability along this coast was assessed in detail, allowing to discriminate which types are frequently associated with strong and weak upwelling activity. It is shown that upwelling activity is mostly driven by wind flow from the northern quadrant, for which the obtained correlation coefficients (for the N and NE types) are higher than 0.5 for the four considered test locations. Taking into account these significant relationships, we then developed statistical multi-linear regression models to hindcast upwelling series (April to September) at the four referred locations, using monthly frequencies of circulation weather types as predictors. Modelled monthly series reproduce quite accurately observational data, with correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all locations, and relatively small absolute errors. Ramos AM, Ramos R, Sousa P, Trigo RM, Janeira M, Prior V (2011) Cloud to ground lightning activity over Portugal and its association with Circulation Weather Types. Atmospheric Research 101:84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.01

  1. Two new species of Huascaromusca Townsend from Colombia, and a new combination for Giovanella carvalhoi (Diptera: Mesembrinellidae).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Ramos-Pastrana, Yardany; Marinho, Marco Antonio Tonus; Amorim, Dalton DE Souza

    2017-02-09

    The Mesembrinellidae (Diptera: Oestroidea) are a group of exclusively Neotropical flies, with 38 recognized species distributed in nine genera. A total of 11 of these species, present in seven genera, were known to occur in Colombia. Huascaromusca obscura Wolff, sp. nov. and H. cordillera Wolff & Ramos-Pastrana, sp. nov. are herein described and their male terminalia are illustrated. Based on a prior molecular study of the family, Giovanella carvalhoi Wolff et al., 2013 is transferred to Huascaromusca Townsend. A key to all known species of Huascaromusca is provided.

  2. Two New Species of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the High Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Juan S; Moncada, Ligia I; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The females, males, pupae, and larvae of two new species of Simulium are described and illustrated from a small stream 3950 m above sea level in the Lake Otún area of the Colombian Andes Mountains. Simulium (Pternaspatha) quimbayium n. sp. represents a 630-km northeastern extension of the distributional range of previously known members of the subgenus Pternaspatha, and Simulium (Psilopelmia) machetorum n. sp. represents the highest altitude recorded for a species of the subgenus Psilopelmia. These species illustrate the unique simuliid biodiversity in the páramo ecosystem of the high northern Andes.

  3. A spatial implementation of the BIOME-BGC to model grassland GPP production and water budgets in the Ecuadorian Andean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Mynett, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    Many terrestrial biogeochemistry process models have been applied around the world at different scales and for a large range of ecosystems. Grasslands, and in particular the ones located in the Andean Region are essential ecosystems that sustain important ecological processes; however, just a few efforts have been made to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) and the hydrological budgets for this specific ecosystem along an altitudinal gradient. A previous study, which is one of the few available in the region, considered the heterogeneity of the main properties of the páramo vegetation and showed significant differences in plant functional types, site/soil parameters and daily meteorology. This study extends the work above mentioned and uses spatio-temporal analysis of the BIOME-BGC model results. This was done to simulate the GPP and the water fluxes in space and time, by applying altitudinal analysis. The catchment located at the southwestern slope of the Antisana volcano in Ecuador was selected as a representative area of the Andean páramos and its hydrological importance as one of the main sources of a water supply reservoir in the region. An accurate estimation of temporal changes in GPP in the region is important for carbon budget assessments, evaluation of the impact of climate change and biomass productivity. This complex and yet interesting problem was integrated by the ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC, the results were evaluated and associated to the land cover map where the growth forms of vegetation were identified. The responses of GPP and the water fluxes were not only dependent on the environmental drivers but also on the ecophysiology and the site specific parameters. The model estimated that the GPP at lower elevations doubles the amount estimated at higher elevations, which might have a large implication during extrapolations at larger spatio-temporal scales. The outcomes of the stand hydrological processes demonstrated a wrong

  4. On the role of the four-qubit state in two-qubit gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. R. M.; Mendes, F. V.; Ramos, R. V.

    2016-05-01

    The full analysis of quantum protocols requires the knowledge of the role of quantum states, bases of measurement and quantum gates involved. In what concerns the famous two-qubit quantum gate teleportation protocol, the role of the basis of measurement was considered in a recent work by Mendes and Ramos. In this work, we analyze the role of the four-qubit state used as resource. We show that the quantum two-qubit gate teleportation divides the set of pure four-qubit states in two classes. For one class, deterministic and probabilistic teleportation can be achieved, while for the other class, probabilistic remote two-qubit gate preparation is achieved.

  5. RNA Chimeras as a Gene Signature of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    NUMT insertion is non-random. Nucleic Acids Res 2012;40:9073-88. (10) Ramos A, Barbena E, Mateiu L, del Mar GM, Mairal Q, Lima M, et al. Nuclear...405-9. (28) Nik-Zainal S, Alexandrov LB, Wedge DC, Van LP, Greenman CD, Raine K, et al. Mutational processes molding the genomes of 21 breast...7. Nucleic Acids Res 24: 962–969. 4. Pink JJ, Fritsch M, Bilimoria MM, Assikis VJ, Jordan VC (1997) Cloning and characterization of a 77-kDa oestrogen

  6. Peierls Stress of Dislocations in Molecular Crystal Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-04

    inferred from quasi-static simulations. For PRH = 2.14 GPa in a (111) shock, at least five slip systems (with m ≠ 0) remain active. If one considers PRH...1992, 25, 489−496, DOI: 10.1021/ar00023a002. (2) Armstrong, R. W.; Ammon, H . L.; Elban, W. L.; Tsai, D. H . Investigation of Hot-Spot Characteristics...DOI: 10.1063/1.2214639. (5) Cawkwell, M . J.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Sewell, T. D. Homogeneous Dislocation Nucleation in Cyclotrimethylene Trinitr

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Establishment of a New C-130 Landing Zone for 58 SOW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Window Rock , AZ 86515 Pueblo of Picuris Governor Gerald Nailor P.O. Box 127 Penasco, NM 87553 Pueblo of Tesuque Governor Ramos Romero Route...5,000 to over 9,000 feet in altitude and are both sedimentary and igneous in origin. 4.1.5 Soils Soils in the project area are from the Wink-Madurez...XXXXXX XXXXXXX Five metamorphic rocks (manuports) Located within a 3 meter x 1 meter area, possible deflated hearth 16 XXXXXX XXXXXXX One can Santiary

  8. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Ministro de Gobernacion y policia y seguridad publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 16 Freedom House 17 Constitution of Panama, Artículo 305.- La...Ramos Martínez, Licenciado Rogelio, Ministro de Gobernación y Policía y Seguridad Publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 Salvatierra, BG Manuel...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  9. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  10. Fluid equations in the presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2012-12-01

    Two-fluid equations, which include the physics imparted by an externally applied radiofrequency source near electron cyclotron resonance, are derived in their extended magnetohydrodynamic forms using the formalism of Hegna and Callen [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009)]. The equations are compatible with the closed fluid/drift-kinetic model developed by Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); 18, 102506 (2011)] for fusion-relevant regimes with low collisionality and slow dynamics, and they facilitate the development of advanced computational models for electron cyclotron current drive-induced suppression of neoclassical tearing modes.

  11. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-15

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  12. 12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x 10' contact print; May 12, 1982 revision of a January 18, 1974 as built drawing by F. Marquez Ramos, in possesion of the Bridge Evaluation Office of the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works) BRIDE (sic) OVER RIO GRANDE DE LOIZA, ROAD NO. 980 KM. 10.6 - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  13. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  14. Chromopeptide A, a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide from the marine sediment-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenfang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jingya; Zheng, Linghui; Liu, Hongchun; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Aijun; Geng, Meiyu; Guo, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    A bicyclic depsipeptide, chromopeptide A (1), was isolated from a deep-sea-derived bacterium Chromobacterium sp. HS-13-94. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with a related known compound. The absolute configuration of chromopeptide A was established by X-ray diffraction analysis employing graphite monochromated Mo Kα radiation (λ=0.71073 Å) with small Flack parameter 0.03. Chromopeptide A suppressed the proliferation of HL-60, K-562, and Ramos cells with average IC50 values of 7.7, 7.0, and 16.5 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:26579426

  15. Fluid equations in the presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2012-12-15

    Two-fluid equations, which include the physics imparted by an externally applied radiofrequency source near electron cyclotron resonance, are derived in their extended magnetohydrodynamic forms using the formalism of Hegna and Callen [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009)]. The equations are compatible with the closed fluid/drift-kinetic model developed by Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); 18, 102506 (2011)] for fusion-relevant regimes with low collisionality and slow dynamics, and they facilitate the development of advanced computational models for electron cyclotron current drive-induced suppression of neoclassical tearing modes.

  16. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  17. Zinc pyrithione induces apoptosis and increases expression of Bim.

    PubMed

    Mann, J J; Fraker, P J

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate herein that zinc pyrithione can induce apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations. Zinc pyrithione was a potent inducer of cell death causing greater than 40-60% apoptosis among murine thymocytes, murine splenic lymphocytes and human Ramos B and human Jurkat T cells. Conversely, the addition of a zinc chelator protected thymocytes against zinc pyrithione induced apoptosis indicating these responses were specific for zinc. Zinc-induced apoptosis was dependent on transcription and translation which suggested possible regulation by a proapoptotic protein. Indeed, zinc induced a 1.9 and 3.4 fold increase respectively in expression of the BimEL and BimL isoforms and also stimulated production of the most potent isoform, BimS. This increase in Bim isoform expression was dependent on transcription being blocked by treatment with actinomycin D. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL provided substantial protection of Ramos B and Jurkat T cells against zinc-induced apoptosis. Zinc also activated the caspase cascade demonstrated by cleavage of caspase 9. Addition of specific inhibitors for caspase 9 and caspase 3 also blocked zinc-induced apoptosis. The data herein adds to the growing evidence that free or unbound zinc could be harmful to cells of the immune system.

  18. Rapid synthesis of tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles by microwave induced thermohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jouhannaud, J. Rossignol, J.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-06-15

    Tin oxide nanopowders, with an average size of 5 nm, were prepared by microwave flash synthesis. Flash synthesis was performed in aqueous solutions of tin tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid using a microwave autoclave (RAMO system) specially designed by the authors. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were used to characterize these nanoparticles. Compared with conventional synthesis, nanopowders can be produced in a short period (e.g. 60 s). In addition, high purity and high specific surface area are obtained. These characteristics are fundamental for gas sensing applications. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide-based gas sensors have been extensively studied in recent years in order to understand and improve their sensing properties to a large variety of gaseous species. As is well known, high specific surface area increase the responses of gas sensors. Microwave-induced thermohydrolysis appears as an efficient way to produce nanoparticles in a very short time, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high-specific area (160-190 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation (multicolour candy represent obtained material), and a typical TEM image of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  19. DOCK2 regulates cell proliferation through Rac and ERK activation in B cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Taichi; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanino, Mishie; Nishio, Mitsufumi; Obara, Masato; Endo, Tomoyuki; Koike, Takao; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-04-23

    DOCK2; a member of the CDM protein family, regulates cell motility and cytokine production through the activation of Rac in mammalian hematopoietic cells and plays a pivotal role in the modulation of the immune system. Here we demonstrated the alternative function of DOCK2 in hematopoietic tumor cells, especially in terms of its association with the tumor progression. Immunostaining for DOCK2 in 20 cases of human B cell lymphoma tissue specimens including diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma revealed the prominent expression of DOCK2 in all of the lymphoma cells. DOCK2-knockdown (KD) of the B cell lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and Raji, using the lentiviral shRNA system presented decreased cell proliferation compared to the control cells. Furthermore, the tumor formation of DOCK2-KD Ramos cell in nude mice was significantly abrogated. Western blotting analysis and pull-down assay using GST-PAK-RBD kimeric protein suggested the presence of DOCK2-Rac-ERK pathway regulating the cell proliferation of these lymphoma cells. This is the first report to clarify the prominent role of DOCK2 in hematopoietic malignancy.

  20. Geant4 Simulations of SuperCDMS iZip Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detectors collect phonon and ionization energy of incident particles for analysis. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group is implementing low temperature phonon and ionization simulations in Geant4 in order to study the response of the detectors to incident events. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a low temperature crystal detector. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. The Geant4 framework is well-suited to these tasks. The charge transport in the presence of a complex electric field is performed by calculating a tetrahedral mesh of potentials across the crystal volume. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The focus of this presentation will be on incorporating and using the software package, Qhull, to calculate a tetrahedral mesh from known potentials and then using barycentric coordinates to perform a linear interpolation to calculate the field. After calculating the field at each charge carrier's position, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied and the previous triangulation technique is performed to simulate the FET response

  1. [History of the Department of Neurology at the University of Buenos Aires (1887-2007)].

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Sica, Roberto E

    2016-07-01

    In 1887, only five years after Jean-Martin Charcot was awarded the Head of Neurology at "La Salpetrière" in Paris, José María Ramos Mejía became the first professor of Neurology in South America, at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires. Ramos Mejía convoked three assistants, the neuropathologist Christofredo Jakob, the clinician José A. Esteves and José Ingenieros. Hence it followed that Neurology in Argentina took a stand based on a clinical neurology-neuropathology approach (1941-1987) followed by a clinical-semiological attitude, finally inserting itself within the modern times (1987-present) by creating subspecialties. Throughout its history, Argentina has made remarkable contributions to Neurology, such as the diagnosis and pathogenesis of the nervous system involvement occurring in some regional endemic disorders -for instance, Chagas' disease-, the clinical approach to the diagnosis of dementias, and the pathogenesis of extrapyramidal illnesses and other primary degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, mainly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, in recent years globalization allowed neurologists to participate in international cooperative projects, favoring a swifter development in the practice of this discipline.

  2. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  3. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  4. Coalescence of fog droplets: Differential fog water deposition on wet and dry forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobón, C.; Barrero, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Páramo ecosystem is a high-altitude (2800 - 4500 masl), natural ecosystems which comprises approximately 42000 km2, extending across the Andes from north of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and western part of Venezuela. Andean páramos are widely considered to be prime suppliers of large volumes of high-quality water for large cities and for hydropower production. As páramos tend to be subjected to persistent fog incidence, fog interception by the vegetation is a common process in these ecosystems, representing not only an extra input of water to the ecosystem but also to suppress evaporation. In this process, small drops of water, transported by the wind, are captured by the surfaces of the vegetation, acting as physical obstacles to the flow of fog. These drops condense in the exposed surfaces and drip towards the ground or evaporate from the surfaces. The quantification of the magnitude of these processes is important for the quantification of the water balance of river basins where these types of ecosystems exist. Although the great hydrological importance of fog in montane tropical ecosystems little is known about its physical principles related to the interception of fog by physical barriers as vegetation, notably the differential behaviour of a wet and dry vegetation in the efficiency of capturing water from the fog. To characterize and quantify this efficiency of páramo vegetation in capturing water from the fog, during wet and dry canopy conditions, an experimental design was set up at the Páramo de Chingaza (Colombia) where paired samples of espeletia branches (dry and wet) were exposed to different fog events, and at the same time Juvik cylinders were exposed by the side of the experimental site, to measured fog inputs. Cylinders were also paired (wet and dry) at the beginning of the experiments. Results indicated that exposed wet and dry samples have a significant difference on the magnitude of water intercepted from the fog, being, in average, the wet

  5. [Aicardi syndrome with Dandy-Walker type malformation].

    PubMed

    Laguado-Herrera, Yuly V; Manrique-Hernández, Edgar F; Peñaloza-Mantilla, Camilo A; Quintero-Gómez, David A; Contreras-García, Gustavo A; Sandoval-Martínez, Diana K

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi (OMIM 304050) fue descrito en 1965. Su triada clasica esta compuesta por espasmos infantiles, agenesia parcial o total del cuerpo calloso y alteraciones oculares, como lagunas coriorretinianas. Se postula un mecanismo de herencia ligado a X dominante. Caso clinico. Niña nacida a termino, sin antecedentes familiares patologicos ni consanguinidad parental, con diagnostico prenatal de malformacion tipo Dandy-Walker, quien presento episodios convulsivos, coloboma del nervio optico, bloque vertebral toracico con presencia de escoliosis, ecografia transfontanelar con agenesia del cuerpo calloso y cariotipo 46,XX. Se diagnostico de sindrome de Aicardi y fallecio con mes y medio de edad. En la autopsia se evidencio hidrocefalia supratentorial con presencia de papiloma de los plexos coroideos, quiste en la fosa posterior (cuarto ventriculo), hipoplasia del vermis cerebeloso, agenesia del hemisferio del cuerpo calloso y cerebeloso izquierdo, rasgos faciales caracteristicos del sindrome, paladar ojival, pectus excavatum, escoliosis, quiste paraovarico y hepatomegalia. Conclusiones. Pocos casos han descrito la asociacion de la patologia y la presencia de malformacion de Dandy-Walker. Se comunica un nuevo caso con esta asociacion, teniendo en cuenta que las alteraciones relacionadas, principalmente agenesia o hipoplasia del cuerpo calloso, sugieren que tiene un componente genetico de base. El estudio de busqueda de la etiologia de centrarse en evaluar aquellos genes que tengan relacion con el neurodesarrollo y su activacion en la etapa de organogenia. El diagnostico definitivo establece el pronostico, manejo y asesoria genetica a la familia.

  6. Fits and Starts: A Mother-Infant Case-Study Involving Intergenerational Violent Trauma and Pseudoseizures Across Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Kaminer, Tammy; Grienenberger, John F.; Amat, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16-months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age 8-months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this inner-city Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother’s native Spanish as “ataques de nervios,” the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers’ reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The paper concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah. PMID:18007961

  7. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population.

  8. [Optic neuritis in childhood. A pediatric series, literature review and treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martin, D; Martinez-Anton, J

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. En la edad pediatrica, la forma mas frecuente de neuritis optica se presenta generalmente despues de un cuadro infeccioso, con edema de papila, que suele ser bilateral y tiene buen pronostico. La conversion a esclerosis multiple es infrecuente. Objetivo. Presentar las caracteristicas clinicas y de laboratorio de una serie pediatrica de neuritis optica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una serie de 17 casos de neuritis optica en niños y jovenes de 4 a 14 años, referidos entre los años 2000 y 2015. Resultados. La edad mediana de la serie fue de 11 años. Predominaron los pacientes de sexo femenino y el antecedente infeccioso fue poco frecuente; en cinco pacientes, la afectacion fue bilateral, y cuatro casos se presentaron como neuritis optica retrobulbar. La resonancia magnetica mostro hiperintensidad en T2 en los nervios opticos afectados en cinco pacientes. El estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo y bandas oligoclonales fue normal en todos los casos. Los pacientes, tratados con metilprednisolona intravenosa, tuvieron buena recuperacion. Solo en tres casos se comprobo una evolucion posterior a esclerosis multiple. Conclusiones. En esta serie, los casos que evolucionaron a esclerosis multiple no mostraron diferencias clinicas, aunque si presentaron mayor cantidad de lesiones hiperintensas en la resonancia magnetica. Este hecho, descrito en trabajos previos, apoya nuestro esquema diagnostico y terapeutico en un intento por acercarnos al manejo optimo de esta patologia.

  9. [Longitudinal assessment of body composition by different methods as product of a integral intervention for treating obesity in Chilean children school].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Diaz, Erik; Lera, Lydia; Vásquez, Loretta; Anziani, Alyerina; Leyton, Bárbara; Burrows, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En Chile, el principal problema nutricional de la población infantil, lo constituye la obesidad. El alarmante incremento de la obesidad infantil, ha generado la imperiosa necesidad de desarrollar programas de prevención y tratamiento, pero los resultados han sido poco alentadores ya que no han logrado el impacto esperado en el estado nutricional de la población objetivo. Para lo cual es necesario utilizar otras estrategias, como la incorporación del ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto de una intervención integral (ejercicio físico, educación alimentaria y apoyo psicológico) en la composición corporal de escolares obesos al finalizar la intervención y en la post-intervención. Métodos: La muestra fue de 61 niños obesos (IMC = p 95) de ambos sexos, entre 8 y 13 2013s, que participaron en una intervención integral para tratar la obesidad infantil a corto plazo (3 meses) y mediano plazo (12 meses). Se evaluó la composición corporal por dilución isotópica, pletismografía, absorciometría radiográfica y el modelo de cuatro compartimentos de Fuller. Resultados: En ambos sexos se produjo un incremento significativo en el tiempo en MLG (kg) por 4C, en GC (%) por dilución isotópica en niños se redujo en la post-intervención, mientras en las niñas disminuyó significativamente en el tiempo y en MLG (kg) por dilución isotópica aumentó significativamente en ambos sexos. En relación a la magnitud y dirección de los cambios en el tiempo, sólo hubo diferencia significativa por sexo en MLG (%) por dilución isotópica, el incremento fue significativamente mayor en niños, como producto de la intervención (p=0,000). Conclusiones: Una intervención que incluye ejercicio físico programado mejora la composición corporal, pero su efecto se revierte a mediano plazo si el entrenamiento cesa. Lo anterior, reafirma la necesidad de la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones en el tiempo.

  10. A new construct of antibody-drug conjugates for treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Fang, Yixin; Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan

    2017-02-27

    The aim of this study was to develop a new class of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with the potential to not only enhance treatment efficacy but also improve tolerability for patients with B-cell lymphomas. Classic ADCs consist of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) linked to drugs or toxins. They selectively deliver toxic moieties to tumor cells. As such, they greatly improve the therapeutic index compared to traditional chemotherapeutic agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy and safety of ADCs are dependent on linker stability and payload toxicity. Limited payload number on a single antibody (drug-to-antibody ratio, or DAR) has been driving investigators to use extremely toxic agents; however, even very low off-target binding of these ADCs may kill patients. Herein we report a new design of ADCs that consists of rituximab (RTX) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-epirubicin conjugates. The latter was selectively attached to RTX via reduced disulfide bonds. Such design allows the introduction of a large payload of drug on the antibody without adding attachment sites and without compromising the antigen-targeting ability. The binding of the new conjugate, namely RTX-P-EPI, to Ramos cells (with high CD20 expression) was confirmed. The cytotoxicity of RTX-P-EPI against Raji and Ramos cells was also determined. Interestingly, two-fold inhibition of cell proliferation was observed when using RTX-P-EPI compared with their equivalent physical mixture of RTX and P-EPI. Treatment of male SCID mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos B-cell lymphoma tumors demonstrated that RTX-P-EPI possessed superior efficacy when compared to combination of RTX with chemotherapy EPI (RTX+EPI) and P-EPI (RTX+P-EPI), whereas single RTX and a non-specific conjugate IgG-P-EPI only showed marginal effect. The conjugate RTX-EPI in which EPI was directly attached to RTX demonstrated much less antitumor activity compared with RTX-P-EPI. The results suggest that this new design possesses

  11. Strontium isotope ratio variations in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Imnaha basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckberg, A. E.; Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Hart, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    Of all the Columbia River flood basalt formations, the Imnaha Basalt best captures the isotopic signature of the mantle plume source (see abstract by Wolff, Ramos and Patterson). It is of interest, therefore, to understand the extent to which the plume signature is compromised by magma-lithosphere interaction during transport to the surface. Whole rock 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Imnaha lavas span a narrow range of 0.7038 - 0.7042, and convey a false impression of relative isotopic uniformity. Plagioclase phenocrysts analyzed by LA-MC- ICPMS exhibit much greater variations of 0.7038 - 0.7061 for the whole formation as represented by 8 flows that we have studied. Individual plagioclase phenocrysts in the Imnaha lavas typically fall into two Sr isotope ratio populations: 0.7038 - 0.7044, and 0.7045 - 0.7051. The former population, which encompasses the range of 87Sr/86Sr in whole rocks, is more abundant among a subgroup of flows that have long been recognized as more primitive (Hooper et al., 1984), and is dominated by tabular phenocrysts, some of which are zoned with less radiogenic cores and more radiogenic rims. The less radiogenic end of this range is considered to be representative of the mantle source for the Imnaha Basalt. The latter more radiogenic group of plagioclase grains is texturally more diverse, and is more abundant in flows with relatively evolved bulk compositions. Relatively radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr >0.7044) among Columbia River basalts (whole rocks) is characteristic of post-Imnaha formations, including the very voluminous Grande Ronde flows, and is thought to reflect the involvement of lithospheric components derived from crust and/or mantle. Four of the 8 Imnaha flows so far investigated contain both populations of plagioclase. These results are consistent with a model where magmas residing in crustal magma chambers experience interaction with high- 87Sr/86Sr host rock before and/or during crystallization of plagioclase and are recharged by mantle

  12. Terrestrial applications of FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules. [power systems using Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center program of transferring the FEP-encapsulated solar cell technology developed for the space program to terrestrial applications is presented. The electrical power system design and the array mechanical design are described, and power systems being tested are discussed. The latter are located at NOAA-RAMOS weather stations at Sterling, Va., and Mammoth Mountain, Calif.; on the roof of the Lewis Research Center; on a NOAA-Coast Guard buoy in the Gulf of Mexico; in a U.S. Forest Service mountaintop voice repeater station in the Inyo National Forest, Calif., and in a backpack charger for portable transmitter/receivers being used in the same place. Preliminary results of testing are still incomplete, but show that rime ice can cause cracks in modular cells without damaging the FEP though, which keeps the grid lines intact, and that electrically active elements of the module must be completely sealed from salt water to prevent FEP delamination.

  13. A novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative BD926 triggers ROS-mediated B lymphoma cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Hui; Yang, Ping; Yang, Tai; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jin; Li, Li-Mei; Luo, Xing-Yan; Yang, Shu-Xia; Zou, Qiang; Zhang, Chong-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Benzothiazole derivatives are known for various biological activities, and their potency in cancer therapy have received considerable attention in recent years. However, the poor water solubility of most benzothiazole derivatives has limited their clinical application. We developed BD926, a novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative and showed here that it could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human Ramos B-lymphoma cells. We further showed that BD926 triggered apoptosis through both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum pathways. Moreover, BD926 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 stage. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after BD926 treatment and ROS inhibitor was able to attenuate BD926-induced apoptosis, which suggested that BD926-induced apoptosis may be due to over-producing ROS. These results demonstrate the anticancer effects of BD926 in cell models and raise the possibility for the application of BD926 in cancer therapy.

  14. Over the hills & far away: rural health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2012-01-01

    “Yo tenía 10 hermanos y hermanas. Éramos muy pobres,” relata Algimiro Ortiz en la suave luz vespertina que inunda la Casa de Abuelos de Cruce de los Baños. “Estudiar no era una opción—aquí no había escuela—solo trabajar; comencé a recoger café cuando tenía 11 años. Cuando alguien se enfermaba, teníamos que cargarlo sobre nuestros hombros hasta el hospital en Contramaestre, a 25 kilómetros,” Ortiz, ahora con más de 70 años, contó a MEDICC Review.

  15. Inferring runoff generation processes through high resolution spatial and temporal UV-Vis absorbance measurements in a mountainous headwater catchment in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, David; Schob, Sarah; Zang, Carina; Crespo, Patricio; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The alpine grassland páramo - typically occurring in the headwater catchments of the Andes - plays an important role in flow regulation, hydropower generation and local water supply. However, hydrological and hydro-biogeochemical processes in the páramo and their potential reactions to climate and land use change are largely unknown. Therefore, we used a UV-Vis absorbance spectrometer to investigate fluxes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and nitrate (NO3-N) in a small headwater catchment (91.31 km²) in the páramo in south Ecuador on a 5 min temporal and 100 m spatial resolution to gain first insights in its hydrological functioning. Spatial sampling was realized during three snapshot sampling campaigns along the 14.2 km long stream between October 2013 and January 2014, while temporal sampling took place at a permanent sampling site within the catchment between February and June 2014. To identify the runoff generation processes the spatial patterns have been associated with local site specific (e.g. fish ponds) and sub-catchment wide (e.g. land use) characteristics. Storm flow events within the time series allowed to further study temporal changes and rotational patterns of concentration-discharge relations (hysteresis). In total, 35 events were identified to be suitable for analyzing hysteresis effects of BOD, COD, and turbidity. Nitrate concentrations could be studied for 20 events. Regardless of the flow conditions nitrate leaching increased with a growing share of non-native pine forests or pastures in the study area. During low flow conditions, the high water holding capacity of the upstream páramo areas ensured a continuous supply of BOD to the stream. Pasture and pine forest sites, mostly occurring in the downstream section of the stream, contributed to BOD only during discharge events. Contradicting the expectations the trout farms along the lower part of the streams had a relatively closed nutrient cycle and

  16. Design and synthesis of phosphoryl-substituted diphenylpyrimidines (Pho-DPPYs) as potent Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors: Targeted treatment of B lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Wang, Changyuan; Meng, Qiang; Li, Lei; Sun, Huijun; Zhen, Yuhong; Liu, Kexin; Li, Yanxia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2017-01-15

    A family of phosphoryl-substituted diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (Pho-DPPYs) were synthesized and biologically evaluated as potent BTK inhibitors in this study. Compound 7b was found to markedly inhibit BTK activity at concentrations of 0.82nmol/L, as well as to suppress the proliferations of B-cell leukemia cell lines (Ramos and Raji) expressing high levels of BTK at concentrations of 3.17μM and 6.69μM. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis results further indicated that 7b promoted cell apoptosis to a substantial degree. In a word, compound 7b is a promising BTK inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.

  17. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  18. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, D.; Zanghı, N.; Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  19. [Marina de Vasconcellos and the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro: a study of the social circles].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adelia Maria Miglievich

    2008-06-01

    An investigation of the career of one of the "founding mothers" of the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro, Marina de Vasconcellos, successor of Arthur Ramos, is one way of understanding how anthropology was established in Rio de Janeiro. Conflicts and alliances, continuities and discontinuities, lie behind the pioneering Brazilian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology and the Institute of Social Sciences, both at Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Marina de Vasconcellos' professional life bore the marks of the clash between different schools of thought regarding anthropology at a time when university courses were being introduced. As a professor, she was committed to educating new professionals, and in 1968, she was steadfast in the struggle for university autonomy. The study leads to a reflection upon the criteria for success in academia, countering the view that this depends entirely on the publication of books and articles.

  20. ANNOTATION TAKEN, IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRIMINAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AS WELL AS IN CRIMINOLOGY, TO THE DECISION OF THE PORTUGUESE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, OF JANUARY 13, 2011--WITH RESPECT TO THE PROBLEMS OF "CONSENT" AND "MEDICAL ACT".

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Gonçalo S de Melo

    2014-07-01

    1--Summary of the decision taken by the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011; 2--Complete text of the decision of the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011, Judge Maria João ANTUNES (Reporter), Judge Carlos Pamplona de OLIVEIRA, Judge José Borges SOEIRO, Judge Gil GALVÃO, Judge Rui Manuel Moura RAMOS (President)--in terms of the appositive declaration to the sentence n. 487/2010: t.c.http://www. tribunalconstitucional.pt, August 1, 2011; 3--Brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.1--Plus some conclusions on the brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.2--Brief annotation to the problem of "consent"--continuation of the previous comments; 4--Conclusions. It must never be forgotten that "consent" does not stand as the only cause of exclusion of unlawfulness.

  1. In silico identification of novel ligands for G-quadruplex in the c- MYC promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2015-04-01

    G-quadruplex DNA formed in NHEIII1 region of oncogene promoter inhibits transcription of the genes. In this study, virtual screening combining pharmacophore-based search and structure-based docking screening was conducted to discover ligands binding to G-quadruplex in promoter region of c- MYC. Several hit ligands showed the selective PCR-arresting effects for oligonucleotide containing c- MYC G-quadruplex forming sequence. Among them, three hits selectively inhibited cell proliferation and decreased c- MYC mRNA level in Ramos cells, where NHEIII1 is included in translocated c- MYC gene for overexpression. Promoter assay using two kinds of constructs with wild-type and mutant sequences showed that interaction of these ligands with the G-quadruplex resulted in turning-off of the reporter gene. In conclusion, combined virtual screening methods were successfully used for discovery of selective c- MYC promoter G-quadruplex binders with anticancer activity.

  2. Rats with hippocampal lesions can learn a place response, but how long can they retain it?

    PubMed

    Ramos, J M

    2001-10-01

    Previous research has shown that electrolytic hippocampal lesions do not affect the acquisition of a place response if a special training procedure is used. However, 24 days later, the hippocampal rats manifest a profound deficit in the retention of the spatial information (J. M. J. Ramos, 2000). The goal of the present study was, therefore, to investigate how long the hippocampal rats can retain a place response. Results showed that, 3 days after the end of the training, lesioned rats remembered as well as the control rats, but this was no longer true 6 or 12 days after the training. This retention deficit was not observed when the spatial information was acquired by means of a guidance strategy. These results suggest that, when a special training procedure is used, the hippocampus is not necessary for the learning of a place task but is required for the formation of long-term spatial memory.

  3. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  4. Current impulse response of thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes using full band structure Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, A. H.; Cheang, P. L.

    2007-02-01

    A random response time model to compute the statistics of the avalanche buildup time of double-carrier multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using full band structure Monte Carlo (FBMC) method is discussed. The effect of feedback impact ionization process and the dead-space effect on random response time are included in order to simulate the speed of APD. The time response of InP p+-i-n+ diodes with the multiplication region of 0.2μm is presented. Finally, the FBMC model is used to calculate the current impulse response of the thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes with multiplication lengths of 0.05 and 0.2μm using Ramo's theorem [Proc. IRE 27, 584 (1939)]. The simulated current impulse response of the FBMC model is compared to the results simulated from a simple Monte Carlo model.

  5. Representations of desires in some recent gay Asian-American writings.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stephen O

    2003-01-01

    This article explores conceptions of same-sex sexual behavior and desires by American gay males who grew up in Pacific Island or Asian societies. In the absence of systematic survey data, representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical, by two South Asian émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai), two second generation Filipino-Americans (Joël Tan and Ricardo Ramos), a second generation Chinese-Hawaiian (Norman Wong) and three men of Chinese descent born and raised in Southeast Asia (Lawrence Chua, Justin Chin, and T. C. Huo) are examined. The unsatisfying script of sexual submission of Asians to whites is particularly central, except for the South Asians. These books provide recurrent evidence of role distance, of switching roles (often without rewriting a dominance-submission conception of insertion-reception) and of some degree of reconceiving the (sexual) self.

  6. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1-)4-6(-7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km(2), this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled.

  7. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Pina ,   V .,  Duke,  F.,  Francis,  J.,  Jung,  J.,  Maffuz-­‐Aziz,  A.,  Onofrio,  R.C.,  Parkin...M.,   Pho,  N.H.,  Quintanar-­‐Jurado,   V .,  Ramos,  A.H.,  Rebollar-­‐Vega,  R.,  Rodriguez-­‐Cuevas,  S.,  Romero-­‐ Cordoba...Wiellette,  E.,   Zhang,  Y.,  Wiessner,  S.,  Hild,  M.,  Shi,  X.,  Wilson,  C.J.,  Mickanin,  C.,  Myer,

  8. Optimized analysis of isotropic high-nuclearity spin clusters with GPU acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas Daviña, A.; Ramos, E.; Roman, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The numerical simulation of molecular clusters formed by a finite number of exchange-coupled paramagnetic centers is very relevant for many applications, modeling systems between molecules and extended solids. In the context of realistic scenarios, many centers need to be considered, and thus the required computational effort grows very fast. In a previous work (Ramos et al., 2010), a set of parallel programs were presented with standard message-passing parallelization (MPI) for both anisotropic and isotropic systems. In this work, we have further developed the code for isotropic models. On one hand, the computational cost has been significantly reduced by avoiding some of the matrix diagonalizations, corresponding to blocks with negligible contribution for the particular configuration. On the other hand, we have extended the parallelization in order to exploit available graphics processing units (GPUs). The new MPI-GPU paradigm reduces the computational time by at least one additional order of magnitude and enables the resolution of larger problems.

  9. Death anxiety in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly people in Spain.

    PubMed

    Portal Moreno, Rafael; de la Fuente Solana, Emilia I; Aleixandre Rico, Manuel; Lozano Fernández, Luis Manuel

    To know the level of death anxiety using the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) (1970) (Ramos's Spanish adaptation, 1982)) we chose subjects older than 65 years (N = 227) to study, on one hand, the existing relation between cognitive-affective reactions toward death and the perception of the passing of time and, on the other, a group of variables which include the place of residence, age, gender, life reflection, health disorders, psychological problems, religious aspects, and socio-demographics features. To undertake this, a questionnaire was administered in which the participants answered according to their degree of agreement to several alternatives. The data indicates, by means of an analysis of variance, significant differences between these variables and death anxiety, with the exception of the religious aspects and civil state.

  10. Turbulent nonreacting swirling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1984-06-01

    Numerical results for incompressible confined swirling flows in a model combustor were obtained using the k-epsilon and k-l models of turbulence developed by Ramos (1980, 1981). Calculations were performed for a model combustor consisting of a 3.43-cm diameter inner pipe and a 14.5-cm diameter outer pipe. The outside diameter of the inner pipe is 3.86 cm. It is shown that the k-epsilon model does predict a recirculation zone for both coswirl and counterswirl flow conditions if suitable inlet conditions are used. Both turbulence models predict a nonexistent recirculation zone under coswirl conditions. The calculated mean axial and tangential velocity profiles are compared with the experimental data of Vu and Gouldin (1980).

