Science.gov

Sample records for nervio mediano ramo

  1. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  2. An examination of nervios among Mexican seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret; Mysyk, Avis; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine a process model of the nervios experience of 30 Mexican seasonal farm workers. Focused interviews were conducted in Spanish to determine the workers' perspectives on their experiences of nervios while residing in rural, southwest Ontario. Data for analysis originated from variables created to represent key themes that had emerged from open coding of the interviews. Simultaneous entry, multiple regression analyses revealed that provocation, control salience, and cognitive sensory motor distress directly explained 67.2% of the variation in worker expressions of negative affectivity. The combination fear, feeling trapped, and giving in mediated the relationship of provocation, control salience and cognitive sensory motor distress to expressions of negative affectivity (R(2) = 88.1%). Control salience and its dampening effect on other elements of the nervios experience, however, appeared to be key to whether subjects experienced negative reactions to being provoked or distressed. This evidence points to nervios being a powerful, holistic idiom of distress with at least six variables contributing to its affective negativity. This information is important to our understanding of how nervios unfolds and for accurate specification of a nervios model for clinical practice and research. It also sets the stage for improved therapeutic alliances with nervios sufferers, and social action to reduce factors that provoke nervios. PMID:17718745

  3. A cross-cultural approach to the study of the folk illness nervios.

    PubMed

    Baer, Roberta D; Weller, Susan C; de Alba Garcia, Javier Garcia; Glazer, Mark; Trotter, Robert; Pachter, Lee; Klein, Robert E

    2003-09-01

    To systematically study and document regional variations in descriptions of nervios, we undertook a multisite comparative study of the illness among Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and Guatemalans. We also conducted a parallel study on susto (Weller et al. 2002, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 26(4): 449-472), which allows for a systematic comparison of these illnesses across sites. The focus of this paper is inter- and intracultural variations in descriptions in four Latino populations of the causes, symptoms, and treatments of nervios, as well as similarities and differences between nervios and susto in these same communities. We found agreement among all four samples on a core description of nervios, as well as some overlap in aspects of nervios and susto. However, nervios is a much broader illness, related more to continual stresses. In contrast, susto seems to be related to a single stressful event.

  4. ATAQUE DE NERVIOS AS A MARKER OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHIATRIC VULNERABILITY: RESULTS FROM THE NLAAS

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Shrout, Patrick; Guo, Jing; Torres, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Background This article presents the first epidemiological portrait of ataques de nervios among Latinos in the mainland United States. Much of the previous literature has focused on Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Aims This study examines the social and psychiatric correlates of ataque de nervios in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States. Methods This study employs data from the Latino sample [N=2554] of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Analyses examined the associations between ataques de nervios and a range of social and migration variables, as well as psychiatric diagnoses and measures of mental health need. Results Ataques de nervios were reported by 7 to 15% of the different Latino groups, with Puerto Ricans reporting the highest frequency. Ataques de nervios were more frequent in women, those with disrupted marital status, and those more acculturated the U.S. The frequency of those who met criteria for affective, anxiety and substance abuse disorders was higher among those reporting an ataque de nervios. Conclusions Ataque de nervios can serve as an important indicator of social and psychiatric vulnerability in future epidemiological and clinical studies with Latino populations. PMID:19592438

  5. Ramos` private-power policies pay off

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article reports that political stability, government incentives attract foreign capital for new generating plants and T and D facilities. Teams of multinational lenders, developers, equipment vendors, engineering contractors erect critical plants in record time. As recently as the summer of 1993, the Republic of the Philippines was teetering on the brink of bankruptcy--mainly because of electricity shortages. Brownouts averaging seven hours a day were common nationwide, and Manila`s business districts were frequently blacked out for most of the day. With the nation of 67-million facing economic losses estimated at several billion dollars a year, President Fidel V. Ramos took swift, decisive action. Ramos, elected the previous year, accelerated power-sector reforms initiated by his predecessor, Corazon C. Aquino, that sought to augment the aging, unreliable generating capacity of the state-owned electric utility with private power development.

  6. "Nervios" and "Modern Childhood": Migration and Shifting Contexts of Child Life in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribilsky, Jason

    2001-01-01

    Argues that beyond explanations predicated on psychological ideas of separation and attachment, "nervios," a depression-like disorder among children in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, reflects the limits of children's abilities to accept terms of family life increasingly defined through transnational migration and new consumption practices.…

  7. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  8. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed. PMID:1395696

  9. Human impact on the hydrology of the Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Célleri, Rolando; De Bièvre, Bert; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Jozef; Hofstede, Robert

    2006-11-01

    This paper analyses the problems involved in the conservation and management of the hydrological system of the South American páramo. The páramo consists of a collection of neotropical alpine grassland ecosystems covering the upper region of the northern Andes. They play a key role in the hydrology of the continent. Many of the largest tributaries of the Amazon basin have their headwaters in the páramo. It is also the major water source for the Andean highlands and a vast area of arid and semi-arid lowlands, where páramo water is used for domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption, and the generation of hydropower. Recently, the páramo is increasingly used for intensive cattle grazing, cultivation, and pine planting, among others. These activities, as well as global phenomena such as climate change, severely alter the hydrological regime. A review on the state of knowledge of its hydrology is given in a first part. In a second part, the impact of human activities and climate change on the hydrology of the páramo is discussed.

  10. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J; Richardson, James E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800-4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations. PMID:24130570

  11. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J.; Richardson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800–4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations. PMID:24130570

  12. Postglacial Vegetation and Fire History in the Chirripó Páramo of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sally P.

    1993-07-01

    Pollen and charcoal analysis of a 5.6-m sediment core from Lago de las Morrenas (9°29'N, 83°29'W; 3480 m) provides evidence of postglacial vegetation and fire history in the highlands of the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. The site is presently surrounded by treeless páramo vegetation and apparently has been so since deglaciation about 10,000 yr B.P. Pollen spectra suggest no pronounced changes in vegetation since ice retreat. Fires set by people or lightning have burned the páramo repeatedly, with fire activity probably highest during the late Holocene, but these fires have not carved páramo from forest. Pollen percentages for Gramineae and other páramo taxa decline upward, whereas percentages for certain subalpine, lower montane, and lowland forest taxa increase slightly; these changes may reflect the impact of prehistoric human activity or slight upslope migrations of forest taxa owing to climatic warming. There is no clear evidence of higher timberlines during the mid-Holocene.