  11. The Hanle Effect in Atomic and Molecular Lines: A New Look at the Sun's Hidden Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Shchukina, N.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the most recent advances in the application of the Hanle effect to solar physics, and how these developments are allowing us to explore the magnetism of the photospheric regions that look ``empty'' in solar magnetograms--that is, the Sun's ``hidden'' magnetism. In particular, we show how a joint analysis of the Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines indicates that there is a vast amount of hidden magnetic energy and unsigned magnetic flux localized in the (intergranular) downflowing regions of the quiet solar photosphere, carried mainly by tangled fields at sub-resolution scales with strengths between the equipartition field values and ˜1 kG. This article combines in one contribution Trujillo Bueno's invited keynote paper and the contributed papers by Asensio Ramos & Trujillo Bueno and by Shchukina & Trujillo Bueno.

  12. [Food security, income, and the Bolsa Família program: a cohort study of municipalities in Paraíba State, Brazil, 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Caroline Sousa; Lopes, Amanda Gonçalves; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the conditional cash transfer program known as Bolsa Família in overcoming food insecurity. A cohort study was conducted in 2005 and 2011 in a sample of families in São José dos Ramos and Nova Floresta, Paraíba State, Brazil. In 2005, 609 households were interviewed, and in 2011 we located and re-interviewed 406 families. There had been an increase in food security and mild food insecurity and an improvement in socioeconomic indicators. A significant association was observed between higher income and improved food security. The program showed a positive impact by increasing income and providing improved levels of food security and mild food insecurity. Other socioeconomic variables may be contributing to this improvement. The fight against food insecurity and malnutrition thus requires additional policies and programs that act on other determinants.

  13. Gene expression profiling of hematologic malignant cell lines resistant to oncolytic virus treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Hee; Kim, Mikyung; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Seong-Geun; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirpvec; JX-594) has emerged as an attractive tool in oncolytic virotherapy. Pexa-Vec demonstrates oncolytic and immunotherapeutic mechanisms of action. But the determinants of resistance to Pexa-Vec are mostly unknown. We treated hemoatologic malignant cells with Pexa-Vec and examined the gene-expression pattern of sensitive and resistant cells. Human myeloid malignant cell lines (RPMI-8226, IM-9, K562, THP-1) and lymphoid cancer cell lines (MOLT4, CCRF-CEM, Ramos, U937) were treated with Pexa-Vec. Pexa-Vec was cytotoxic on myeloid cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and fluorescent imaging and qPCR revealed that Pexa-Vec expression was low in RAMOS than IM-9 after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of infection. Gene expression profiles between two groups were analyzed by microarray. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. A total of 660 genes were up-regulated and 776 genes were down-regulated in lymphoid cancer cell lines. The up- and down-regulated genes were categorized into 319 functional gene clusters. We identified the top 10 up-regulated genes in lymphoid cells. Among them three human genes (LEF1, STAMBPL1, and SLFN11) strongly correlated with viral replication. Up-regulation of PVRIG, LPP, CECR1, Arhgef6, IRX3, IGFBP2, CD1d were related to resistant to Pexa-Vec. In conclusion, lymphoid malignant cells are resistant to Pexa-Vec and displayed up-regulated genes associated with resistance to oncolytic viral therapy. These data provide potential targets to overcome resistance, and suggest that molecular assays may be useful in selecting patients for further clinical trials with Pexa-Vec. PMID:27901484

  14. Integration of Proteomics and Transcriptomics Data Sets for the Analysis of a Lymphoma B-Cell Line in the Context of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Droste, Conrad; Dégano, Rosa M; González-Muñoz, María; Ibarrola, Nieves; Pérez-Andrés, Martín; Garin-Muga, Alba; Segura, Víctor; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy; LaBaer, Joshua; Orfao, Alberto; Corrales, Fernando J; De Las Rivas, Javier; Fuentes, Manuel

    2015-09-04

    A comprehensive study of the molecular active landscape of human cells can be undertaken to integrate two different but complementary perspectives: transcriptomics, and proteomics. After the genome era, proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool to simultaneously identify and characterize the compendium of thousands of different proteins active in a cell. Thus, the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is promoting a full characterization of the human proteome combining high-throughput proteomics with the data derived from genome-wide expression profiling of protein-coding genes. Here we present a full proteomic profiling of a human lymphoma B-cell line (Ramos) performed using a nanoUPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap Velos proteomic platform, combined to an in-depth transcriptomic profiling of the same cell type. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001933. Integration of the proteomic and transcriptomic data sets revealed a 94% overlap in the proteins identified by both -omics approaches. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis of the proteomic profiles showed an enrichment of several functions directly related to the biological and morphological characteristics of B-cells. In turn, about 30% of all protein-coding genes present in the whole human genome were identified as being expressed by the Ramos cells (stable average of 30% genes along all the chromosomes), revealing the size of the protein expression-set present in one specific human cell type. Additionally, the identification of missing proteins in our data sets has been reported, highlighting the power of the approach. Also, a comparison between neXtProt and UniProt database searches has been performed. In summary, our transcriptomic and proteomic experimental profiling provided a high coverage report of the expressed proteome from a human lymphoma B-cell type with a clear insight into the biological processes that characterized these cells. In this way, we demonstrated the usefulness of

  15. Soil porosity correlation and its influence in percolation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Ruis-Ramos, Margarita; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of percolation in natural soils is relevant for modeling root growth and optimizing infiltration of water and nutrients. Also, it would improve our understanding on how pollutants as pesticides, and virus and bacteria (Darnault et al., 2003) reach significant depths without being filtered out by the soil matrix (Beven and Germann, 2013). Random walk algorithms have been used successfully to date to characterize the dynamical characteristics of disordered media. This approach has been used here to describe how soil at different bulk densities and with different threshold values applied to the 3D gray images influences the structure of the pore network and their implications on particle flow and distribution (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2009). In order to do so first we applied several threshold values to each image analyzed and characterized them through Hurst exponents, then we computed random walks algorithms to calculate distances reached by the particles and speed of those particles. At the same time, 3D structures with a Hurst exponent of ca 0.5 and with different porosities were constructed and the same random walks simulations were replicated over these generated structures. We have found a relationship between Hurst exponents and the speed distribution of the particles reaching percolation of the total soil depth. REFERENCES Darnault, C.J. G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K.L. Oveson, T.S. Steenhuis, J.Y. Parlange, M. Jenkins, W.C. Ghiorse, and P. Baveye (2003), Preferential transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in variably saturated subsurface environments, Water Environ. Res., 75, 113-120. Beven, Keith and Germann, Peter. 2013. Macropores and water flow in soils revisited. Water Resources Research, 49(6), 3071-3092. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20156. Ruiz-Ramos, M., D. del Valle, D. Grinev, and A.M. Tarquis. 2009. Soil hydraulic behaviour at different bulk densities. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-6234.

  16. Blue light emitting diode induces apoptosis in lymphoid cells by stimulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Minjoo; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy by blue LED irradiation, and the contribution of autophagy to apoptosis in B cell lymphoma A20 and RAMOS cells exposed to blue LED. Irradiation with blue LED reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death, as indicated by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and fragmentation of DNA. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and apoptotic proteins (PARP, caspase 3, Bax, and bcl-2) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the formation of autophagosomes and level of LC3-II were increased in blue LED-irradiated A20 and RAMOS cells, but inhibited after pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), widely used as an autophagy inhibitor. Inhibition of the autophagic process by pretreatment with 3-MA blocked blue LED irradiation-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, a significant reduction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis after transfection with ATG5 and beclin 1 siRNAs was shown by the annexin V/PI staining, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in blue LED-induced apoptosis in cells. Additionally, the survival rate of mice irradiated with blue LED after injection with A20 cells increased compared to the control group. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, in conjunction with autophagy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED-induced immune cell death.

  17. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  18. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  19. More Than A SketchUp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Derrick D.

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 summer internship assignment at John F. Kennedy Space Center (K.S.C) was conducted with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Technology (NE) group in support of the Control and Data Systems Division (NE-C) within the Test, Operations & Support Software Engineering Branch (NE-C2). The primary focus of this project was to assist Branch Chief Laurie B. Griffin, to support NASA's Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) mission, by mastering the capabilities of 3-D modeling software called SketchUp. I used SketchUp to create a virtual environment for different laboratories of the NE-00 Division. My mission was to have these models uploaded into a K.S.C Partnerships Website and be used as a visual aid to viewers who browsed the site. The leads of this project were Kay L. Craig, Business and Industry Specialist (AD-A) and Steven E. Cain, (FA-C). I teamed with fellow intern Tait Sorenson of the Flight Structures and Thermal Protection Systems Branch (NE-M5) and met with many K.S.C lab managers willing to display their lab's structure and capabilities. The information collected during these lab tours was vital to the building of the K.S.C Partnerships Website. To accomplish this goal Sorenson and I later teamed with fellow Marketing intern Marlee Pereda-Ramos, of the Spaceport Planning Office In Center Planning And Development (AD-A) Along with Ramos, Tait and I toured an array of laboratories and got first hand exposure to their functions and capabilities.

  20. Petrologic evidence for thermal rejuvenation of crystal mush in the Bandelier Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Wark, D. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Olin, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    The 1.6 Ma Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff consists of ~500 km3 of mineralogically, chemically and isotopically zoned high-silica rhyolite. The melt phase was saturated with trace amounts of zircon, chevkinite, britholite and allanite, and upward whole-pumice elemental enrichments and depletions in the tuff are predicted by crystallization-differentiation involving an assemblage bearing those minerals. Isotopic variations among glasses and feldspars have previously been attributed to roof-rock contamination (Wolff & Ramos, 2003), but new LA-ICPMS, ion probe and CL investigations of late-erupted glomerocryst-bearing pumice clasts indicate an additional role for magmatic recharge and thermal rejuvenation in affecting chemical gradients. First, trace element covariations in glasses at the submillimeter scale are distinct from those of whole pumices and require preferential non-modal melting of the trace phases. Second, Ti geothermometry of strongly CL-zoned quartz in glomerocrysts from the last-erupted products indicates an episode of partial quartz dissolution followed by higher-temperature regrowth. Third, this regrowth episode is also recorded among accompanying feldspar grains, which have rims enriched in Sr and Ba and with Pb isotope ratios distinct from crystal cores. These observations are consistent with a model in which an initially stratified magma body consisting of crystal-poor, highly differentiated rhyolite was underlain by cognate crystal mush residue, now represented by glomerocrysts. This body was disturbed by recharge and melting of the mush, with accompanying melt transfer, partial mingling of magma layers and roof-rock contamination, followed by an episode of recrystallization. Evidence that this recharge took place shortly before eruption (see abstract by Wark and Wolff) suggests that some of the observed zoning in the Bandelier Tuff, and possibly the eruption itself, occurred in response to chamber-wide thermal rejuvenation of a stagnant

  1. Effects of Cartilage Impact with and without Fracture on Chondrocyte Viability and the Release of Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Stolberg-Stolberg, Josef A.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Garrigues, N. William; Lee, Jaewoo; Pisetsky, David S.; Stearns, Nancy A; DeFrate, Louis E.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) frequently develops after intra-articular fracture of weight bearing joints. Loss of cartilage viability and post-injury inflammation have both been implicated as possible contributing factors to PTA progression. In order to further investigate chondrocyte response to impact and fracture, we have developed a blunt impact model applying 70%, 80% or 90% surface-to-surface compressive strain with or without induction of an articular fracture in a cartilage explant model. Following mechanical loading, chondrocyte viability and apoptosis were assessed. Culture media were evaluated for the release of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and immunostimulatory activity via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in Toll-like receptor-expressing Ramos-Blue reporter cells. High compressive strains, with or without articular fracture, resulted in significantly reduced chondrocyte viability. Blunt impact at 70% strain induced a loss in viability over time through a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, whereas blunt impact above 80% strain caused predominantly necrosis. In the fracture model, a high level of primarily necrotic chondrocyte death occurred along the fracture edges. At sites away from the fracture, viability was not significantly different than controls. Interestingly, both dsDNA release and NF-κB activity in Ramos-Blue cells increased with blunt impact, but was only significantly increased in the media from fractured cores. This study indicates that the mechanism of trauma determines the type of chondrocyte death as well as the potential for post-injury inflammation. PMID:23620164

  2. Science policy for the '80s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Science policy (if it ever was a policy) usually was to support ill-defined or ‘basic’ research in science; the ‘policy’ was embodied in the hope that supported research would someday pay off in the form of improved technology. One of the fathers of this policy during the post-WW-II period was Simon Ramo, a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering, chief scientist of United States ICBM defense operation, founder of the TRW Corporation, and now a member of President Reagan's science and technology task force. Simon Ramo represents an influential group dedicated to a ‘systems analysis’ approach to forecasting technological progress, and as such the ‘systems’ approach emerges as a central theme for science policy in the 1980s.The new shift in national policy introduced by the Reagan administration includes revisions in science policy that have recently been termed as ‘searching examination’ (Chemical & Engineering News, Feb. 23, 1981, p. 22), ‘Unkind cuts’ (New Scientist, Feb. 12, 1981), and ‘The Spectrum from Truth to Power’ (Science, Technology, and National Policy, edited by T. Kuehn and A. Porter, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1981). The idea now is to speed the conversion of scientific discovery into technology in an orderly way. As never before, there are growing debates over the roles of science in society, its lines of support, its applications. More than ever, social scientists, economists, and philosophical types are trying their hand at influencing science policy in very different ways than scientists themselves, as Vannevar Bush did 30 years ago.

  3. [Calciphylaxis, renal failure and gout. A patient with hyperuricemia as a risk factor for death].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Marco Ulises; Román-Acosta, Susana; Alvarez-Reyes, Juan Manuel; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la gota es una artropatía inflamatoria que frecuentemente se asocia con obesidad, consumo de alcohol, hipertensión e hipertrigliceridemia. La calcifilaxis se caracteriza por la calcificación metastásica de los vasos de mediano y pequeño calibre. En forma independiente ambas se asocian con mortalidad elevada. Cuando la hiperuricemia y la calcifilaxis están presentes, el riesgo de muerte es de 80%. Caso clínico: hombre de 51 años de edad, con antecedentes de alcoholismo e hipertensión arterial sistémica, quien desarrolló úlceras en extremidades, edema generalizado y síndrome urémico. Tres semanas después de su ingreso falleció debido a sepsis ocasionada por Staphylococcus aureus. El diagnóstico fue calcifilaxis asociada con síndrome metabólico, comorbilidades, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de insuficiencia renal. Conclusiones: la hiperuricemia es parte del complejo que conforma el síndrome metabólico, resultante de factores genéticos y ambientales. Se reconoce que es un factor asociado con la mortalidad cardiovascular, lo que obliga a considerar a la hiperuricemia en las guías de práctica clínica en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades con alta mortalidad debido a las complicaciones que se presentan.

  4. [Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. A case report and bibliography review].

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Javier; Molina-Ramírez, Daniel; Mata-Quintero, Carlos Javier; García-Arrona, Luis Roberto; Peña-Rosas, Diana Pérez; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la incidencia de sarcomas de tejidos blandos es de 1.8 a 5 casos por año; 50% aparecen en las extremidades, 40% en el tronco y retroperitoneo. Los liposarcomas primarios de mediastino representan menos de 1% de los tumores mediastinales. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 53 años de edad, originaria y residente de Tabasco, con antecedente de liposarcoma pleomórfico de mediastino anterior (durante su tercer embarazo) 16 años antes de su ingreso actual; fue tratada en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología con resección y radioterapia. Acudió a su unidad de adscripción por dolor torácico, tos y expectoración hialina, la trataron como neumonía. Después se agregó disnea de medianos esfuerzos, y edema de miembros pélvicos; con la tomografía computada de tórax se diagnosticó un tumor mediastinal delimitado de 9 × 9 cm; la enviaron a nuestra unidad para su resección. Conclusiones: los liposarcomas representan menos de 1% de los tumores del mediastino, y requieren seguimiento a largo plazo por su alta recidiva después de un largo periodo libre de enfermedad.

  5. [Moebius syndrome. Clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Palmer-Morales, Yusvisaret; Zárate-Márquez, Rosario Elena; Prince-Vélez, Roberto; González-Méndez, Roberto; Zamarripa-Sandoval, Thania Ayerim; Verdugo-Salazar, Nahim; Torres-Félix, Victor Gabriel; Salcido-Daniel, Remigio; Valdez-Hernández, Pedro; Morfín-Vela, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de Moebius (MBS) es una enfermedad poco frecuente que tiene una incidencia de 1 por cada 10 000 nacimientos. Se caracteriza principalmente por parálisis facial bilateral congénita debido a una agenesia de los núcleos de los nervios craneales del VI y VII par. Además, es frecuente encontrar anomalías orofaciales y de extremidades torácicas y pélvicas en estos pacientes. El diagnóstico se basa fundamentalmente en las distintas manifestaciones clínicas del trastorno. Caso clínico: niña recién nacida con el cuadro clínico de síndrome de Moebius. Se discuten los aspectos genéticos y medioambientales asociados a esta patología. Desde la introducción del misoprostol y su uso inadecuado como agente abortivo e inductor de actividad uterina, y en combinación con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, se ha observado un incremento en la frecuencia de recién nacidos con síndrome de Moebius asociados al uso de este medicamento. Actualmente, el factor genético y el medioambiental se encuentran asociados a este síndrome. Conclusiones: es importante alertar a la comunidad médica y a la población en general acerca del riesgo teratogénico del misoprostol y de la importancia del consejo de los genetistas cuando nace un paciente con síndrome de Moebius.

  6. [Occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic migraine].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Pedro E; Torres, Cristina V; Sola, Rafael G

    2015-06-01

    Introduccion. La estimulacion de nervios occipitales (ENO) es un tratamiento preventivo de la migraña cronica refractaria que esta adquiriendo una importancia creciente en los ultimos años. Objetivo. Evaluar el mecanismo de accion, estudios clinicos, tecnica de implantacion y criterios de inclusion de la ENO en el tratamiento preventivo de la migraña. Desarrollo. Se realiza una revision no sistematica de la bibliografia sobre los aspectos anteriormente expuestos en la ENO como tratamiento para la migraña cronica. Esta patologia afecta aproximadamente al 2% de la poblacion y da lugar a una importante disminucion de la calidad de vida e interferencia con las actividades laborales y sociales. La ENO es una terapia emergente y prometedora para el tratamiento de la migraña cronica que ha demostrado una disminucion superior al 50% en el dolor en la mayoria de los estudios abiertos y ensayos clinicos publicados. Aunque el mecanismo de accion es desconocido, parece existir una neuromodulacion de la informacion nociceptiva trigeminal en el nucleo caudal del trigemino explicada mediante la teoria de la puerta de entrada de Melzack y Wall. La ENO es un tratamiento seguro y bien tolerado, y los efectos secundarios son habitualmente locales, como desplazamiento de los electrodos o infecciones de la herida quirurgica, que habitualmente no requieren su retirada. Conclusiones. La ENO es un tratamiento eficaz, bien tolerado y seguro en la prevencion de la migraña cronica, y supone una opcion util para aquellos pacientes con migraña cronica refractaria a los tratamientos medicos convencionales.

  7. [Detection of the PMP22 gene duplication in peripheral neuropathy patients: a study in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Hernán; Hernández-Hernández, Óscar; Bautista-Tirado, Teresa; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es una neuropatia que afecta los nervios motores y sensitivos, y la CMT1A es el subtipo mas frecuente en el mundo. La CMT1A se produce por una duplicacion de 1,5 Mb en el locus 17p11.2-p12, donde se localiza el gen PMP22. Para el diagnostico de CMT1A es importante contar con tecnicas moleculares especificas para la determinacion de esta mutacion. Objetivos. Establecer un metodo de uso rutinario para detectar la duplicacion de PMP22 en la poblacion mexicana y estimar su frecuencia en pacientes con caracteristicas clinicas para la CMT. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizaron 157 pacientes mexicanos no relacionados entre si, diagnosticados de CMT por valoracion clinica. La determinacion de la duplicacion de PMP22 se realizo a traves de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real mediante el metodo comparativo 2–ΔΔCT. Resultados. El metodo 2–ΔΔCT para detectar la duplicacion del gen PMP22 mostro ser sensible y fiable. Los resultados fueron consistentes con los obtenidos mediante la tecnica de hibridacion in situ fluorescente. Se detecto la duplicacion de PMP22 en 79 pacientes (50,3%), con un comportamiento similar a lo comunicado en Estados Unidos, Australia, Finlandia, Suecia y España. Sin embargo, se observo que existen diferencias con otras poblaciones. Conclusiones. La tecnica de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa se implemento como un diagnostico molecular de CMT1A eficaz y de bajo coste, por lo que puede utilizarse rutinariamente en Mexico. Esto es esencial para el asesoramiento genetico y el tratamiento oportuno de los pacientes con CMT. La frecuencia de la duplicacion del gen PMP22 varia entre regiones geograficas, por lo que es importante estimarla en diferentes poblaciones.

  8. [Epidermoid neoplasm of the fourth ventricle. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Vallejo-Moncada, Cristóbal; Collado-Arce, Griselda; Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Sandoval-Balanzario, M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: los tumores epidermoides representan 1 % de las neoplasias intracraneales; el ángulo pontocerebeloso es la localización más frecuente y en el cuarto ventrículo son raros. Casos clínicos: caso 1: mujer de 22 años de edad con cefalea intensa de tres meses de evolución. Al ingreso se identificó hipertensión endocraneana. La tomografía mostró hidrocefalia con aumento del volumen del cuarto ventrículo. La paciente fue tratada con derivación ventrículo-peritoneal; posteriormente se extirpó tumoración encapsulada de aspecto perlado. El estudio histológico indicó tumor epidermoide en el cuarto ventrículo. Caso 2: mujer de 44 años de edad con vértigo ocasional de cinco años de evolución, así como con diploplía y disfagia intermitentes de tres años de evolución. Al ingresó se identificó paresia bilateral de los nervios craneales VI y VII. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética mostraron lesión en el cuatro ventrículo. El manejo fue quirúrgico. Conclusiones: la resonancia magnética es el estudio diagnóstico específico para el diagnóstico del tumor epidermoide del cuarto ventrículo que, sin embargo, puede confundirse con neurocisticercosis. Están indicados la exéresis del quiste y el tratamiento de la hidrocefalia.

  9. [Aicardi syndrome: retrospective study of a series of seven case reports].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín Alejandro; López-Laso, Eduardo; Simón-De Las Heras, Rogelio; Camino-León, Rafael; Guerra-García, Pilar; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Aguilar-Quintero, María; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi es un trastorno presumiblemente dominante ligado al cromosoma X, que afecta en exclusiva a mujeres, clasicamente definido por la triada de agenesia del cuerpo calloso, lagunas coriorretinianas y espasmos infantiles, letal en varones en la vida intrauterina. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticadas y seguidas hasta el final de la edad pediatrica de sindrome de Aicardi en dos hospitales universitarios durante un periodo de 29 años. Resultados. Encontramos siete niñas, todas desarrollaron espasmos infantiles antes de los 6 meses de edad. La evolucion fue a espasmos mas alla de la infancia (n = 2), a epilepsia parcial farmacorresistente (n = 3) y a epilepsia parcial bien controlada (n = 1). Seis casos presentaron retraso mental grave-profundo, y uno, moderado-grave. Fallecieron dos niñas a los 2 y 6 años. En todas, los estudios de neuroimagen mostraron agenesia del cuerpo calloso, quistes intracraneales y malformaciones del desarrollo cortical cerebral, ademas de lesiones oftalmologicas: lagunas coriorretinianas (n = 7), anoftalmia/microftalmia (n = 4) y coloboma del nervio optico (n = 3). Otros hallazgos fueron cardiopatia congenita, anomalias costovertebrales, linfangioma cervical e hipertricosis focal. Conclusiones. El sindrome de Aicardi debe sospecharse en niñas con espasmos infantiles y agenesia del cuerpo calloso. Deben descartarse en estas pacientes las alteraciones oftalmologicas, las anomalias de la migracion y organizacion neuronal y los quistes intracraneales. El pronostico es grave por su elevada morbimortalidad y por la frecuente evolucion a epilepsia refractaria y retraso mental grave.

  10. [Vagus nerve stimulation in patients with migraine].

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Antonio J; López-Manzanares, Lydia; Canneti, Beatrice; Barroso, Alejandro; García-Navarrete, Eduardo; Valdivia, Antonio; Vivancos, José

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. La estimulacion del nervio vago (ENV) esta aprobada para el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria cuando no es posible cirugia resectiva, con una eficacia bien establecida. Series publicadas sugieren un efecto beneficioso de la ENV en la migraña. Objetivos. Determinar el grado de mejoria de la cefalea en pacientes migrañosos a los que se les habia implantado una ENV para tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria y evaluar que variables se asocian a mayor posibilidad de exito con esta medida. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional y retrospectivo desde el 1 de enero de 1999 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010. Se contacto telefonicamente con los pacientes con ENV para epilepsia refractaria, seleccionando a aquellos que cumplian los criterios de la Sociedad Internacional de Cefaleas para la migraña. Se recogieron edad, genero, año de implantacion, edad de inicio de la epilepsia y la migraña, mejoria de crisis y de migraña, presencia de aura migrañosa y coexistencia de sindrome ansiosodepresivo. Se contacto con 94 pacientes con ENV y se selecciono a 13 pacientes migrañosos. Resultados. Tras la implantacion de la ENV, se observo una disminucion de al menos el 50% de los episodios de migraña en nueve pacientes (69%) (p = 0,004), asi como una disminucion del numero de episodios de migraña en aquellos pacientes que tambien habian reducido sus crisis epilepticas (p = 0,012). No se observaron asociaciones estadisticamente significativas en cuanto al sexo, edad, tiempo de evolucion, existencia de aura migrañosa o coexistencia de sindrome ansiosodepresivo. Conclusiones. La ENV podria resultar beneficiosa en pacientes con migraña, especialmente en casos de dificil control. Debido al tipo estudio, hay que tomar estas conclusiones con precaucion. Seran necesarios estudios clinicos prospectivos antes de llevarse a la practica clinica habitual.

  11. [Invasive management of trigeminal neuralgia. 8 years experience].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; Álvarez-Vázquez, Leonardo; Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la neuralgia del trigémino (NT) se caracteriza por un dolor estereotipado, repetitivo, unilateral referido como eléctrico, desencadenado por la estimulación de  ramas del nervio trigémino. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres, 2:1 con respecto a sexo masculino. El objetivo fue conocer la eficacia del tratamiento quirúrgico de NT contra el dolor mediante las técnicas de descompresión microvascular (DMV) y microcompresión percutánea con balón (MPB). Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, en el periodo entre enero de 2005 y enero de 2013, de 73 pacientes tratados por NT. Los 60 pacientes del grupo 1 fueron tratados con DMV, y los 13 del grupo 2 con MPB. Se evaluó la presencia de dolor de los pacientes en el postoperatorio inmediato y a 1, 3 y 5 años. Resultados: se incluyeron 55 pacientes del sexo femenino y 18 hombres. La edad media de presentación de NT fue a los 55 años de edad. En el grupo 1 hubo remisión del dolor en el postoperatorio inmediato en 95 % de los casos, en 92 % al primer año, 91 % a los 3 años y 88 % a los 5 años y en el grupo 2: 85 %, 84 %, 84% y 70 % respectivamente. Conclusiones: los dos procedimientos terapéuticos redujeron el dolor de NT a largo plazo en la mayoría de los pacientes. Nuestros resultados muestran resolución alta y perdurable del dolor con escasa morbimortalidad.

  12. [Immunological evaluation during treatment of a case of borderline lepromatous leprosy].

    PubMed

    Morfín-Maciel, Blanca María; Jiménez Martínez, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: La lepra es una infección granulomatosa crónica que afecta piel y nervios periféricos. Aunque su prevalencia ha disminuido, se sigue observando principalmente en el medio rural pobre. Caso clínico: Hombre residente de una ciudad, con fotofobia y dermatosis crónica en la cara: lesiones nodulares y eritematosas, pústulas, queratitis y entropión, pérdida parcial de las cejas y edema de párpados, barbilla y puente nasal. El resto del cuerpo sin lesiones ni adenomegalias. La biopsia reveló proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en la dermis superficial, sin atrofia epidérmica. Las tinciones para búsqueda de BAAR fueron positivas. No se observaron células de Virschow y la tinción de Fite-Franco (específica de lepra) fue negativa. Se diagnosticó tuberculosis cutánea. Se prescribió rifampicina-isoniazida-pirazinamida y extracto dializado de leucocitos. Un mes después, la inflamación había disminuido de forma importante. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa fue positiva para Mycobacterium leprae. Con la citometría de flujo de seguimiento se observó normalización de la cuenta de CD4. Se estableció tratamiento a largo plazo con rifampicina, clofazimina y dapsona. Conclusiones: La respuesta inmune del huésped determina las características clínicas de la enfermedad: si la respuesta es mala habrá macrófagos vacuolados llenos de bacilos (lepromatosa). Los hallazgos clínicos e histopatológicos ayudan a la tipificación.

  13. [Postmastectomy pain syndrome in our region: characteristics, treatment, and experience with gabapentin].

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Jimeno, Juan M; Forner-Cordero, Isabel; Zabalza-Azparren, Marta; Matute-Tobias, Belinda

    2016-03-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de dolor posmastectomia puede afectar a mas de la mitad de pacientes intervenidas por cancer de mama. Objetivos. Revisar las caracteristicas clinicas de este sindrome y su evolucion, y evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento farmacologico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 65 pacientes con un seguimiento superior a cinco años. Resultados. El 88% de las pacientes estaba sin diagnosticar. Su edad media era de 56,49 años y permanecieron con dolor un promedio de 29,15 meses. En el 71%, las alteraciones neurologicas correspondieron al segundo nervio intercostobraquial. La media en la puntuacion de dolor antes del tratamiento fue de 66,5 puntos en la escala analogica visual y de 13,14 en el indice de Lattinen. El tratamiento con gabapentina (dosis media: 1.135 mg/dia; duracion media: 14 semanas) disminuyo el dolor en el 80% de las pacientes (p < 0,0001). La mejoria se mantuvo a largo plazo. Un 10% continuo en tratamiento y el 10% debio suspenderlo por efectos secundarios. El numero necesario de pacientes que hubo que tratar fue de 2,13. Recidivo el 35% y preciso cambiar de farmaco el 15,68% de las tratadas con gabapentina, frente al 50% de las tratadas con otros farmacos (p = 0,046). No se encontraron diferencias en la eficacia entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El dolor posmastectomia es una patologia infradiagnosticada. El tratamiento (en especial con gabapentina) puede ser eficaz y bien tolerado hasta en el 90% de las pacientes de forma significativa.

  14. [Surgical management of paraclinoid aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Magallón-Barajas, Eduardo; Abdo-Toro, Miguel; Flores-Robles, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los aneurismas paraclinoideos se originan en los segmentos clinoideo C5 y oftálmico C6 de la arteria carótida interna. Su frecuencia aproximada es del 5 al 11 %. Para su manejo microquirúrgico se requiere de un conocimiento anatómico de la región y del aneurisma. El objetivo es mostrar el manejo neuroquirúrgico de los aneurismas paraclinoideos. Métodos: se hizo un estudio retrospectivo en un servicio de neurocirugía, de enero de 2009 a enero de 2015. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con aneurisma paraclinoideo. Se obtuvieron las características clínicas, la evolución, las complicaciones y los resultados de los pacientes al revisar los expedientes clínicos y radiológicos. Resultados: 61 pacientes (92.4 %) pertenecieron al sexo femenino; a 65 se les realizó clipaje neuroquirúrgico y a uno se le realizó bypass cerebral con exclusión del aneurisma. Tuvieron ruptura del aneurisma con hemorragia subaracnoidea 46 pacientes. Por su localización 35 aneurismas paraclinoideos (53 %) fueron superiores, 20 mediales (30.3 %) y cuatro inferiores (6 %). Tuvieron aneurismas pequeños 33 pacientes (50 %), 23 grandes (34.8 %) y 10 gigantes (15.5 %). Presentaron buenos resultados 51 pacientes después del manejo quirúrgico, dado que sacaron calificaciones de 4 y 5 según el Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). La amaurosis fue la complicación funcional más seria atribuible a la cirugía (tres pacientes). Conclusión: la microcirugía sigue siendo el tratamiento para estos aneurismas debido a su capacidad de excluirlos totalmente, además de que es el mejor método para descomprimir el nervio óptico.

  15. [Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE: Experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Porto].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Inês Lucena; Luiz, Henrique Vara; Violante, Liliana Sobral; Santos, Ana Paula; Antunes, Luís; Torres, Isabel; Sanches, Cristina; Azevedo, Isabel; Duarte, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Introdução: O objetivo deste artigo é rever a experiência do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto na terapêutica de tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, tendo como principais pontos de análise a segurança e eficáciaterapêutica. Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma análise retrospetiva dos processos clínicos de doentes com tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos, submetidos a terapêutica com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE entre abril de 2011 e novembro de 2013. Resultados: Dos 36 casos revistos, 30 completaram os três ciclos de 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (83,3%). Nesses doentes foram registados: efeitos colaterais agudos em 8,9% dos ciclos; toxicidade hepática grau 3 CTCAE em 13,3% dos doentes (todos com alterações prévias da função hepática); ausência de toxicidade renal ou hematológica significativa; melhoria sintomática em 71,4% dos doentes; tempo mediano global desde o início da terapêutica até progressão de doença de 25,6 meses; tempo mediano global de sobrevivência desde o diagnóstico de 121,7 meses. Verificou-se um maior tempo livre de progressão de doença e de sobrevivência nos doentes com expressão elevada de recetores da somatostatina (p < 0,05). Discussão: A peptide receptor radionuclide therapy com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE apresenta respostas clínicas favoráveis com segurança e boa tolerabilidade terapêutica, conforme evidenciado no nosso estudo pelos seguintes achados: melhoria dos sintomas na maioria dos doentes e aumento significativo do tempo livre de progressão de doença e da sobrevivência (sobretudo nos doentes com expressão elevada de sstr), com efeitos colaterais agudos e subagudos/crónicos significativos numa minoria de doentes. Conclusão: A peptide receptor radionuclide therapy com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE é uma terapêutica promissora, com benefícios reais em termos de eficácia e segurança nos doentes com tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos.

  16. Retained Textile Foreign Bodies: Experience of 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Soykan; Kocakusak, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Introdução e Objetivos: A retenção de materiais têxteis após a cirurgia é uma situação indesejada, tanto para o doente como para o cirurgião. Frequentemente são subnotificados por questões de natureza médico-legal. Apresentamos 14 casos de textilomas (compressoma) que foram tratados ou seguidos pessoalmente por dois cirurgiões gerais num período de 27 anos para descrever e definir as características clínicas e patológicas. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente os dados relativos a uma serie de casos, nomeadamente: características dos doentes (sexo e idade), localização anatómica do corpo estranho, intervalo de tempo até ao diagnóstico, apresentação clínica, queixas, abordagem diagnóstica, motivo de cirurgia, tipo de tratamento cirúrgico e complicações. Resultados: Foram identificados nove doentes do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com uma média de idades de 43,07 ± 15,23 (mediano: 45) anos para o momento do diagnóstico. Em três doentes a cirurgia prévia foi cesariana, em quatro casos herniorrafia inguinal, um doente submetido a laparotomia exploradora por abdome agudo, um doente no qual foi realizado uma sigmoidectomia, uma doente submetida a apendicectomia e salpingooforectomia direita, uma doente na qual a cirurgia anterior tinha sido para corrigir uma hérnia incisional após laparotomia por neoplasia do ovário, um caso de tiroidectomia total, uma herniorrafia por hérnia epigástricae uma doente submetida cirurgia conservadora bilateral da mama com pesquisa de gânglio sentinela. A localização mais frequente dos compressomas foi intra-abdominal em sete casos, em quatro doentes a localização foi inguinal, um caso localizado na incisão da correcção da hérnia epigástrica, um doente com textiloma na loca de tiroidectomia, e no caso da doente submetida a cirurgia conservadora da mama em ambas regiões axilares se encontraram corpos estranhos/compressomas. O intervalo de tempo foi em média14

  17. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    research also required developing a qualitative grain-size analyses and geomorphological cartography of the ground at the CALM-S site. Here we show the first results of our analyses and how some factors correlate by the spatial evolution of the thaw depth in the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site. de Pablo, M.A., Blanco, J.J., Molina, A., Ramos, M., Quesada, A., and Vieira, G. 2013. Interannual active layer variability at the Limnopolar Lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 25(2). 167-180. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2014. Thermal characterization of the active layer at the Limnopolar lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island), Antarctica. Solid Earth, 5. 721-739. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2016. Snow cover evolution at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2009-2014. Catena. Submitted. Lewkowicz, A. G. 2008. Evaluation of miniature temperature-loggers to monitor snowpack evolution at mountain permafrost sites, northwestern Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19. 323-331.