  13. Effects of Land Use History on Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Ecuadorian Páramo Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a primary mechanism for soil carbon (C) loss and is intricately linked to processes that affect soil C storage. As a result, land-use changes that affect soil CO2 flux (Flux) rates can significantly influence regional C budgets. The páramo grasslands of the high altitude Ecuadorian Andes are important in regional C budgets due to large soil C stocks. Though some forms of land use history have been shown to reduce soil C and affect known drivers of Flux, such as soil moisture (MS) and soil temperature (TS), the effect of land use history on Flux and its role in páramo soil C budgets remains poorly understood. This study investigated Flux differences among sites representing four land-use histories (PA-páramo; PAB-páramo recently burned; NA-native forest; PI-planted pine forest) and assessed the role of MS and TS on Flux rates within and across sites. Flux, MS, and TS were measured over a 3-week period at the Mazar Wildlife Reserve in southern Ecuador. Flux varied significantly among site pairs, except PI and NA. Flux rates were highest in the PI (5.79 g CO2-C m-2 d-1) and NA sites (5.59 g CO2-C m-2 d-1), with Flux rates at PA and PAB of 4.84 g CO2-C m-2 d-1 and 3.76 g CO2-C m-2 d-1, respectively. MS ranged from 29% at PI to 55% at PA, with grass sites having higher MS than forested sites. On average, páramo soils were ~3°C warmer than forested soil, with PI warmer than NA. Across all sites, Flux was weakly, negatively correlated with MS. Flux and TS were positively correlated within each site except PAB; the strongest correlation (p<0.0001) was observed at PI. Our results show that in the Ecuadorian Andes, Flux is significantly affected by land use history with higher Flux rates observed in forested areas than in páramo grasslands. To our knowledge, these are the first Flux rates reported for the Ecuadorian páramo region.

  14. “Azúcar y Nervios: Explanatory Models and Treatment Experiences of Hispanics with Diabetes and Depression”

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n =19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (US) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics’ explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics’ illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  15. Analysis of the drought recovery of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Vicente; Morales, Oscar; Cisneros, Felipe; Bauwens, Willy; Wyseure, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l., known as páramo, offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. The most important of these is the water supply of excellent quality to many cities and villages in the inter-Andean valleys and along the coast. The páramo ecosystem and especially its soils are under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this study, the recovery speed of the páramo soils after drought periods are analysed. The observation period includes the droughts of 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 together with intermediate wet periods. Two experimental catchments - one with and one without páramo - were investigated. The Probability Distributed Moisture (PDM) model was calibrated and validated in both catchments. Drought periods and its characteristics were identified and quantified by a threshold level approach and complemented by means of a drought propagation analysis. At the plot scale in the páramo region, the soil water content measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes dropped from a normal value of about 0.84 to ˜ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was 2-3 months. This did not occur at lower altitudes (Cumbe) where the soils are mineral. Although the soil moisture depletion observed in these soils was similar to that of the Andosols (27 %), decreasing from a normal value of about 0.54 to ˜ 0.39 cm3 cm-3, the recovery was much slower and took about 8 months for the drought in 2010. At the catchment scale, however, the soil water storage simulated by the PDM model and the drought analysis was not as pronounced. Soil moisture droughts occurred mainly in the dry season in both catchments. The deficit for all cases is small and progressively reduced during the wet season. Vegetation stress periods correspond mainly to the months of September, October and November, which coincides with the dry season. The maximum number of consecutive dry days were reached during the drought of

  16. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    PubMed Central

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  17. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    PubMed

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  18. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  19. Role of carbon and climate in forming the Páramo, an Andean evolutionary hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    According to a number of genetic diversification measures the Páramo grasslands of the high equatorial Andes show the greatest rates of speciation on the planet. This is probably driven by contrasting ranges of the ecosystem between glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. During the warm interglacial periods the treeline is high in the Andes restricting the Páramos to the highest regions of the Andean mountain chain, while in the cool glacial periods the Páramo areas expand and probably coalesce, bringing isolated populations into contact with each other. The origin of the Páramo ecosystem is placed close to the end of the Pliocene and has been related to the finale of regional Andean mountain building. However, this formation date is also coincident with the global cooling at the end of the Pliocene, as Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the bipolar Pleistocene ice ages begin. Furthermore, it is estimated that atmospheric CO2 concentrations dropped from the 400 ppmv typical of the Pliocene to values more typical of the Pleistocene at around this time. Global climate model simulations, coupled with a high resolution biome model, give us the opportunity to test these competing hypotheses for the formation of the Páramo ecosystem. A series of HadCM3 climate model simulations are presented here varying the height of the highest altitude Andes and the global climate from its pre-industrial state to the Pliocene. The climate are topographic changes are varied both independently and together. These climatologies are then used to drive a high-resolution biome model, BIOME4, and simulate the impact on Andean vegetation. These models seem to reproduce the observed changes in high altitude grassland biomes during the Pliocene. The climate and biome modelling presented here show that the climate changes associated with the Plio-Pleistocene boundary are the primary cause of the initial formation of this unique and important ecosystem. Although the reduction

  20. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  1. Analysis of the drought resilience of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, V.; Morales, O.; Cisneros, F.; Bauwens, W.; Wyseure, G.

    2015-11-01

    The neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l. known as "páramo" offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. Most important is the water supply - of excellent quality - to many cities and villages established in the lowlands of the inter-Andean valleys and to the coast. However, the páramo ecosystem is under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this paper we study the resilience of its soils for drought periods during the period 2007-2013. In addition, field measurements and hydrological conceptual modelling at the catchment-scale are comparing two contrasting catchments in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Both were intensively monitored during two and a half years (2010-2012) in order to analyse the temporal variability of the soil moisture storage. A typical catchment on the páramo at 3500 m a.s.l. was compared to a lower grassland one at 2600 m a.s.l. The main aim was to estimate the resilience capacity of the soils during a drought period and the recovery during a subsequent wet period. Local soil water content measurements in the top soil (first 30 cm) through TDR were used as a proxy for the catchment's average soil moisture storage. The local measurements were compared to the average soil water storage as estimated by the probabilistic soil moisture (PDM) model. This conceptual hydrological model with 5 parameters was calibrated and validated for both catchments. The study reveals the extraordinary resilience capacity of this type of shallow organic soils during the droughts in 2009 and 2010. During these droughts, the soil water content dropped from a normal value of about 0.80 to ~ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was only two to three months.

  2. Characterization of antibacterial polyethersulfone membranes using the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS).