  18. Quantifying the effect of Tmax extreme events on local adaptation to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldon, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Lizaso, Jon; Dosio, Alessandro; Sanchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Extreme events of Tmax can threaten maize production on Andalusia (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011). The objective of this work is to attempt a quantification of the effects of Tmax extreme events on the previously identified (Gabaldón et al., 2013) local adaptation strategies to climate change of irrigated maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of the 21st century. This study is focused on five Andalusia locations. Local adaptation strategies identified consisted on combinations of changes on sowing dates and choice of cultivar (Gabaldón et al., 2013). Modified cultivar features were the duration of phenological phases and the grain filling rate. The phenological and yield simulations with the adaptative changes were obtained from a modelling chain: current simulated climate and future climate scenarios (2013-2050) were taken from a group of regional climate models at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). After bias correcting these data for temperature and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) crop simulations were generated by the CERES-maize model (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) under DSSAT platform, previously calibrated and validated. Quantification of the effects of extreme Tmax on maize yield was computed for different phenological stages following Teixeira et al. (2013). A heat stress index was computed; this index assumes that yield-damage intensity due to heat stress increases linearly from 0.0 at a critical temperature to a maximum of 1.0 at a limit temperature. The decrease of crop yield is then computed by a normalized production damage index which combines attainable yield and heat stress index for each location. Selection of the most suitable adaptation strategy will be reviewed and discussed in light of the quantified effect on crop yield of the projected change of Tmax extreme events. This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on

  19. HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST PHENOTYPE AND CARDIOMETABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Cabral Rocha, Anna Ligia; Feliciano Pereira, Patricia; Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cassia; Segheto, Wellington; da Silva, Danielle Cristina Guimarães; Pacheco Andrade, Marcio; Zarbato Longo, Giana

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: evaluar la prevalencia de alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun el fenotipo cintura hipertrigliceridemica (CH) en adultos brasilenos. Métodos: estudio transversal, de base poblacional, con 976 (n = 533 mujeres) individuos de 20 a 59 anos. El CH fue definido por un aumento en las concentraciones de trigliceridos y en la circunferencia de la cintura (CC). Todos los analisis fueron ajustados por el efecto del diseno del estudio y ponderados por genero, edad y escolaridad. Fue realizado un análisis descriptivo de promedio y presentados sus respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC 95%). La prevalencia de las alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun la presencia o no del fenotipo CH y segun el sexo fue calculada y comparada a traves del test chi-cuadrado de Pearson. El nivel de significancia estadistica adoptado fue de 0,05. Se estimo la probabilidad de riesgo de evento coronario en 10 anos, a partir del score de Framinghan a traves del grafico de densidad de Kernel. Resultados: la prevalencia del fenotipo CH en la muestra fue de 17,32% (IC 95% 13,54-21,89), no se observo diferencia entre sexos. Se observaron mayores promedios para todos los factores de riesgo cardiometabolico analizados en aquellos con CH. Solo Se verificaron menores valores medianos para el HDL en este grupo. Los individuos con CH presentaban mayor probabilidad de evolucionar hacia un evento cardiovascular en 10 anos que aquellos sin el fenotipo. Conclusión: el fenotipo CH constituye un importante marcador precoz del riesgo cardiovascular. Su utilizacion en la practica clinica debe ser incentivada, ya que se trata de una herramienta sencilla y de bajo coste.

  20. [Perforated duodenal diverticula. Case report and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Guardado-Bermúdez, Fernando; Ardisson-Zamora, Fernando Josafat; Rojas-González, Juan Daniel; Medina-Benítez, Alberto; Corona-Suárez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los divertículos duodenales los describió por primera vez Chromel en 1710. El divertículo duodenal es el segundo sitio más frecuente de divertículos en el tubo digestivo, el diagnóstico se limita a los casos con complicaciones y síntomas. Los divertículos duodenales se localizan en 10- 67% en la segunda porción del duodeno. Su hallazgo en la mayoría de los casos es incidental. Cerca de 90% de los pacientes cursan asintomáticos y sólo se manifiestan cuando sobrevienen las complicaciones, como la hemorragia digestiva y la perforación. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 78 años de edad, que acudió al hospital debido a disnea de medianos esfuerzos y epigastralgia moderada, distensión abdominal, constipación y dificultad para canalizar gases. La laparotomía identificó un divertículo duodenal con perforación en su cúpula de 5 mm que dio pie a la realización de la diverticulectomía. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de divertículo duodenal, como etiología de abdomen agudo, debe contemplarse en cualquier diagnóstico diferencial con cuadro de abdomen agudo, apoyados siempre en la imagenología y endoscopia. El tratamiento quirúrgico del divertículo duodenal, en especial su resección, sigue siendo la recomendación dirigida a la menor morbilidad y mejor recuperación.

  1. [Economic consequences in real life of allergen immunotherapy in asthma, rhinitis and dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés; Cardona, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: La inmunoterapia con alérgenos ha demostrado ser efectiva en el tratamiento de diversas alergias, pero poco se ha evaluado si los beneficios clínicos compensan los costos económicos. Objetivo: Explorar las consecuencias económicas de la inmunoterapia en asma, rinitis y dermatitis. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo analítico. Se seleccionaron pacientes con seguimiento por al menos 18 meses, cuya historia clínica permitiera evaluar los medicamentos recibidos, forma de uso, citas de control, cambios en el tratamiento, motivos de estos, etcétera. Los pacientes fueron clasificados de acuerdo a si recibieron tratamiento farmacológico + inmunoterapia (grupo activo) o solo tratamiento farmacológico (grupo control). Resultados: 1848 pacientes fueron incluidos: 648 en el grupo activo y 1200 en el control. La inmunoterapia aumentó el costo del tratamiento durante los primeros meses, pero después de 9 a 12 meses disminuyó significativamente el tratamiento farmacológico en comparación con el grupo control. En los pacientes con asma o varias enfermedades, la inmunoterapia redujo los costos del tratamiento (p < 0.05). En el grupo activo se observó menos recaídas a los 18 meses (p < 0.05). Conclusión: La inmunoterapia con alérgenos permite la reducción sostenida del tratamiento farmacológico, con ahorro económico a mediano plazo para el paciente y el sistema de salud.

  2. [Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Preliminary outcomes].

    PubMed

    Pérez-de la Torre, Ramiro Antonio; Calderón-Vallejo, Alejandra; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Gallardo-Ceja, David; Carrera-Pineda, Raúl; Guinto-Balanzar, Gerardo; Magallón-Barajas, Eduardo; Corlay-Noriega, Irma; Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Parkinson puede justificar un procedimiento quirúrgico que consiste en la estimulación cerebral profunda. Se presentan resultados a mediano y largo plazo de una cohorte de 60 pacientes del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: los pacientes fueron operados con una metodología estereotáctica convencional a través del protocolo FrameLink (Medtronics Inc.). La técnica consistió en la evaluación preoperatoria de los pacientes, la colocación de marco estereotáctico, la realización de estudios de imagen, la planeación preoperatoria, el microrregistro, la macroestimulación y la colocación de implantes, que estuvo conformada por electrodos y generador en dos fases. La escala unificada para la evaluación de la enfermedad de Parkinson (UPDRS) preoperatoria, a tres, 12, y 36 meses fue utilizada como medida estándar. Se analizaron los resultados y las complicaciones como variables de interés. Resultados: se operaron 60 pacientes (41 hombres y 19 mujeres), con edad promedio de 56.5 años (rango de 39-70). Se obtuvieron de buenos a excelentes resultados en la mayoría de los pacientes con UPDRS promedio en periodo preoperatorio, a 3, 12 y 36 meses de 79.57, 66.85, 65.29 y 58.75, respectivamente (p < 0.0001). Las complicaciones se presentaron en forma mínima (en nueve pacientes: 15 %) y fueron manejadas de forma conservadora. Conclusiones: hubo una mejoría progresiva en el UPDRS durante los 36 meses de seguimiento.

  3. Twenty Years of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Single Portuguese Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas Brito, Margarida; Campilho, Fernando; Branca, Rosa; Vaz, Carlos; Roncon, Susana; Campos, António

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: O linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células B pode ser curado em 60% - 70% dos doentes. O transplante autológo de progenitores hematopoiéticos é o tratamento de intenção curativa standard à recidiva. Este tratamento intensivo após primeira remissão num grupo selecionado de doentes de alto risco é controverso e fez parte da estratégia do nosso Serviço durante alguns anos. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, consulta do processo clínico. Resultados: Este estudo analisa o outcome de 113 doentes transplantados entre 1992 e 2012. Formaram-se quatro grupos com base no status pré-transplante: a) primeira remissão completa após 1 ciclo de quimioterapia (n = 64); b) segunda remissão completa após ≥ duas linhas de quimioterapia (n = 15); c) segunda remissão completa (n = 15); d) doença mais avançada (n = 19). O protocolo de quimioterapia de primeira linha mais utilizado foi R-CHOP (n = 71) e CHOP (n = 28). O seguimento mediano foi de 34 meses (1 - 221). Aos cinco anos a sobrevivência global foi de 73% (± 5) e a sobrevivência livre de progressão 75% (± 5). Conclusão: A imunoquimioterapia convencional seguida de transplante autólogo é uma opção segura e eficaz no tratamento de casos selecionados de linfoma difuso de grandes células B. Na nossa casuística cerca de 70% dos doentes de alto risco atingiram remissões duráveis com esta estratégia terapêutica.

  4. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index; assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carla Alberici; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad pronostica del Índice Inflamatorio-Nutricional (INI) en pacientes con cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal y pulmón. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, con pacientes de un servicio de quimioterapia en Brasil, entre Julio de 2008 y Mayo de 2010. INI (Albúmina/CRP) y el estadio nutricional (Valoración Global Subjetiva-SGA) fueran evaluados. INI de riesgo fue definido como menor que 0.35. El tiempo medio de acompañamiento fue 1.6 año. Analices estadísticas fueran realizadas con el programa Stata 11.1™. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 74 pacientes, con edad media de 63.4 años, la mayoría hombres (58%) e con cáncer gastrointestinal (71%). Desnutrición fue identificada en 87% de los pacientes (22% con desnutrición grave). El INI medio fue 2.67 y 54% de los individuos presentaban INI de riesgo. Durante el acompañamiento hubieran 49 óbitos (66%). El tiempo mediano de sobrevida de los pacientes con INI de riesgo fue significantemente más corto que de los pacientes con INI normal (p = 0.002). El grupo con INI de riesgo llevó 0.78 año para decaer 50%, en cuanto el grupo con INI normal llevó 2.78 año (p = 0.001). INI de riesgo y desnutrición grave fueron factores independientes de peor sobrevida. Conclusión: El INI demostró capacidad pronostica en esta amuestra y puede ser una herramienta útil, basada testes rutineros y disponibles, para evaluar pacientes con cáncer.

  5. [Pharmacovigilance of calcineurin inhibitor in peidatric kidney and liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Riva, N; Cáceres Guido, P; Rousseau, M; Dip, M; Monteverde, M; Imventarza, O; Mato, G; Schaiquevich, P

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Desarrollar un programa de farmacovigilancia de pacientes pediátricos trasplantados hepáticos y renales centrado en inmunosupresores calcineurínicos del Hospital de Pediatría JP Garrahan de Argentina. Métodos: Se evaluaron las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) de los pacientes pediátricos trasplantados renales y hepáticos de nuestro hospital tratados con inhibidores de calcineurina (ciclosporina y tacrolimus) por revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes trasplantados en 2010-2011, y análisis prospectivo por farmacovigilancia activa de trasplantados fuera de dicho período, cuyas complicaciones se hayan presentado en los ateneos semanales del Servicio de Trasplante desde marzo de 2011. Las RAM se notificaron a la autoridad sanitaria nacional. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 59 pacientes, 28 trasplantados renales y 31 hepáticos. Se notificaron, en ambos trasplantes, 60 RAM a ciclosporina destacándose (número de casos) hipertensión arterial (19) y nefrotoxicidad (6). Asimismo, se registraron 46 RAM a tacrolimus, incluyendo hipomagnesemia (25), hipertensión (7) y nefrotoxicidad (5). El 95% y 96% de los eventos adversos a ciclosporina y a tacrolimus, respectivamente, han sido agrupados como probables o definitivos. El 70% y 98% de los eventos adversos a ciclosporina y a tacrolimus respectivamente, han sido de severidad moderada o grave. Conclusiones: Este es el primer proyecto en América Latina que propone y desarrolla el estudio cuali-cuantitativo intensivo de RAM a inhibidores de calcineurina en trasplante pediátrico renal y hepático. Es necesario estimular la notificación espontánea así como continuar el seguimiento de RAM a mediano y largo plazo para mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente trasplantado.

  6. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in

  7. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows < Q35). Variations in source contributions are controlled by antecedent soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and duration of rainy periods. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils, higher than the year-round low precipitation intensity, indicates that Hortonian overland flow rarely occurs during high intensity precipitation events. Deep groundwater contributions to discharge seem to be minimal. These results suggest that, in this high-elevation tropical ecosystem: 1) subsurface flow is a dominant hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major

  8. Probabilistic forecasting of extreme weather events based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or extreme temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting extreme weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly extreme weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on extreme value theory that aims to provide early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of extreme events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: provide inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of extreme events. These problems can be solved with bivariate extremes (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of extremal dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic

  9. CD4 T cell activation by B cells in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. Methods CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Results Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased frequency of CD25hiCD127- cells among CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, B cells upregulated the costimulatory molecule CD86. These changes were not observed in PBMCs from healthy subjects, indicating participation of Leishmania-specific lymphocytes expanded in vivo. Purified B cells from these patients, when interacting with purified CD4 T cells and Leishmania antigens, were capable of inducing significant increases in CD25 and CD69 expression and CD25hiCD127- frequency in CD4 T cells. These changes were associated with upregulation of CD86 in B cells. Comparison of changes in CD4 T cell activation parameters between PBMC and B cell/CD4 T cell cultures showed no statistically significant differences; further, significant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 was induced in both types of cultures. Additionally, culture with Leishmania antigens enhanced BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin in Ramos human B cells. Conclusions The capacity of B cells specific for Leishmania antigens in peripheral blood of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to

  10. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0

  11. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    DOE PAGES

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; ...

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targetingmore » either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT

  12. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  13. Palynological signal of the Younger Dryas in the tropical Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Montoya, Encarni; Bezada, Maximiliano; Abbott, Mark B.

    2010-11-01

    The occurrence, or not, of the Younger Dryas cold reversal in the tropical Andes remains a controversial topic. This study reports a clear signal for this event in the Venezuelan Andes, employing high-resolution palynological analysis of a well-dated sediment core from Laguna de Los Anteojos, situated around 3900 m elevation, within grass páramo vegetation. The lake is surrounded by some Polylepis forests which are close to their upper distribution limit. The section of the core discussed here is 150-cm long and dated between about 14.68 and 9.35 cal kyr BP, using a polynomial age-depth model based on six AMS radiocarbon dates. Between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP, an abrupt shift occurred in the pollen assemblage, manifested by a decline of Podocarpus, Polylepis and Huperzia, combined with an increase in Poaceae and Asteraceae. The aquatic pteridophyte Isoëtes also decreased and disappeard, and the algae remains show their minimum values. Pollen assemblages from the Younger Dryas interval show maximum dissimilarity values compared with today's pollen assemblage, and are more similar to modern analogs from superpáramo vegetation, growing at elevations 400-500 m higher. A lowering of vegetation zones of this magnitude corresponds to a temperature decline of between 2.5 and 3.8 °C. During this colder interval lake levels may have been lower, suggesting a decrease in available moisture. The vegetation shift documented in Anteojos record between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP is comparable to the El Abra Stadial in the Colombian Andes but it differs in magnitude. The Anteojos shift is better dated and coincides with the Younger Dryas chron as recorded in the Cariaco Basin sea surface temperature reconstructions and records of continental runoff, as well as in the oxygen isotope measurements from the Greenland ice cores. When compared to other proxies of quasi-immediate response to climate, the time lag for the response of vegetation to climate is found to be negligible

  14. [Solitary fibrous hemangiopericytoma of atypical location: importance of immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Soriano-Hernández, María Isabel; Husein-ElAhmed, Husein; Ruíz-Molina, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el tumor fibroso solitario es un tumor poco común. Anteriormente se suponía que afectaba sólo la cavidad torácica, en especial la pleura; posteriormente, se relacionó con otras membranas serosas y se observó en diversas localizaciones extraserosas, entre ellas la piel. El conocimiento de este tumor, junto con el aspecto histológico característico y el patrón de expresión inmunohistoquímica con intensa positividad para CD34 permiten que cada vez se diagnostique con mayor frecuencia. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad con un nódulo indoloro en el pulpejo del primer dedo izquierdo, que sugería clínicamente un melanoma nodular o granuloma piógeno. Mediante biopsia excisional y estudio inmunohistoquímico se diagnosticó como tumor fibroso solitario. Discusión: hasta la fecha se han publicado 11 casos de tumores fibrosos solitarios cutáneos, localizados en cabeza, mejilla, muslo, pecho, espalda y vestíbulo nasal. El caso que se comunica constituye la primera lesión de estas características que afecta la mano. El diagnóstico clínico diferencial del tumor fibroso solitario incluye otros tumores como: melanoma nodular, granuloma piógeno, tumor de células gigantes tenosinovial, fibroma y tumor de vaina de nervio periférico benigno. En cuanto a la histología, se planteó el diagnóstico diferencial con otras neoplasias que también expresan CD34. Conclusiones: el tumor fibroso solitario deriva de células mesenquimatosas y expresa CD34, lo que explica su aparición en cualquier localización, como en este caso, que fue en el pulpejo del quinto dedo.

  15. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  16. Geant4 Simulations of the SuperCDMS iZIP Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S.; McCarthy, K.; Redl, P.; Saab, T.; Wright, D.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). The detectors measure phonon and ionization energy due to nuclear and electron recoils from incident particles. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group uses Geant4 to simulate electron-hole pairs () and low temperature phonons. We use these simulations in order to study energy deposition in the detectors. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a crystal detector. Because of the band structure of the crystals, the electrons undergo oblique propagation. The charge electrodes on each side of the detector are biased at different voltages while the phonon sensors are grounded. This creates a nearly uniform electric field through the bulk of the detector, with a complex shape near the surfaces. The electric field is calculated from interpolating on a tetrahedral mesh. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The goal of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of calculating the electric field, performing the charge carrier propagation, and simulating the FET readout of the SuperCDMS detectors.

  17. Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas from the Cincinnati, Ohio area

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of pelecypod faunas in the Late Ordovician strata exposed in the Cincinnati, Ohio area, points to a close relationship between lithofacies type and the life habits of these Ordovician bivalves. Muddy clastic shallow marine facies of Edenian, Maysvillian, and early Richmondian age support faunas dominated by endobyssate filter-feeding species, including a variety of modiomorphids and the genus Ambonychia, plus infaunal filter-feeding orthonotids, and in faunal deposit-feeding palaeotaxodonts. These pelecypod groups occur in claystones with a fauna of calymenid and asaphid trilobites, nautiloids, cyclomyan monoplacophorans, and occasionally crinoids and asterozoans. Younger Richmondian strata in the area are predominantly carbonate platform facies and support pelecypod faunas dominated by robust endobyssate and epibyssate ambonychiids, cyrtodontids, and colpomyids. These pelecypods are associated with diverse assemblage of articulate brachiopods, trepostome ectoprocts, solitary rugose corals, and mollusks in skeletal limestones representing storm-reworked thickets or ramos ectoprocts. This fundamental dichotomy in Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas is recognized not only in the Cincinnati area, but in Late Ordovician strata exposed on Manitoulin Island in Ontario and eastward into Quebec. Reconstructions of the life habits of these pelecypods demonstrates the dominance of the endobyssate mode of life in these Early Paleozoic pelecypods.

  18. Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Berthelin, C. Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-03-15

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

  19. Development of a simplified simulation model for performance characterization of a pixellated CdZnTe multimodality imaging system.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Santos, A; Darambara, D G

    2008-02-21

    Current requirements of molecular imaging lead to the complete integration of complementary modalities in a single hybrid imaging system to correlate function and structure. Among the various existing detector technologies, which can be implemented to integrate nuclear modalities (PET and/or single-photon emission computed tomography with x-rays (CT) and most probably with MR, pixellated wide bandgap room temperature semiconductor detectors, such as CdZnTe and/or CdTe, are promising candidates. This paper deals with the development of a simplified simulation model for pixellated semiconductor radiation detectors, as a first step towards the performance characterization of a multimodality imaging system based on CdZnTe. In particular, this work presents a simple computational model, based on a 1D approximate solution of the Schockley-Ramo theorem, and its integration into the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) platform in order to perform accurately and, therefore, improve the simulations of pixellated detectors in different configurations with a simultaneous cathode and anode pixel readout. The model presented here is successfully validated against an existing detailed finite element simulator, the multi-geometry simulation code, with respect to the charge induced at the anode, taking into consideration interpixel charge sharing and crosstalk, and to the detector charge induction efficiency. As a final point, the model provides estimated energy spectra and time resolution for (57)Co and (18)F sources obtained with the GATE code after the incorporation of the proposed model.

  20. Targeted Cancer Therapy with a Novel Anti-CD37 Beta-Particle Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Patzke, Sebastian; Fleten, Karianne G.; Didierlaurent, David; Pichard, Alexandre; Pouget, Jean Pierre; Dahle, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1) is a novel anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mice with subcutaneous Ramos xenografts were treated with different activities of 177Lu-HH1, 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-rituximab) and non-specific 177Lu-DOTA-IgG1 (177Lu-IgG1) and therapeutic effect and toxicity of the treatment were monitored. Significant tumor growth delay and increased survival of mice were observed in mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1 as compared with mice treated with similar activities of 177Lu-rituximab or non-specific 177Lu-IgG1, 0.9% NaCl or unlabeled HH1. All mice injected with 530 MBq/kg of 177Lu-HH1 tolerated the treatment well. In contrast, 6 out of 10 mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-rituximab experienced severe radiation toxicity. The retention of 177Lu-rituximab in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system was longer than for 177Lu-HH1, which explains the higher toxicity observed in mice treated with 177Lu-rituximab. In vitro internalization studies showed that 177Lu-HH1 internalizes faster and to a higher extent than 177Lu-rituximab which might be the reason for the better therapeutic effect of 177Lu-HH1. PMID:26066655

  1. Visualization of the light injection in one dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta-Garcia, Raul

    2005-03-01

    In this work we present time variation simulations of the light injection in one dimension photonic crystals (1D-PC). This phenomenon is due to the coupling of an incoming plane-wave to the discrete vibration modes in finite 1D-PC. In order to present a live animation of the system we proceed in two stages. First, we present the discrete relation dispersion and then we choose the better combination of frequency and wave-vector. Second, for this combination we reconstruct the field amplitudes in each one of the media. This phenomenon has been described in three previous works [1-3] for the case of a metal-dielectric-metal system. In this work we present the simulation of this system and also the extension of the idea for the case of a multilayer system. The visualization of the electromagnetic field gives a better comprehension of the phenomena. [1]R. Garcia-Llamas, J.A. Gaspar-Armenta, F.Ramos-Mendieta, R.F. Haglund, R. Ruiz. ``Design, manufacturing and testing of planar optical waveguide devices'',.), Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4439, 2001, pp 88-94. [2] F. Villa, T. Lopez-Rios, L.E. Regalado, ``Electromagnetic modes in metal-insulator-metal structures'', Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 165103. [3] A.S. Ramirez-Duverger, R. Garcia-Llamas, ``Light scattering from a multimode waveguide of planar metalic walls'', Optics Communications, (2003)

  2. Selective Infection of Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes by Salmonella Mediates Bacterial Survival and Systemic Spreading of Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Jelle; Martinoli, Chiara; Zagato, Elena; Janssen, Hans; Jorritsma, Tineke; Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E.; Rescigno, Maria; Neefjes, Jacques; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterial pathogen Salmonella causes worldwide disease. A major route of intestinal entry involves M cells, providing access to B cell-rich Peyer’s Patches. Primary human B cells phagocytose Salmonella typhimurium upon recognition by the specific surface Ig receptor (BCR). As it is unclear how Salmonella disseminates systemically, we studied whether Salmonella can use B cells as a transport device for spreading. Methodology/Principal Findings Human primary B cells or Ramos cell line were incubated with GFP-expressing Salmonella. Intracellular survival and escape was studied in vitro by live cell imaging, flow cytometry and flow imaging. HEL-specific B cells were transferred into C57BL/6 mice and HEL-expressing Salmonella spreading in vivo was analyzed investigating mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and blood. After phagocytosis by B cells, Salmonella survives intracellularly in a non-replicative state which is actively maintained by the B cell. Salmonella is later excreted followed by reproductive infection of other cell types. Salmonella-specific B cells thus act both as a survival niche and a reservoir for reinfection. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific B cells before oral infection of mice showed that these B cells mediate in vivo systemic spreading of Salmonella to spleen and blood. Conclusions/Significance This is a first example of a pathogenic bacterium that abuses the antigen-specific cells of the adaptive immune system for systemic spreading for dissemination of infection. PMID:23209805

  3. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  4. [Anthropometric measures in urban child population from 6 to 12 years from the northwest of México].

    PubMed

    Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; López-Leal, Josefa; Exiga-González, Emma Beatriz; Armenta-Llanes, Oscar; Jorge-Plascencia, Blanca; Domínguez-Banda, Alberto; López-Morales, Mónica; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Sabag-Ruiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el grado de sobrepeso-obesidad tendrá variaciones de acuerdo con las condiciones de cada población, según el ámbito geográfico, la raza o etnia, el status socioeconómico y la susceptibilidad de cada individuo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar medidas antropométricas en la población infantil urbana de 6 a 12 años de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron 684 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad, sanos y de ambos géneros de la zona urbana de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, en quienes se midieron peso, talla, perímetro braquial (PB), cintura e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se realizó estadística descriptiva mediante frecuencias, porcentajes, e inferencial mediante t de Student para comparar las tablas de crecimiento de Ramos Galván y las del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).

  5. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-02-10

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin.

  6. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  7. Targeting KSHV/HHV-8 latency with COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide: a potential chemotherapeutic modality for primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Paul, Arun George; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Chandran, Bala

    2011-01-01

    The significance of inflammation in KSHV biology and tumorigenesis prompted us to examine the role of COX-2 in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an aggressive AIDS-linked KSHV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using nimesulide, a well-known COX-2 specific NSAID. We demonstrate that (1) nimesulide is efficacious in inducing proliferation arrest in PEL (KSHV+/EBV-; BCBL-1 and BC-3, KSHV+/EBV+; JSC-1), EBV-infected (KSHV-/EBV+; Raji) and non-infected (KSHV-/EBV-; Akata, Loukes, Ramos, BJAB) high malignancy human Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) as well as KSHV-/EBV+ lymphoblastoid (LCL) cell lines; (2) nimesulide is selectively toxic to KSHV infected endothelial cells (TIVE-LTC) compared to TIVE and primary endothelial cells (HMVEC-d); (3) nimesulide reduced KSHV latent gene expression, disrupted p53-LANA-1 protein complexes, and activated the p53/p21 tumor-suppressor pathway; (4) COX-2 inhibition down-regulated cell survival kinases (p-Akt and p-GSK-3β), an angiogenic factor (VEGF-C), PEL defining genes (syndecan-1, aquaporin-3, and vitamin-D3 receptor) and cell cycle proteins such as cyclins E/A and cdc25C; (5) nimesulide induced sustained cell death and G1 arrest in BCBL-1 cells; (6) nimesulide substantially reduced the colony forming capacity of BCBL-1 cells. Overall, our studies provide a comprehensive molecular framework linking COX-2 with PEL pathogenesis and identify the chemotherapeutic potential of nimesulide in treating PEL.

  8. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  9. Enthalpy recovery in glassy materials: heterogeneous versus homogenous models.

    PubMed

    Mazinani, Shobeir K S; Richert, Ranko

    2012-05-07

    Models of enthalpy relaxations of glasses are the basis for understanding physical aging, scanning calorimetry, and other phenomena that involve non-equilibrium and non-linear dynamics. We compare models in terms of the nature of the relaxation dynamics, heterogeneous versus homogeneous, with focus on the Kovacs-Aklonis-Hutchinson-Ramos (KAHR) and the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) approaches. Of particular interest is identifying the situations for which experimental data are capable of discriminating the heterogeneous from the homogeneous scenario. The ad hoc assumption of a single fictive temperature, T(f), is common to many models, including KAHR and TNM. It is shown that only for such single-T(f) models, enthalpy relaxation of a glass is a two-point correlation function in reduced time, implying that experimental results are not decisive regarding the underlying nature of the dynamics of enthalpy relaxation. We also find that the restriction of the common TNM model to a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts type relaxation pattern limits the applicability of this approach, as the particular choice regarding the distribution of relaxation times is a more critical factor compared with isothermal relaxation experiments. As a result, significant improvements in fitting calorimetry data can be achieved with subtle adjustments in the underlying relaxation time distribution.

  10. Extinction arouses attention to the context in a behavioral suppression method with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A; León, Samuel P

    2013-01-01

    One experiment assessed predictions from the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP, J. M. Rosas, J. E. Callejas-Aguilera, M. M. Ramos-Álvarez, & M. J. F. Abad, 2006, Revision of retrieval theory of forgetting: What does make information context-specific? International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, Vol. 6, pp. 147-166) that extinction arouses attention to contextual stimuli. In a video-game method, participants learned a biconditional discrimination (RG+/BG-/RY-/BY+) either after extinction of another stimulus had occurred, or not. When contextual stimuli were relevant to solving the discrimination (i.e., all RG+/BG- trials occurred in one context and all RY-/BY+ in another), prior extinction of another stimulus facilitated the discrimination, as if extinction enhanced attention to the contexts. Results are discussed briefly in terms of ATCP and the model of N. A. Schmajuk, Y. W. Lam, & J. A. Gray (1996, Latent inhibition: A neural network approach, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Vol. 22, pp. 321-349).

  11. Some effects of giant Andean stem-rosettes on ground microclimate, and their ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of giant Andean stem-rosettes ( Coespeletia lutescens) on air and soil temperatures was studied in the Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Venezuela) at 4265 and 4385 m altitude during the dry season, which is the coldest season in this tropical mountain area. Maximum air temperatures beneath a plant canopy were only slightly higher than in the open. Minimum temperatures below the stem-rosettes were 4.7° to 7.0°C higher than in the open. This substantially reduced the intensity of nightly freezing. Soil temperature minima at 20 cm depth were 2.4° to 4.2°C higher below plants, but maxima were somewhat lower than in bare soil. These microclimatic alterations are ecologically significant for stemprosette seedlings, which should have a higher probability of survival due to the reduced frequency of frost and needle ice formation below large plants. Warmer soils at night should also result in greater water uptake by seedlings during the early morning hours, thus reducing dry-season mortality.

  12. The SF3B1 inhibitor spliceostatin A (SSA) elicits apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells through downregulation of Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Larrayoz, M; Blakemore, S J; Dobson, R C; Blunt, M D; Rose-Zerilli, M J J; Walewska, R; Duncombe, A; Oscier, D; Koide, K; Forconi, F; Packham, G; Yoshida, M; Cragg, M S; Strefford, J C; Steele, A J

    2016-02-01

    The pro-survival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 is expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), with high expression correlated with progressive disease. The spliceosome inhibitor spliceostatin A (SSA) is known to regulate Mcl-1 and so here we assessed the ability of SSA to elicit apoptosis in CLL. SSA induced apoptosis of CLL cells at low nanomolar concentrations in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but independently of SF3B1 mutational status, IGHV status and CD38 or ZAP70 expression. However, normal B and T cells were less sensitive than CLL cells (P=0.006 and P<0.001, respectively). SSA altered the splicing of anti-apoptotic MCL-1(L) to MCL-1(s) in CLL cells coincident with induction of apoptosis. Overexpression studies in Ramos cells suggested that Mcl-1 was important for SSA-induced killing since its expression inversely correlated with apoptosis (P=0.001). IL4 and CD40L, present in patient lymph nodes, are known to protect tumour cells from apoptosis and significantly inhibited SSA, ABT-263 and ABT-199 induced killing following administration to CLL cells (P=0.008). However, by combining SSA with the Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) antagonists ABT-263 or ABT-199, we were able to overcome this pro-survival effect. We conclude that SSA combined with Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) antagonists may have therapeutic utility for CLL.

  13. Navitoclax (ABT-263) and bendamustine ± rituximab induce enhanced killing of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ackler, S; Mitten, MJ; Chen, J; Clarin, J; Foster, K; Jin, S; Phillips, DC; Schlessinger, S; Wang, B; Leverson, JD; Boghaert, ER

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bendamustine with or without rituximab provides an effective and more tolerable alternative to the polytherapy cyclophosphamide–doxorubicin–vincristine–prednisolone (CHOP) in the treatment of haematological tumours and is currently approved for the treatment of many haematological malignancies. Navitoclax (ABT-263) is a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, which has demonstrated efficacy in haematological tumours alone and in combination with other agents. This paper describes the in vivo efficacy of combining either bendamustine or bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with navitoclax in xenograft models of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Activity was tested in xenograft models of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DoHH-2, SuDHL-4), mantle cell lymphoma (Granta 519) and Burkitt's lymphoma (RAMOS). Activity was also monitored in a systemic model of Granta 519. KEY RESULTS Navitoclax potentiated bendamustine activity in all cell lines tested. Bendamustine activated p53 in Granta 519 tumours, concurrent with activation of caspase 3. Navitoclax also improved responses to bendamustine-rituximab (BR) in a subset of tumours. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Navitoclax in combination with bendamustine and BR is a viable combination strategy for use in the clinic and demonstrated superior efficacy compared with previously reported data for navitoclax plus CHOP and rituximab-CHOP. PMID:22624727

  14. Rare case of isolated osteochondroma of the zygomatic bone: an endoscopic-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Antonio; Dell'Aversana, Giovanni; Corvino, Raffaele; Abbate, Vincenzo; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2015-11-03

    L’osteocondroma è una neoplasia benigna che nel distretto cranio-facciale colpisce spesso il corpo ed il ramo mandibolare e soltanto di rado può interessare il processo coronoide e l’arco zygomatico. In questo articolo descriviamo un raro caso di osteocondroma isolato dell’osso zygomatico trattato mediante approccio chirurgico intraorale endoscopicamente assistito ed in letteratura non sono riportati altri casi di questa patologia trattati con procedure endoscopicamente assistite. Una donna caucasica di cinquantadue anni, è stata osservata nel nostro reparto nel mese di marzo del 2012, la paziente lamentava dolore in regione zygomatica destra. La tomografia computerizzata (TC) del distretto osseo interessato mostrava una lesione sessile non definita. Il sospetto diagnostico è stato di osteocondroma. L’intervento è stato realizzato in anestesia generale mediante approccio intraorale endoscopicamente assistito. All’esame istologico del campione operatorio è stata confermata la diagnosi di osteocondroma. Nell’immediato post operatorio la paziente non ha presentato edema, dolore o febbre. L’uso dell’endoscopia nel trattamento chirurgico di questa patologia quindi ha consentito di ottenere una maggiore precisione e una maggiore rispetto delle strutture anatomiche. L’approccio intraorale ci garantisce l’assenza di cicatrici visibili e l’ausilio dell’endoscopia ci consente di avere una migliore visione di tutte le strutture anatomiche, una buona gestione della patologia riducendo quindi il rischio di complicanze intraoperatorie quali: fratture patologiche e lesioni del VII nervo cranico.

  15. A New Method for Modeling Optical Depth Effects in Cometary Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersch, Alan; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2008-09-01

    We create a model of the carbon monoxide IR spectra of a cometary coma including optical depth effects using Coupled Escape Probability (CEP), a new exact method for line radiative transfer solutions (see Elitzur & Asensio Ramos, 2005). In the CEP method a plane parallel atmosphere is divided into vertical "zones". Each zone's distribution of fractional populations in molecular energy levels is determined using statistical equilibrium. All the zones are coupled through terms resembling escape probability expressions, which encapsulate the self-radiation due to scattering and absorption between zones. This enables a self-consistent solution for the line radiation produced even in optically thick cases. We have implemented the CEP approach to calculate the line emission of the CO IR 1-0 ro-vibrational spectra, for arbitrary conditions such as those found in cometary comae. The coma itself is modeled using numerical integration of the expanding coma gas from the nucleus outwards (see, e.g. Chin & Weaver, 1984.) Our model of the coma uses the CEP method for integrating CO emission throughout the coma in a piecewise manner which yields a model spectra for any observed line of sight through the coma. We have constructed spectral "maps" of the coma of comet Tempel-1 in various frequencies, corresponding to observations during the approach and impact of the Deep Impact mission. These are compared with the actual Deep Impact observations to better understand the coma composition.