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jozef; Scheidle, Marco; van Erkel, Joost; Bikel, Matías; Büchs, Jochen; Wong, John Erik; Melin, Thomas; Wessling, Matthias

    2012-10-15

    Membranes with antibacterial properties were developed using surface modification of polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes. Three different modification strategies using polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) technique are described. The first strategy relying on the intrinsic antibacterial properties of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) exhibits only little antibacterial effects. The other two strategies contain silver in both ionic (Ag(+)) and metallic (Ag(0)) form. Ag(+) embedded into negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) layers totally inhibits bacterial growth. Ag(0) nanoparticles were introduced to the membrane surface by LbL deposition of chitosan- and poly(methacrylic acid) - sodium salt (PMA)-capped silver nanoparticles and subsequent UV or heat treatment. Antibacterial properties of the modified membranes were quantified by a new method based on the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS), whereby the oxygen transfer rates (OTR) of E. coli K12 cultures on the membranes were monitored online. As opposed to colony forming counting method RAMOS yields more quantitative and reliable data on the antibacterial effect of membrane modification. Ag-imprinted polyelectrolyte film composed of chitosan (Ag(0))/PMA(Ag(0))/chitosan(Ag(0)) was found to be the most promising among the tested membranes. Further investigation revealed that the concentration and equal distribution of silver in the membrane surface plays an important role in bacterial growth inhibition. PMID:22884245

  3. Reconstruction of the Páramo Paleoclimate Record in Tres Lagunas, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, L.; Morrison, M.; Brunelle, A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tres Lagunas, Ecuador is both a unique and poorly understood ecosystem. Characterized as a volcanic Páramo, these lakes (elevation ~3800 meters) contain a pristine Holocene climatic history. A previous study by Jantz and Behling [Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 21, 169 (2012)] reported a 5000 year hiatus in a bog core collected from the Tres Lagunas region. This gap in sedimentation indicates a period where the bog was completely dry, suggesting a very severe drought event. However, it is still undetermined if this event represents a widespread climate record since bog cores are prone to reflect localized anomalies. In order to obtain a widespread climate record, two lake sediment cores totaling 120 cm, were collected from Tres Lagunas during the summer of 2014. The samples were obtained using a Gravity Corer and a Livingston Modified Piston Corer. Sediment from the cores were subsampled and analyzed for magnetic susceptibility and charcoal in order to reconstruct natural range and variability of Páramo fire regimes. Pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating on pollen isolates will also be completed for the subsampled sediment. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence will be used to reconstruct the paleo geochemical environment. The goal of this study is to provide a widespread paleoclimate record of the region and extend upon the results of Jantz and Behling to determine if severe drought events occurred in the region.

  4. Description and classification of nonallophanic Andosols in south Ecuadorian alpine grasslands (páramo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Deckers, Jozef; Wyseure, Guido

    2006-02-01

    The páramo is a neotropical alpine ecosystem that covers more than 75,000 km 2 of the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Peru. It provides important environmental services: more than 10 million people in the Andean highlands benefit from the water supply and regulation function, which is attributed to the volcanic soils that underlie the ecosystem. The soils are also major carbon sinks of global significance. Severe land use changes and soil degradation threaten both the hydrology and carbon sink function. Nevertheless, soil genesis and properties in the páramo is rather poorly understood, nor are their ecological functions well documented. The impact of the geomorphology of the páramo on soil genesis was studied in the rio Paute basin, south Ecuador. Two toposequences were described and analysed. In each toposequence, four pedons were selected representing summit, backslope, undrained plain situation, and valley bottom positions in the landscape. The soils are classified as Hydric Andosols in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and Epiaquands or Hydrudands in Soil Taxonomy. They are very acidic and have a high organic matter content, high P deficiency, and Al toxicity. Their water content ranges from 2.64 g g - 1 at saturation, down to 1.24 g g - 1 at wilting point, resulting in a large water storage capacity. Two major soil forming processes are identified: (1) volcanic ash deposition and (2) accumulation of organic carbon. Volcanic ash deposits may vary in depth as a result of regional geomorphological factors such as parent material, orientation, slope, and altitude. Organic carbon accumulation is an interaction of both waterlogging, which depends on the position in the landscape, and the formation of organometallic complexes with Al and Fe released during volcanic ash breakdown. Despite the high variability in parent material and topography, the soil is characterised by a notable homogeneity in physico-chemical properties

  5. Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement. Quality/Calidad/Qualite Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Debbie

    The Manuela Ramos Movement began in the 1970s when seven women in Lima, Peru, started meeting each Tuesday to reconsider their assumptions about everyday life. By 1980, the group formed a nongovernmental organization whose strategy was to train women community leaders in Lima's barrios through workshops focusing on the following themes: identity…

  6. Involvement of cyclic-nucleotide response element-binding family members in the radiation response of Ramos B lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Chiara; Sancilio, Silvia; Di Giacomo, Viviana; Rapino, Monica; Sancillo, Laura; Genovesi, Domenico; Di Siena, Alessandro; Rana, Rosa Alba; Cataldi, Amelia; Di Pietro, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Cyclic-nucleotide Response Element-Binding (CREB) family members and related nuclear transcription factors in the radiation response of human B lymphoma cell lines (Daudi and Ramos). Unlike the more radiosensitive Daudi cells, Ramos cells demonstrated only a moderate increase in early apoptosis after 3-5 Gy irradiation doses, which was detected with Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, a significant and dose-dependent G2/M phase accumulation was observed in the same cell line at 24 h after both ionizing radiation (IR) doses. Western blot analysis showed an early increase in CREB protein expression that was still present at 3 h and more evident after 3 Gy IR in Ramos cells, along with the dose-dependent upregulation of p53 and NF-κB. These findings were consistent with real-time RT-PCR analysis that showed an early- and dose-dependent upregulation of NFKB1, IKBKB and XIAP gene expression. Unexpectedly, pre-treatment with SN50 did not increase cell death, but cell viability. Taken together, these findings let us hypothesise that the early induction and activation of NF-κB1 in Ramos cells could mediate necrotic cell death and be linked to other molecules belonging to CREB family and involved in the cell cycle regulation. PMID:26573110

  7. Community trees: Identifying codiversification in the Páramo dipteran community.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Gruenstaeudl, Michael; Reid, Noah M

    2016-05-01

    Groups of codistributed species that responded in a concerted manner to environmental events are expected to share patterns of evolutionary diversification. However, the identification of such groups has largely been based on qualitative, post hoc analyses. We develop here two methods (posterior predictive simulation [PPS], Kuhner-Felsenstein [K-F] analysis of variance [ANOVA]) for the analysis of codistributed species that, given a group of species with a shared pattern of diversification, allow empiricists to identify those taxa that do not codiversify (i.e., "outlier" species). The identification of outlier species makes it possible to jointly estimate the evolutionary history of co-diversifying taxa. To evaluate the approaches presented here, we collected data from Páramo dipterans, identified outlier species, and estimated a "community tree" from species that are identified as having codiversified. Our results demonstrate that dipteran communities from different Páramo habitats in the same mountain range are more closely related than communities in other ranges. We also conduct simulation testing to evaluate this approach. Results suggest that our approach provides a useful addition to comparative phylogeographic methods, while identifying aspects of the analysis that require careful interpretation. In particular, both the PPS and K-F ANOVA perform acceptably when there are one or two outlier species, but less so as the number of outliers increases. This is likely a function of the corresponding degradation of the signal of community divergence; without a strong signal from a codiversifying community, there is no dominant pattern from which to detect an outlier species. For this reason, both the magnitude of K-F distance distribution and outside knowledge about the phylogeographic history of each putative member of the community should be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:27061575

  8. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel . E-mail: djung@hema-quebec.qc.ca

    2006-03-24

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest.

  9. Screening of an OBOC combinatorial library for beta-actin identifies molecules active toward Ramos B-lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Suzanne; Liu, Ruiwu; Hung, Susan; Wang, Xiaobing; Lam, Kit S.

    2009-01-01

    The search for small molecules that specifically recognize protein targets is a laborious process if conducted in a one protein – one compound manner. A high throughput antibody based screening of "one-bead one-compound" (OBOC) combinatorial small molecule libraries is described here, whereby libraries contain thousands of different small molecule ligands are synthesized on individual TentaGel beads and simultaneously screened for protein binding to individual beads, each with a different compound. The use of "OBOC" libraries greatly facilitates this simultaneous screening of thousands of compounds. Now, through the use of monoclonal or affinity purified antibodies, we identified small molecules that bind a particular protein contained in a complex mixture of biological molecules. This method identified small molecule ligands that bound beta-actin present in cytoplasmic cell extracts of Ramos B-lymphoma cells. These small molecule ligands were resynthesized in immobilized and soluble forms and tested for binding of beta-actin present in Ramos B-cell extracts and for activity against Ramos lymphoma cells. This high throughput screening immunoassay method has great promise for improving our ability to find relevant, bioactive small molecules that target a specific native protein in a complex protein mixture without purification of the protein. PMID:18023409

  10. High mountain soil sequence at the Páramos of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Francelino, Marcio; Muselli Barbosa, Alexandre; Adnet Moura, Pedro; Adent Moura, Tom; Correia, Guilherme; Cunha Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about high-mountain cryopedogenesis under Páramo vegetation in the Andes. We studied soils along a typical topossequence at the periglacial zone on the northern flank of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, emphasizing the cryopedogenesis process and altitudinal soil climatic regime, in soils ranging from 3980 to 4885m, above the tree line and below the snow line. At each site, a complete set of instruments (sensors and datalogger) were installed to monitoring air and soil temperatures and moisture, at five soil depths, in three different elevation points; in addition we selected, described and sampled six representative soil profiles, according to local variations in vegetation cover, topography, presence of snow and elevation; soils were studied concerning the petrographic composition, mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of different soil fractions. The geology of the Cotopaxi volcano is complex due to recent volcanic activity. Petrographically, the most recent ejected material is of Andesite-rhyolitic composition, with large deposits of tephra, and solifluxion lobes forming a mixed debris mantle. The landforms are characteristic of a stratovolcano, with conical and symmetric formations, with a dissected, broad base with gentle slopes, changing to steep slopes and eroded, rugged peaks, displaying periglacial erosional features. Also, we find cumulative sedimentary materials of periglacial origin in the lower parts of the landscape. Soil monitoring temperatures for one year showed that the surface soil is warmer than the air temperature for the three elevations, even under snow cover, indicating a strong thermal insulation of these volcanic soils. No permafrost was detected at the 200 cm section. The volcanic soils are stratified, with alternating layers of ash and lapilli, with pumices, with predominantly coarse textures and low clay content, features that may contribute to the observed insulation. Mineralogical analyzes indicated the

  11. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  12. [Chemical composition of fresh bee pollen collected in the Misintá páramo from the Venezuelan Andes].

    PubMed

    Vit, Patricia; Santiago, B

    2008-12-01

    Venezuelan bee pollen has not been characterized, and marketing is not regulated. Pollen is consumed for apitherapeutical purposes for its nutritional and medicinal properties. This product of the hive is the most popular after honey; therefore it is necessary to characterize and to value it to initiate a database to support the proposal of a norm for bee pollen quality control. Samples of bee pollen collected by bees in the Misintá páramo of Mérida state were characterized accoridng to the chemical composition (moisture, ash, fat, pH, proteins) of four color fractions (yellow, orange, ochre, green). Yellow pollen was the most frequent fraction, with 2.18 g ash/100 g, 5.37 g ether extract/100 g, 14.88 g moisture/100 g, and 37.32 g proteins/100 g. PMID:19368304

  13. Vegetation and environmental dynamics in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes during the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villota, Andrea; León-Yánez, Susana; Behling, Hermann

    2012-12-01

    The last 15,000 years of vegetation, fire and climate history were reconstructed from the Laguna Natosa Peat bog core (3600 m elevation) in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the Cordillera Real, close to the Peruvian border of southern Ecuador in the southernmost part of the Andean depression. The pollen record, dated by 5 radiocarbon dates, indicates that during the late Glacial (ca. 15,000-12,000 cal yr BP) a gradual expansion of mountain forest, restricting the páramo vegetation to small patches, and a shift of the forest line to higher elevation took place; reflecting an increase in temperature. However, a clear signal of the warmer Bølling/Allerød interstadial and the cooler Younger Dryas period, are not reflected in the record. During the transition from the late Glacial to the early/mid-Holocene (ca. 12,000-4800 cal yr BP), tree taxa such as Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae are well represented, suggesting that the upper forest line, especially in the mid-Holocene, reached slightly higher elevations than at present. Hence, páramo vegetation was limited, indicating warmer climatic conditions for the early to mid-Holocene period than today. The late Holocene from 4800 cal yr BP until the present is characterized by higher occurrences of páramo taxa. During this period, the upper forest line shifted downwards giving room to the expansion of the páramo vegetation to its current size. Fire was rare during the late Glacial period but became more frequent after about 8000 cal yr BP, probably due to the dry event during the mid-Holocene and increased human activity.