  16. PREFACE: Workshop on Oxide Materials 2014: Novel Multifunctional Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, M. E.; Lopera, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties was held in Cali, Colombia, from September 15 to September 19 on the campus of Universidad del Valle. It was a great privilege to have had this workshop in Cali after the first workshop on oxide materials commemorating the first centennial of the discovery of the superconductivity in 2011. The meeting gathered an audience of 80 participants, 10 invited speakers with two or three plenary talks each, 20 short oral contributions, two poster sessions with 20 presentations each. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference. The Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties were edited by Maria Elena Gomez and Wilson Lopera with the assistance of Carlos William Sanchez and Albert Ortiz as copy editor. We are grateful for the financial support from COLCIENCIAS through research project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE contract 002/2013; Universidad de Valle through Professor Ivan Ramos, Rector; the Faculty of Science with Professor Jaime Cantera, Dean; the Center of Excellence on Novel Materials with Professor Pedro Prieto, Director; ICETEX, and INTECO Ltda. Further details about the conference, including details of the invited speakers and plenary sessions are available in the PDF. Maria Elena Gómez, Editor Wilson Lopera, Editor

  17. Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-01-01

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. PMID:24036586

  18. Environmental change in moorland landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.; Shotbolt, L.; Bonn, A.; Burt, T. P.; Chapman, P. J.; Dougill, A. J.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Hubacek, K.; Irvine, B.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reed, M. S.; Prell, C.; Stagl, S.; Stringer, L. C.; Turner, A.; Worrall, F.

    2007-05-01

    Moorlands are unique environments found in uplands of the temperate zone including in the UK, New Zealand and Ireland, and in some high altitude tropical zones such as the Andean páramos. Many have been managed through grazing, burning or drainage practices. However, there are a number of other environmental and social factors that are likely to drive changes in management practice over the next few decades. Some moorlands have been severely degraded and in some countries conservation and restoration schemes are being attempted, particularly to revegetate bare soils. Native or non-native woodland planting may increase in some moorland environments while atmospheric deposition of many pollutants may also vary. Moorland environments are very sensitive to changes in management, climate or pollution. This paper reviews how environmental management change, such as changes in grazing or burning practices, may impact upon moorland processes based on existing scientific understanding. It also reviews the impacts of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition chemistry. The paper focuses on the UK moorlands as a case study of moorland landscapes that are in different states of degradation. Future research that is required to improve our understanding of moorland processes is outlined. The paper shows that there is a need for more holistic and spatial approaches to understanding moorland processes and management. There is also a need to develop approaches that combine understanding of interlinked social and natural processes.

  19. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora.

  20. Surfing transcriptomic landscapes. A step beyond the annotation of chromosome 16 proteome.

    PubMed

    Segura, Víctor; Medina-Aunon, Juan Alberto; Mora, Maria I; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Abian, Joaquín; Aloria, Kerman; Antúnez, Oreto; Arizmendi, Jesús M; Azkargorta, Mikel; Barceló-Batllori, Silvia; Beaskoetxea, Jabier; Bech-Serra, Joan J; Blanco, Francisco; Monteiro, Mariana B; Cáceres, David; Canals, Francesc; Carrascal, Monserrat; Casal, José Ignacio; Clemente, Felipe; Colomé, Nuria; Dasilva, Noelia; Díaz, Paula; Elortza, Félix; Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Fuentes, Manuel; Gallardo, Oscar; Gharbi, Severine I; Gil, Concha; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Hernáez, María Luisa; Lombardía, Manuel; Lopez-Lucendo, Maria; Marcilla, Miguel; Mato, José M; Mendes, Marta; Oliveira, Eliandre; Orera, Irene; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Prieto, Gorka; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel M; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Valero, Maria L; Vialas, Vital; Villanueva, Joan; Albar, Juan Pablo; Corrales, Fernando J

    2014-01-03

    The Spanish team of the Human Proteome Project (SpHPP) marked the annotation of Chr16 and data analysis as one of its priorities. Precise annotation of Chromosome 16 proteins according to C-HPP criteria is presented. Moreover, Human Body Map 2.0 RNA-Seq and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) data sets were used to obtain further information relative to cell/tissue specific chromosome 16 coding gene expression patterns and to infer the presence of missing proteins. Twenty-four shotgun 2D-LC-MS/MS and gel/LC-MS/MS MIAPE compliant experiments, representing 41% coverage of chromosome 16 proteins, were performed. Furthermore, mapping of large-scale multicenter mass spectrometry data sets from CCD18, MCF7, Jurkat, and Ramos cell lines into RNA-Seq data allowed further insights relative to correlation of chromosome 16 transcripts and proteins. Detection and quantification of chromosome 16 proteins in biological matrices by SRM procedures are also primary goals of the SpHPP. Two strategies were undertaken: one focused on known proteins, taking advantage of MS data already available, and the second, aimed at the detection of the missing proteins, is based on the expression of recombinant proteins to gather MS information and optimize SRM methods that will be used in real biological samples. SRM methods for 49 known proteins and for recombinant forms of 24 missing proteins are reported in this study.

  1. Currents induced by injected charge in junction detectors.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-09-12

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo-and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors.

  2. Assessment of selected water-quality and biological data collected in the Wichita River basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    2000-01-01

    The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this basin generally is of poor quality—dissolved solids concentrations vary from slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) to very saline (10,000 to 35,000 mg/L).

  3. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Montaner, Beatriz; Navarro, Sira; Piqué, Maria; Vilaseca, Marta; Martinell, Marc; Giralt, Ernest; Gil, Joan; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure.Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases.Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens.These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug. PMID:11015311

  4. Phenotypic Approaches to Identify Inhibitors of B Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suzie; Wiener, Jake; Rao, Navin L.; Milla, Marcos E.; DiSepio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    An EPIC label-free phenotypic platform was developed to explore B cell receptor (BCR) and CD40R-mediated B cell activation. The phenotypic assay measured the association of RL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma B cells expressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-coated EPIC plates. Anti-IgM (immunoglobulin M) mediated BCR activation elicited a response that was blocked by LFA-1/ICAM-1 specific inhibitors and a panel of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. LFA-1/ICAM-1 association was further increased on coapplication of anti-IgM and mega CD40L when compared to individual application of either. Anti-IgM, mega CD40L, or the combination of both displayed distinct kinetic profiles that were inhibited by treatment with a BTK inhibitor. We also established a FLIPR-based assay to measure B cell activation in Ramos Burkitt’s lymphoma B cells and an RL cell line. Anti-IgM-mediated BCR activation elicited a robust calcium response that was inhibited by a panel of BTK inhibitors. Conversely, CD40R activation did not elicit a calcium response in the FLIPR assay. Compared to the FLIPR, the EPIC assay has the propensity to identify inhibitors of both BCR and CD40R-mediated B cell activation and may provide more pharmacological depth or novel mechanisms of action for inhibition of B cell activation. PMID:25948491

  5. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  6. Initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in human lymphoid cells converted by Epstein-Barr virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.; Shlomai, Z.; Ben-Bassat, H.

    1981-08-01

    Replicon size was estimated in two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human lymphoma lines, BJAB and Ramos, and four EBV-positive lines derived from the former ones by infection (conversion) with two viral strains, B95-8 and P3HR-1. Logarithmic cultures were pulse-labeled with (/sup -3/H)thymidine, and the deoxyribonucleic acid was spread on microscopic slides and autoradiographed by the method of Huberman and Riggs. Three of the four EBV-converted cell lines, BJAB/B95-8, Ra/B95-8, and Ra/HRIK, were found to have significantly shorter replicons (41, 21, 54% shorter, respectively), i.e., more initiation points, than their EBV-negative parents. BJAB/HRIK had replicons which were only slightly shorter (11%) than those of BJAB. However, analysis of track length demonstrated that extensive track fusion occurred during the labeling of BJAB/HRIK, implying that its true average replicon size is shorter than the observed value. The results indicate that in analogy to simian virus 40, EBV activates new initiation points for cellular DNA replication in EBV-transformed cells.

  7. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf; Meuwly, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR) computed from the comparison of 5-12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR) method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a necessary asset for conducting validation experiments when validating LR methods used in forensic evidence evaluation and set up validation reports. These data can be also used as a baseline for comparing the fingermark evidence in the same minutiae configuration as presented in (D. Meuwly, D. Ramos, R. Haraksim,) [1], although the reader should keep in mind that different feature extraction algorithms and different AFIS systems used may produce different LRs values. Moreover, these data may serve as a reproducibility exercise, in order to train the generation of validation reports of forensic methods, according to [1]. Alongside the data, a justification and motivation for the use of methods is given. These methods calculate LRs from the fingerprint/mark data and are subject to a validation procedure. The choice of using real forensic fingerprint in the validation and simulated data in the development is described and justified. Validation criteria are set for the purpose of validation of the LR methods, which are used to calculate the LR values from the data and the validation report. For privacy and data protection reasons, the original fingerprint/mark images cannot be shared. But these images do not constitute the core data for the validation, contrarily to the LRs that are shared.

  8. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. PMID:26746719

  9. Simulations of Enhanced Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1996-11-01

    Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.

  10. Performance of the Fourier transform reconstructor for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Reyes, M.; Le Louarn, M.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    The forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes, and the new generation of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, carry on a boost in the number of actuators that makes the real-time correction of the atmospheric aberration computationally challenging. It is necessary to study new algorithms for performing Adaptive Optics at the required speed. Among the last generation algorithms that are being studied, the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR) appears as a promising candidate. Its feasibility to be used for Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics has been extensively proved by Poyneer et al.[1] As part of the activities supported by the ELT Design Study (European Community's Framework Programme 6) we have studied the performance of this algorithm applied to the case of the European ELT, in two different cases: single-conjugate and ground-layer adaptive optics and we are studying different approaches to apply it to the more complex multi-conjugate case. The algorithm has been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The performance has been compared with other algorithms as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions. The good results on performance and robustness, and the possibility of parallelizing the algorithm (shown by Rodríguez-Ramos and Marichal-Hernández) make it an excellent alternative to the typically used Matrix-Vector Multiply algorithm.

  11. Reformatting Rituximab into Human IgG2 and IgG4 Isotypes Dramatically Improves Apoptosis Induction In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Könitzer, Jennifer D.; Sieron, Annette; Wacker, Angelika; Enenkel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The direct induction of cell death, or apoptosis, in target cells is one of the effector mechanisms for the anti CD20 antibody Rituximab. Here we provide evidence that Rituximab’s apoptotic ability is linked to the antibody IgG isotype. Reformatting Rituximab from the standard human IgG1 heavy chain into IgG2 or IgG4 boosted in vitro apoptosis induction in the Burkitt’s lymphoma B cell line Ramos five and four-fold respectively. The determinants for this behavior are located in the hinge region and CH1 domain of the heavy chain. By transplanting individual IgG2 or IgG4 specific amino acid residues onto otherwise IgG1 like backbones, thereby creating hybrid antibodies, the same enhancement of apoptosis induction could be achieved. The cysteines at position 131 of the CH1 domain and 219 in the hinge region, involved in IgG2 and IgG4 disulfide formation, were found to be of particular structural importance. Our data indicates that the hybrid antibodies possess a different CD20 binding mode than standard Rituximab, which appears to be key in enhancing apoptotic ability. The presented work opens up an interesting engineering route for enhancing the direct cytotoxic ability of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26713448

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Water maser emission toward post-AGB and PN (Gomez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. F.; Rizzo, J. R.; Suarez, O.; Palau, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The observed sources are listed in Table 1. They comprise most of the sources in Ramos-Larios et al. (2009A&A...501.1207R). They are post-AGB stars and PN candidates with the IRAS color criteria of Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) and with signs of strong optical obscuration. We have also included some optically visible post-AGB stars from Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) that were not included in our previous water maser observations of Suarez et al. (2007A&A...467.1085S, 2009A&A...505..217S) or for which those observations had poor sensitivity. We observed the 616-523 transition of H2O (rest frequency = 22235.08MHz) using three different telescopes: the DSS-63 antenna (70m diameter) at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) near Robledo de Chavela (Spain), the 64m antenna at the Parkes Observatory of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), and the 100m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The observed positions, rms noise per spectral channel, and observing dates are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  13. Chloroplast DNA analysis of Tunisian cork oak populations (Quercus suber L.): sequence variations and molecular evolution of the trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) region.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, A; Baraket, G; Sakka, H; Ammari, Y; Ksontini, M; Hannachi, A Salhi

    2016-10-24

    Sequences of the trnL-trnF spacer and combined trnL-trnF region in chloroplast DNA of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) were analyzed to detect polymorphisms and to elucidate molecular evolution and demographic history. The aligned sequences varied in length and nucleotide composition. The overall ratio of transition/transversion (ti/tv) of 0.724 for the intergenic spacer and 0.258 for the pooled sequences were estimated, and indicated that transversions are more frequent than transitions. The molecular evolution and demographic history of Q. suber were investigated. Neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li) ruled out the null hypothesis of a strictly neutral model, and Fu's Fs and Ramos-Onsins and Rozas' R2 confirmed the recent expansion of cork oak trees, validating its persistency in North Africa since the last glaciation during the Quaternary. The observed uni-modal mismatch distribution and the Harpending's raggedness index confirmed the demographic history model for cork oak. A phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the distribution of Q. suber trees occurs independently of geographical origin, the relief of the population site, and the bioclimatic stages. The molecular history and cytoplasmic diversity suggest that in situ and ex situ conservation strategies can be recommended for preserving landscape value and facing predictable future climatic changes.

  14. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in B-cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, D; Li, W; Zhang, L; Qian, H; Yao, S; Qi, X

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin superfamily that has been reported to be involved in a number of neurological and psychological situations. Recently, high expression level of BDNF is observed in diverse human malignancies, delineating a role of BDNF in tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, its effect on B-cell lymphoma remains unclear. In this study, RNA interference technology mediated by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was performed to inhibit endogenous BDNF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells. Results showed that knockdown of BDNF reduced cell growth and proliferation of Raji and Ramos cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of BDNF induced a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Raji cells, and consequently led to cell apoptosis in vitro. Meanwhile, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed in Raji cells when endogenous BDNF was inhibited. Besides, we also found that suppression of BDNF in Raji cells increased their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Our research provides a promising therapeutic strategy for human B-cell lymphoma by targeting BDNF.

  15. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  16. Bz-423 superoxide signals B cell apoptosis via Mcl-1, Bak, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Neal B; Boitano, Anthony E; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Opipari, Anthony W; Glick, Gary D

    2009-10-15

    Bz-423 is a pro-apoptotic 1,4-benzodiazepine with therapeutic properties in murine models of lupus demonstrating selectivity for autoreactive lymphocytes. Bz-423 modulates the F(1)F(0)-ATPase, inducing the formation of superoxide within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which then functions as a second messenger initiating apoptosis. In order to understand some of the features that contribute to the increased sensitivity of lymphocytes, we report the signaling pathway engaged by Bz-423 in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line (Ramos). Following the generation of superoxide, Bz-423-induced apoptosis requires the activation of Bax and Bak to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Knockdown of the BH3-only proteins Bad, Bim, Bik, and Puma inhibits Bz-423 apoptosis, suggesting that these proteins serve as upstream sensors of the oxidant stress induced by Bz-423. Treatment with Bz-423 results in superoxide-dependent Mcl-1 degradation, implicating this protein as the link between Bz-423-induced superoxide and Bax and Bak activation. In contrast to fibroblasts, B cell death induced by Bz-423 is independent of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results demonstrate that superoxide generated from the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a consequence of a respiratory transition can signal a specific apoptotic response that differs across cell types.

  17. Modelling adaptation to climate change of Ecuadorian agriculture and associated water resources: uncertainties in coastal and highland cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Bastidas, Wellington; Cóndor, Amparo; Villacís, Marcos; Calderón, Marco; Herrera, Mario; Zambrano, José Luis; Lizaso, Jon; Hernández, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian

    2016-04-01

    Climate change threatens sustainability of farms and associated water resources in Ecuador. Although the last IPCC report (AR5) provides a general framework for adaptation, , impact assessment and especially adaptation analysis should be site-specific, taking into account both biophysical and social aspects. The objective of this study is to analyse the climate change impacts and to sustainable adaptations to optimize the crop yield. Furthermore is also aimed to weave agronomical and hydrometeorological aspects, to improve the modelling of the coastal ("costa") and highland ("sierra") cropping systems in Ecuador, from the agricultural production and water resources points of view. The final aim is to support decision makers, at national and local institutions, for technological implementation of structural adaptation strategies, and to support farmers for their autonomous adaptation actions to cope with the climate change impacts and that allow equal access to resources and appropriate technologies. . A diagnosis of the current situation in terms of data availability and reliability was previously done, and the main sources of uncertainty for agricultural projections have been identified: weather data, especially precipitation projections, soil data below the upper 30 cm, and equivalent experimental protocol for ecophysiological crop field measurements. For reducing these uncertainties, several methodologies are being discussed. This study was funded by PROMETEO program from Ecuador through SENESCYT (M. Ruiz-Ramos contract), and by the project COOP-XV-25 funded by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  18. Defects creation in sapphire by swift heavy ions: A fluence depending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, A.; Meftah, A.; Stoquert, J. P.; Toulemonde, M.; Monnet, I.

    2009-03-01

    Single crystals of sapphire (α-Al 2O 3) were irradiated at GANIL with 0.7 MeV/amu xenon ions corresponding to an electronic stopping power of 21 keV/nm. Several fluences were applied between 5 × 10 11 and 2 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. Irradiated samples were characterized using optical absorption spectroscopy. This technique exhibited the characteristic bands associated with F and F + centers defects. The F centers density was found to increase with the fluence following two different kinetics: a rapid increase for fluences less than 10 13 ions/cm 2 and then, a slow increase for higher fluences. For fluences less than 10 13 ions/cm 2, results are in good agreement with those obtained by Canut et al. [B. Canut, A. Benyagoub, G. Marest, A. Meftah, N. Moncoffre, S.M.M. Ramos, F. Studer, P. Thévenard, M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. B 51 (1995) 12194]. In the fluences range: 10 13-10 14 ions/cm 2, the F centers defects creation process is found to be different from the one evidenced for fluences less than 10 13 ions/cm 2.

  19. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O’Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  20. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  1. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    characterized in each region by high/low quality wines. Finally, we also investigated how climate variability is related to DOC wine quality for different regions using North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Results reveal a strong dependence of wine quality for all regions on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season) as expected. However the role of temperature on wine quality seems to be distinct among the diverse regions probably due to their different climate zoning. Moreover, it is shown that the differences associated with high/low quality wine are in agreement with different synoptic fields patterns. Our results suggest that this type of analysis may be used in developing a tool that may help anticipating a vintage/high quality year, based on already available seasonal climate outlooks. Santo F.E., de Lima M.I.P., Ramos A.M., Trigo R.M., Trends in seasonal surface air temperature in mainland Portugal, since 1941, International Journal Climatolology, 34: 1814-1837, doi: 10.1002/joc.3803 (2014) de Lima M.I.P., Santo F.E., Ramos A.M. , Trigo, R.M., Trends and correlations in annual extreme precipitation indices for mainland Portugal, 1941-2007, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-013-1079-6 (2014) Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  2. Middle and Late Holocene climate in the tropics : contribution of a high-resolution palynological and geochemical record in northwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Uribe, P.; Jojoa, M.; Velásquez, C.; Gorin, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Records of climate change in the tropics are particularly important because it is where major thermal energy interchanges take place between oceans and atmosphere. Climate events like the ENSO and ITCZ are associated with the tropics, but influence the global climate. High-resolution data are needed to look for their potential signature in the Holocene. Among all the paleoclimate proxies in the continental realm, palynology has been used extensively in the Holocene to study climatically-induced environmental changes. The high-altitude wet zones (ca. 3’500 m amsl) of the Páramo de Frontino in the northwestern termination of the Colombian Andes are strategically exposed to influences from both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In the studied wet zone, a ca. 7 m thick, continuous, sedimentary record spanning the last 9’000 years has been cored and studied by palynology and X-ray fluorescence. Palynological data with a time-resolution of less than 50 years provide information on the vertical migration of vegetation belts, indicative of climate variations. The geochemical signature of cored sediments derived from X-ray fluorescence is another potential proxy for climatically-induced environmental parameters, essentially related to pluviosity, erosion rates in the drainage basin and variations of the water table in the wet zone. Palynological data from the Páramo de Frontino document vegetation changes and related variations in temperature and humidity in the northern part of the Western Cordillera over the last 9’000 years. The upper part of the Early Holocene is warm and dry. A major change occurs at the transition between Early and Middle Holocene with the onset of a very humid and less warm climate during the Middle Holocene. The Middle Holocene climatic optimum is not observed in the Western Cordillera, which records much higher humidity than in the Central and Eastern cordilleras. Many fluctuations in temperature and humidity occurred during the Late

  3. Inventory of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2002-01-01

    This compilation is an inventory of all known outcrops of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico. We have not attempted an interpretation of the regional stratigraphic or structural setting of the strata. Brief summaries of the stratigraphic setting of the Sonora rocks are given in Poole and Hayes (1971), Rangin (1978), Stewart and others (1984, 1990), and Poole and Madrid (1986; 1988b). More specific information on the setting of strata of specific ages are given by Stewart and others (2002) for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian; by Poole and others (1995a) for Ordovician shelf strata; by Poole and others (1995b) for Ordovician deep-water openbasin strata; by Poole and others (1997, 1998, 2000a) for Silurian strata; and by Poole and others (2000a) for Mississippian strata. Other reports that discuss regional aspects of Paleozoic stratigraphy include López-Ramos (1982), Peiffer-Rangin, (1979, 1988), Pérez-Ramos (1992), and Stewart and others (1997, 1999a). Structurally, the major Paleozoic feature of Sonora is the Sonora allochthon, consisting of deep-water (eugeoclinal) strata emplaced in the Permian over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits (Poole and others, 1995a,b; Poole and Perry, 1997; 1998). The emplacement structure is generally considered to be a major Permian continental margin thrust fault that emplaced the deep-water rocks northward over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits. An alternate interpretation has been presented by Stewart and others (2002). He proposed that the emplacement of the Sonora allochthon was along a major Permian transpressional structure that was primarily a strike-slip fault with only a minor thrust component . The Mojave-Sonora megashear has been proposed to disrupt Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic trends in Sonora. This feature is a hypothetical, left-lateral, northwest-striking fault extending across northern Sonora and the southwestern United States (Silver and Anderson, 1974; Anderson and Schmidt, 1983). It is proposed to have

  4. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  5. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To

  6. Historical Shoreline Changes at Rincon, Puerto Rico, 1936-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Rodriguez, Rafael W.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.

    2007-01-01

    The coast from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena in Rincon, Puerto Rico is experiencing long-term erosion. This study documents historical shoreline changes at Rincon for the period 1936-2006 and constitutes a significant expansion and revision of previous work. The study area extends approximately 8 km from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena. Fourteen historical shoreline positions were compiled from existing data, new orthophotography, and Global Positioning System (GPS) field surveys. The study area can be divided into four distinct reaches on the basis of observed erosion rates, consistent with previous work. The coast of Reach A, from Punta Higuero to the north end of the Balneario de Rincon, is fairly stable and has a long-term (70 years) average erosion rate of -0.2 ? 0.1 m/yr. The coast of Reach B, from the Balneario de Rincon to 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos, has an average long-term erosion rate of -1.1 ? 0.3 m/yr. The coast of Reach C, from 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos to Corcega, has an average long-term erosion rate of -0.4 ? 0.2 m/yr. The coast of Reach D, from Corcega to Punta Cadena, has an average long-term change rate of -0.2 ? 0.2 m/yr. Previous work (Thieler and others, 1995) identified an apparent increase in erosion rate in Reach B that probably began between 1977 and 1987. New data and statistical analysis suggest that long-term and short-term rates of shoreline change are statistically similar. Nevertheless, the coast in Reach B is eroding at a rapid and statistically significant rate that is 2 to 10 times greater than in the other three reaches. Comparison of the 1994 and 2006 GPS shoreline positions indicates the following erosion rates occurred over the past 12 years: Reach A, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach B, -1.0 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach C, -0.7 ? 0.4 m/yr; and Reach D, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr. Thieler and others (1995) speculated that the increased erosion rate in Reach B could be attributed to the effects of marina construction in

  7. The application of utility analysis processes to estimate the impact of training for nuclear maintenance personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Groppel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test two utility analysis models, the Cascio-Ramos Estimate of Performance in Dollars (CREPID) model and Godkewitsch financial utility analysis model and to determine their appropriateness as tools for evaluating training. This study was conducted in conjunction with Philadelphia Electric Company's Nuclear Training Group. Job performance of nuclear maintenance workers was assessed to document the impact of the training program. Assessment of job performance covered six job performance themes. Additionally, front-line nuclear maintenance supervisors were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the nuclear maintenance training. A comparison of supervisor's perceptions and outcomes of the utility analysis models was made to determine the appropriateness of utility analysis as quantitative tools for evaluating the nuclear maintenance training program. Application of the CREPID utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training through utility analysis was $5,843,750 which represented only four of the job performance themes. Application of the Godkewitsch utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training was $3,083,845 which represented all six performance themes. A comparison of the outcomes indicated a sizeable difference between the dollar values produced by the models. Supervisors indicated training resulted in improved productivity, i.e., improved efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, supervisors believed training was valuable because it provided nonmonetary benefits, e.g., improved self-esteem and confidence. The application of utility analysis addressed only monetary benefits of training. The variation evidenced by the difference in the outcome of the two models suggests that utility analysis [open quotes]estimates[close quotes] may not accurately reflect the impact of training.

  8. Conventional and Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy Using Bismuth-213 to Target and Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Expressing CD20: A Preclinical Model toward Optimal Consolidation Therapy to Eradicate Minimal Residual Disease.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Steven I.; Shenoi, Jaideep; Pagel, John M.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Orgun, Nural; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Back, Tom; Lin, Yukang; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.

    2010-11-18

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with α-emitting radionuclides is an attractive approach for the treatment of minimal residual disease (MRD) because the short path lengths and high energies of α-particles produce optimal cytotoxicity at small target sites while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Pretargeted RIT (PRIT) using antibody-streptavidin (Ab-SA) constructs and radiolabeled biotin allows rapid, specific localization of radioactivity at tumor sites, making it an optimal method to target α-emitters with short half-lives, such as bismuth-213 (213Bi). Athymic mice bearing Ramos lymphoma xenografts received anti-CD20 1F5(scFv)4SA fusion protein (FP), followed by a dendrimeric clearing agent and [213Bi]DOTA-biotin. After 90 min, tumor uptake for 1F5(scFv)4SA was 16.5 ± 7.0 % injected dose per gram (ID/g) compared with 2.3 ± 0.9 % ID/g for the control FP. Mice treated with anti-CD20 PRIT and 600 µCi [213Bi]DOTA-biotin exhibited marked tumor growth delays compared to controls (mean tumor volume 0.01 ± 0.02 vs. 203.38 ± 83.03 mm3 after 19 days, respectively). The median survival for the 1F5(scFv)4SA group was 90 days compared to 23 days for the control FP (p<0.0001). Treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related mortalities. This study demonstrates the favorable biodistribution profile and excellent therapeutic efficacy attainable with 213Bi-labeled anti-CD20 PRIT.

  9. Sleep Disordered Breathing, Insomnia Symptoms, and Sleep Quality in a Clinical Cohort of US Hispanics in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Shafazand, Shirin; Wallace, Douglas M.; Vargas, Silvia S.; Del Toro, Yanisa; Dib, Salim; Abreu, Alexandre R.; Ramos, Alberto; Nolan, Bruce; Baldwin, Carol M.; Fleming, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of sleep disorders among US Hispanics. This study describes the frequency of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) risk, insomnia complaints, poor sleep quality, and daytime somnolence in a clinical cohort of ethnically diverse US Hispanics living in South Florida. Methods: We explored the presence of sleep disorders in a cohort of Hispanics seen at primary care, pulmonary, and sleep clinics at the University of Miami and Miami Veterans Affair Medical Center. Participants completed validated questionnaires, evaluating risk of SDB, presence of insomnia symptoms, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography was completed on the majority of the sleep clinic participants. Results: Participants (N = 282; 62% male; mean age 54 ± 15 years; mean BMI 31 ± 6 kg/m2) included Hispanics of Cuban, Puerto Rican, Central/South American, and Caribbean heritage. Excessive daytime sleepiness was noted by 45% of participants. Poor sleep quality was reported by 49%; 76% screened high risk for SDB, and 68% had insomnia symptoms. Sleep disorders were more commonly reported in sleep clinic participants; however, 54% of non-sleep clinic participants were high risk for SDB, 35% had insomnia complaints, 28% had poor sleep quality, and 18% reported daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep disorders (including SDB) are common in clinical samples of Hispanics in South Florida. These findings highlight the urgent need for linguistically relevant and culturally responsive screening, awareness and education programs in clinical sleep medicine among US Hispanics. Citation: Shafazand S; Wallace DM; Vargas SS; Del Toro Y; Dib S; Abreu AR; Ramos A; Nolan B; Baldwin CM; Fleming L. Sleep disordered breathing, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality in a clinical cohort of US Hispanics in South Florida. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):507-514. PMID:23066361

  10. COMMITTEES: LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Karsten Danzmann, AEI/University of Hannover Mike Cruise, University of Birmingham Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Alberto Lobo (Chair), ICE-CSIC and IEEC Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Peter Bender, University of Colorado Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Neil Cornish, Montana State University Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Craig Hogan, University of Washington Scott Hughes, MIT Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Sterl Phinney, Caltech Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Kip Thorne, Caltech Roger Blandford, Stanford University Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Carlos F Sopuerta,ICE-CSIC and IEEC Enrique Garcia-Berro, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Jay Marx, LIGO Laboratory Stephen Merkowitz, NASA/Goddard Benoit Mours, Laboratoire d'Annec Gijs Nelemans, IMAPP, Nijmegen Enric Verdaguer, University of Barcelona Clifford M Will, Washington University, St Louis Local Organising Committee (LOC) Anna Bertolín (IEEC) Priscilla Cañizares (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Carlos F Sopuerta (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Ivan Lloro (ICE-CSIC and IEEC),Chair Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Nacho Mateos (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Pilar Montes (IEEC) Miquel Nofrarias (IEEC) Juan Ramos-Castro (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) Josep Sanjuán (IEEC)

  11. Discovery of novel hematopoietic cell adhesion molecules from human bone marrow stromal cell membrane protein extracts by a new cell-blotting technique.

    PubMed

    Seshi, B

    1994-05-01

    In an attempt to define the role of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemia development, a novel cell-blotting technique that involved cell adhesion to protein bands after separation by lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LDS-PAGE) and blotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane has been developed. Human BM stromal cell membrane fractions have been prepared from Dexter-type cultures after cell lysis by sonification and differential centrifugations of the sonification contents. The 20,000 g pellets representing membrane fractions have been solubilized by 2% Triton X-100, 0.575% LDS, and 8 mol/L urea in sequential order. The protein extracts are fractionated by LDS-PAGE and screened for CAMs by the new cell-blotting technique. This led to identification of nine protein bands in lanes containing LDS extracts showing adhesion of KG1a (CD34+ progenitor myeloid) cells. Evidence that the BM proteins exhibiting KG1a cell adhesion are novel CAMs is based on the observations that these proteins, in comparison with known CAMs, specifically VCAM-1, CD54, and CD44, show (1) contrasting detergent-solubility properties, (2) different temperature requirement for mediating cell adhesion function, and (3) markedly distinct electrophoretic mobilities. The various cell types tested, notably KG1a, NALM-6, WIL-2, Ramos, HS-Sultan, K562, JY B lymphoblastoid cells, and T lymphoblasts, showed distinctive patterns of binding to different subsets of BM CAMs. These results demonstrate a new approach to studies of molecular mechanisms that may determine specificity of hematopoietic cellular localization within BM microenvironment and may play an important role in controlling hematopoiesis.

  12. Hydromechanical triggering of landslides: From progressive local failures to mass release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2012-03-01

    Water infiltrating during intense rainfall on steep slopes gradually weakens the wet soil mass, inducing localized failures that may initiate a cascade of load redistributions and successive failures propagating across a hillslope. The challenge of linking the progressive nature of local events culminating in an abrupt landslide is addressed by a new hydromechanical triggering model that links key hydrologic processes with threshold-based mechanical interactions. A hillslope is represented as assembly of soil columns interconnected by frictional and tensile mechanical bonds represented as virtual bundles of fibers. Increasing water load exerted on mechanical bonds causes gradual failure of fibers until restraining forces are exceeded. Following failure at the soil-bedrock interface, the load on a column is redistributed to its neighbors via intact mechanical (primarily tensile) bonds which, in turn, may also fail and transmit the load downslope as compressive stresses. When soil internal compressive strength is exceeded, a load-bearing column may liquefy and initiate a landslide release that could propagate downslope or retrogressively upslope. The model reproduces observed power law frequency magnitude relationships of landslides with exponents ranging between -1.0 and -2.2 in agreement with landslide inventory data. We applied a criticality measure defined by Ramos (2011) to evaluate the specific influences of slope angle, soil texture, and root reinforcement on attainment of hillslope criticality in which a small local failure may trigger release of a large soil mass. The model provides new insights on the conditions giving rise to an abrupt transition from a seemingly stable hillslope to a catastrophic landslide.

  13. Tunneling splitting in double-proton transfer: Direct diagonalization results for porphycene

    SciTech Connect

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-11-07

    Zero-point and excited level splittings due to double-proton tunneling are calculated for porphycene and the results are compared with experiment. The calculation makes use of a multidimensional imaginary-mode Hamiltonian, diagonalized directly by an effective reduction of its dimensionality. Porphycene has a complex potential energy surface with nine stationary configurations that allow a variety of tunneling paths, many of which include classically accessible regions. A symmetry-based approach is used to show that the zero-point level, although located above the cis minimum, corresponds to concerted tunneling along a direct trans − trans path; a corresponding cis − cis path is predicted at higher energy. This supports the conclusion of a previous paper [Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174513 (2007)] based on the instanton approach to a model Hamiltonian of correlated double-proton transfer. A multidimensional tunneling Hamiltonian is then generated, based on a double-minimum potential along the coordinate of concerted proton motion, which is newly evaluated at the RI-CC2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. To make it suitable for diagonalization, its dimensionality is reduced by treating fast weakly coupled modes in the adiabatic approximation. This results in a coordinate-dependent mass of tunneling, which is included in a unique Hermitian form into the kinetic energy operator. The reduced Hamiltonian contains three symmetric and one antisymmetric mode coupled to the tunneling mode and is diagonalized by a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm implemented in the Jadamilu software for sparse matrices. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the observed splitting of the zero-point level and several vibrational fundamentals after a partial reassignment, imposed by recently derived selection rules. They also agree well with instanton calculations based on the same Hamiltonian.

  14. Targeting CD20+ Aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by Anti-CD20 CAR mRNA-Modified Expanded Natural Killer Cells In Vitro and in NSG Mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yaya; Hochberg, Jessica; Yahr, Ashlin; Ayello, Janet; van de Ven, Carmella; Barth, Matthew; Czuczman, Myron; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2015-04-01

    The prognosis is very dismal for patients with relapsed CD20(+) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Facilitating the development of alternative novel therapeutic strategies is required to improve outcomes in patients with recurrent/refractory CD20(+) B-NHL. In this study, we investigated functional activities of anti-CD20 CAR-modified, expanded peripheral blood NK cells (exPBNK) following mRNA nucleofection against CD20(+) B-NHL in vitro and in vivo. CAR(+) exPBNK had significantly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity, compared with CAR(-) exPBNK against CD20(+) Ramos (P < 0.05), Daudi, Raji, and two rituximab-resistant cell lines, Raji-2R and Raji-4RH (P < 0.001). As expected, there was no significant difference against CD20(-) RS4;11 and Jurkat cells. CD107a degranulation and intracellular IFNγ production were also enhanced in CAR(+) exPBNK in response to CD20(+) B-NHL -: specific stimulation. In Raji-Luc and Raji-2R-Luc xenografted NOD/SCID/γ-chain(-/-) (NSG) mice, the luciferase signals measured in the CAR(+) exPBNK-treated group were significantly reduced, compared with the signals measured in the untreated mice and in mice treated with the CAR(-) exPBNK. Furthermore, the CAR exPBNK-treated mice had significantly extended survival time (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor size, compared with those of the untreated and the CAR(-) exPBNK-treated mice (P < 0.05). These preclinical data suggest that ex vivo-exPBNK modified with anti-CD20 CAR may have therapeutic potential for treating patients with poor-risk CD20(+) hematologic malignancies.

  15. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Maldonado, Jesús E; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D; Martínez-C, Juan M; Rutter, Amy R; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Garcia, Franger J; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics.