  14. Hydrological interaction between glacier and páramos in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacís, Marcos; Cadier, Eric; Mena, Sandra; Anaguano, Marcelo; Calispa, Marlon; Maisisncho, Luis; Galárraga, Remigio; Francou, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Preliminary hydro glacier estimates indicate that glacier contribution to the average annual consumption (5.6 m3 s-1) of the city of Quito (Capital of Ecuador, ~2'500.000 inhabitants, 2800 masl) represents only about 2%-4% of the total supply for human consumption. However, at the local level at the Antizana volcano (0°28'S, 78°09'W), the mass balance analysis of the system composed by the Humboldt catchment (area of 15.1 km2, 15% of glaciarized area, 5% of moraines area, 80% of the area is páramo-endemic ecosystem of the tropical Andes, range from 5670 masl to 4000 masl) and Los Crespos catchment (area of 2.4 km2, 67% glaciarized area, 27% moraines area, range from 5670 masl to 4500 masl), which is nested into the Humboldt catchment, allows us to identify that due to the presence of the glacier reservoirs there is an additional contribution of 24% to the annual volume at the Humboldt catchment and it helps to regulate the runoff during the dry season, where the daily additional glacier contribution from November to February in some cases could reach t 40%. The Humboldt catchment has similar physiographic characteristics than the sites where new diversions will be built in the future in order to satisfy the increasing demand of water for human consumption of the city of Quito and its surrounding populations. Based on detail hydrological observations (every 15 minutes measurements) during 2005 to 2009 and sporadic environmental trace analysis during the same period, the annual percentage of glacier contribution from the Humboldt catchment could potentially be as high as 37% due in part to the glacier melt contribution that gets infiltrated over 4750 masl it is then delivered around 4100 masl through underground circulation. Some of the sites where the glacier contribution reaches de surface has been identified through field work and the glacier origin of this water have been confirmed using a conductivity measurement, which seems to be a good indicator in when

  15. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory. PMID:26625925

  16. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory.

  17. Copula Multivariate analysis of Gross primary production and its hydro-environmental driver; A BIOME-BGC model applied to the Antisana páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Galarraga, Remigio; Mynett, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Simulations of carbon cycling are prone to uncertainties from different sources, which in general are related to input data, parameters and the model representation capacities itself. The gross carbon uptake in the cycle is represented by the gross primary production (GPP), which deals with the spatio-temporal variability of the precipitation and the soil moisture dynamics. This variability associated with uncertainty of the parameters can be modelled by multivariate probabilistic distributions. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses multivariate Copulas analysis to assess the GPP. Multi-species and elevations variables are included in a first scenario of the analysis. Hydro-meteorological conditions that might generate a change in the next 50 or more years are included in a second scenario of this analysis. The biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC was applied in the Ecuadorian Andean region in elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo. The change of GPP over time is crucial for climate scenarios of the carbon cycling in this type of ecosystem. The results help to improve our understanding of the ecosystem function and clarify the dynamics and the relationship with the change of climate variables. Keywords: multivariate analysis, Copula, BIOME-BGC, NPP, páramos

  18. Neural-based pile-up correction and ballistic deficit correction of X-ray semiconductor detectors using the Monte Carlo simulation and the Ramo theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafaee, Mahdi; Moussavi Zarandi, Ali; Taheri, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pile-up distortion is a common problem in many nuclear radiation detection systems, especially in high count rates. It can be solved by hardware-based pile-up rejections, but there is no complete pile-up elimination in this way. Additionally, the methods can lead to poor quantitative results. Generally, time characteristics of semiconductor detector pulses are different from Scintillator detector pulses due to ballistic deficit. Hence, pulse processing-based pile-up correction in the detectors should consider this specification. In this paper, the artificial neural network pile-up correction method is applied for silicon detector piled-up pulses. For this purpose, the interaction of photons with a silicon detector is simulated by the MCNP4c code and the pulse current is calculated by Ramo's theorem. In this approach, we use a sub-Nyquist frequency sampling. The results show that the proposed method is reliable for pile-up correction and ballistic deficit in semiconductor detectors. The technique is remarkable for commercial considerations and high-speed, real-time calculations.

  19. Where does the water come from, and when? Spatio-temporal analyses of the runoff generation processes in páramo catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alicia; Silva, Camila; Windhorst, David; Crespo, Patricio; Celleri, Rolando; Feyen, Jan; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the research presented herein was to develop and test a comprehensive methodology enabling the characterization of the spatial-temporal analysis of runoff in páramo catchments. The methodology encompassed monitoring the hydrochemographs of creeks and rivers, the isotope composition and the more classical hydrological data, and the analysis of the collected information using cluster and end member mixing analysis (EMMA). The methodology was tested in a nested catchment system using the equipment infrastructure installed in the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2), located in the Andean mountain range, southern Ecuador. From April 2012 to April 2014, multivariate tracers in conjunction with hydrometric data were collected. Streamwater was clustered on the basis of the hydrochemographs enabling to judge the dominant source areas and EMMA analysis enabled identification of the dominant flow components. In a last step of the research the discharge controlling factors were investigated with respect to catchment variability involving correlation and multivariate regression analysis base on catchment properties, meteorological characteristics, end member contributions, and dominant cluster. This analysis was conducted for three typical flow conditions, respectively low, moderate and high flows.

  20. A brief look at the Odonata from the Páramo ecosystems in Colombia, with the descriptions of Oxyallagma colombianum sp. nov. and Rhionaeschna caligo sp. nov. (Odonata: Coenagrionidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Bota-Sierra, Cornelio Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Here I present the results of field work and collections of Odonata made in several páramos of Colombia between 2007 and 2014. Two undescribed species, in the genera Oxyallagma Kennedy, 1920, and Rhionaeschna Förster, 1909, respectively, were found, as well as two species not previously recorded from Colombia: Rhionaeschna peralta (Ris, 1918) and Oxyallagma dissidens (Selys, 1876). Descriptions and diagnoses of the new species, photographs, maps, illustrations, natural history notes, and comments on morphological plasticity are presented. PMID:25284653

  1. [Relationship between ultrasound measurements of the median nerve and electrophysiological severity in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urriés, Miguel; Haddad-Garay, María; Estébanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-García, César; Ruiz-de-Escudero Zapico, Alazne

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. La ecografia es una herramienta que ha experimentado un gran desarrollo en el diagnostico de patologias compresivas neurales, como el sindrome del tunel carpiano (STC). Para planificar el tratamiento es importante establecer la gravedad de la patologia, por lo que seria relevante conocer la capacidad de la ecografia para discriminar el grado de afectacion del nervio mediano a este nivel. Objetivo. Investigar la correlacion de las mediciones ecograficas con la gravedad electrofisiologica en pacientes con STC. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron mediciones ecograficas en 59 sujetos (97 muñecas) remitidos para recibir un electroneurograma (ENG) por sospecha de STC. Segun el ENG, los sujetos se clasificaron como sanos, STC leve, moderado o grave. Posteriormente, se analizo la relacion entre las mediciones ecograficas y los resultados del ENG segun su gravedad. Tambien se calcularon las curvas ROC (receiver operaing characteristic) para los valores de corte optimos en cada grupo atendiendo a su gravedad. Resultados. Ambas mediciones ecograficas mostraron correlacion con la gravedad del STC determinada por el ENG. El area de seccion transversal del nervio mediano en la muñeca (AST-M) mostro la mayor correlacion (r = 0,613). Conclusiones. Existe relacion entre las mediciones ecograficas del nervio mediano, especialmente en el AST-M, y la gravedad del STC en un contexto clinico. Dichas mediciones podrian ser complementarias para diagnosticar el STC y determinar su gravedad.

  2. [Diagnostic validity of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Haddad-Garay, María; Tricas-Moreno, José M; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urries, Miguel; Estebanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-Garcia, César; Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, Alazne

    2015-07-01

    Introduccion. La ecografia ha emergido como una herramienta diagnostica alternativa de las neuropatias perifericas, como el sindrome del tunel carpiano (STC). Sin embargo, faltan datos sobre la validez diagnostica de las diferentes mediciones ecograficas para la deteccion del STC en entornos clinicos. Objetivo. Hallar la validez diagnostica de las mediciones ecograficas del area de seccion transversal del nervio mediano en la muñeca (AST-M) y de la ratio del area del nervio mediano entre la muñeca y el antebrazo (R-MA) en el diagnostico del STC, utilizando como tecnica de referencia el electroneurograma (ENG). Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron mediciones ecograficas en 59 sujetos (97 muñecas) referidos para someterse a un ENG por sospecha de STC. Los examinadores que realizaron la ecografia desconocian los resultados del ENG. Posteriormente, se calcularon los puntos de corte mediante curvas ROC para cada una de las mediciones (AST-M y R-MA) y se analizo su validez diagnostica. Resultados. Con un punto de corte de 9,15 mm2, la medicion AST-M obtuvo una sensibilidad del 75,81%, una especificidad del 74,29%, una ratio de probabilidad positiva de 2,95 y una ratio de probabilidad negativa de 0,33. Para la medicion R-MA y un punto de corte de 1,56, los valores de sensibilidad, especificidad y ratios de probabilidad positiva y negativa fueron 70,97%, 71,43%, 2,48 y 0,4, respectivamente. Conclusion. Tanto el AST-M como la R-MA parecen ser medidas utiles en el diagnostico del STC tomando como prueba de referencia el ENG.

  3. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in Chiari malformation].

    PubMed

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, María A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Rahnama, Kimia; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2013-06-16

    Introduccion. La malformacion de Chiari (MC) incluye una serie de anomalias congenitas que tienen como comun denominador la ectopia de las amigdalas del cerebelo por debajo del foramen magno, lo que puede condicionar fenomenos compresivos del troncoencefalo, la medula espinal alta y los nervios craneales, alterando las respuestas de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tronco cerebral (PEATC) y de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales (PESS). Sin embargo, las indicaciones de ambas exploraciones en las MC han sido motivo de estudio en un numero limitado de publicaciones, centradas en series cortas y heterogeneas de pacientes. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los PEATC y los PESS en los estudios publicados en pacientes con MC tipo 1 (MC-1) o tipo 2 (MC-2), y su indicacion en el diagnostico, tratamiento y seguimiento, especialmente en la MC-1. Desarrollo. Es un estudio de revision realizado mediante analisis de los estudios publicados en Medline desde 1966, localizados mediante PubMed, utilizando combinaciones de las palabras clave 'Chiari malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari malformation', 'Chiari type 1 malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation', 'evoked potentials', 'brainstem auditory evoked potentials' y 'somatosensory evoked potentials', asi como informacion de pacientes con MC-1 valorados en los servicios de neurocirugia y neurofisiologia clinica del Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos mas comunes de los PESS son la reduccion en la amplitud cortical para el nervio tibial posterior, la reduccion o ausencia del potencial cervical del nervio mediano y el aumento del intervalo N13-N20. En el caso de los PEATC, los hallazgos mas frecuentes descritos son el aumento del intervalo I-V y la alteracion periferica o coclear.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous radio galaxies & type-2 quasars (Ramos Almeida+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Bessiere, P. S.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Inskip, K. J.; Morganti, R.; Dicken, D.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.

    2016-04-01

    Our sample of 46 PRGs was imaged with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) on the 8.1-m Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon under good seeing conditions [median seeing full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.8-arcsec, ranging from 0.4 to 1.1-arcsec. Deep optical imaging data for the 20 objects were obtained using GMOS-S and exactly the same instrumental configuration as for the 2-Jy sample. The observations were carried out in queue mode between 2009 August and 2011 September in good seeing conditions, with a median value of FWHM=0.8-arcsec, ranging between 0.5 and 1.1-arcsec. (4 data files).

  5. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  6. Lumley and Miller Student Scholarships Awarded to Ramos-Garcés and Ahmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    As part of the strategic plan, AGU works to enhance engagement and involvement of students and early-career scientists with the scientific community and uses its position as a diverse and inclusive organization to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. Student travel grants, awards, and scholarships are a few of the essential ways students and early-career scientists get involved in AGU every year.

  7. [The record of sensitive nerve action potentials. Interelectrode distance in healthy children].

    PubMed

    Arango-Aguilar, Jaime; Fraire-Martínez, María Inés; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Ana

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: estudios en adultos muestran que con 3 o 4 cm de distancia entre los electrodos activo y de referencia se obtienen los valores ma´ximos de amplitud y latencia de los potenciales de accio´n nerviosos sensitivos. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar en niños sanos, las distancia entre los electrodos con la cual los valores de amplitud y latencia pico no difieren significativamente de los obtenidos con la distancia entre los electrodos a la cual se obtienen los valores máximos. ME´TODOS: se colocaron cuatro electrodos de referencia a 1, 2, 3 y 4 cm del electrodo activo. La señal del electrodo activo se registró simultáneamente con un puente físico entre los cuatro canales. Se analizó una muestra de 66 nervios medianos en niños de cinco a nueve años. Los valores máximos de amplitud y latencia se obtuvieron con 4 cm entre los electrodos. Se compararon los valores obtenidos con 4 cm entre los electrodos y con 1, 2 y 3 cm.