  16. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsunaka, Misae; Arai, Reina; Ohashi, Ayaka; Koyama, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox) led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia), and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27504186

  17. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D.; Martínez-C., Juan M.; Rutter, Amy R.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Garcia, Franger J.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID

  18. Ultrasensitive electrochemical analysis of two analytes by using an autonomous DNA machine that works in a two-cycle mode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Fang, Congcong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2011-06-27

    We report a novel autonomous DNA machine for amplified electrochemical analysis of two DNAs. The DNA machine operates in a two-cycle working mode to amplify DNA recognition events; the working mode is assisted by two different nicking endonucleases (NEases). Two bio-barcode probes, a ZnS nanoparticle (NP)-DNA probe and a CdS NP-DNA probe, were used to trace two target DNAs. The detection system was based on a sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) method for the simultaneous detection of Zn(II) and Cd(II) tracers, which were obtained by dissolving the two probes. Under the optimised conditions, detection limits as low as 5.6×10(-17) (3σ) and 4.1×10(-17)  M (3σ) for the two target DNAs were achieved. It has been proven that the DNA machine system can simultaneously amplify two target DNAs by more than four orders of magnitude within 30 min at room temperature. In addition, in combination with an aptamer recognition strategy, the DNA machine was further used in the aptamer-based amplification analysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lysozyme. With the amplification of the DNA machine, detection limits as low as 5.6×10(-9)  M (3σ) for ATP and 5.2×10(-13)  M (3σ) for lysozyme were simultaneously obtained. The satisfactory determination of ATP and lysozyme in Ramos cells reveals the good selectivity and feasibility of this protocol. The DNA machine is a promising tool for ultrasensitive and simultaneous multianalysis because of its remarkable signal amplification and simple machine-like operation.

  19. Photochemically enhanced binding of small molecules to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 inhibits the binding of TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Carter, P H; Scherle, P A; Muckelbauer, J K; Voss, M E; Liu, R Q; Thompson, L A; Tebben, A J; Solomon, K A; Lo, Y C; Li, Z; Strzemienski, P; Yang, G; Falahatpisheh, N; Xu, M; Wu, Z; Farrow, N A; Ramnarayan, K; Wang, J; Rideout, D; Yalamoori, V; Domaille, P; Underwood, D J; Trzaskos, J M; Friedman, S M; Newton, R C; Decicco, C P; Muckelbauer, J A

    2001-10-09

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to the type-1 TNF receptor (TNFRc1) plays an important role in inflammation. Despite the clinical success of biologics (antibodies, soluble receptors) for treating TNF-based autoimmune conditions, no potent small molecule antagonists have been developed. Our screening of chemical libraries revealed that N-alkyl 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. After chemical optimization, we discovered IW927, which potently disrupted the binding of TNF-alpha to TNFRc1 (IC(50) = 50 nM) and also blocked TNF-stimulated phosphorylation of Ikappa-B in Ramos cells (IC(50) = 600 nM). This compound did not bind detectably to the related cytokine receptors TNFRc2 or CD40, and did not display any cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 100 microM. Detailed evaluation of this and related molecules revealed that compounds in this class are "photochemically enhanced" inhibitors, in that they bind reversibly to the TNFRc1 with weak affinity (ca. 40-100 microM) and then covalently modify the receptor via a photochemical reaction. We obtained a crystal structure of IV703 (a close analog of IW927) bound to the TNFRc1. This structure clearly revealed that one of the aromatic rings of the inhibitor was covalently linked to the receptor through the main-chain nitrogen of Ala-62, a residue that has already been implicated in the binding of TNF-alpha to the TNFRc1. When combined with the fact that our inhibitors are reversible binders in light-excluded conditions, the results of the crystallography provide the basis for the rational design of nonphotoreactive inhibitors of the TNF-alpha-TNFRc1 interaction.

  20. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Design: Representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. Interventions: None. Measurements: Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration ≥ 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: ≥ 6 h of sleep (“normal sleep duration”) and < 6 h of sleep (“short sleep duration”). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. Results: No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Conclusions: Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the “executive control of attention.” These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Calhoun S; Bixler EO; Pejovic S; Karataraki M; Liao D; Vela-Bueno A; Ramos-Platon MJ; Sauder KA; Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with

  1. Evidence of Subthalamic PGO-like Waves During REM Sleep in Humans: A Deep Brain Polysomnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mendoza, Julio; Lozano, Beatriz; Seijo, Fernando; Santamarta-Liébana, Elena; Ramos-Platón, Maria José; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fernández-González, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a role in the transmission of PGO-like waves during REM sleep in humans. Design: Simultaneous recordings from deep brain electrodes to record local field potentials (LFPs), and standard polysomnography to ascertain sleep/wake states. Setting: Main Hospital, department of clinical neurophysiology sleep laboratory. Participants: 12 individuals with Parkinson's disease, with electrodes implanted in the STN; and, as a control for localization purposes, 4 cluster headache patients with electrodes implanted in the posterior hypothalamus. Interventions: All subjects underwent functional neurosurgery for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Results: Sharp, polarity-reversed LFPs were recorded within the STN during REM sleep in humans. These subthalamic PGO-like waves (2–3 Hz, 80–200 μV, and 300–500 msec) appeared during REM epochs as singlets or in clusters of 3–13 waves. During the pre-REM period, subthalamic PGO-like waves were temporally related to drops in the submental electromyogram and/or onset of muscular atonia. Clusters of PGO-like waves occurred typically before and during the bursts of rapid eye movements and were associated with an enhancement in fast (15–35 Hz) subthalamic oscillatory activity. Conclusion: Subthalamic PGO-like waves can be recorded during pre-REM and REM sleep in humans. Our data suggest that the STN may play an active role in an ascending activating network implicated in the transmission of PGO waves during REM sleep in humans. Citation: Fernández-Mendoza J; Lozano B; Seijo F; Santamarta-Liébana E; Ramos-Platón MJ; Vela-Bueno A; Fernández-González F. Evidence of subthalamic PGO-like waves during REM sleep in humans: a deep brain polysomnographic study. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1117-1126. PMID:19750916

  2. A Testing Ground for Polarized Maser Transport: Multi-Epoch Analysis of a π/2 Electric Vector Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Taylor; Kemball, Athol J.

    2017-01-01

    The near circumstellar environment (NCSE) around Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars is chaotic, exhibiting shocks, turbulence, velocity gradients, and a potentially dynamically significant magnetic field (Vlemmings et al. 2005). Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) of masers emanating from these environments can provide sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution of the NCSE (Kemball 2002). Solidifying the origin of the polarization in these masers may be the key to understanding the magnitude and behavior of these stars' magnetic fields (eg. Goldreich et al. 1973; Elitzur 1996). However, other theories of polarized maser transport do not rely heavily on the magnetic field; some are more dependent on anisotropic pumping (Elitzur 1996; Watson 2009) or anisotropic resonant scattering (Asensio Ramos et al. 2005; Houde 2014). One optimal test of these theories is their ability to account for a π/2 rotation of the Electric Vector Position Angle (EVPA) observed in some maser features. The profile of linear polarization across such a feature varies with the generating mechanism. In this study, we utilize multi-epoch observations of ν=1, J=1-0 SiO maser emission around TX Cam (Diamond & Kemball 2003; Kemball et al. 2009; Gonidakis et al. 2010) to analyze a single feature with a π/2 rotation that persisted for five epochs and compare it to the behavior expected according to various theories of maser polarization. In addition, we analyze the low levels of circular polarization - now achievable due to recent improvements in millimeter-wavelength circular polarization reduction (Kemball & Richter 2011) - and compare their correlation with other parameters to further test these polarization generation theories.

  3. Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

    2008-05-01

    A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe” is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades” by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets” with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

  4. Ability of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to overcome interacting stresses in tropical environments

    PubMed Central

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Single stressors such as scarcity of water and extreme temperatures dominate the struggle for life in severely dry desert ecosystems or cold polar regions and at high elevations. In contrast, stress in the tropics typically arises from a dynamic network of interacting stressors, such as availability of water, CO2, light and nutrients, temperature and salinity. This requires more plastic spatio-temporal responsiveness and versatility in the acquisition and defence of ecological niches. Crassulacean acid metabolism The mode of photosynthesis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is described and its flexible expression endows plants with powerful strategies for both acclimation and adaptation. Thus, CAM plants are able to inhabit many diverse habitats in the tropics and are not, as commonly thought, successful predominantly in dry, high-insolation habitats. Tropical CAM habitats Typical tropical CAM habitats or ecosystems include exposed lava fields, rock outcrops of inselbergs, salinas, savannas, restingas, high-altitude páramos, dry forests and moist forests. Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM phenotypes allow a wide ecophysiological amplitude of niche occupation in the tropics. Physiological and biochemical plasticity appear more responsive by having more readily reversible variations in performance than do morphological adaptations. This makes CAM plants particularly fit for the multi-factor stressor networks of tropical forests. Thus, while the physiognomy of semi-deserts outside the tropics is often determined by tall succulent CAM plants, tropical forests house many more CAM plants in terms of quantity (biomass) and quality (species diversity). PMID:22476063

  5. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: which method is the most efficient?

    PubMed

    Maunoury, L; Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Dubois, M; Dupuis, M; Frigot, R; Grinyer, J; Jardin, P; Leboucher, C; Lamy, T

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  6. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunoury, L.; Delahaye, P.; Angot, J.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  7. Battle of the bedroom.

    PubMed

    1992-08-21

    The Philippine government's position on aggressive population management is in conflict with the Catholic Church's opposition to artificial means of birth control, particularly sterilization. The Episcopal Commission for Family Life plans to increase its campaign against contraception at their local level. The government effort through the Department of health will provide access to contraception in a network of 600 hospitals and 1500 rural health units. Government support comes from 2 Protestant churches, the Church of Christ, which is the largest independent church in the Philippines, and the United Church of Christ. Leaders of both churches gave the Minister of Health letters of support which stated that family planning (FP) was necessary to curb population growth which was too high, and China and Thailand are countries which are economically better off with population planning. The government position is similar to former President Corazon Aquino's. The new President, Fidel Ramos, is a protestant and wants economic prosperity for the Philippines; part of the formula for achieving economic growth is slowing population growth. There is limited resources in a sluggish economy and the push for zero population growth can be accomplished through effective contraception. The birth rate fuels poverty is the position of Juan Flavier, Health Secretary. Annual population growth is 2.3% and family size is 4.8/couple while agricultural growth is only 1%. The ideal family size recommended is 2 children/family. The Philippine Commission on Population in its 6-year plan is hoping to obtain 200 million in foreign aid and involve a larger network of nongovernmental organizations. Choice is the key component. Women need to be convinced that birth spacing will reduce maternal and infant mortality. Flavier has reassured Cardinal Jaime Sin of the Catholic Church that Natural methods or the rhythm method would be taught. Health experts argue that the discipline and sacrifice

  8. Novel designs of multivalent anti-CD20 humanized antibodies as improved lymphoma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Edmund A; Goldenberg, David M; Cardillo, Thomas M; Stein, Rhona; Wang, Yang; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2008-10-15

    Multivalent antibodies, either monospecific or bispecific, may improve the efficacy of current therapeutic interventions involving a single monoclonal antibody (mAb). We have applied the Dock-and-Lock (DNL) method, a new platform technology for the site-specific and covalent assembly of modular components into stably tethered complexes of defined composition, to prepare a hexavalent, anti-CD20 antibody, designated Hex-hA20, which comprises six Fabs with one Fc. We show that Hex-hA20 retains the binding activity of all six Fabs, associates with CD20 in lipid rafts, affects antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but not complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and inhibits proliferation of Daudi, Raji, and Ramos cells in vitro at subnanomolar concentrations without the need for a cross-linking antibody. In addition, Hex-hA20 induces strong homotypical adhesion and is inefficient in stimulating calcium mobilization. Thus, Hex-hA20 exhibits biological properties attributable to both type I and type II anti-CD20 mAbs, as exemplified by rituximab and tositumomab, respectively. Although Hex-hA20 has a short serum half-life, it shows antitumor efficacy in tumor-bearing mice comparable with veltuzumab at equivalent doses. The versatile DNL method was also applied to generate two other multivalent anti-CD20 antibodies without the Fc region, Tri-hA20 and Tetra-hA20, comprising three and four Fabs of veltuzumab, respectively. Similar to Hex-hA20, these were purified to near homogeneity and shown to have potent antiproliferative activity in vitro, thus indicating the need for clustering three or more CD20 molecules on the cell surface to induce growth inhibition.

  9. Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax δD in Modern Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, P. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Plant waxes are preserved over geologic timescales, and are found in diverse ancient sediments and soils. Observations that these molecules have hydrogen isotopic signatures that can be systematically related to that of modern precipitation have fueled aspirations to reconstruct ancient precipitation δD values. However, molecular isotopic signatures also reflect climate and plant physiological factors, and until better understood, these limit our ability to quantitatively interpret sedimentary lipid records. To advance our understanding of the influence of both ecosystem flora and climate (especially aridity) at the field scale, we analyzed the deuterium content of plant-waxes from sediments in 28 modern lakes located in watersheds which receive precipitation with a wide range of δD values, and are characterized by distinct vegetation types and regional climates. We found that the apparent isotopic fractionation (ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were: -125 ± 5 ‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130 ‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9 ‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6 ‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lakewater isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands vs. forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0 to 2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax

  10. Effect of cationic side-chains on intracellular delivery and cytotoxicity of pH sensitive polymer-doxorubicin nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Kievit, Forrest M.; Cho, Yong-Chan; Mok, Hyejung; Press, Oliver W.; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-10-01

    Fine-tuning the design of polymer-doxorubicin conjugates permits optimization of an efficient nanocarrier to greatly increase intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Here, we report synthesis of a family of self-assembled polymer-doxorubicin nanoparticles and an evaluation of the effects of various types of side-chains on intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the nanocarriers for lymphoma cells. Monomers with three different cationic side-chains (CA) and pKa's, i.e., a guanidinium group (Ag), an imidazole group (Im), and a tertiary amine group (Dm), were comparatively investigated. The cationic monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and doxorubicin (Dox) were reacted with 1,4-(butanediol) diacrylate (BUDA) to prepare a poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer via Michael addition. All three polymer-Dox conjugates spontaneously formed nanoparticles (NP) through hydrophobic interactions between doxorubicin in aqueous solution, resulting in NP-Im/Dox, NP-Ag/Dox, and NP-Dm/Dox, with hydrodynamic sizes below 80 nm. Doxorubicin was linked to all 3 types of NPs with a hydrazone bond to assure selective release of doxorubicin only at acidic pH, as it occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Both NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox exhibited much higher intracellular uptake by Ramos cells (Burkitt's lymphoma) than NP-Dm/Dox, suggesting that the type of side chain in the NPs determines the extent of intracellular uptake. As a result, NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox showed cytotoxicity that was comparable to free Dox in vitro. Our findings suggest that the nature of surface cationic group on nanocarriers may profoundly influence their intracellular trafficking and resulting therapeutic efficacy. Thus, it is a crucial factor to be considered in the design of novel carriers for intracellular drug delivery.

  11. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata,Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given.

  12. Improvement and scale-down of a Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol to microtiter plates enables high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Kruithof, Paulien; Meier, Kristina; Sieben, Michaela; Antonov, Elena; Hommes, Ronald W J; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, high-throughput screening is essential for determining the best microbial strains and fermentation conditions. Although microtiter plates allow higher throughput in screening than shake flasks, they do not guarantee sufficient oxygen supply if operated at unsuitable conditions. This is especially the case in viscous fermentations, potentially leading to poor liquid movement and surface growth. Therefore, in this study, two aims were pursued. First, an industrial Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol is improved with respect to oxygen supply and production. Second, this improved shake flask protocol is scaled down into microtiter plate under consideration of similar oxygen supply. For this purpose, the respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) was applied. An approach based on a sulfite system was introduced to ensure equal maximum oxygen transfer capacities (OTRmax) in microtiter plates and shake flasks. OTRmax-values of 250 mL shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates were determined in a wide range of operating conditions. These sulfite datasets were used to identify operating conditions leading to the same oxygen supply for T. reesei in shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates. For 24-well microtiter plates, the shake flask OTRmax of 20 mmol/L/h of an industrial protocol was obtained under the following optimal operating conditions: 1 mL filling volume per well, 200 rpm shaking frequency and 50 mm shaking diameter. With these conditions almost identical oxygen transfer rates and product concentrations were measured in both scales. The proposed approach is a fast and accurate means to scale-down established screening procedures into microtiter plates to achieve high-throughput.

  13. MIF promotes B cell chemotaxis through the receptors CXCR4 and CD74 and ZAP-70 signaling.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Christina; Ohl, Kim; Sternkopf, Marieke; Shachar, Idit; Schmitz, Corinna; Heussen, Nicole; Hobeika, Elias; Levit-Zerdoun, Ella; Tenbrock, Klaus; Reth, Michael; Bernhagen, Jürgen; El Bounkari, Omar

    2014-06-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine with chemokine-like functions that plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases by promoting leukocyte recruitment. We showed that MIF promotes the atherogenic recruitment of monocytes and T cells through its receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4. Effects of MIF on B cell recruitment have not been addressed. In this study, we tested the involvement of MIF in B cell chemotaxis and studied the underlying mechanism. We show that MIF promotes primary murine B cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to the B cell chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL12. Splenic B cells express CXCR4 and the receptor CD74 but not CXCR2. Inhibition of CXCR4 or CD74 or a genetic deficiency of Cd74 in primary B cells fully abrogated MIF-mediated B cell migration, implying cooperative involvement of both receptors. MIF stimulation of B cells resulted in a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and F-actin polymerization. Intriguingly, the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 was activated upon MIF and CXCL12 treatment in a CXCR4- and CD74-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of ZAP-70 resulted in abrogation of primary B cell migration. Functional involvement of ZAP-70 was confirmed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in Ramos B cell migration. Finally, primary B cells from ZAP-70 gene-deficient mice exhibited ablated transmigration in response to MIF or CXCL12. We conclude that MIF promotes the migration of B cells through a ZAP-70-dependent pathway mediated by cooperative engagement of CXCR4 and CD74. The data also suggest that MIF may contribute to B cell recruitment in vivo (e.g., in B cell-related immune disorders).

  14. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  15. Field-controlled spin-density-wave order and quantum critically in Sr3 Ru2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Stephen

    The quasi-2D metamagnetic perovskite metal Sr3Ru2O7 has been an enigma for the last decade. The application of a large magnetic field of 8T parallel to the c-axis creates a new phase at low temperatures. This phase shows ``electronic nematic'' properties in that strong anisotropy its resistivity can be created by tilting the field away from the c-axis. In addition, measurement of transport and thermodynamic properties suggest that the phase is at the centre of a quantum critical region. Here we use neutron scattering to show that the magnetic field actually induces spin-density-wave magnetic order in the proximity of a metamagnetic critical endpoint. In fact, Sr3Ru2O7 can be tuned through two magnetically-ordered SDW states which exist over relatively small ranges in field (< 0.4 T). Their origin is probably due to the electronic fine structure near the Fermi energy. The magnetic field direction is shown to control the SDW domain populations which naturally explains the strong resistivity anisotropy or ''electronic nematic'' behaviour observed in this material. We find that Sr3Ru2O7 is also unique in that its the quantum critical region is controlled by overdamped incommensurate low-energy spin fluctuations with a diverging relaxation time. The low-energy electronic properties reflect the presence of these fluctuations and, in particular, the field-dependent low-temperature specific heat is proportional to the spin relaxation rate. [Based on C. Lester, S. Ramos, R. S. Perry at el. Natural Materials 14, 373 (2015).

  16. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Induces Tumoricidal Effects on Lymphoma Cells Through Hydrogen Peroxide Mediation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao Daniel; Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Bongso, Ariff

    2016-09-01

    Several groups have reported that human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) possess unique tumoricidal properties against many cancers. However, the exact mechanisms as to how hWJSCs inhibit tumor growth are not known. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of cancer cells to high hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels from H2 O2 -releasing drugs causes their death. We therefore explored whether the tumoricidal effect of hWJSCs on lymphoma cells was mediated via H2 O2 . We first exposed lymphoma cells to six different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) concentrates of hWJSC-conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) (3, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 kDa) for 48 h. Since, the 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate showed the greatest cell inhibition we then investigated whether the tumoricidal effect of the specific 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate on two different lymphoma cell lines (Ramos and Toledo) was mediated via accumulation of H2 O2 . We used a battery of assays (MTT, propidium iodide, mitochondria membrane potential, apoptosis, cell cycle, oxidative stress enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation) to test this mechanism. The hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate significantly decreased cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell death and apoptosis in both lymphoma cell lines. There were significant increases in superoxide dismutase with concomitant decreases in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and thioredoxin peroxidase activities. H2 O2 levels, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation were also significantly increased in both lymphoma cell lines. The results suggested that the hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate regulates cellular H2 O2 leading to a tumoricidal effect and may thus be a promising anti-lymphoma agent. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2045-2055, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Computational modeling of fully-ionized, magnetized plasmas using the fluid approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnack, Dalton

    2005-10-01

    Strongly magnetized plasmas are rich in spatial and temporal scales, making a computational approach useful for studying these systems. The most accurate model of a magnetized plasma is based on a kinetic equation that describes the evolution of the distribution function for each species in six-dimensional phase space. However, the high dimensionality renders this approach impractical for computations for long time scales in relevant geometry. Fluid models, derived by taking velocity moments of the kinetic equation [1] and truncating (closing) the hierarchy at some level, are an approximation to the kinetic model. The reduced dimensionality allows a wider range of spatial and/or temporal scales to be explored. Several approximations have been used [2-5]. Successful computational modeling requires understanding the ordering and closure approximations, the fundamental waves supported by the equations, and the numerical properties of the discretization scheme. We review and discuss several ordering schemes, their normal modes, and several algorithms that can be applied to obtain a numerical solution. The implementation of kinetic parallel closures is also discussed [6].[1] S. Chapman and T.G. Cowling, ``The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases'', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1939).[2] R.D. Hazeltine and J.D. Meiss, ``Plasma Confinement'', Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City, CA (1992).[3] L.E. Sugiyama and W. Park, Physics of Plasmas 7, 4644 (2000).[4] J.J. Ramos, Physics of Plasmas, 10, 3601 (2003).[5] P.J. Catto and A.N. Simakov, Physics of Plasmas, 11, 90 (2004).[6] E.D. Held et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2419 (2004)

  18. Principles in wireless building health monitoring systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Makris, J. P.; Stonham, J.; Vallianatos, F.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the structural state of a building is essential for the safety of the people who work, live, visit or just use it as well as for the civil protection of urban areas. Many factors can affect the state of the health of a structure, namely man made, like mistakes in the construction, traffic, heavy loads on the structures, explosions, environmental impacts like wind loads, humidity, chemical reactions, temperature changes and saltiness, and natural hazards like earthquakes and landslides. Monitoring the health of a structure provides the ability to anticipate structural failures and secure the safe use of buildings especially those of public services. This work reviews the state of the art and the challenges of a wireless Structural Health Monitoring (WiSHM). Literature review reveals that although there is significant evolution in wireless structural health monitoring, in many cases, monitoring by itself is not enough to predict when a structure becomes inappropriate and/or unsafe for use, and the damage or low durability of a structure cannot be revealed (Chintalapudi, et al., 2006; Ramos, Aguilar, & Lourenço, 2011). Several features and specifications of WiSHM like wireless sensor networking, reliability and autonomy of sensors, algorithms of data transmission and analysis should still be evolved and improved in order to increase the predictive effectiveness of the SHM (Jinping Ou & Hui Li, 2010; Lu & Loh, 2010) . Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the ARCHEMEDES III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) ».

  19. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  20. Effects of mTOR and calcineurin inhibitors combined therapy in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wowro, Sylvia J; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Tong, Giang; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a severe complication in solid organ transplant recipients, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in pediatric patients and occasionally presents as Burkitt- or Burkitt-like lymphoma. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been described as a possible antitumor target whose inhibition may influence lymphoma development and proliferation after pediatric transplantation. We treated Epstein-Barr virus positive (Raji and Daudi) and negative (Ramos) human Burkitt lymphoma derived cells with mTOR inhibitor everolimus alone and in combination with clinically relevant immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin A). Cell proliferation, toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolic activity were analyzed. The effect on mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets p70 S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, and S6 ribosomal protein activation was also investigated. We observed that treatment with everolimus alone significantly decreased Burkitt lymphoma cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin A had a stronger suppressive effect in Epstein-Barr virus negative but not in Epstein-Barr virus positive cells. In contrast, tacrolimus completely abolished the everolimus-mediated suppressive effects. Moreover, we showed a significant decrease in activation of mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets after treatment with everolimus that was attenuated when combined with tacrolimus, but not with cyclosporin A. For the first time we showed the competitive effect between everolimus and tacrolimus when used as combination therapy on Burkitt lymphoma derived cells. Thus, according to our in vitro data, the combination of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A with everolimus is preferred to the combination of tacrolimus and everolimus.

  1. Sonographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis().

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, D; Falcini, F; Kaloudi, O; Bandinelli, F; Nacci, F; Matucci Cerinic, M

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: L'artrite Idiopatica giovanile (AIG) determina alterazioni a carico della testa condilare dell'articolazione temporomandibolare (ATM). Nell'esordio oligo-articolare (OA) l'interessamento dell'ATM viene spesso trascurato perchè può essere asintomatico. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare la presenza di versamento intrarticolare (V) dell'ATM, mediante esame ecografico (US), nelle fasi precoci di malattia. MATERIALE E METODI: Sono stati studiati 68 bambini (57 bambine e 11 bambini, di età compresa tra 9,1 e 16, anni, età media: 11,02 ± 4,2 mesi) con AIG ad esordio OA. I pazienti (pz) erano sintomatici quando uno dei quattro sintomi seguenti era presente: 1) dolore ricorrente (a riposo o durante il movimento di apertura della bocca); 2) presenza di scrosci articolari; 3) presenza di limitazione nell'apertura della bocca; 4) locking intermittente. US è stato eseguito su entrambe le ATM sia in fase statica che dinamica, mediante ecografo General Electric (LOGIQ7) con sonda lineare (8,5 MHz) posizionata lungo l'asse maggiore del ramo condilare. Il V era presente quando lo spessore della capsula articolare era ≥1,5 mm. RISULTATI: 46/68 (68%) hanno presentato V a carico delle ATM; in 16 (35%) il V era bilaterale. 2/46 con V erano sintomatici, mentre in 44 non erano presenti sintomi. CONCLUSIONI: Questi dati suggeriscono che un'alta percentuale di bambini e giovani adulti con AIG ad esordio OA, nella fase iniziale della malattia, presenta un interessamento flogistico delle ATM anche in assenza di sintomi. L'US, non invasivo e facilmente ripetibile, ci offre importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento articolare delle ATM ed è risultato utile nella diagnosi all'esordio.

  2. Implications of mitochondrial DNA polyphyly in two ecologically undifferentiated but morphologically distinct migratory birds, the masked and white-browed woodswallows Artamus spp. of inland Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Leo; Wilke, Thomas; Ten Have, Jose; Chesser, R. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The white-browed woodswallow Artamus superciliosus and masked woodswallow A. personatus(Passeriformes: Artamidae) are members of Australia's diverse arid- and semi-arid zone avifauna. Widely sympatric and among Australia's relatively few obligate long-distance temperate-tropical migrants, the two are well differentiated morphologically but not ecologically and vocally. They are pair breeders unlike other Artamus species, which are at least facultative cooperative breeders. For these reasons they are an excellent case in which to use molecular data in integrative study of their evolution from ecological and biogeographical perspectives. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to test whether they are each other's closest relatives, whether they evolved migration independently, whether they have molecular signatures of population expansions like some other Australian arid zone birds, and to estimate the timing of any inferred population expansions. Their mtDNAs are monophyletic with respect to other species of Artamusbut polyphyletic with respect to each other. The two species appear not to have evolved migration independently of each other but their morphological and mtDNA evolution have been strongly decoupled. Some level of hybridization and introgression cannot be dismissed outright as being involved in their mtDNA polyphyly but incomplete sorting of their most recent common ancestor's mtDNA is a simpler explanation consistent with their ecology. Bayesian phylogenetic inference and analyses of diversity within the two species (n=77) with conventional diversity statistics, statistical parsimony, and tests for population expansion vs stability (Tajima's D, Fu's Fsand Ramos-Onsin and Rozas's R2) all favour recent population increases. However, a non-starlike network suggests expansion(s) relatively early in the Pleistocene. Repeated population bottlenecks corresponding with multiple peaks of Pleistocene aridity could explain our findings, which add a new

  3. Ellipticals: core-Sérsic vs Nuker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2004-12-01

    HST has given the first look at elliptical galaxies on scales <1". Lauer et al (1995) used the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC -1) to map the intensity of light I(r) in the inner 10" of 45 type E and S0 galaxies. They discovered that about 40% of the 39 ellipticals could not be described by a single power law. These galaxies have a core region where the power law I ∝ r-γ is less steep than the outer region I ∝ r-β . The resulting Nuker law allows for a smooth transition between these regions at a break radius rb. The physical rb varies widely: 30 pc < rb < 1200 pc. Rest et al (2001) used WFPC -2 to confirm the original WFPC -1 results with additional galaxies. Using the full WFPC -2 mosaic, Trujillo, Erwin, Ramos, and Graham (2004) have extended the angular range of Rest et al by a factor between 3 and 8. They find that the extended outer region is incompatible with a Nuker law. Rather the power law for the outer region must be replaced by the Sérsic law, I(r) ∝ e-bn r1/n. They also find that the break radius is generally much reduced. Their published study of 9 core-Sérsic galaxies has 20 pc< rb <150 pc. The new range of rb fits well within 1 wavelength λ of the non-Newtonian sinusoidal gravity. Here the potential of a point mass is GM cos(2 π r/λ )/r and λ =425 pc. (Bartlett 2001, 2004). With this gravity, the potential towards the center of any spherical mass distribution varies as ± sin(2 π r/λ )/r. I identify the + sign with the core-Sérsic galaxies and the - sign with the pure Sérsic galaxies. I will relate Sérsic's n to cosmological time t.

  4. On-chip gradient generation in 256 microfluidic cell cultures: simulation and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Somaweera, Himali; Haputhanthri, Shehan O; Ibraguimov, Akif; Pappas, Dimitri

    2015-08-07

    A microfluidic diffusion diluter was used to create a stable concentration gradient for dose response studies. The microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study consisted of 128 culture chambers on each side of the main fluidic channel. A calibration method was used to find unknown concentrations with 12% error. Flow rate dependent studies showed that changing the flow rates generated different gradient patterns. Mathematical simulations using COMSOL Multi-physics were performed to validate the experimental data. The experimental data obtained for the flow rate studies agreed with the simulation results. Cells could be loaded into culture chambers using vacuum actuation and cultured for long times under low shear stress. Decreasing the size of the culture chambers resulted in faster gradient formation (20 min). Mass transport into the side channels of the microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study is an important factor in creating the gradient using diffusional mixing as a function of the distance. To demonstrate the device's utility, an H2O2 gradient was generated while culturing Ramos cells. Cell viability was assayed in the 256 culture chambers, each at a discrete H2O2 concentration. As expected, the cell viability for the high concentration side channels increased (by injecting H2O2) whereas the cell viability in the low concentration side channels decreased along the chip due to diffusional mixing as a function of distance. COMSOL simulations were used to identify the effective concentration of H2O2 for cell viability in each side chamber at 45 min. The gradient effects were confirmed using traditional H2O2 culture experiments. Viability of cells in the microfluidic device under gradient conditions showed a linear relationship with the viability of the traditional culture experiment. Development of the microfluidic device used in this study could be used to study hundreds of concentrations of a compound in a single experiment.

  5. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  6. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata, Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  7. Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

  8. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    SciTech Connect

    Maunoury, L. Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.

    2014-02-15

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO{sub 2}), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  9. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Tunneling splitting in double-proton transfer: Direct diagonalization results for porphycene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Zero-point and excited level splittings due to double-proton tunneling are calculated for porphycene and the results are compared with experiment. The calculation makes use of a multidimensional imaginary-mode Hamiltonian, diagonalized directly by an effective reduction of its dimensionality. Porphycene has a complex potential energy surface with nine stationary configurations that allow a variety of tunneling paths, many of which include classically accessible regions. A symmetry-based approach is used to show that the zero-point level, although located above the cis minimum, corresponds to concerted tunneling along a direct trans - trans path; a corresponding cis - cis path is predicted at higher energy. This supports the conclusion of a previous paper [Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174513 (2007)] based on the instanton approach to a model Hamiltonian of correlated double-proton transfer. A multidimensional tunneling Hamiltonian is then generated, based on a double-minimum potential along the coordinate of concerted proton motion, which is newly evaluated at the RI-CC2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. To make it suitable for diagonalization, its dimensionality is reduced by treating fast weakly coupled modes in the adiabatic approximation. This results in a coordinate-dependent mass of tunneling, which is included in a unique Hermitian form into the kinetic energy operator. The reduced Hamiltonian contains three symmetric and one antisymmetric mode coupled to the tunneling mode and is diagonalized by a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm implemented in the Jadamilu software for sparse matrices. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the observed splitting of the zero-point level and several vibrational fundamentals after a partial reassignment, imposed by recently derived selection rules. They also agree well with instanton calculations based on the same Hamiltonian.

  11. Toward Design Principles for Diffusionless Transformations: The Frustrated Formation of Co-Co Bonds in a Low-Temperature Polymorph of GdCoSi2.

    PubMed

    Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-06-20

    Diffusionless (or displacive) phase transitions allow inorganic materials to show exquisite responsiveness to external stimuli, as is illustrated vividly by the superelasticity, shape memory, and magnetocaloric effects exhibited by martensitic materials. In this Article, we present a new diffusionless transition in the compound GdCoSi2, whose origin in frustrated bonding points toward generalizable design principles for these transformations. We first describe the synthesis of GdCoSi2 and the determination of its structure using single crystal X-ray diffraction. While previous studies based on powder X-ray diffraction assigned this compound to the simple CeNi1-xSi2 structure type (space group Cmcm), our structure solution reveals a superstructure variant (space group Pbcm) in which the Co sublattice is distorted to create zigzag chains of Co atoms. DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, coupled with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis, trace this superstructure to the use of Co-Co isolobal bonds to complete filled 18 electron configurations on the Co atoms, in accordance with the 18-n rule. The formation of these Co-Co bonds is partially impeded, however, by a small degree of electron transfer from Si-based electronic states to those with Co-Co σ* character. The incomplete success of Co-Co bond creation suggests that these interactions are relatively weak, opening the possibility of them being overcome by thermal energy at elevated temperatures. In fact, high-temperature powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction data, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, indicate that a reversible Pbcm to Cmcm transition occurs at about 380 K. This transition is diffusionless, and the available data point toward it being first-order. We expect that similar cases of frustrated interactions could be staged in other rare earth-transition metal-main group phases, providing a potentially rich source of compounds exhibiting diffusionless transformations

  12. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  13. Iron starvation and culture age activate metacaspases and programmed cell death in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D; Bender, Sara J

    2008-02-01

    In the modern ocean, phytoplankton maintain extremely high primary production/biomass ratios, indicating that they bloom, die, and are replaced weekly. The molecular mechanisms regulating cellular mortality and turnover are largely unknown, even though they effectively short-circuit carbon export to the deep ocean and channel primary productivity to microbial food webs. Here, we present morphological, biochemical, and molecular evidence of caspase-mediated, autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in response to iron starvation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed internal degradation of nuclear, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial organelles, all while the plasma membranes remained intact. Cellular degradation was concomitant with dramatic decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and significantly elevated caspase-specific activity, with the addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor rescuing cells from death. A search of the T. pseudonana genome identified six distinct putative metacaspases containing a conserved caspase domain structure. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed differential gene and protein expression of T. pseudonana metacaspases, some of which correlated with physiological stress and caspase activity. Taken together with the recent discovery of the metacaspase-mediated viral infection of phytoplankton (K. D. Bidle, L. Haramaty, J. Barcelos-Ramos, and P. G. Falkowski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:6049-6054, 2007), our findings reveal a key role for metacaspases in the turnover of phytoplankton biomass in the oceans. Furthermore, given that Fe is required for photosynthetic electron transfer and is chronically limiting in a variety of oceanic systems, including high-nutrient low-chlorophyll regions, our findings provide a potential ecological context for PCD in these unicellular photoautotrophs.

  14. Evaluation of local adaptation strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldón, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Inés Mínguez, M.; Dosio, Alessandro; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2013-04-01

    grain filling period with the consequent reduction in yield (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011) and with the supraoptimal temperatures in pollination. Finally, results of simulated impacts and adaptations were compared to previous studies done without bias correction of climatic projections, at low resolution and with previous versions of crop models (Mínguez et al., 2007). This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE - JPI) of EU and is financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Jones, C.A., and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. Mínguez, M.I., M. Ruiz-ramos, C.H. Díaz-Ambrona, and M. Quemada. 2007. First-order impacts on winter and summer crops assessed with various high-resolution climate models in the Iberian Peninsula. Climatic Change 81: 343-355. Ruiz-Ramos, M., E. Sanchez, C. Galllardo, and M.I. Minguez. 2011. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11: 3275-3291. Stockle, C.O., M. Donatelli, and R. Nelson. 2003. CropSyst , a cropping systems simulation model. European Journal of Agronomy18: 289-307.

  15. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  16. [Diabetes Knowledge Test Feasibility in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Constança; Santiago, Luiz

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: Dada a crescente incidência da diabetes tipo 2 e considerando que parte do seu controlo se deve à atitude do pacienteface à doença, torna-se importante munir os profissionais de saúde com ferramentas capazes de determinar as carências educacionais dos utentes, permitindo uma intervenção mais personalizada na correção de hábitos nocivos. Objetivos: Verificação da fiabilidade da Escala de Conhecimentos da Diabetes em Portugal. Análise e correlação das diferentes variáveis sociodemográficas e patológicas com o número de respostas corretas. Material e Métodos: Aplicação da escala a uma amostra de conveniência de diabéticos tipo 2 do Centro de Saúde da Covilhã.Resultados: Na generalidade, as questões obtiveram um valor de alfa de Cronbach > 0,800. Diabéticos com melhores resultados demonstraram maior controlo, estabelecendo uma relação positiva entre o conhecimento e o controlo da diabetes. Apenas 9,2% dos diabéticos apresentou bom conhecimento sobre a doença, sendo que a maioria (65,8%) demonstrou um conhecimento mediano. Os insulinotratados exibiram os piores resultados (77,6% com baixo conhecimento). As variáveis ‘via de tratamento’ e ‘complicações’ demonstraram ter impacto no desempenho obtido no questionário (valores p iguais a 0,00 e 0,048, respetivamente). Os diabéticos rurais, os sem complicações e os não insulinotratados revelaram-se os mais cumpridores e conhecedores. Discussão: Contrariando estudos anteriores, variáveis como a idade e o grau de escolaridade não demonstraram influenciar o conhecimentodo diabético. Habitantes do meio rural e diabéticos tratados oralmente obtiveram melhores resultados do que o que havia sido defendido previamente. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se a fidelidade psicométrica moderada a elevada do teste, assim como uma correlação positiva entre o controloda diabetes e o desempenho no inquérito. Espera-se que a sua futura aplicação possibilite identificar as

  17. Off-Label and Unlicensed Drug Use in Neonatology: Reality in a Portuguese University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joana; Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Soares, Henrique; Guimarães, Hercília

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Este estudo pretende caracterizar os medicamentos usados numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais portuguesa, avaliar a frequência do uso de fármacos off-label ou não licenciados de acordo com a informação disponível no Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento e comparar resultados entre recém-nascidos prematuros e de termo.Material e Métodos: Um estudo retrospetivo transversal foi conduzido na nossa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais no primeiro semestre de 2013. Os dados das prescrições realizadas foram comparados com a informação pediátrica contida nos Resumos das Caraterísticas do Medicamento.Resultados: Analisámos 1011 prescrições respeitantes a 84 substâncias ativas, feitas em 218 admissões. Em 42,9% dos casos, os fármacos foram usados de acordo com a informação do Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento; 27,9% dos fármacos eram aprovados para o período neonatal mas usados de forma off-label; medicamentos off-label para a idade neonatal foram usados em 10,1%, enquanto aqueles com estado de aprovação indeterminado ou contraindicados foram usados em 6,0% e 8,7% dos casos, respetivamente. As prescrições não licenciadas representaram 4,4% do total. Os recém-nascidos pré-termo receberam uma taxa superiorde fármacos usados de acordo com o Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento (p < 0,0001), enquanto os de termo receberam mais fármacos off-label para dose/frequência (p < 0,0001) e contraindicados para recém-nascidos (p < 0,012).Discussão: Os prematuros receberam um número mediano de fármacos superior, o que se relaciona com o seu internamento mais prolongado. A principal razão para prescrições off-label foi a utilização de doses/frequências de administração diferentes das referidas no Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento, reforçando a necessidade de atualização destes documentos. A manipulação dosmedicamentos é uma das causas para o seu uso não licenciado, enfatizando a falta de

  18. [Long-term home oxygen therapy in children: evidences and open issues].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lia; Coelho, Joana; Ferreira, Rosário; Nunes, Teresa; Saianda, Ana; Pereira, Luisa; Bandeira, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo está indicada em doentes com hipoxémia crónica. Pretendemos descrever a populaçÉo em programa de oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo acompanhada numa Unidade de Pneumologia Pediátrica de Hospital Terciário entre 2003-2012 e comparar com revisÉo de 1991-2000; verificar conformidade com orientações nacionais e internacionais, refletindo sobre necessidade de orientações nacionais especificamente pediátricas, inexistentes em Portugal.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo, descritivo e comparativo por consulta de processo clínico. Pesquisa de orientações sobre oxigenoterapia em idade pediátrica.Resultados: Incluímos 86 doentes (59,3% rapazes). A idade mediana de início da oxigenoterapia foi 0,0 (0,0-216,0) meses e a duraçÉo mediana de 15,0 (3,0-223,0) meses. O diagnóstico mais frequente foi displasia broncopulmonar (53,5%), seguindo-se bronquiolite obliterante (14,0%), doença neurológica (10,5%), fibrose quística (8,1%), síndromes polimalformativas (5,8%), doença de células falciformes (3,5%), outras doenças pulmonares neonatais (2,3%) e doenças pulmonares intersticiais (2,3%). Mantêm acompanhamento 53 (61,6%) doentes, 38 mantendo oxigenoterapia; 12 (13,9%) faleceram. O tempo mediano de seguimento foi 39,5 (1,0-246,0) meses, mínimo nas outras doenças pulmonares neonatais e máximo na fibrose quística. Comparativamente ao estudo anterior revela aumento relativo dos lactentes com bronquiolite obliterante e displasia broncopulmonar, aumento da duraçÉo nestes últimos e inclusÉode doentes neurológicos e hematológicos.DiscussÉo: A prescriçÉo de oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo em pediatria ocorre sobretudo em doenças específicas dos lactentes e idade pré-escolar. Doentes neurológicos e hematológicos sÉo novos grupos de prescriçÉo, à semelhança da literatura internacional.ConclusÉo: O conhecimento da realidade nacional e orienta

  19. Toward Design Principles for Diffusionless Transformations: The Frustrated Formation of Co–Co Bonds in a Low-Temperature Polymorph of GdCoSi 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, Anastasiya I.; Fredrickson, Daniel C.

    2016-06-20

    Diffusionless (or displacive) phase transitions allow inorganic materials to show exquisite responsiveness to external stimuli, as is illustrated vividly by the superelasticity, shape memory, and magnetocaloric effects exhibited by martensitic materials. In this Article, we present a new diffusionless transition in the compound GdCoSi2, whose origin in frustrated bonding points toward generalizable design principles for these transformations. We first describe the synthesis of GdCoSi2 and the determination of its structure using single crystal X-ray diffraction. While previous studies based on powder X-ray diffraction assigned this compound to the simple CeNi1–xSi2 structure type (space group Cmcm), our structure solution reveals a superstructure variant (space group Pbcm) in which the Co sublattice is distorted to create zigzag chains of Co atoms. DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, coupled with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis, trace this superstructure to the use of Co–Co isolobal bonds to complete filled 18 electron configurations on the Co atoms, in accordance with the 18–n rule. The formation of these Co–Co bonds is partially impeded, however, by a small degree of electron transfer from Si-based electronic states to those with Co–Co σ* character. The incomplete success of Co–Co bond creation suggests that these interactions are relatively weak, opening the possibility of them being overcome by thermal energy at elevated temperatures. In fact, high-temperature powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction data, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, indicate that a reversible Pbcm to Cmcm transition occurs at about 380 K. This transition is diffusionless, and the available data point toward it being first-order. We expect that similar cases of frustrated interactions could be staged in other rare earth–transition metal–main group phases, providing a potentially rich

  20. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ≤ 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox

  1. The Halo of NGC 2438 scrutinized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Haloes and multiple shells around planetary nebulae trace the mass-loss history of the central star. The haloes provide us with information about abundances, ionization or kinematics. Detailed investigations of these haloes can be used to study the evolution of the old stellar population in our galaxy and beyond.Different observations show structures in the haloes like radial rays, blisters and rings (e.g., Ramos-Larios et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 3753 or Matsuura et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1067). The origin of these features has been associated with ionization shadows (Balick 2004, AJ, 127, 2262). They can be observed in regions, where dense knots are opaque to stellar ionizing photons. In this regions we can see leaking UV photons.In this work, we present a detailed investigation of the multiple shell PN NGC 2438. We derive a complete data set of the main nebula. This allows us to analize the physical conditions from photoionization models, such as temperature, density and ionization, and clumping.Data from ESO (3.6m telescope - EFOSC1 - direct imaging and long slit spectroscopy) and from SAAO (spectroscopic observations using a small slit) were available. These data were supplemented by imaging data from the HST archive and by archival VLA observations. The low-excitation species are found to be dominated by clumps. The emission line ratios show no evidence for shocks. We find the shell in ionization equilibrium: a significant amount of UV radiation infiltrates the inner nebula. Thus the shell still seems to be ionized.The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to model the nebular properties and to derive a more accurate distance and ionized mass. The model supports the hypothesis that photoionization is the dominant process in this nebula, far out into the shell.If we want to use extragalactic planetary nebulae as probes of the old stellar population, we need to assess the potential impact of a halo on the evolution. Also the connection of observations and models must

  2. Periodontitis and Sleep Disordered Breathing in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anne E.; Essick, Greg K.; Beck, James D.; Cai, Jianwen; Beaver, Shirley; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ramos, Alberto R.; Singer, Richard H.; Jimenez, Monik C.; Barnhart, Janice M.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    , Loredo JS, Ramos AR, Singer RH, Jimenez MC, Barhart JM, Redline S. Periodontitis and sleep disordered breathing in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1195–1203. PMID:25669183

  3. Theory of multiple-stage interband photovoltaic devices and ultimate performance limit comparison of multiple-stage and single-stage interband infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkey, Robert T.; Yang, Rui Q.

    2013-09-01

    A theoretical framework for studying signal and noise in multiple-stage interband infrared photovoltaic devices is presented. The theory flows from a general picture of electrons transitioning between thermalized reservoirs. Making the assumption of bulk-like absorbers, we show how the standard semiconductor transport and recombination equations can be extended to the case of multiple-stage devices. The electronic noise arising from thermal fluctuations in the transition rates between reservoirs is derived using the Shockley-Ramo and Wiener-Khinchin theorems. This provides a unified noise treatment accounting for both the Johnson and shot noise. Using a Green's function formalism, we derive consistent analytic expressions for the quantum efficiency and thermal noise in terms of the design parameters and macroscopic material properties of the absorber. The theory is then used to quantify the potential performance improvement from the use of multiple stages. We show that multiple-stage detectors can achieve higher sensitivities for applications requiring a fast temporal response. This is shown by deriving an expression for the optimal number of stages in terms of the absorption coefficient and absorber thicknesses for a multiple-stage detector with short absorbers. The multiple-stage architecture may also be useful for improving the sensitivity of high operating temperature detectors in situations where the quantum efficiency is limited by a short diffusion length. The potential sensitivity improvement offered by a multiple-stage architecture can be judged from the product of the absorption coefficient, α, and diffusion length, Ln, of the absorber material. For detector designs where the absorber lengths in each of the stages are equal, the multiple-stage architecture offers the potential for significant detectivity improvement when αLn ≤ 0.2. We also explore the potential of multiple-stage detectors with photocurrent-matched absorbers. In this architecture, the

  4. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  5. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). Trigo I. F. (2006) Climatology and interannual variability of storm-tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: A comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Clim. Dyn., 26, 127-143.

  6. Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Hearing Impairment: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amit; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C.; Appel, David W.; Dinces, Elizabeth A.; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Zee, Phyllis C.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Lee, David J.; Ramos, Alberto R.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Redline, Susan; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Shah, Neomi A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep apnea (SA) may promote hearing impairment (HI) through ischemia and inflammation of the cochlea. Our objective was to assess an independent association between SA and HI in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants. Methods: We used data from the HCHS/SOL, a multicenter population-based study of self- identifying Hispanic/Latinos 18- to 74-y-old adults from four US urban communities. We performed home SA testing and in-clinic audiometry testing in all participants. SA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. HI was defined as a mean hearing threshold > 25 dB hearing level in either ear at the frequencies: 3,000 to 8,000 Hz for high-frequency HI (HF-HI) and 500 to 2,000 Hz for low-frequency HI (LF-HI). Combined-frequency HI (CF-HI) was defined as both conditions present, and Any-HI was considered as HI in either low or high frequencies. Results: Of 13,967 participants, 9.9% had SA and 32.3% had Any-HI. Adjusted for risk factors for HI, those with SA had a 30% higher odds of Any-HI (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 57%), 26% higher odds of HF-HI (CI = 3% to 55%), 127% higher odds of LF-HI (CI = 21% to 326%), and 29% higher odds of CF-HI (CI = 0% to 65%). A dose-response association was observed between AHI severity and Any-HI (versus no SA, OR for AHI ≥ 15 and < 30 = 1.22, CI = 0.96 to 1.54, and OR for AHI ≥ 30 = 1.46, CI = 1.11 to 1.91, p = 0.002). Conclusion: SA is associated with HF-HI and LF-HI, independent of snoring and other confounders. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 641. Citation: Chopra A, Jung M, Kaplan RC, Appel DW, Dinces EA, Dhar S, Zee PC, Gonzalez F, Lee DJ, Ramos AR, Hoffman HJ, Redline S, Cruickshanks KJ, Shah NA. Sleep apnea is associated with hearing impairment: the hispanic community health study/study of latinos. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):719–726. PMID:26951413

  7. PREFACE: 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia; Santiago-Avilés, Jorge J.

    2013-03-01

    The 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012) was held in Carolina, Puerto Rico on 16-19 October 2012. IBERSENSOR is a forum of the Spanish and Portuguese speaking scientific community, working in the fields of sensors of every possible kind and their applications. Previous conferences in the series were successfully carried out in La Habana, Cuba (1998); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000); Lima, Perú (2002); Puebla, México (2004); Montevideo, Uruguay (2006); Sao Paulo, Brasil (2008) and Lisboa, Portugal (2010). IBERSENSOR 2012 participants included researchers from eleven countries in the Americas and Europe, in particular young men and women. The conference was organized and sponsored by the Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-DMR-0934195) a collaborative program between the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) and the University of Pennsylvania (PENN) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, sponsored by the USA National Science Foundation (NSF). Other sponsors included the Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras and the Nano/Bio Interface Center (NBIC) at PENN. The Proceedings of IBERSENSOR 2012 include a selection of 21 research papers in the areas of Materials and Processes for Sensor Development, Nano-Sensors, Chemical Sensors, Mechanical Sensors, Optical Sensors, Wireless Sensors, Sensor signal conditioning and Instrumentation, Microfluidic Devices, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications. Editors Idalia Ramos University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Puerto Rico Jorge J Santiago-Avilés University of Pennsylvania, USA Group photograph Logos Ibero-American Congress on Sensors Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (Ibersensor) Main Sponsors PENN-UPRH-PREM Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (PENN-UPRH-PREM) University of Puerto Rico at Humacao USA National Science Foundation USA National Science Foundation Other Sponsors Center for Advanced

  8. Intracellular delivery and trafficking dynamics of a lymphoma-targeting antibody-polymer conjugate.

    PubMed

    Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Convertine, Anthony J; Shi, Julie; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Duvall, Craig L; Pun, Suzie H; Press, Oliver W; Stayton, Patrick S

    2012-12-03

    Ratiometric fluorescence and cellular fractionation studies were employed to characterize the intracellular trafficking dynamics of antibody-poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) conjugates in CD22+ RAMOS-AW cells. The HD39 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directs CD22-dependent, receptor-mediated uptake in human B-cell lymphoma cells, where it is rapidly trafficked to the lysosomal compartment. To characterize the intracellular-release dynamics of the polymer-mAb conjugates, HD39-streptavidin (HD39/SA) was dual-labeled with pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 488 and pH-sensitive pHrodo fluorophores. The subcellular pH distribution of the HD39/SA-polymer conjugates was quantified as a function of time by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, and the average intracellular pH value experienced by the conjugates was also characterized as a function of time by flow cytometry. PPAA was shown to alter the intracellular trafficking kinetics strongly relative to HD39/SA alone or HD39/SA conjugates with a control polymer, poly(methacryclic acid) (PMAA). Subcellular trafficking studies revealed that after 6 h, only 11% of the HD39/SA-PPAA conjugates had been trafficked to acidic lysosomal compartments with values at or below pH 5.6. In contrast, the average intracellular pH of HD39/SA alone dropped from 6.7 ± 0.2 at 1 h to 5.6 ± 0.5 after 3 h and 4.7 ± 0.6 after 6 h. Conjugation of the control polymer PMAA to HD39/SA showed an average pH drop similar to that of HD39/SA. Subcellular fractionation studies with tritium-labeled HD39/SA demonstrated that after 6 h, 89% of HD39/SA was associated with endosomes (Rab5+) and lysosomes (Lamp2+), while 45% of HD39/SA-PPAA was translocated to the cytosol (lactate dehydrogenase+). These results demonstrate the endosomal-releasing properties of PPAA with antibody-polymer conjugates and detail their intracellular trafficking dynamics and subcellular compartmental distributions over time.

  9. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    the finger-like plumes. We demonstrate the potential applicability of our model to clustering of arc magmatism in several subduction zones, such as Baja California (Ramos-Velázquez et al., Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas,2008), North Island of New Zealand (Booden et al., J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2010), Northeast Japan (Kimura and Yoshida,Journal of Petrology, 2006); Ecuador (Schütte et al., Tectonophysics,2010) and Lesser Antilles (Labanieh et al., EPSL,2010).

  10. Social and Health Correlates of Sleep Duration in a US Hispanic Population: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Dudley, Katherine A.; Gallo, Linda C.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Penedo, Frank J.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ramos, Alberto R.; Redline, Susan; Reid, Kathryn J.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To define the prevalence of poor sleep patterns in the US Hispanic/Latino population, identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of short and long sleep duration, and the association between sleep and cardiometabolic outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Adults age 18–74 y free of sleep disorders (n = 11,860) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos baseline examination (2008–2011). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The mean self-reported sleep duration was 8.0 h per night with 18.6% sleeping less than 7 h and 20.1% sleeping more than 9 h in age- and sex-adjusted analyses. Short sleep was most common in individuals of Puerto Rican heritage (25.6%) and the Other Hispanic group (27.4%). Full-time employment, low level of education, and depressive symptoms were independent predictors of short sleep, whereas unemployment, low household income, low level of education, and being born in the mainland US were independent predictors of long sleep. After accounting for sociodemographic differences, short sleep remained significantly associated with obesity with an odds ratio of 1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.12–1.49] but not with diabetes, hypertension, or heart disease. In contrast, long sleep was not associated with any of these conditions. Conclusions: Sleep duration is highly variable among US Hispanic/Latinos, varying by Hispanic/Latino heritage as well as socioeconomic status. These differences may have health consequences given associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic disease, particularly obesity. Citation: Patel SR, Sotres-Alvarez D, Castañeda SF, Dudley KA, Gallo LC, Hernandez R, Medeiros EA, Penedo FJ, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Ramos AR, Redline S, Reid KJ, Zee PC. Social and health correlates of sleep duration in a US Hispanic population: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1515–1522

  11. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  12. Reconnaissance for trace metals in bed sediment, Wright Patman Lake, near Texarkana, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Many contaminants can be introduced into the environment by urban and industrial activities. The drainage area of Wright Patman Lake is influenced by these activities. Among the contaminants associated with urban and industrial activities are trace metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and zinc. These contaminants are relatively insoluble in water and commonly are found in stream, lake, and reservoir bottom sediment, especially the clays and silts within the sediment.Wright Patman Lake serves as the major potable water supply for the city of Texarkana and surrounding communities. Texarkana, located in the northeastern corner of Texas and the southwestern corner of Arkansas, had a population of about 56,000 in 1998, which reflects an increase of about 3.4 percent from the 1990 census (Ramos, 1999). Texarkana Water Utilities, which manages the water-treatment facilities for Texarkana, proposes to dredge the lake bed near the water intake in the Elliot Creek arm of Wright Patman Lake. It is possible that arsenic, lead, mercury, and other trace metals might be released into the water if the bed sediment is disturbed. Bed sediment in the Elliot Creek arm of the lake, in particular, could contain trace metals because of its proximity to Red River Army Depot and because industrial land use is prevalent in the headwaters of Elliot Creek.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Reconnaissance for Trace Metals in Bed Sediment, Wright Patman Lake, Near Texarkana, Texas In cooperation with the Texarkana Water Utilities conducted a reconnaissance of Wright Patman Lake to collect bed-sediment samples for analysis of trace metals. This report presents trace metal concentrations in bed-sediment samples collected at six sites along the Elliot Creek arm of the lake, one site each in two adjacent arms, and one site near the dam on June 16, 1999 (fig. 1). One bed-sediment sample was collected at each of the nine sites, and one sediment core was collected at each of two

  13. Methods Development for In Situ Laser-Ablation Pb and Sr Isotopic Analyses Using a Double-Focusing Single-Collector ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Neymark, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser-ablation (LA) ICPMS isotopic analyses of Pb and Sr in geological materials have mostly used multi-collector instruments equipped with Faraday-type detectors (e.g., [1-3]). The main limitation of this approach is that samples with relatively high concentrations of Pb and Sr are typically required. Here we present the development of analytical methods for the accurate and precise in situ measurement of Pb and Sr isotope ratios in relatively low-concentration samples using a laser ablation system (193-nm excimer laser) with a double-focusing single-collector (SC) ICPMS (Nu AttoMTM). Our methods build on published techniques [4-6] that used different LA-SC-ICPMS instrumentation to demonstrate the benefits of fast-scanning ion-counting measurements combined with flat-top peaks. We have paid special attention to the characterization and correction of instrumental artifacts using solutions of the NIST SRM981 Pb and SRM987 Sr standards in "wet plasma" mode. For Pb, this includes correcting for the interference of 204Hg on 204Pb, characterizing the effects of tails from thallium (at masses 203 and 205) on the Pb peaks, evaluating the stability of the instrumental mass bias, and maintaining linearity of the detector response over the full dynamic range. For Sr, this includes correcting for the interference of 86Kr on 86Sr and 87Rb on 87Sr, verifying the accuracy of an internal correction for instrumental mass bias, and calibrating the ion optics scanning parameters. LA-SC-ICPMS results for Pb and Sr isotopic measurements of international glass standards and newly developed in-house mineral and glass reference materials will be presented. [1] Davidson et al. (2001) EPSL 184, 427-442. [2] Ramos et al. (2004) Chem. Geol. 211, 135-158. [3] Simon et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2014-2035. [4] Jochum et al. (2005) IJMS 242, 281-289. [5] Jochum et al. (2006) JAAS 21, 666-675. [6] Jochum et al. (2009) JAAS 24, 1237-1243.

  14. Chemical evolution on planetary surfaces: from simple gases to organic macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stefan; Strasdeit, Henry

    ., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Lazcano, A., Bada, J. L. (2008), Science, 322, 404. [3] Cronin, J. R., Pizzarello, S. (1983), Adv. Space Res., 3, 5. [4] Shapiro, R. (1984), Orig. Life, 14, 565. [5] Sobral, A. J. F. N., Rebanda, N. G. C. L., da Silva, M., Lampreia, S. H., Ramos Silva, M., Matos Beja, A., Paixão, J. A., and d'A. Rocha Gonsalves, A. M. (2003), Tetrahedron Lett., 44, 3971. a

  15. Sciatic nerve high division: two different anatomical variants.

    PubMed

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Bettencourt Pires, Maria Alexandre; Furtado, Andrea; Bilhim, Tiago; Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: As variações do nervo isquiático são relativamente comuns e frequentemente muito significativas clinicamente. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas destas variações e discutir algumas das suas implicações clínicas.Material e Métodos: Três cadáveres caucasianos sem história prévia de trauma ou cirurgia no membro inferior foram dissecados, apresentando variações anatómicas do nervo isquiático.Resultados: Em todos os casos o nervo isquiático dividia-se acima da fossa poplítea.Em dois casos (cadáveres1 e 2) a terminação deste nervo ocorria na porção inferior da região glútea nos seus dois ramos terminais: os nervos fibular comum e tibial. Num outro caso (cadáver 3), o nervo isquiático dividia-se ainda dentro da bacia antes de percorrer a incisura isquiática maior. Neste caso, o nervo fibular comum saía da pelve acima do músculo piriforme, passando em seguida ao longo de sua face posterior, enquanto que o nervo tibial corria profundamente ao músculo piriforme.Discussão: De acordo com a literatura, a variante anatómica descrita no cadáver 3 é considerada relativamente rara. Esta variante poderá predispor a síndromes compressivos do nervo isquiático. A divisão alta do nervo isquiático, de que são exemplos os cadáveres 1 e 2, pode comprometer a eficácia dos bloqueios anestésicos ao nível da fossa poplítea.Conclusão: As variantes anatómicas associadas à divisão alta do nervo isquiático devem sempre ser tidas em consideração porserem relativamente comuns e terem importantes implicações clínicas, nomeadamente nas áreas de Anestesiologia, Neurologia, Medicina do Desporto e Cirurgia.

  16. A Three-fold Outlook of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program Office (UEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, La Quilia E.

    2004-01-01

    , presentations, or any other documents related to the project. My next task was to document the author, date of creation, and all other properties of each document. To archive these documents I worked extensively with Microsoft Excel. different financial systems of accounting such as the SAP business accounting system. I also learned the best ways to present financial data and shadowed my mentor as she presented financial data to both UEET's project management and the Resources Analysis and Management Office (RAMO). I analyzed the June 2004 financial data of UEET and used Microsoft Excel to input the results of the data. This process made it easier to present the full cost of the project in the month of June. In addition I assisted in the End of the Year 2003 Reconciliation of Purchases of UEET.

  17. Radioastronomía: Una Mirada Más Amplia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Viviana

    2004-12-01

    The existence of the celestial bodies is known due to the light they emit. But light is a small part of a bigger phenomenon known as electromagnetic radiation. The representation of all kinds of electromagnetic radiation as a function of its frequency is called the electromagnetic spectrum. If we only studied the visible part of the spectrum, we would ignore a great deal of information. The celestial bodies emit radiation in all the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, with very different intensity. To capture these data, astronomers design new types of telescopes that capture radiation at different wavelengths, among them the radiotelescopes that, as the name indicates, detect radio waves. The radiotelescope can be compared to a regular radio set. A radio station sends information by means of radio waves. The radio set captures these waves by means of its antenna, processes it and reproduces the information (music, etc.) in audible form. In the field of radioastronomy, interesting observations can be carried out: radio emission from stars, nebulas, pulsars, distant galaxies and stars, radiogalaxies, the Milky Way, the Sun, Jupiter, etc. La presencia de los cuerpos celestes se conoce gracias a que emiten luz. Pero la luz constituye solo una pequeña parte de un fenómeno mucho mas amplio conocido como radiación electromagnética. La representación de todas las clases de radiación como función de su frecuencia se denomina espectro electromagnético. Si solo estudiáramos la parte visual del espectro ignoraríamos una gran cantidad de información. Los cuerpos celestes emiten radiación en todas las regiones del espectro electromagnético, aunque con muy distinta intensidad. Para captar estos datos, los astrónomos deben diseñar nuevos tipos de telescopios que puedan captar la radiación de distintas longitudes de ondas, entre ellos los radiotelescopios, qué como su nombre lo indica detectan ondas de radio. El radiotelescopio puede compararse a un aparato

  18. The age and diversification of terrestrial New World ecosystems through Cretaceous and Cenozoic time.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Eight ecosystems that were present in the Cretaceous about 100 Ma (million years ago) in the New World eventually developed into the 12 recognized for the modern Earth. Among the forcing mechanisms that drove biotic change during this interval was a decline in global temperatures toward the end of the Cretaceous, augmented by the asteroid impact at 65 Ma and drainage of seas from continental margins and interiors; separation of South America from Africa beginning in the south at ca. 120 Ma and progressing northward until completed 90-100 Ma; the possible emission of 1500 gigatons of methane and CO(2) attributed to explosive vents in the Norwegian Sea at ca. 55 Ma, resulting in a temperature rise of 5°-6°C in an already warm world; disruption of the North Atlantic land bridge at ca. 45 Ma at a time when temperatures were falling; rise of the Andes Mountains beginning at ca. 40 Ma; opening of the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica at ca. 32 Ma with formation of the cold Humboldt at ca. 30 Ma; union of North and South America at ca. 3.5 Ma; and all within the overlay of evolutionary processes. These processes generated a sequence of elements (e.g., species growing in moist habitats within an overall dry environment; gallery forests), early versions (e.g., mangrove communities without Rhizophora until the middle Eocene), and essentially modern versions of present-day New World ecosystems. As a first approximation, the fossil record suggests that early versions of aquatic communities (in the sense of including a prominent angiosperm component) appeared early in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, the lowland neotropical rainforest at 64 Ma (well developed by 58-55 Ma), shrubland/chaparral-woodland-savanna and grasslands around the middle Miocene climatic optimum at ca. 15-13 Ma, deserts in the middle Miocene/early Pliocene at ca. 10 Ma, significant tundra at ca. 7-5 Ma, and alpine tundra (páramo) shortly thereafter when cooling temperatures were augmented

  19. Large Sample Hydrology : Building an international sample of watersheds to improve consistency and robustness of model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for

  20. Sleep Duration and Neurocognitive Function in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alberto R.; Tarraf, Wassim; Daviglus, Martha; Davis, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Penedo, Frank J.; Redline, Susan; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Wright, Clinton B.; Zee, Phyllis C.; González, Hector M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and neurocognitive function in a representative sample of middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. We tested the hypothesis that sleep duration has a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped association with neurocognitive function. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants ages 45–74 years (n = 8,676). HCHS/SOL is a community-based cohort from four US urban areas sampled using a probability design from 2008–2011. Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as a weighted average of the difference between habitual wake and bedtimes assessed by separate questions for weekdays and weekends. Neurocognitive function was measured with standardized scores for Word (Phonemic) Fluency (WF), Brief-Spanish English Verbal learning test (B-SEVLT), and Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) tests. Results: The mean age was 56.5 years; 55% were women; and 40.4% had less than high school education. Average sleep duration was 7.8 ± 1.7 hours. There was an inverted U-shaped association with sleep duration and WF, B-SEVLT sum, and the DSS, with no association with B-SEVLT delayed-recall. Participants with intermediate sleep duration had the best neurocognitive function, while long sleepers had worse neurocognitive function adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, daytime sleepiness, and use of sleep medications. Conclusions: Sleep duration had curvilinear inverted U-shaped associations with neurocognitive function, with worse scores among participants with longer sleep duration. These findings may provide a framework to further examine sleep duration in the prevention and treatment of neurocognitive disorders. Citation: Ramos AR, Tarraf W, Daviglus M, Davis S, Gallo LC, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Penedo FJ, Redline S, Rundek T, Sacco RL, Sotres-Alvarez D, Wright CB, Zee PC, González HM. Sleep duration and

  1. 1958 NASA/USAF Space Probes (Able-1). Volume 1; Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Early in calendar year 1958 Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. (STL) (then Space Technology Laboratories, a division of the Ramo-Wooldridge Corp.) developed for the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division (AFBMD) an Advanced Re-entry Test Vehicle (ARTV) for the purpose of testing ballistic missile nose cones at the full range of 5500 nautical miles. The two-stage ARTV utilized the Thor ballistic missile and the second stage propulsion system developed for the Vanguard program. In late 1957 and early 1958, STL/AFBMD prepared studies of various missile combinations which could be utilized for space testing. The Thor, in combination with the Vanguard second and third stages, was one of the vehicles considered which offered a very early capability of placing a reasonable payload in a lunar orbit. These STL/AFBMD studies were presented to various appropriate groups including the Killian, Millikan, H. J . Stewart Committees; Headquarters, Air Research and Development Command, and ARDC Centers. Subsequently the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) contacted STL relative to the availability of hardware for an early lunar shot. By utilizing existing spares already purchased for the ARTV, and by making use of the ARTV contractors already in being, it appeared feasible to launch by the third quarter of calendar year 1958 a payload which would be captured by the moon's gravitational force. On 27 March 1958, ARPA directed STL to proceed with a program of three lunar shots. As much as possible, these shots were to utilize existing ARTV spare hardware and impose no interference with the ballistic missile programs. In September this program was transferred to the direction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). On 17 August 1958 the first launching of the Able-1 vehicle was attempted, but the flight was terminated by a propulsion failure of the first stage. Subsequent launchings were attempted on 13 October and 8 November 1958. Of these launchirigs the

  2. Defusing Complexity in Intermetallics: How Covalently Shared Electron Pairs Stabilize the FCC Variant Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) (x ≈ 0.9).

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Brandon J; Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-08-17

    Simple sphere packings of metallic atoms are generally assumed to exhibit highly delocalized bonding, often visualized in terms of a lattice of metal cations immersed in an electron gas. In this Article, we present a compound that demonstrates how covalently shared electron pairs can, in fact, play a key role in the stability of such structures: Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) (x ≈ 0.9). Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) adopts a variant of the common TiAl3 structure type, which itself is a binary coloring of the fcc lattice. Electronic structure calculations trace the formation of this compound to a magic electron count of 14 electrons/T atom (T = transition metal) for the TiAl3 type, for which the Fermi energy coincides with an electronic pseudogap. This count is one electron/T atom lower than the electron concentration for a hypothetical MoGa3 phase, making this structure less competitive relative to more complex alternatives. The favorable 14 electron count can be reached, however, through the partial substitution of Ga with Cu. Using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) method, we show that the favorability of the 14 electron count has a simple structural origin in terms of the 18 - n rule of T-E intermetallics (E = main group element): the T atoms of the TiAl3 type are arranged into square nets whose edges are bridged by E atoms. The presence of shared electron pairs along these T-T contacts allows for 18 electron configurations to be achieved on the T atoms despite possessing only 18 - 4 = 14 electrons/T atom. This bonding scheme provides a rationale for the observed stability range of TiAl3 type TE3 phases of ca. 13-14 electrons/T atom, and demonstrates how the concept of the covalent bond can extend even to the most metallic of structure types.

  3. New Worlds in Astroparticle Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, Ana M.; Pimenta, Mário; Potting, Robertus; Sá, Paulo M.

    . Viana. Black hole physics. Acoustic black holes / V. Cardoso. Superradiant instabilities in black hole systems / Á. J. C. Dias ... [et al.]. Microscopic black hole detection in UHECR: the double bang signature / M. Paulos. Generalized uncertainty principle and holography / F. Scardiali and R. Casadio. Testing covariant entropy bounds / S. Gao and J. P. S. Lemos. Dark matter and dark energy. Dark energy - dark matter unification: generalized Chaplygin gas model / O. Bertolami. Cosmology and spacetime symmetries / R. Lehnert. Scalar field models: from the pioneer anomaly to astrophysical constraints / J. Páramos. Braneworlds, conformal fields and dark energy / R. Neves. Sun and stars as cosmological tools: probing supersymmetric dark matter / I. Lopes. ZEPLIN III: xenon detector for WIMP searches / H. Araújo. Dark matter detectability with Čerenkov telescopes -- List of participants.

  4. Feasibility of Affibody Molecule-Based PNA-Mediated Radionuclide Pretargeting of Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Hadis; Westerlund, Kristina; Altai, Mohamed; Sandström, Mattias; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2016-01-01

    Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa), non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with a potential as targeting agents for radionuclide imaging of cancer. However, high renal re-absorption of Affibody molecules prevents their use for radionuclide therapy with residualizing radiometals. We hypothesized that the use of Affibody-based peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated pretargeting would enable higher accumulation of radiometals in tumors than in kidneys. To test this hypothesis, we designed an Affibody-PNA chimera ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 containing a 15-mer HP1 PNA recognition tag and a complementary HP2 hybridization probe permitting labeling with both 125I and 111In. 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 bound specifically to HER2-expressing BT474 and SKOV-3 cancer cells in vitro, with a KD of 6±2 pM for binding to SKOV-3 cells. Specific high affinity binding of the radiolabeled complementary PNA probe 111In-/125I-HP2 to ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-treated cells was demonstrated. 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 demonstrated specific accumulation in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice and rapid clearance from blood. Pre-saturation of SKOV-3 with non-labeled anti-HER2 Affibody or the use of HER2-negative Ramos xenografts resulted in significantly lower tumor uptake of 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. The complementary PNA probe 111In/125I-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts when ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 was injected 4 h earlier. The tumor accumulation of 111In/125I-HP2 was negligible without ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-injection. The uptake of 111In-HP2 in SKOV-3 xenografts was 19±2 %ID/g at 1 h after injection. The uptake in blood and kidneys was approximately 50- and 2-fold lower, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that the use of Affibody-based PNA-mediated pretargeting enables specific delivery of radiometals to tumors and provides higher radiometal concentration in tumors than in kidneys. PMID:26722376

  5. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  6. Activation of the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin through the beta 1 subunit induces recognition of the RGDS sequence in fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocyte attachment to fibronectin is mainly mediated by the interaction of alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins with the RGD and CS-1/Hep II sites, respectively. We have recently shown that the anti-beta 1 mAb TS2/16 can convert the partly active alpha 4 beta 1 present on certain hemopoietic cells that recognizes CS-1 but not Hep II, to a high avidity form that binds both ligands. In this report we have studied whether mAb TS2/16 also affects alpha 4 beta 1 ligand specificity. Incubation of the B cell lines Ramos and Daudi (which lack alpha 5 beta 1) with mAb TS2/16 induced specific attachment to an 80-kD fragment which lacks CS-1 and Hep II and contains the RGD sequence. mAbs anti-alpha 4 and the synthetic peptides CS-1 and IDAPS inhibited adhesion to the 80-kD fragment thus implying alpha 4 beta 1 as the receptor for this fragment. Interestingly, the synthetic peptide GRGDSPC and a 15-kD peptic fibronectin fragment containing the RGD sequence also inhibited B cell adhesion to the 80-kD fragment. Because we have previously shown that RGD peptides do not affect the constitutive function of alpha 4 beta 1, we tested whether TS2/16- activated alpha 4 beta 1 acquired the capacity to recognize RGD. Indeed RGD peptides inhibited TS2/16-treated B cell adhesion to a 38-kD fragment containing CS-1 and Hep II but did not affect binding of untreated cells to this fragment. An anti-fibronectin mAb reactive with an epitope on or near the RGD sequence also efficiently inhibited cell adhesion to the 80-kD fragment, indicating that the RGD sequence is a novel adhesive ligand for activated alpha 4 beta 1. These results emphasize the role of alpha 4 beta 1 as a receptor with different ligand specificities according to the activation state, a fact that may be important for lymphocyte migration, localization, and function. PMID:7517944

  7. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  8. Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.