  8. A genome wide study of genetic adaptation to high altitude in feral Andean Horses of the páramo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life at high altitude results in physiological and metabolic challenges that put strong evolutionary pressure on performance due to oxidative stress, UV radiation and other factors dependent on the natural history of the species. To look for genes involved in altitude adaptation in a large herbivore, this study explored genome differentiation between a feral population of Andean horses introduced by the Spanish in the 1500s to the high Andes and their Iberian breed relatives. Results Using allelic genetic models and Fst analyses of ~50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the horse genome, 131 candidate genes for altitude adaptation were revealed (Bonferoni of p ≤ 2 × 10–7). Significant signals included the EPAS1 in the hypoxia-induction-pathway (HIF) that was previously discovered in human studies (p = 9.27 × 10-8); validating the approach and emphasizing the importance of this gene to hypoxia adaptation. Strong signals in the cytochrome P450 3A gene family (p = 1.5 ×10-8) indicate that other factors, such as highly endemic vegetation in altitude environments are also important in adaptation. Signals in tenuerin 2 (TENM2, p = 7.9 × 10-14) along with several other genes in the nervous system (gene categories representation p = 5.1 × 10-5) indicate the nervous system is important in altitude adaptation. Conclusions In this study of a large introduced herbivore, it becomes apparent that some gene pathways, such as the HIF pathway are universally important for high altitude adaptation in mammals, but several others may be selected upon based on the natural history of a species and the unique ecology of the altitude environment. PMID:24344830

  9. [Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P; Pulido, Karen L; Vanegas, Leidy J

    2013-03-01

    Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an edge effect that could penetrate 17m inside the fragments. We conclude that P cuadrijuga is a plastic species, able to overcome the stress conditions from anthropogenic transformations, species able to be used in high Andean forest restoration programs PMID:23894988

  10. Integrated taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the subgenus Trichodagmia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Páramo Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Sofia A; Moncada, Ligia I; Murcia, Carlos H; Lotta, Ingrid A; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    A new species of simuliid from the Andean Mountains of Colombia is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, larvae, polytene chromosomes, and COI and ITS2 DNA sequences. Simulium (Trichodagmia) chimguazaense new species is structurally, chromosomally, and molecularly distinct from its nearest relatives, S. muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos and S. sumapazense Coscarón & Py-Daniel.  PMID:25661961

  11. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la cirugía de la obesidad comprende diversos procedimientos gastrointestinales. El bypass gástrico en Y de Roux es el prototipo de los procedimientos mixtos y el más practicado en el mundo en sus diversas variedades. Una técnica similar y novedosa es la adoptada por Cardoso-Ramos y Galvao denominada "bypass simplificado" que rápidamente se aceptó por la mayor facilidad y resultados muy parecidos a la técnica convencional. Objetivo: describir los resultados a un año del bypass gástrico simplificado para el tratamiento de la obesidad mórbida. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de todos los pacientes a quienes se realizó bypass gástrico de enero de 2008 a julio de 2012, en la clínica de obesidad de un hospital privado de la Ciudad de México. Resultados: se estudiaron 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de obesidad mórbida, con límites de edad de 18 y 65 años, operados para bypass gástrico simplificado. En 10% de los pacientes hubo complicaciones, las más frecuentes fueron: hemorragia y hernia interna. Durante el periodo de estudio la mortalidad fue de 0%. La pérdida de peso promedio a los 12 meses fue de 72.7%. Conclusión: el bypass gástrico simplificado laparoscópico es una cirugía segura, con buenos resultados a mediano plazo, y con una pérdida del exceso de peso adecuada en 71% de los casos.

  12. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-stimulated deoxycytidine deaminases from a human lymphoma cell but not the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) from Ramos 6.4 human Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bases, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Deoxycytidine deaminase enzyme activity was reduced in lysates of human leukemic THP1 cells 24 h after transfection with siRNA designed to inhibit cell synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)1a and Hsp701b. The cytidine deaminase enzyme activity from the cell lysates was purified from an affinity column which contained bound single-stranded oligodeoxycytidylic acid. Deficient enzyme activity in certain elution fractions from the siRNA-transfected cells was restored by including recombinant HSP 70 in the assays. Enzyme activity in some other fractions was increased after siRNA transfection. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a central factor in the immune response. A more specific assay for AID was used to study the influence of Hsp70 on AID activity. Unlike Hsp70's ability to stimulate certain enzymes of DNA base excision repair and other cytidine deaminases, it had little effect on AID activity in vitro, or was weakly inhibitory.

  13. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of the Quebrada La Porcelana section, Sierra de Ramos, Salta Province, Argentina: age limits for the Neogene Orán Group and uplift of the southern Sierras Subandinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Hernández, R. M.; Galli, C. I.; Idleman, B. D.

    2001-12-01

    We present a magnetostratigraphic investigation of Neogene Orán Group strata at Quebrada La Porcelana. The area is located in the southern Sierras Subandinas of northwestern Argentina within the zone of 'normal' subduction. The oldest datable Neogene strata were deposited ˜8.1 Ma at the base of the Terciário Subandino. We estimate that the youngest strata are considerably younger than 1 m.y. The basal age is millions of years younger than lateral correlative units farther to the south in the Transition Zone. These chronostratigraphic results suggest that foreland thrusting was initiated much later in northernmost Argentina than it was in the Transition Zone. The data suggest that generation and migration of hydrocarbons from the Los Monos source horizon began about 3.8 Ma. Growth strata deposition began at ˜4.2 Ma, suggesting that trapping structures were available in the region when migration began.

  15. [First case described of isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy heralding multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, Moisés; Benito-León, Julián; Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando; García-Soldevilla, Miguel Ángel; Izquierdo-Esteban, Laura; Tejeiro-Martínez, José; Cabrera-Valdivia, Francisco; García-Albea Ristol, Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El mieloma multiple es la neoplasia de celulas plasmaticas mas frecuente. Al ser incurable, el tratamiento persigue obtener el mayor tiempo de supervivencia libre de clinica. Constituye una causa extremadamente rara de afectacion de los nervios craneales y es producido habitualmente por un plasmocitoma intracraneal. Presentamos un caso de mieloma multiple, que asociaba un plasmocitoma intracraneal y que comenzo clinicamente con paralisis aislada, completa y fluctuante del III nervio craneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años que acudio a urgencias por presentar un cuadro clinico oscilante, consistente en diplopia binocular horizontal y, posteriormente, cefalea. La exploracion neurooftalmologica revelo una paralisis completa del III nervio craneal derecho. Se solicito una tomografia axial computarizada craneal urgente, que revelo multiples lesiones osteoliticas diploicas, asociando una de ellas componente de partes blandas en la hendidura esfenoidal derecha. La paciente fue ingresada, y se le diagnostico posteriormente un mieloma multiple IgA-kappa. Tras recibir induccion quimioterapica y ser sometida a un trasplante autologo de progenitores hematopoyeticos, alcanzo la remision completa. Conclusiones. El mieloma multiple es un trastorno raro de los nervios craneales, una causa muy infrecuente de paralisis aislada y completa del III nervio craneal y menos aun fluctuante, y no se ha encontrado ningun caso publicado con este inicio clinico. Tener en cuenta las posibles manifestaciones neurooftalmologicas del mieloma multiple puede contribuir a un diagnostico precoz y a una incidencia positiva sobre el curso de esta enfermedad.