    PubMed

    Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2016-08-01

    Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage.

  9. Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  10. Soil and water losses on citrus orchards under Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Organic against chemical farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; García-Orenes, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems is highly dependent on the land use and land management (Cerdà et al., 2010). This is due mainly to the impact of agriculture (Cerdà et al., 2009) as a consequence of tillage and the use of herbicides. Both strategies contribute to a reduction in the vegetation cover and the soil biological activities (García-Orenes et al., 2009). The impact of soil erosion on agronomic productivity and environmental quality is widely known (Lal, 1998), although little has been researched in the Mediterranean. The impact of agriculture on soil erosion and water losses in the Mediterranean basin has been studied in olive orchards (Gómez, 2004); vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2004), citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), cereals (De Santisteban et al., (2005), and the high erosion rates were found to be related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). The current Mediterranean agriculture is based on tillage and herbicides, which contribute to high soil and water losses. The development of sustainable agriculture practices is a challenge for farmers, technicians and politicians. Organic farming use strategies to reduce the soil losses and develop new strategies of soil conservation. Moreover organic farming recover the soil fertility and biodiversity (Maeder et al., 2002). Organic farming is growing in the Mediterranean but little is know about his effect on soil conservation. There is a lack in the knowledge of how organic farming affect the soil properties and, there is no information on his effect on soil and water losses. This paper aims to measure the impact of organic farming on soil and water losses. 10 plots of 1 x 0,5 m were selected in a chemically managed farm in Montesa (Eastern Spain) and 10 plots in a nearby organic farming managed farm. Both of them were cultivated with citrus. The ten paired plots were monitored. After earch rainfall event the sediment and water collected were measured and analized

  11. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    appropriate hydro turbine system is necessary. Therefore, pumps as turbine (PAT) are used in alternative to a classical hydraulic turbine (Carravetta et al., 2013). PAT can be easily regulated by hydraulic system, of by an inverter, granting the necessary flexibility of energy production with a sensible reduction of machinery cost. Maisonneuve J, Pillay P, Laflamme C.B. Pressure-retarded osmotic power system model considering non-ideal effects. Renewable Energy. 2015; 75(3): 416-424. Carravetta A, Del Giudice G, Fecarotta O, Ramos HM. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water. 2013; 5(3):1211-1225.

  12. Holocene climatic variations in the Western Cordillera of Colombia: A multiproxy high-resolution record unravels the dual influence of ENSO and ITCZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Paula; Gorin, Georges; Parra, Norberto; Velásquez, Cesar; Lemus, Diego; Monsalve-M., Carlos; Jojoa, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    The Páramo de Frontino (3460 m elevation) in Colombia is located approximately halfway between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. It contains a 17 kyr long, stratigraphically continuous sedimentary sequence dated by 30 AMS 14C ages. Our study covers the last 11,500 cal yr and focuses on the biotic (pollen) and abiotic (microfluorescence-X or μXRF) components of this high mountain ecosystem. The pollen record provides a proxy for temperature and humidity with a resolution of 20-35 yr, and μXRF of Ti and Fe is a proxy for rainfall with a sub-annual (ca. 6-month) resolution. Temperature and humidity display rapid and significant changes over the Holocene. The rapid transition from a cold (mean annual temperature (MAT) 3.5 °C lower than today) and wet Younger Dryas to a warm and dry early Holocene is dated at 11,410 cal yr BP. During the Holocene, MAT varied from ca. 2.5 °C below to 3.5° above present-day temperature. Warm periods (11,410-10,700, 9700-6900, 4000-2400 cal yr BP) were separated by colder intervals. The last 2.4 kyr of the record is affected by human impact. The Holocene remained dry until 7500 cal yr BP. Then, precipitations increased to reach a maximum between 5000 and 4500 cal yr BP. A rapid decrease occurred until 3500 cal yr BP and the late Holocene was dry. Spectral analysis of μXRF data show rainfall cyclicity at millennial scale throughout the Holocene, and at centennial down to ENSO scale in more specific time intervals. The highest rainfall intervals correlate with the highest activity of ENSO. Variability in solar output is possibly the main cause for this millennial to decadal cyclicity. We interpret ENSO and ITCZ as the main climate change-driving mechanisms in Frontino. Comparison with high-resolution XRF data from the Caribbean Cariaco Basin (a proxy for rainfall in the coastal Venezuelian cordilleras) demonstrates that climate in Frontino was Pacific-driven (ENSO-dominated) during the YD and early Holocene, whereas it was Atlantic

  13. Design of Coltuximab Ravtansine, a CD19-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) for the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies: Structure-Activity Relationships and Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hong, E Erica; Erickson, Hans; Lutz, Robert J; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Jones, Gregory; Kovtun, Yelena; Blanc, Veronique; Lambert, John M

    2015-06-01

    Coltuximab ravtansine (SAR3419) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting CD19 created by conjugating a derivative of the potent microtubule-acting cytotoxic agent, maytansine, to a version of the anti-CD19 antibody, anti-B4, that was humanized as an IgG1 by variable domain resurfacing. Four different linker-maytansinoid constructs were synthesized (average ∼3.5 maytansinoids/antibody for each) to evaluate the impact of linker-payload design on the activity of the maytansinoid-ADCs targeting CD19. The ADC composed of DM4 (N(2')-deacetyl-N(2')-[4-mercapto-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl]maytansine) conjugated to antibody via the N-succinimidyl-4-(2-pyridyldithio)butyrate (SPDB) linker was selected for development as SAR3419. A molar ratio for DM4/antibody of between 3 and 5 was selected for the final design of SAR3419. Evaluation of SAR3419 in Ramos tumor xenograft models showed that the minimal effective single dose was about 50 μg/kg conjugated DM4 (∼2.5 mg/kg conjugated antibody), while twice this dose gave complete regressions in 100% of the mice. SAR3419 arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, ultimately leading to apoptosis after about 24 h. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies with SAR3419 made with DM4 that was [(3)H]-labeled at the C20 methoxy group of the maytansinoid suggest a mechanism of internalization and intracellular trafficking of SAR3419, ultimately to lysosomes, in which the antibody is fully degraded, releasing lysine-N(ε)-SPDB-DM4 as the initial metabolite. Subsequent intracellular reduction of the disulfide bond between linker and DM4 generates the free thiol species, which is then converted to S-methyl DM4 by cellular methyl transferase activity. We provide evidence to suggest that generation of S-methyl DM4 in tumor cells may contribute to in vivo tumor eradication via bystander killing of neighboring tumor cells. Furthermore, we show that S-methyl DM4 is converted to the sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives in the liver

  14. Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgin, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thirel, Guillaume; Andreassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    consequence, the use of both techniques is recommended in hydrological ensemble forecasting. Bourgin, F., Ramos, M.H., Thirel, G., Andreassian, V. (2014). Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting, Journal of Hydrology, 519, Part D, 2775-2784.

  15. Oxygen transfer phenomena in 48-well microtiter plates: determination by optical monitoring of sulfite oxidation and verification by real-time measurement during microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Kensy, Frank; Zimmermann, Hartmut F; Knabben, Ingo; Anderlei, Tibor; Trauthwein, Harald; Dingerdissen, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-03-20

    Oxygen limitation is one of the most frequent problems associated with the application of shaking bioreactors. The gas-liquid oxygen transfer properties of shaken 48-well microtiter plates (MTPs) were analyzed at different filling volumes, shaking diameters, and shaking frequencies. On the one hand, an optical method based on sulfite oxidation was used as a chemical model system to determine the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTR(max)). On the other hand, the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was applied for online measurement of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) during growth of the methylotropic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. A proportionality constant between the OTR(max) of the biological system and the OTR(max) of the chemical system were indicated from these data, offering the possibility to transform the whole set of chemical data to biologically relevant conditions. The results exposed "out of phase" shaking conditions at a shaking diameter of 1 mm, which were confirmed by theoretical consideration with the phase number (Ph). At larger shaking diameters (2-50 mm) the oxygen transfer rate in MTPs shaken at high frequencies reached values of up to 0.28 mol/L/h, corresponding to a volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) of 1,600 1/h. The specific mass transfer area (a) increases exponentially with the shaking frequency up to values of 2,400 1/m. On the contrary, the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)) is constant at a level of about 0.15 m/h over a wide range of shaking frequencies and shaking diameters. However, at high shaking frequencies, when the complete liquid volume forms a thin film on the cylindric wall of the well, the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)) increases linearly to values of up to 0.76 m/h. Essentially, the present investigation demonstrates that the 48-well plate outperforms the 96-well MTP and shake flasks at widely used operating conditions with respect to oxygen supply. The 48-well plates emerge, therefore, as an excellent

  16. Culture medium optimization for osmotolerant yeasts by use of a parallel fermenter system and rapid microbiological testing.

    PubMed

    Pfannebecker, Jens; Schiffer-Hetz, Claudia; Fröhlich, Jürgen; Becker, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a culture medium for qualitative detection of osmotolerant yeasts, named OM, was developed. For the development, culture media with different concentrations of glucose, fructose, potassium chloride and glycerin were analyzed in a Biolumix™ test incubator. Selectivity for osmotolerant yeasts was guaranteed by a water activity (aw)-value of 0.91. The best results regarding fast growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (WH 1002) were achieved in a culture medium consisting of 45% glucose, 5% fructose and 0.5% yeast extract and in a medium with 30% glucose, 10% glycerin, 5% potassium chloride and 0.5% yeast extract. Substances to stimulate yeast fermentation rates were analyzed in a RAMOS(®) parallel fermenter system, enabling online measurement of the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) in shaking flasks. Significant increases of the CTR was achieved by adding especially 0.1-0.2% ammonium salts ((NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)2SO4 or NH4NO3), 0.5% meat peptone and 1% malt extract. Detection times and the CTR of 23 food-borne yeast strains of the genera Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, Schizosaccharomyces, Candida and Wickerhamomyces were analyzed in OM bouillon in comparison to the selective culture media YEG50, MYG50 and DG18 in the parallel fermenter system. The OM culture medium enabled the detection of 10(2)CFU/g within a time period of 2-3days, depending on the analyzed yeast species. Compared with YEG50 and MYG50 the detection times could be reduced. As an example, W. anomalus (WH 1021) was detected after 124h in YEG50, 95.5h in MYG50 and 55h in OM bouillon. Compared to YEG50 the maximum CO2 transfer rates for Z. rouxii (WH 1001), T. delbrueckii (DSM 70526), S. pombe (DSM 70576) and W. anomalus (WH 1016) increased by a factor ≥2.6. Furthermore, enrichment cultures of inoculated high-sugar products in OM culture medium were analyzed in the Biolumix™ system. The results proved that detection times of 3days for Z. rouxii and T. delbrueckii can be realized by

  17. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    literature. They include indices as the Karst Disturbance Index (van Beynen & Townsend, 2005; North et al., 2009), the Karst Sustainibility Index (van Beynen et al., 2012), as well as indices defined for protected areas (Angulo et al., 2013), and for single caves, including those open to tourists (Cigna & Forti, 1988; de Freitas, 2010; Pani & Cigna, 2013; Ramos Donato et al., 2014; Trofimova, 2014). Each index will be critically reviewed, and its main aim(s) and scales of application (national, regional, protected karst area, show cave, single cave, etc.) described, by analyzing their practical implementation, and pointing out to the problems and difficulties, as well as to their advantages. References Angulo B., Morales T., Uriarte J.A. & Antigüedad I., 2013, Implementing a comprehensive approach for evaluating significance and disturbance in protected karst areas to guide management strategies. J. Environ. Management, 130, 386-96. Cigna A.A. & Forti P., 1988. The environmental impact assessment of a tourist cave. Proc. Int. Symp. 170th Anniv. Postojnska Jama, 29-38. de Freitas C.R., 2010, The role and importance of cave microclimate in the sustainable use and management of show caves. Acta Carsologica, 39 (3), 477-489. North L.A., van Beynen P.E. & Parise M., 2009, Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: West-central Florida and southeast Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 90 (5), 1770-1781. Pani D. & Cigna A.A., 2013, The paradox of cave mine conservation. In: De Waele J., Forti P. & Naseddu A. (eds.), Mine Caves. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, ser. II, 28, 247-262. Ramos Donato C., de Souza Ribeiro A. & de Sousa Souto L., 2014, A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments. International Journal of Speleology, 43 (3), 315-322. Trofimova E.V., 2014, A new approach to the assessment of cave environmental changes (as exemplified by caves in the Muradimovskoe Uschelie Natural Park). Geographia

  18. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the SAFRAN-gauge-based analysis system (Vidal et al., 2010). We have then built samples of maximal rainfalls for each cell location (the "point" rainfalls) and for different areas centered on each cell location (the areal rainfalls) of these gridded data. To compute rainfall quantiles, we have fitted a Gumbel law, with the L-moment method, on each of these samples. Our daily and hourly ARF have then shown four main trends: i) a sensitivity to the return period, with ARF values decreasing when the return period increases; ii) a sensitivity to the rainfall duration, with ARF values decreasing when the rainfall duration decreases; iii) a sensitivity to the season, with ARF values smaller for the summer period than for the winter period; iv) a sensitivity to the geographical location, with low ARF values in the French Mediterranean area and ARF values close to 1 for the climatic zones of Northern and Western France (oceanic to semi-continental climate). The results of this data-intensive study led for the first time on the whole French territory are in agreement with studies led abroad (e.g. Allen and DeGaetano 2005, Overeem et al. 2010) and confirm and widen the results of previous studies that were carried out in France on smaller areas and with fewer rainfall durations (e.g. Ramos et al., 2006, Neppel et al., 2003). References Allen R. J. and DeGaetano A. T. (2005). Areal reduction factors for two eastern United States regions with high rain-gauge density. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 10(4): 327-335. Arnaud P., Fine J.-A. and Lavabre J. (2007). An hourly rainfall generation model applicable to all types of climate. Atmospheric Research 85(2): 230-242. Cantet, P. and Arnaud, P. (2014). Extreme rainfall analysis by a stochastic model: impact of the copula choice on the sub-daily rainfall generation, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 28(6), 1479-1492. Neppel L

  19. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  20. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    agriculture and forestry including bioenergy options. Results reveal that bioenergy targets have significant effects on conservation planning and nature conservation. The additional land utilization demands driven by bioenergy targets influence not only the restoration costs of wetland areas. Also wetland conservation targets in one place stimulate land use intensification elsewhere due to market linkages. It also implies that environmental stresses (to wetlands) may be transferred to other countries. In all the results show that an integrated modelling of environmental and land use changes in European scale is able to estimate the impacts of policy decisions in nature conservation and agriculture. As shown by the case study, the implementation of any targets concerning resource utilization need to be followed by adequate land use planning. References Schleupner C. (2007). Estimation of wetland distribution potentials in Europe. FNU-135, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg. Schneider U.A., J Balkovic, S. De Cara, O. Franklin, S. Fritz, P. Havlik, I. Huck, K. Jantke , A.M.I. Kallio, F. Kraxner, A. Moiseyev, M. Obersteiner, C.I. Ramos, C. Schleupner, E. Schmid, D. Schwab & R. Skalsky (2008). The European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model - EUFASOM. FNU-156, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg.

  1. Topics in mathematical physics, general relativity, and cosmology in honor of Jerzy Plebanski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plebanski, Jerzy; Garcia-Compean, Hugo

    pt. 1. Historical data. Jerzy Plebanski: the quest for new worlds / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Pleasant memories with Jerzy Plebanski / D. Finley. My recollections of Jerzy Plebanski / A. Trautman. Working with Pleban / I. Robinson. List of Plebanski's publications -- pt. II. Invited papers (proceedings part). Organizing committee. The higher-energy precursor of the AdS/CFT correspondence / X. Amador ... [et al.]. How black holes grow / A. Ashtekar. Some theorems related to the Jacobi variational principle of analytical dynamics / S. L. Bazanski. Horizon structure of Born-Infeld black hole / N. Breton. Space-time torsion contribution to quantum interference phases / A. Camacho & A. Macias. Squeezing operator and squeeze tomography / O. Castanos ... [et al.]. A producer of universes / R. Cordero & E. Rojas. Moyal star-product on a Hilbert space / G. Dito. Null-Kahler structures, symmetries and integrability / M. Dunajski & M. Przanowski. Helicity basis and parity / V. V. Dvoeglazov. Second order supersymmetry transformations in quantum mechanics / D. J. Fernandez C. & A. Ramos. Generalized symmetries for the sDiff(2) Toda equation / D. Finley & J. K. Mciver. Differential equations and Cartan connections / S. Frittelli ... [et al.]. N = 2 String geometry and the heavenly equations / H. Garcia-Compean. Noncommutative topological and Einstein gravity from noncommutative SL(2, C) BF theory / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Conservation laws, constants of the motion, and Hamiltonians / J. Goldberg. Electromagnetic wavelets as Hertzian pulsed beams in complex spacetime / G. Kaiser. Generalized k-deformations and deformed relativistic scalar fields on noncommutative Minkowski space / P. Kosinski ... [et al.]. Structure formation in the Lemaitre-Tolman cosmological model (a non-perturbative approach) / A. Krasinski & C. Hellaby. Ramond-Ramond fields in orientifold backgrounds and K-theory / O. Loaiza-Brito. Large N field theories, string theory and gravity / J

  2. A new fit-for-purpose model testing framework: Decision Crash Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James

    2016-04-01

    decisions. In one case, we show the set of model building decisions has a low probability to correctly support the upgrade decision. In the other case, we show evidence suggesting another set of model building decisions has a high probability to correctly support the decision. The proposed DCT framework focuses on what model users typically care about: the management decision in question. The DCT framework will often be very strict and will produce easy to interpret results enabling clear unsuitability determinations. In the past, hydrologic modelling progress has necessarily meant new models and model building methods. Continued progress in hydrologic modelling requires finding clear evidence to motivate researchers to disregard unproductive models and methods and the DCT framework is built to produce this kind of evidence. References: Andréassian, V., C. Perrin, L. Berthet, N. Le Moine, J. Lerat, C. Loumagne, L. Oudin, T. Mathevet, M.-H. Ramos, and A. Valéry (2009), Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1757-1764. Klemeš, V. (1986), Operational testing of hydrological simulation models. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 31 (1), 13-24.

  3. Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated with a Flash Flood Event in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Trigo, Isabel F.; María Durán-Quesada, Ana; Nieto, Raquel; Gimeno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). Margarida L. R. Liberato was also supported by a FCT grant (SFRH/BPD/45080/2008). Liberato M. L. R., A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, I. F. Trigo, A. M. Durán-Quesada, R. Nieto, and L. Gimeno (2012) Moisture Sources and Large-scale Dynamics Associated with a Flash Flood Event. Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere, Geophysical Monograph Series (in press). Stohl, A., and P. James (2004), A Lagrangian analysis of the atmospheric branch of the global water cycle. Part I: Method description, validation, and demonstration for the August 2002 flooding in central Europe, J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 656-678. Stohl, A., and P. James (2005), A Lagrangian analysis of the atmospheric branch of the global water cycle. Part II: Earth's river catchments, ocean basins, and moisture transports between them, J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 961-984. Zêzere, J. L., R. M. Trigo, and I. F. Trigo (2005), Shallow and deep landslides induced by rainfall in the Lisbon region (Portugal): Assessment of relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 331-344.

  4. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    than when IKONOS or Landsat imagery was hand-digitized, as it was for the Dominican Republic (7) and Barbados. 1. T. Kennaway, E. H. Helmer. (Intl Inst of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, 2006). 2. A. Areces-Mallea et al. (The Nature Conservancy, 1999). 3. E. H. Helmer, O. Ramos, T. Lopez, M. Quiñones, W. Diaz, Carib J Sci 38, 165-183 (2002). 4. C. Daly, E. H. Helmer, M. Quiñones, Int J Climatology 23, 1359-1381 (2003). 5. T. G. Farr, M. Kobrick, Eos Transactions 81, 583-585 (2000). 6. E. H. Helmer, B. Ruefenacht, Photogrammetric Eng Rem Sens 71, 1079-1089 (2005). 7. S. Hernández, M. Pérez. (Secretaría de Estado de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la República Dominicana, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2005).

  5. A Simplified Cation Speciation Model for Silicate Liquids at Mantle Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent first principles theoretical calculations (Stixrude et al. 2009) and experimental shock wave investigations (Mosenfelder et al. 2009) indicate that melting perovskite requires significantly less total energy than previously thought, supporting the idea of a deep potentially whole-mantle magma ocean early in Earth's history. The evolution of this magma ocean as it cools and crystallizes is dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at extreme pressures and temperatures. Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, and further challenges are posed by the large relevant compositional space, including at least MgO, SiO2, and spin-dependent FeO. The primary tool for theoretical work, first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD), has been used to probe the behavior of a variety of silicate liquids including MgO (Karki et al. 2006), SiO2 (Karki et al. 2007), Mg2SiO4 (de Koker et al. 2008), MgSiO3 (Stixrude et al. 2005), and Fe2SiO4 (Ramo & Stixrude 2012). While extremely powerful, this approach has limitations including high computational cost, lower bounds on temperature due to relaxation constraints, as well as restrictions to length scales and time scales that are many orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to the Earth or experimental methods. Therefore to compliment these calculations, we describe a new simplified model that represents magnesium silicate liquids by directly tracking the relative populations of differently coordinated cation species as a function of temperature and pressure. Unlike solids, silicate liquids have the freedom to continuously vary cation coordination, and thus accommodate compression primarily by varying coordination number rather than decreasing bond length. While a detailed understanding of the observed changes in coordination from FPMD calculations is often challenging, we can understand their evolution in terms of the effect they have on the total liquid energy in the context of

  6. Constraining Open-System Processes in the Generation of Basaltic Magma Using 87Sr/86Sr of Individual Minerals and Melt Inclusions, Pisgah Crater, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, F. C.; Wolff, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Basaltic magmas have been extensively used to infer the geochemical nature of mantle sources. Studies which make such inferences typically focus on basalts that are characterized by assumed primary magma characteristics such as high MgO contents. Such characteristics are typically used as justification to discount or suggest only a minimal influence of open-system modifications, such as those resulting from crustal assimilation. Often, very little effort is made to more thoroughly eliminate this possibility because it is very difficult to identify and constrain such effects especially if the assimilated crust is mafic in character. Alkali basalts and hawaiities erupted at Pisgah Crater in the Mojave Desert of California result from open-system processes yet still retain high MgO (6-8%) contents. The specific processes responsible for extensive trace element and isotopic variations in these basalts, however, are in dispute. Glazner et al. (1991) suggest that Pisgah Crater trace element and isotopic variations originate from assimilation of mafic crust while Reiners (2002) suggests that such variations result from mixing of mantle-derived garnet peridotite and garnet pyroxenite magmas. Large 87Sr/86Sr variations among and within individual plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, groundmass, and melt inclusions in olivine attest to the effects of open-system processes and indicate a complex mixing process (i.e., not two-component mixing) that occurred up to the time of eruption (Ramos et al, in prep). 87Sr/86Sr of minerals indicate that early and intermediate erupted lavas retain relatively uncontaminated signatures while the latest erupted lavas reflect much higher 87Sr/86Sr, consistent with contamination at crustal pressures (i.e., within the plagioclase stability field). Major element compositions of melt inclusions hosted in olivine confirm the presence of highly evolved magmas (e.g., MgO: 0.5 to 3%, SiO2: 52-57%) in later erupted lavas. Whole grain olivine

  7. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ramos on 'Electrohydrodynamic pumping in microsystems'. Of the papers submitted for publication 69 passed through the thorough review process and I take this opportunity to warmly thank the reviewers for their constructive criticism and rapid turnaround which has allowed the Proceedings to be delivered to the publisher on time. It is a pleasure also to thank members of the International Advisory Panel, and the Organizing and Programme Committees for their guidance and suggestions and especially Claire Garland and her team at the Institute of Physics for their support, all of which ensured a successful and enjoyable conference. Special thanks are due to Jeremy Smallwood for organising the pre-conference workshop, to Tom Jones, Martin Glor and Dave Swenson for their highly informative and educational contributions at the workshop, to CST for organising the simulation workshop, and to CST and JCI Chilworth for their much appreciated sponsorship of the conference. I am sure you will enjoy reading this record of Electrostatics 2011, covering as it does the wide range of subjects upon which static electricity impinges. Especially important is the development of electrostatic-based methods for reducing atmospheric pollution. In this context it is interesting to see how Masuda's work on the surface-discharge-based Boxer charger, first reported over 30 years ago, has now developed into dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) systems for the removal of noxious molecules from industrial and vehicle exhaust gases. Thanks to our hard working conference chairman, Paul Holdstock, the conference retained its now well-established reputation for providing a friendly, sociable atmosphere for discussing the newest developments in this important scientific area. Finally, my sincere thanks go to all the presenters and to all those who attended and contributed to another successful conference. Professor D. Martin TaylorProceedings EditorBangor, May 2011

  8. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

  9. Dynamical Mechanisms and Variability of Dry and Wet Spells in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Montero, Irene; Gouveia, Célia

    2014-05-01

    Ecology and Management, 294: 62-75, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.032 Gouveia, C., , R. M. Trigo, , C. C. DaCamara (2009) Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9: 185-195 doi:10.5194/nhess-9-185-2009 Liberato M. L. R., J. G. Pinto, I. F. Trigo, R. M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66: 330-334 doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato, M. L. R., A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, I. F. Trigo, A. M. Durán-Quesada, R. Nieto, L. Gimeno (2013) Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated With a Flash Flood Event, in Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (eds J. Lin, D. Brunner, C. Gerbig, A. Stohl, A. Luhar and P. Webley), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 200: 111-126, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C. doi: 10.1029/2012GM001244

  10. Evaluation, Proposed Solution and Current Status of the Crater Lake Breakout Problem, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornas, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    as 70 men with picks and shovels, and the specter of a wholly uncontrolled breach through the most erodible debris was averted. Early flow through the spillway was gentle and evacuees quickly returned home. However, 10-15 m of poorly indurated breccia still remains, lake level is still rising slowly, and we are watching to see whether outflow after heavy rains will armor the spillway or catastrophically erode the remaining dam. Insufficient communication between scientists and engineers led DPWH to design for less scouring than expected by PHIVOLCS, and politics and liability concerns at several levels halted digging before the trench could be deepened and outflow increased. Perhaps this is just as well. An inherent conflict arose between short- and long-term risk mitigation. Short-term risk was minimized; long-term risk was reduced but remains a concern. Complete breaching of the dam and thus elimination of long-term risk would have sharply increased short-term risk to Botolan. *Quick Response Team Members: Mabel Abigania, Rene Arante, Onie Arboleda, Maricar Arpa, Mariton Bornas, Edwin dela Cruz, Jojo Cordon, Toti Corpuz, Art Daag, Elmer Gabinete, Del Garcia, Lito Gelido, Lito de Guzman, Sheila Insauriga, Dindo Javier, Rudy Lacson, Bong Luis, Rey Lumbang, Danny Martinez, Mylene Martinez-Villegas, Chris Newhall, Jed Paladio-Melosantos, Mel Pagtalunan, Myla Panol, Jack Puertollano, Raymundo Punongbayan, Gina Quiambao, Andoy Ramos, July Sabit, Noli Sexon, Jimmy Sincioco, Opet Villacorte.

  11. PREFACE: Fourh Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Supercooled Fluids, Glasses and Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Laura; Giordano, Marco; Leporini, Dino; Tosi, Mario

    2007-04-01

    round-table discussion sessions were organized to discuss issues that have special impact on our current understanding (or lack of it) of the dynamics of glass transition: 'Low-energy excitations and relaxations in glasses' and 'An assessment of current theories: interconnections and relevance to experiments'. We are very grateful to M A Ramos and R Bömer, and to P G Debenedetti and H Z Cummins for organizing and leading these two activities. Two very active and profitable poster sessions collected contributions on the themes of relaxation processes, cooperativity in polymers and mixtures, polyamorphism and water, biomaterials, relaxation, aging phenomena in thin films, confined and complex systems, and theoretical aspect, energy landscape and molecular dynamics, low temperature, glass and PT procedures, tracer dynamics, heterogeneity and relaxation in glass formers We acknowledge the generous support given to the workshop by our institutions, and in particular by Scuola Normale Superiore. The organization of the events in its beautiful rooms and corridors, as well as the lunches and coffee breaks held in its courtyard, especially favoured meetings and discussions between the participants. Several public and private Institutions have also supported our efforts and we would like to thank them warmly: they are the 'Soft Matter' Center of Rome, the INFN Section in Pisa, the CNR/INFM Polylab, and Ital Scientifica, TA Instruments, Novocontrol Technologies, Up Group, Isole e Olena. Finally, we express our gratitude to all those individuals—we mention here in particular Dr Ciro Autiero, Dr Massimo Faetti, Dr Fabio Zulli, Ms Patrizia Pucci, and Ms Caterina D'Elia—who have given their work and time to the making and running of the Workshop.

  12. Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM): A Simplified Model for Silicate and Oxide Liquids at Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent first-principles theoretical calculations (Stixrude 2009) and experimental shock-wave investigations (Mosenfelder 2009) indicate that melting perovskite requires significantly less energy than previously thought, supporting the idea of a deep-mantle magma ocean early in Earth's history. The modern-day solid Earth is thus likely the result of crystallization from an early predominantly molten state, a process that is primarily controlled by the poorly understood behavior of silicate melts at extreme pressures and temperatures. Probing liquid thermodynamics at mantle conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, and further challenges are posed by the large relevant compositional space including at least MgO, SiO2, and FeO. First-principles molecular dynamics has been used with great success to determine the high P-T properties of a small set of fixed composition silicate-oxide liquids including MgO (Karki 2006), SiO2 (Karki 2007), Mg2SiO4 (de Koker 2008), MgSiO3 (Stixrude 2005), and Fe2SiO4 (Ramo 2012). While extremely powerful, this approach has limitations including high computational cost, lower bounds on temperature due to relaxation constraints, as well as restrictions to length scales and time scales that are many orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to the Earth or experimental methods. As a compliment to accurate first-principles calculations, we have developed the Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM). We extend the standard hard sphere mixture model, recently applied to silicate liquids by Jing (2011), by accounting for the range of oxygen coordination states available to liquid cations. Utilizing approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, the method can predict complex liquid structure and thermodynamics while remaining computationally efficient. Requiring only minutes on standard desktop computers rather than months on supercomputers, the CHASM approach is well-suited to providing an approximate thermodynamic

  13. The combined influence of the main European circulation patterns on carbon uptake by ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    of NAO has, as expected, the largest impact on European-wide carbon uptake patterns, the other modes appear to have a strong influence in particular regions, presenting overlapping effects with different signs which are due to differentiated responses to temperature and precipitation variability. We then rely on the historical experiment (CO2 concentration driven) of 12 ESMs from CMIP5 to assess the capability of those models to represent NAO, EA and SC patterns, the associated physical variables as well as the corresponding land carbon fluxes. Although all models simulate NAO reasonably well, and most represent EA and SC patterns satisfactorily, the response of the carbon cycle to these variability modes still needs further improvements. References [1] Bastos, A., Running, S. W., Gouveia, C.M., Trigo, R.M., (2013): J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci.,118, 1247-1255, doi:10.1002/jgrg.20100. [2] Gouveia, C.M., Trigo, R. M., DaCamara, C. C., Libonati, R., Pereira, J. M. C. (2008): Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1835-1847, doi: 10.1002/joc.1682. [3] Trigo R.M., Valente M.A., Trigo I.F., Miranda P.M., Ramos A.M., Paredes D., García-Herrera R. (2008): Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1146, 212-234, doi: 10.1196/annals.1446.014. [4] Comas-Bru, L., McDermott, F. (2013): Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1002/qj.2158.

  14. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  15. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    for significant events of the 2010-2013 period. The evaluation showed significant improvements in terms of flash flood event detection and effective warning lead-time, compared to warnings from the current AIGA setup (without any future precipitation). Various verification metrics (e.g., Relative Mean Error, Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score) show the skill of ensemble precipitation and flow forecasts compared to single-valued persistency benchmarks. In addition to propagating the QPF uncertainty to streamflow forecasts, we discuss how to account for other sources of forecast uncertainty, including precipitation observational uncertainty (Caseri et al. 2014) and hydrologic uncertainties. Planned enhancements include ingesting other probabilistic nowcast and NWP products from Météo-France's convection-permitting AROME model, as well as developing comprehensive observational and post-event damage database to determine decision-relevant thresholds for flood magnitude and probability. Caseri, A., Javelle, P., Ramos, M.H., Leblois, E., 2014. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management. Journal of Flood Risk Management (submitted). Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D., Arnaud, P., 2014. Evaluating flash flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system. Hydrological Sciences Journal. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.923970

  16. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones in Azores for the last 800 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Ingles, Maria Jesus; Sánchez, Guiomar; Trigo, Ricardo; Francus, Pierre; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro; Freitas, Conceiçao; Borges, Paolo; Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Andrade, Cesar; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    .5 m long core allowed us to recover the whole sedimentary infill of Azul Lake, which has been characterized using a multiproxy (geochemistry, diatoms and chironomid head capsules) approach. The last 800 cal years BP, dated by the use of 14C (plant remains) and 210Pb, have been recorded in the 1.5 m of sediment. The layers of flood events deposits are characterized by low Ti content, no diatoms, and both high organic content and terrestrial plants remains. 14C and 210Pb dates obtained in this core have been used to link the flood events recorded in the offshore zones of the lake with the historical storms hitting the archipelago. According to the results of the studied sediment core, the number of tropical storms hitting the island has increased for the last 50 years. This is in accordance with the findings done by other authors (Liu et al., 2001 and Besonen et al., 2008). Moreover, two other periods located around the 1450s and the 1650s also recorded high number of storms. An increase of typhoons in China and hurricanes reaching the north Atlantic coast of United States during the same periods suggests a global climate pattern that ruled these extreme phenomena. LITERATURE: Andrade, C., Trigo R.M., Freitas, M.C., Gallego M.C., Borges, P., Ramos, A.M. (2008) "Comparing Historic Records of Storm frequency and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) chronology for the Azores region", The Holocene, 18, 745-754 Besonen M.R., Bradley S.B., Mudelsee M., Abbott M.B, Francus P. (2008) "A 1000-year, annually-resolved record of hurricane activity from Boston, Massachussets" Geophysical Research Letters. Vol.35, L14705. Liu, K.-b., Shen, C. and Louie, K.-s. (2001), A 1,000-Year History of Typhoon Landfalls in Guangdong, Southern China, Reconstructed from Chinese Historical Documentary Records. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91: 453-464. doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00253

  17. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    subregions, the PNA-link is significant in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska and the WP-link is so along the U.S. West Coast. During OND, these links are significant in the Gulf of Alaska only. If AR-counts are calculated upon persistent (instead of instantaneous) ARs, the link to the NAO weakens over the British Isles and western Iberia. For the experimental set-ups most closely mirroring those applied in Lavers et al. (J Geophys Res Atmos 117, 2012. doi: 10.1029/2012JD018027) and Ramos et al. (J Hydrometeorol 16(2):579-597, 2015. doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0103.1), the NAO-links are completely or partly insignificant indicating that the inclusion of the persistence criterion notably alters the results. Visual support for the present study is provided by an exhaustive historical atmospheric river archive built at http://www.meteo.unican.es/atmospheric-rivers.

  18. Inhibited flammability and surface inactivation of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Mateum, Philip Edward R.; Orille, Ross William M.; Ramos, Rafael Julius U.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Ramos, Henry J.; Bo-ot, Luis Ma. T.

    2007-06-01

    Changes on the properties of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS) were examined. The experimental facility employed was an in-house constructed, compact gas discharge ion source with beam energies maintained approximately in the 1 keV range fixed at 1 mA discharge current, 3 mTorr gas filling pressure. Wood specimens used were of species endemic in the Philippines namely Shorea sp., Shorea polysperma and Cocos nucifera. Results showed the processed samples manifested characteristics of inhibited flammability, and became relatively hydrophobic after the treatment. In the fire resistance test, it was also observed during initial flaming that the processed surfaces accumulated less soot attesting to a much lower smoldering rate, i.e. lesser combustibility. To assess the increase in fire endurance time for the processed wood against the control substrates, a non-directional, two-tailed t-test was utilized. Significant at the 0.05 level, the t-statistic measured 9.164 as opposed to only 4.303 in its corresponding critical value at two degrees of freedom. Hence, the treatment appeared to show strong statistical evidence of being effective in enhancing fire resistance. The processed specimens also exhibited moisture absorptive inhibition time of more than 10 min versus an average absorption period of just 8 s for the unprocessed samples. Spectroscopy using a cast steel mass analyzer indicated a predominance of H+ with faint signals of H2+in the ion showers. It is hypothesized that the monatomic ion plays an essential participatory role in the surface modification process. Data from an earlier work using Narra wood (Pterocarpus indicus) [G.Q. Blantocas, H.J. Ramos, M. Wada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 8498] was extended in the current study to substantiate this hypothesis. The data is now presented as current density ratio H+ /H2+versus the change rate constant K of the wetting model equation. It is shown that wood affinity to water decreased as the

  19. Astronomical tuning of long pollen records reveals the dynamic history of montane biomes and lake levels in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Vladimir; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Lourens, Lucas; Tzedakis, P. Chronis

    2013-03-01

    middle and late Pleistocene. The evolutionary changes of the páramo and montane forest biomes are described in terms of five characteristic stages. Most of the Pleistocene vegetation has no analogue to modern assemblages principally due to the late immigration events of Alnus (1.01 Ma) and Quercus (0.43 Ma) and we conclude that forest composition similar to modern was not established until the Last Interglacial. However, modern ecological constraints of suites of taxa that formed the vegetation of the pre-MIS 5 part of the record allow a reconstruction of environmental and climate change.

  20. Petrogenesis of the Mount Taylor volcanic field and comparison to the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellah, K.; Wolff, J. A.; Goff, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    , consistent with greater depths, and/or lower degrees of, mantle partial melting. The smaller role for crustal contamination at MTVF compared to the JMVF (Rowe et al., 2007) is consistent with a smaller magma flux (MTVF, <0.1 km3/ka; JMVF, ~0.15 km3/ka) and consequent lower degree of crustal heating. References: Perry, F.V., Baldridge, W.S., DePaolo, D.J., and Shafiqullh, M., 1990, Evolution of a magmatic system during continental extension: The Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico: Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 95. Rowe, M.C., Wolff, J.A., Gardner, J.N., Ramos, F.C., Teasdale, R., and Heikoop, C.E., 2007, Development of a Continental Volcanic Field: Petrogenesis of Pre-Caldera intermediate and Silicic rocks and origin of the Bandelier Magmas, Jemez Mountains (New Mexico, USA): Journal of Petrology, vol. 48, p. 2063-2091.

  1. The Dinner Creek Tuff: A Widespread Co-CRBG Ignimbrite Sheet in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. F.; Ricker, C.; Handrich, T.

    2011-12-01

    high temperature, A-type rhyolites of Oregon such as the Rattlesnake Tuff. The source area - yet to be mapped in detail - of the Dinner Creek Tuff lies between Castle Rock and Ironside Mountain and coincides with the hypothesized crustal magma reservoirs of the Columbia River Basalt group (CRBG) (Wolff et al., 2008). Given that the Dinner Creek eruptions coincide with the eruptions of the Grand Ronde Basalt member of the CRBG, it is plausible that these CRBG magmas provided the heat for crustal melting that formed the Dinner Creek Tuff. Nash, B.P., Perkins, M.E., Christensen, J.N. Lee, D-C., Halliday, A.N., 2006, Earth Planet Sci Let 247: 143-156. Streck, M.J., Ferns, M., 2004, U.S.G.S Open-File Report 2004-1222: 2-17 Wolff, J.A., Ramos, F.C., Hart, G.L., Patterson, J.D., Brandon, A.D., 2008, Nature Geosci 1: 177-180.

  2. X-ray sensitivity of photoconductors: application to stabilized a-Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasap, S. O.

    2000-11-01

    The x-ray sensitivity of a high-resistivity photoconductor sandwiched between two parallel plate electrodes and operating under a constant field is analysed by considering charge carrier generation that follows the x-ray photon absorption profile and taking into account both electron and hole trapping phenomena but neglecting recombination, bulk space charge and diffusion effects. The amount of collected charge in the external circuit due to distributed generation of electrons and holes through the detector is calculated by integrating the Hecht collection efficiency with Ramo's theorem across the sample thickness. The results of the model allow the x-ray sensitivity to be calculated as a function of the applied field, detector thickness and electron and hole ranges (µτ), given the field and energy dependence of the electron and hole pair creation energy, W+/-, and the energy spectrum of incident x-ray radiation. The sensitivity model was applied to stabilized a-Se that is currently used as a successful x-ray photoconductor in the recently developed flat panel x-ray image detectors. Recent free electron-hole pair creation energy versus electric field data at room temperature and appropriate electron and hole drift mobilities were used to calculate the sensitivity for monoenergetic x-rays at 20 and at 60 keV. For the 20 keV radiation, it was shown that a typical detector thickness of 200 µm (4 × attenuation depth at 20 keV) with currently attainable electron and hole trapping parameters in a-Se was operating optimally, the sensitivity of which can only be increased by further increasing the applied field. With the receiving electrode positively biased, the sensitivity was much more dependent on the hole lifetime than electron lifetime. The absence of hole transport results in a reduction in sensitivity by a factor of about 4.4, whereas the absence of electron transport results in a sensitivity degradation of only 22%. The ratio of hole trapping limited

  3. Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

    2010-05-01

    obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

  4. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. In this work we use an automated AR detection algorithm for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin to identify the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The two different databases (extreme precipitation events and AR) will be analysed together in order to study ARs in detail in the North Atlantic Basin and, additionally, the relationship with precipitation-related events in Iberian Peninsula. Results confirm the significance link between these phenomena, as the TOP 20 days of the ranking of precipitation anomalies for the Iberian Peninsula includes 19 days that are clearly related with AR events. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  5. Active and Fossil Geothermal Activity at Lake Chapala, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zârate-del Vall, P.

    2002-12-01

    CPDB values we have two set of data: one near zero (-8.03 to -8.69 \\permil) that means a no contribution of organic carbon and other with low values (-0.35 to -0.75 \\permil) meaning an important contribution of organic carbon; from very low δ 18OPDB values (-8.5 to -0.27 \\permil) we deduced a precipitation in meteoric water with a temperature deposition higher than the surface that matchs with an hydrothermal origin. Mineralogy was confirmed by XRD diffractometry. Near the sub-lacustrine spring "Los Gorgos" there are some small land spots which look like islands (<3-4 m2) made of solid bitumen and which are linked to the bottom of the lake. Because of these hydrocarbon manifestations the company Petróleos Mexicanos drilled (2,348 m deep), without success, an oil exploration well (L¢pez-Ramos, 1979). The characterisation of this solid bitumen is in progress.

  6. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2008-01-01

    , Japan) P. Ghendrih (CEA, France) E. Gusakov (Ioffe Institute, Russia) T.C. Luce (GAT, USA) N. Oyama (JAEA, Japan) J.J. Ramos (MIT, USA) H. Takenaga (JAEA, Japan) In addition there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2007. Our thanks to them! Peer-review process We are pleased to report that further progress has been made in speeding up our publishing process, without any compromise of quality. Those authors who regularly submit work based on contributions to the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) will, perhaps, have noticed the reduction in times compared to earlier years. We believe that Nuclear Fusion maintains its position in the field because of the perceived high quality of the submissions, the refereeing and the editorial processes. This position of strength will be built upon as we endeavour to further improve the service to the journal's authors and readers.

  7. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  8. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    ón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain ) I. McEwan, M. Richardson Ashima Research, Inc., Pasadena, CA, USA L. Castañer, M. Domínguez, V. Jiménez, L. Kowalski, J. Ricart Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain M.A. de Pablo, M. Ramos Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain M. de la Torre Juárez Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA J. Moreno, A. Peña, J. Serrano, F. Torrero, T. Velasco EADS-CRISA, Madrid, Spain N.O. Renno Michigan University, Ann Arbor, MI, USA M. Genzer, A.-M. Harri, H. Kahanpää, J. Polkko FMI, Finland R. Haberle NASA Ames Research Center, CA, USA R. Urquí INSA, Madrid, Spain

  9. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    policy. El Grano de los Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y también para proyectar el número total de rinocerontes con probabilidad de ser cazados ilegalmente desde 2014 hasta 2023. Las dinámicas poblacionales de los rinocerontes fueron entonces modeladas bajo ocho escenarios políticos diferentes que podrían implementarse para controlar la caza furtiva. También estimamos los costos económicos y los beneficios de cada escenario solamente bajo la ejecución aumentada del plan de manejo y el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte y usamos un marco de trabajo de apoyo a decisiones para ordenar los escenarios con el objetivo de mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual mientras se generan ganancias para los accionistas locales. Se predijo que la población de rinocerontes sureños blancos se extinguiría en menos de 20 años bajo el manejo actual. El escenario óptimo para mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual fue el de proporcionar un incremento mediano en el esfuerzo contra la caza furtiva e incrementar la multa monetaria de la condena. Sin legalizar el mercado, implementar tal escenario requeriría cubrir costos de aproximadamente $147, 000, 000 al año. Con

  10. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    sedimentos presentan altos porcentajes de arcillas dispersivas en las zonas de dolinas. En las zonas en que no se han producido colapsos, se aprecian altos contenidos de arena de grano entre mediano y grueso, con una granulometría entre moderada y bastante uniforme, que probablemente rellenan un paleocanal. Las campañas electromagnéticas confirman la asociación entre los materiales arcillosos, eléctricamente conductivos, y la presencia de dolinas, mientras que los materiales arenosos, menos conductivos eléctricamente, se asocian a las zonas no colapsadas. Las dolinas se deben probablemente a procesos de erosión subsuperficial de los sedimentos arcillosos a lo largo de fracturas preexistentes. Estas fracturas se produjeron probablemente como resultado de la desecación del suelo en los periodos de descenso del nivel freático, en los últimos cien años.

  11. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  12. Chronic respiratory disease in adults treated for tuberculosis in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Osman, R K; Mortimer, K; Bjune, G; El Sony, A I

    2016-09-01

    juillet 2013 et le 30 décembre 2013. Les données ont été recueillies grâce à des questionnaires standardisés ainsi qu'à une spirométrie avant et après bronchodilatateur. Résultats : L'âge moyen des cas et des témoins a été de 44,0 ans (DS 8,5) et 44,5 ans (DS 8,61), respectivement, avec 27,2% de femmes dans les deux groupes. Des symptômes respiratoires chroniques comme une toux chronique (OR 6,67 ; IC95% 2,98-14,90 ; P < 0,001) et la présence d'une obstruction chronique des voies aériennes (OR 12,39 ; IC%95 1,56-98,40 ; P = 0,02) ont été tous deux fortement associés à des antécédents de TBP après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Conclusion : Les caractéristiques cliniques des MRC sont fortement associées à des antécédents de TBP. Une approche intégrée visant à améliorer la prise en charge de ces pathologies fréquentes devrait être envisagée. Marco de referencia: La enfermedad pulmonar crónica (EPC) es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque la epidemia mundial de EPC rivaliza con la epidemia de tuberculosis (TB) en muchos entornos de países con bajos y medianos recursos, el riesgo de aparición de EPC asociado con la TB se ha descrito cabalmente en los países con una alta carga de morbilidad por TB. Métodos: Entre el 28 de julio y el 30 de diciembre del 2013, participaron en el estudio 136 pacientes con antecedente de tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) y baciloscopia positiva del esputo que habían recibido tratamiento en el consultorio de neumología del Hospital Universitario Omdurman de Jartún, en Sudán, y 136 testigos sanos de la comunidad, emparejados en función de la edad y el sexo. Se recogieron datos mediante cuestionarios normalizados y se practicó una espirometría antes y despuès una prueba de broncodilatación. Resultados: El promedio de la edad en el grupo de los casos fue 44,0 (desviación estándar 8,5 años) y en el grupo de testigos fue 44,5 años (8,6 años); la proporción de

  13. Chronic respiratory disease in adults treated for tuberculosis in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, K.; Bjune, G.; El Sony, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    juillet 2013 et le 30 décembre 2013. Les données ont été recueillies grâce à des questionnaires standardisés ainsi qu'à une spirométrie avant et après bronchodilatateur. Résultats : L'âge moyen des cas et des témoins a été de 44,0 ans (DS 8,5) et 44,5 ans (DS 8,61), respectivement, avec 27,2% de femmes dans les deux groupes. Des symptômes respiratoires chroniques comme une toux chronique (OR 6,67 ; IC95% 2,98–14,90 ; P < 0,001) et la présence d'une obstruction chronique des voies aériennes (OR 12,39 ; IC%95 1,56–98,40 ; P = 0,02) ont été tous deux fortement associés à des antécédents de TBP après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Conclusion : Les caractéristiques cliniques des MRC sont fortement associées à des antécédents de TBP. Une approche intégrée visant à améliorer la prise en charge de ces pathologies fréquentes devrait être envisagée. Marco de referencia: La enfermedad pulmonar crónica (EPC) es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque la epidemia mundial de EPC rivaliza con la epidemia de tuberculosis (TB) en muchos entornos de países con bajos y medianos recursos, el riesgo de aparición de EPC asociado con la TB se ha descrito cabalmente en los países con una alta carga de morbilidad por TB. Métodos: Entre el 28 de julio y el 30 de diciembre del 2013, participaron en el estudio 136 pacientes con antecedente de tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) y baciloscopia positiva del esputo que habían recibido tratamiento en el consultorio de neumología del Hospital Universitario Omdurman de Jartún, en Sudán, y 136 testigos sanos de la comunidad, emparejados en función de la edad y el sexo. Se recogieron datos mediante cuestionarios normalizados y se practicó una espirometría antes y despuès una prueba de broncodilatación. Resultados: El promedio de la edad en el grupo de los casos fue 44,0 (desviación estándar 8,5 años) y en el grupo de testigos fue 44,5 años (8,6 años); la proporción de

  14. EGLACOM project: seismic and oceanographic data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronio, L.; Lipizer, M.; Rebesco, M.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.; Fragiacomo, C.

    2009-04-01

    studies show that the AW inflow is variable in nature, both in terms of heat content and of transport intensity, therefore a detailed study of its structure is of particular importance. In order to study the thermohaline structure and the spatial extension of the AW inflow with a seismic oceanography approach, about 1000 Km of multichannel seismic reflection lines were acquired simultaneously with several types of oceanographic data. Seismic data interpretation is supported by 60 XBT (Expandable Bathy-Thermograph) profiles obtained concurrently during the seismic acquisition, 6 additional CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) casts carried out within 10 days from the XBT launches and sea-surface temperature and salinity measured continuously by a thermosalinograph installed on the vessel prow. In addition, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) data were acquired during navigation to continuously monitor the velocity distribution in the upper water column. The velocity field, together with the sea-surface temperature data from the NOAA-18 satellite were used to obtain information on the dynamic in the area. The seismic data processing is still in progress as well as the elaboration of oceanographic data. The first results obtained display a good correlation between seismic reflectors and discontinuities in vertical temperature and salinity gradients. XBT sections and CTD profiles allow to recognise the spatial extension of the water masses of Atlantic and Arctic origin present in the area, and show the progressive cooling and shallowing of the warm and salty AW proceeding northwards. References: Holbrook W. S., P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and W. Schmitt, 2003, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling: Science, 301, 821-824. Jones S. M., R. J. J. Hardy, R. W. Hobbs, and D. Hardy, 2008, The new synergy between seismic reflection imaging and oceanography: First Break, 26, 51-57. Nakamura Y., T. Noguchi, T. Tsuji, S

  15. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    lithologies from Late Triassic shallow marine to continental deposits suggests that substantial uplift also affected the inner forearc and magmatic arc region during the D2 event. We propose that dextral-oblique convergence, initiated during the middle Permian along this segment of the Gondwana margin, resulted in the transpressional uplift and juxtaposition of high pressure/temperature (P/T) Western Series against low P/T Eastern Series lithologies and culminated with deposition of Late Triassic, continental to shallow marine, coarse clastic sedimentary rocks in fault-bounded strike-slip basins adjacent to the exhumed Western Series. Large-scale dextral transpression and northward displacement of the accretionary complex during Late Permian to Late Triassic time along the Chilean margin of Gondwana are synchronous and kinematically compatible with widespread regional transpression, extension, and silicic magmatism inboard of the southern Gondwana margin at this time. We thank C. Mpodozis, M. Gardeweg, and J. Muñoz of the Servicio de Geología y Minería de Chile (SERNAGEOMIN) for their support of this work. Fruitful discussions with N. Blanco, F. Hervé, H. Moreno, C. Mpodozis, and F. Munizaga have aided in our understanding of the geology of the region. The hard work by the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's Puerto Varas office is graciously appreciated. We thank J.D. Walker and W.R. Van Schmus at the University of Kansas for allowing MWM use of their U-Pb and mass spectrometer facilities and J. Vargas and the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's geochemistry laboratory for their assistance in this project. F. Munizaga allowed us to cite an unpublished 40Ar-39Ar date. We thank G. Ya˜nez for access to aeromagnetic data. T. Kato wishes to thank W. G. Ernst. Comments by I. Dalziel, S. Kay, and V. Ramos helped clarify ideas presented in this paper and are greatly appreciated. This work is dedicated to our friend and colleague Alberto Campos C., who died in a climbing accident on Calbuco Volcano, 1996.

  16. Improving modelled impacts on the flowering of temperate fruit trees in the Iberian Peninsula of climate change projections for 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Pérez-Lopez, David; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Centeno, Ana; Dosio, Alessandro; Lopez-de-la-Franca, Noelia

    2013-04-01

    century will be used to evaluate the quality of the new data set of projections. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by project PEII10-0248-5680 from Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. References De Melo-Abreu, J. P. Barranco D. Cordeiro, A. M. Tous, J. Rogado, B. M. Villalobos, F. J. 2004. Modelling olive flowering date using chilling for dormancy release and thermal time. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 125: 117-127. Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate . Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 10.1029/2012JD017968 Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02). International Journal of Climatology 32:74-85 DOI: 10.1002/joc.2256. Pérez-López; D., Ruiz-Ramos, M., Sánchez-Sánchez. E., Centeno A., Prieto-Egido, I., and López-de-la-Franca, N., 2012. Influence of climate change on the flowering of temperate fruit trees. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-5774, EGU General Assembly 2012. Richardson, E.A. Seeley, S.D. Walker, D.R. 1974. A model for estimating the completion of rest for 'Redhaven' and 'Elberta' peach trees. HortScience, 9: 331-332. Shaltout, A.D. Unrath, C. r. 1983. Rest completion prediction model for 'Starkrimson Delicious' apples. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 957-961.

  17. Can a novel combination of organic chemical analysis and inverse modeling help reconstruct the past upper forest line in the Ecuadorian Andes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, B.; van Loon, E. E.; Nierop, K. G. J.

    2009-04-01

    The higher parts of the Ecuadorian Andes consist of fragile ecosystems characterized by páramo grasslands and montane cloud forests. Natural climatic change and human interference (i.a. burning and clear-cutting) are believed to have dramatically lowered the UFL in the area to the point that its natural position in the absence of disturbance is now uncertain. This is impeding our understanding of the response of the UFL to global climate change and hindering a correct strategy to reforest areas in the frame of Kyoto Protocol driven activities to fix carbon dioxide. An important cause of the uncertainty is that the traditional method of pollen analysis from peat or sediment deposits alone does not suffice to reconstruct shifts in the UFL. Reasons are the spatial uncertainty caused by wind-blown dispersal of pollen and the limited availability of peat or sediment deposits at all altitudes of interest. The RUFLE* program tackles this problem by combining traditional pollen and vegetation analyses with a novel biomarker approach. In the latter, plant species typical for specific vegetation zones are examined for the presence of biomarkers, defined as plant-specific (combinations of) organic chemical components. Our results show that the leaves and roots of the higher plants responsible for the dominant biomass input in our study area in the Eastern Cordillera in the Northern Ecuadorian Andes contain unique combinations of n-alkanes and n-alcohols in the carbon number range of C20-C36(1). Furthermore, we found these compounds to be well preserved in peat deposits and soils in chronological order for extended time periods (>6000 14C years B.P.)(2,3). As such they offer great potential to serve as biomarkers for past vegetation dynamics, including UFL shifts. However, since it are unique combinations of otherwise ubiquitous n-alkanes, n-alcohols of various carbon chain-lengths that constitute our biomarkers, unraveling the mixed signal of various plants accumulated in

  18. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambiar sus prácticas de manejo que aquellos con menos

  19. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  20. [Discriminant analysis to predict the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Murata, Chiharu; Ramírez, Ana Belén; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Cruz, Alonso; Morales, José Luis; Lugo-Reyes, Saul Oswaldo

    2015-01-01

    cuatro enfermedades más prevalentes (agammaglobulinemia ligada al cromosoma X, enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, inmunodeficiencia común variable y ataxia-telangiectasia). Prácticamente en todos los casos el desempeño de la máquina fue superior al del experto humano en lo que respecta a la selección de los atributos más pertinentes para incorporar en los modelos. La predicción del diagnóstico con base en las ecuaciones construidas tuvo exactitud global de 83 a 94%, con sensibilidad de 60 a 100%, especificidad de 83 a 95% y coeficiente kappa de 0.37 a 0.76. Conclusiones: la selección de variables, en general, tiene plausibilidad clínica y tiene la ventaja práctica de utilizar solamente atributos clínicos, gérmenes encontrados y estudios de laboratorio de rutina (biometría hemática e inmunoglobulinas séricas). El desempeño del modelo como herramienta de predicción fue aceptable. Las principales limitaciones del estudio incluyen un tamaño de muestra limitado, lo que no permitió que realizáramos validación cruzada en la evaluación. Éste es solamente un primer paso en la construcción de un sistema de aprendizaje automático, con un abordaje más amplio que incluya una base de datos más grande y diferentes metodologías, para asistir el diagnóstico clínico de las inmunodeficiencias primarias.

  1. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    soil and water management techniques to the farmers and implement soil erosion mitigation policies at appropriate spatial scales. Acknowledgements The RECARE project is funded by the European Commission FP7 program, ENV.2013.6.2-4 "Sustainable land care in Europe". References Blavet, D., De Noni, G., Le Bissonnais, Y., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., Asseline, J., Leprun, J. C., Arshad, M. A., Roose, E.: Effect of land use and management on the early stages of soil water erosion in French Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research, 106, 124-136, 2009. Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., Davy, P.: Soil erosion rates in Burgundian vineyards, Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, Volume Speciale 6, 169-174, 2006. Casalí, J., Giménez, R., De Santisteban, L., Alvarez-Mozos, J., Mena, J., Del Valle de Lersundi, J.: Determination of long-term erosion rates in vineyards of Navarre (Spain) using botanical benchmarks, Catena, 78, 12-19, doi:10.1016/ j.catena.2009.02.015, 2009. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S. H.: Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils, Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010, 2007. Ferrero, A., Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J.: Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard, Soil & Tillage Research, 84, 127-138, 2005. Leh, M., Bajwa, S., Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geographic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degradation & Development, 24, 409- 421, doi 10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P.: Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in southern France, Catena, 32, 209-223, 1998. Martinez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., Benites, G.: Soil and water assessment tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (NE

  2. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the soil before and during the measurement. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case to indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, or through the use of stochastic models such as the SCS Curve Number Method, or of other models using empirical or physical approaches, which have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. References Philip, J. R., 1954., An infiltration equation with physical significance: Soil Sci..,v. 77, p. 153-157. Philip, J. R., 1958. The theory of infiltration, pt. 7: Soil Sci., v. 85, no. 6, p. 333-337. Pla, I.1981. Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986. A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia). Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Pla, I. 2011. Evaluación y Modelización Hidrológica para el Diagnóstico y Prevención de "Desastres Naturales". Gestión y Ambiente 14 (3): 17-22. UN

  3. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    connection) and not need update (all upgrade are deployed on the remote server)and DSS is a classical client-server application. The client side will be an HTML 5-CSS 3 application, it runs in one of the most common browser. The server side consist in: A web server (Apache web server); a map server (Geoserver); a Geographical q3456Relational Database Management Sytem (Postgresql+Postgis); Tools based on GDAL Lybraries. A customized web page will be implemented to publish all hydrometeorological information and forecast runs (free) for all users in the world. In this first presentation of the project are invited to attend all those scientific / technical people, Universities, Research Centers (public or private) who want to collaborate in it, opening a brainstorming to improve the System. References: • Liu Z. and Todini E., (2002). Towards a comprehensive physically based rainfall-runoff model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), 6(5):859-881, 2002. • Thielen, J., Bartholmes, J., Ramos, M.-H., and de Roo, A., (2009): The European Flood Alert System - Part 1: Concept and development, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 125-140, 2009. • Coccia C., Mazzetti C., Ortiz E., Todini E., (2010) - A different soil conceptualization for the TOPKAPI model application within the DMIP 2. American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, San Francisco H21H-07, 2010. • Pappenberger, F., Cloke, H. L., Balsamo, G., Ngo-Duc, T., and Oki,T., (2010) Global runoff routing with the hydrological component of the ECMWF NWP system, Int. J. Climatol., 30, 2155-2174, 2010. • Coccia, G. and Todini, E., (2011). Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the Model Conditional Processor approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 3253-3274, 2011. • Wu, H., Adler, R. F., Hong, Y., Tian, Y., and Policelli, F.,(2012): Evaluation of Global Flood Detection Using Satellite-Based Rainfall and a Hydrologic Model, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1268-1284, 2012. • Simth M. et al., (2013

  4. Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely complex but rewarding task,” said Octavio Camino-Ramos, ESA SMART-1 Spacecraft Operations Manager. “The long spiralling trajectory around Earth to test solar electric propulsion (a low-thrust approach), the long exposure to radiation, the strong perturbations of the gravity fields of the Earth-Moon system and then the reaching of a lunar orbit optimised for the scientific investigations, have allowed us to gain valuable expertise in navigation techniques for low-thrust propulsion and innovative operations concepts: telemetry distribution and alerting through the internet, and a high degree of ground operations automation - a remarkable benchmark for the future,” he explained. “For ESA’s Science Programme, SMART-1 represents a great success and a very good return on investment, both from the technological and the scientific point of view,” said Professor Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “It seems that right now everyone in the world is planning on going to the Moon. Future scientific missions will greatly benefit from the technological and operational experience gained thanks to this small spacecraft, while the set of scientific data gathered by SMART-1 is already helping to update our current picture of the Moon.” Note to editors More images and further updates on the SMART-1 mission end can be found at:www.esa.int/smart-1 SMART-1, (Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology) is the first European mission to the Moon. It was launched on 27 September 2003 on board an Ariane 5 rocket, from the CSG, Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana and reached its destination in November 2004 after following a long spiralling trajectory around Earth. In this phase, the spacecraft successfully tested for the first time in space the series of advanced technologies it carried on board. The technology demonstration part of the mission was declared successfully

  5. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    , India) Liberati, Stefano (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Lopez-Villarejo, Juan Jose (Dep. de Física Teorica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain) Louko, Jorma (University of Nottingham, UK) Lusanna, Luca (Sezione INFN di Firenze, Italy) Majumdar, Archan S (S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, India) Melis, Maurizio (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Menotti, Pietro (Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Italy) Mignemi, Salvatore (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Monni, Cristina (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Pani, Paolo (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Papazoglou, Antonios (ICG, University of Portsmouth, UK) Páramos, Jorge (Instituto de Plasmas e Fusāo Nuclear, IST, Portugal) Pavsic, Matej (Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) Perivolaropoulos, Leandros (University of Ioannina, Greece) Plionis, Manolis (Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, Greece) Pons, Josep (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Pouri, Athina (University of Athens, Greece) Radicella, Ninfa (Polytechnic of Turin, Italy) Rocha, Jorge (IST, Portugal) Russo, Jorge (ICREA, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Sakai, Norisuke (Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Japan) Sakellariadou, Mairi (Department of Physics, King's College University of London, UK) Salisbury, Donald (Austin College, USA and MPI for the History of Science, Germany) Shnir, Yakov (National University of Ireland, Maynooth and DIAS, Ireland) Skenderis, Kostas (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands) Sotiriou, Thomas (DAMTP, Cambridge, UK) Sundermeyer, Kurt (Free University Berlin Institute for Theoretical Physics, Germany) Tartaglia, Angelo (DIFIS, Politecnico and INFN, Torino, Italy) Vagenas, Elias (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Wallden, Petros (Raman Research Institute, India) Wang, Bin (Fudan University, China) Weinfurtner, Silke (University of British Columbia, Canada) Zampeli, Mando (National Technical University of

  6. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    deforestation Environ. Res. Lett. 4 034013 Langner A and Siegert F 2009 Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 years Glob. Change Biol. 15 48-62 Ramankutty N, Gibbs H K, Achard F, Defries R, Foley J A and Houghton R A 2007 Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation Glob. Change Biol. 13 51-66 Siegert F, Ruecker G, Hinrichs A and Hoffmann A A 2001 Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino Nature 414 437-40 Soares-Filho B S, Nepstad D C, Curran L M, Cerqueira G C, Garcia R A, Ramos C A, Voll E, Mcdonald A, Lefebvre P and Schlesinger P 2006 Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin Nature 440 520-3 World Bank 2008 State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008 (Washington, DC: World Bank)

  7. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    extraordinary system J. Phys. Chem. B 107 5914 [30] Pardo L C, Veglio N, Bermejo F J, Tamarit J Li and Cuello G J 2005 Orientational short-range-order in disordered phases of methylhalogenomethanes Phys. Rev. B 72 014206 [31] Tamarit J Ll, Pérez-Jubindo M A and de la Fuente M R 1997 Dielectric studies on orientationally disordered phases of neopentylglycol ((CH3)2C(CH2OH)2) and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (NH2C(CH2OH)3) J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9 5469 [32] Jenau M, Reuter J, WüflingerA and Tamarit J Ll 1996 Crystal and pvT data and thermodynamics if the phase transitions on 2-methyl-2-nitro-propane J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. E 92 1899 [33] Drozd-Rzoska A, Rzoska S J, Pawlus S and Tamarit J Ll 2006 Dielectric relaxation in compressed glassy and orietationally disordered mixed crystals Phys. Rev. B 56 5764 [34] Talon C, Ramos M A, Vieira S, Cuello G J, Bermejo F J, Criado A, Senent M L, Bennington S M, Fischer H E and Schober H 1998 Low-temperature specific heat and glassy dynamics of a polymorphic molecular solid Phys. Rev. B 58 745

  8. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    distances of between 300 and 3.000 km), the mission is almost over. The spacecraft perilune has now dropped below an altitude of 300 km from the lunar surface and will get a closer look at specific targets on the Moon before landing in a controlled manner on the moon surface (controlled, that is, in terms of where and when). It will then “die” there. “With a relative low speed at impact (2 km/sec or 7200 km/h), SMART-1 will create a small crater of 3 to 10m in diameter’s” says Bernard Foing, SMART-1 Project scientist, “a crater no larger than that created by a 1kg meteorite on a surface already heavily affected by natural impacts”. Mission controllers at the European Space Agency’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, near Frankfurt, Germany will monitor the final moments before impact step by step. Final milestones of SMART-1 flight operations In June, SMART-1 mission controllers at ESOC completed a series of complex thruster firings aimed at optimising the time and location of the spacecraft’s impact on the Moon's surface. They had to be done with the thrusters of the attitude control system since all the Xenon of the Ion engine had been consumed in 2005. The manoeuvres have shifted the time and location of impact, which would otherwise occurred in mid-August on the far side of the Moon; impact is now set to occur on the near side and current best estimates show the impact time to be around 07:41 CEST (05:41 UTC) on Sunday 3 September. "Mission controllers and flight dynamics engineers have analysed the results of the manoeuvre campaign to confirm and refine this estimate," says Octavio Camino-Ramos, SMART-1 spacecraft operations manager at ESA/ESOC. "The final adjustment manoeuvres are planned for 25th of August, which may still have a consequence on the final impact time", he added. Large ground telescopes will be involved before and during impact to make observations of the event, with several objectives: - To study the physics of the impact

  9. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101 8251-3 [13] Merson J 2000 Bio-prospecting or bio-piracy: intellectual property rights and biodiversity in a colonial and postcolonial context Osiris 15 282-96 [14] Soejarto D D 1996 Biodiversity prospecting and benefit-sharing: perspectives from the field J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 1-15 [15] Foley J A et al 2007 Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin Front. Ecol. Environ. 5 25-32 [16] King S R, Carlson T J and Moran K 1996 Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights: creating reciprocity and maintaining relationships J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 45-57 [17] Witzig R and Ascencios M 1999 The road to indigenous extinction: case study of resource exportation, disease importation, and human rights violations against the Urarina in the Peruvian Amazon Health Hum. Rights 4 60-81 [18] Fundacion Proyungas 2007 Bitácora de las Yungas: Bosques Nublados (Tucuman: Fundacion de las Yungas) [19] US Government 2003 Conserving Biodiversity in the Amazon Basin: Context and Opportunities for USAID (Washington, DC: USAID) [20] Montenegro R A and Stephens C 2006 Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean Lancet 367 1859-69 [21] Stephens C, Nettleton C and Bristow F (ed) 2003 Utz' Wach'il: Health and Well-Being Among Indigenous Peoples (London: Health Unlimited and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) (http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/sehr/indigenous/docs/utzpamphlet.pdf) [22] Brown A et al 2007 Finca San Andres—Un Espacio de Cambios Ambientales y Sociales en el Alto Bermejo (Ediciones del Subtropico: Yerba Buena) [23] Ramos A and Junqueira R 2010 The contribution of indigenous people to forest conservation and recovery Everything is Connected: Climate and Biodiversity in a Fragile World ed C Foley (London: DEFRA) (http://sd.defra.gov.uk/2010/11/everything

  10. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    .: Condens. Matter 22 104112 [52] Härtel A, Blaak R and Löwen H 2010 Towing, breathing, splitting, and overtaking in driven colloidal liquid crystals Phys. Rev. E 81 051703 [53] Archer A J and Rauscher M 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 9325 [54] Archer A J and Evans R 2004 J. Chem. Phys. 121 4246 [55] Ramos J A P, Granato E, Achim C V, Ying S C, Elder K R and Ala-Nissila T 2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 031109 [56] Hubert J, Cheng M and Emmerich H 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 464108 [57] Plapp M 2010 Philos. Mag. submitted [58] Pusztai T, Tegze G, Tóth G I, Környei L, Bansel G, Fan Z and Gránásy L 2008 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 404205 [59] Tegze G, Bansel G, Tóth G I, Pusztai T, Fan Z and Gránásy L 2009 J. Comput. Phys. 228 1612 [60] Gross N A, Ignatiev M and Chakraborty B 2000 Phys. Rev. E 62 6116 [61] Marconi V M B and Tarazona P 2000 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12 A413 [62] Toner J, Tu Y and Ramaswamy S 2005 Ann. Phys. 318 170 [63] Lauga E and Powers T R 2009 Rep. Prog. Phys. 72 096601 [64] Wensink H H and Löwen H 2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 031409 [65] Prieler R, Hubert J, Li D, Verleye B, Haberkern R and Emmerich H 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 464110 [66] van Teeffelen S, Backofen R, Voigt A and Löwen H 2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 051404 [67] Rex M, Wensink H H and Löwen H 2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 021403 [68] Dhont J K G 1996 An Introduction to Dynamics of Colloids (Amsterdam: Elsevier) [69] Rex M and Löwen H 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 148302 [70] Elder K R, Grant M, Provatas N and Kosterlitz J M 2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 021604 [71] Chen L Q 2002 Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 32 113 [72] Boettinger W J, Warren J A, Beckermann C and Karma A 2002 Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 32 163 [73] Gránásy L, Pusztai T and Warren J A 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 R1205 [74] Singer-Loginova I and Singer H M 2008 Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 106501 [75] Goldenfeld N, Athreya B P and Dantzig J A 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 020601 [76] Yeon D-H, Huang Z-F, Elder K R and Thornton K 2010 Phil. Mag. 90 237 [77] Elder K R

  11. An Introduction to Non-Abelian Discrete Symmetries for Particle Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Okada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    RevLett.42.1195 Fujikawa, K.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1195 (1979) 2.K.Fujikawa1980Phys. Rev. D2128485725111980PhRvD..21.2848F10.1103/PhysRevD.21.2848 Fujikawa, K.: Phys. Rev. D 21, 2848 (1980) 3.T.ArakiT.KobayashiJ.KuboS.Ramos-SanchezM.RatzP.K.S.Vaudrevange2008Nucl. Phys. B80512424499422008NuPhB.805..124A1190.8112210.1016/j.nuclphysb.2008.07.005arXiv:0805.0207 [hep-th] Araki, T., Kobayashi, T., Kubo, J., Ramos-Sanchez, S., Ratz, M., Vaudrevange, P.K.S.: Nucl. Phys. B 805, 124 (2008). arXiv:0805