  16. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  17. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree, Victor... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013,...

  18. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  19. Macrosomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 19. Ramos GA, Moore TR. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar SU, eds. Avery's Diseases of the Newborn . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 9.

  20. Association of Trauma-Related Disorders and Dissociation with Four Idioms of Distress Among Latino Psychiatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Gorritz, Magdaliz; Raggio, Greer A.; Peláez, Clara; Chen, Henian; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Past research on idioms of distress among U.S. Latinos has revealed that ataque de nervios and altered perceptions, such as hearing and seeing things when alone, are independent markers of higher morbidity and mental health utilization despite having no one-to-one relationships with any single psychiatric diagnosis. It has been proposed that the idioms exert this effect because they are signs of distressing dissociative capacity associated with traumatic exposure. This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dissociative capacity and four cultural idioms of distress associated with the popular overall category of nervios. We particularly explore how these relationships change with varied measures of traumatic exposure, including trauma severity and timing or persistence of trauma. A series of adjusted bivariate regressions assessed the matrix of associations between the idioms and the clinical variables. In this highly traumatized population, we identified a strong ‘nexus’ of associations between dissociation and three of the idioms: currently being ill with nerves, ataque de nervios and altered perceptions. These idioms were largely independent from PTSD and depression and were associated with trauma persistence and severity. A fourth idiom, being nervous since childhood, was not associated with any other variable and may represent a personality trait rather than a diagnosable condition. Our results validate the clinical utility of the construct of nervios as a set of specific idioms associated with dissociation that are useful markers of mental health need among Latinos independently of their association with clinical diagnoses. PMID:20414799

  1. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2012-09-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analysed the pollen content of a 1100-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the Eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined to distinguish the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo. Results showed that between 900 AD and 1230 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with high T/P index linked to a high ENSO variability and a weak South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) activity. Between 1230 and 1650 AD, a dry climate prevailed characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index related to lower ENSO variability with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed, first a wet phase between 1650 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic SSTs favored the return of a wet páramo, and a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1810 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulting in drying of the páramo. The Current Warm Period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity, the highest in the last millennium, and weaker SASM activity modifying the water stock of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively loosing its capacity for water storage and that the variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matters for Andean climate patterns although many teleconnection mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  2. The sound of barking dogs: violence and terror among Salvadoran families in the postwar.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2002-12-01

    This article examines the transgenerational transmission of trauma among campensino living in a rural, repopulated community in El Salvador. Research with Holocaust survivors and their children has shown that traumatic symptoms can be transmitted to children who did not directly experience the Holocaust. The mechanisms by which this transgenerational transmission occurs have not been fully explored and require an expansion of medical and anthropological conceptualizations of posttraumatic illness. Through their reactions to and interpretations of everyday events, campesino parents who lived in the guerrilla camps explicitly transmit trauma to children who did not experience the recent civil war. Illness narratives by sufferers of nervios transmit trauma and point to the basic immorality of the war, an immorality that continues today. In addition, the symptoms of nervios constitute a mechanism by which trauma is implicitly transmitted. Symptoms of nervios point to what generally is not and, indeed, cannot be voiced: the destruction of primary relationships in the family and unresolved grief and helplessness, which, through the responses of family members to the sufferer, are reproduced and reenacted in the present family context. PMID:12500615

  3. Adaptation and convergent evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus complex in high-elevation biodiverse Andean hotspots.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25340770

  4. Adaptation and Convergent Evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus Complex in High-Elevation Biodiverse Andean Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25340770

  5. Kyol Goeu (‘Wind Overload’) Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2009-01-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, ‘wind overload’) is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios. PMID:20808711

  6. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  7. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  8. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2013-02-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analyzed the pollen content of a 1150-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the Andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined. This index was used to distinguish changes in the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo and their associated patterns of interdecadal El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and South American summer monsoon (SASM) activity. Results show that between 850 and 1250 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with a high transported pollen/Poaceae pollen (T/P) index linked to high ENSO variability and weak SASM activity. Between 1250 and 1550 AD, a dry climate prevailed, characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index and therefore no upslope cloud convection, related to lower ENSO variability and with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed: first, a wet phase between 1550 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) favored the return of a wet páramo, and then a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1800 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulted in drying of the páramo. The current warm period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity - the highest in the last millennium - and weaker SASM activity modifying the water storage of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively losing its capacity for water storage and that the interdecadal variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matter for Andean climate

  9. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat.

  10. [Acute optic neuropathy: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Buompadre, María Celeste

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. La alteracion funcional del nervio optico se caracteriza por un deficit en la agudeza visual, en la vision cromatica y en el campo visual, defecto pupilar aferente y, en algunos casos, edema del nervio o atrofia y palidez. Objetivo. Describir el espectro de neuropatias opticas agudas, su clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento, con mayor interes en aquellas de presentacion en la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. La neuritis optica puede ser monofasica, recurrente o el componente de un cuadro desmielinizante polisintomatico. El objetivo del tratamiento es reducir el numero y la gravedad de los ataques y prevenir discapacidad. La infecciosa es secundaria a diferentes microorganismos (bacterias, virus, hongos y protozoos). El tratamiento depende de la etiologia. La isquemica anterior no arteritica o idiopatica es la forma mas frecuente y es secundaria a enfermedad de pequeños vasos (ciliares posteriores). La neuropatia optica hereditaria o de Leber representa una causa importante de afectacion visual cronica y se caracteriza por la afectacion selectiva de las celulas ganglionares de la retina. Hasta el momento, la terapia solo es de apoyo. En el papiledema asociado a hipertension endocraneal, la agudeza visual generalmente se conserva pero existe aumento de la mancha ciega. El tratamiento se basa en disminuir la hipertension y el factor etiologico si existe. Conclusiones. Las neuropatias opticas agudas constituyen un amplio grupo de entidades, de etiologia diversa y con un pronostico visual variable. La presencia de signos del examen neurologico, fondo de ojo y neuroimagenes pueden orientar hacia el diagnostico y tratamiento oportuno.

  11. [Management of bilateral vocal cord paralysis with laser cordectomy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Oropeza, Luz del Carmen; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Góvea-Camacho, Luis Humberto; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales se caracteriza por inmovilidad de las cuerdas en aducción o abducción completa secundaria a lesión del nervio vago a través de los nervios laríngeos recurrentes. Se manifiesta por disnea con estridor variable que puede ocasionar la muerte si no se despeja la vía aérea. Existen técnicas intra y extralaríngeas para aumentar la luz glótica y mejorar la ventilación, la deglución y la posibilidad de decanulación y emisión de voz funcional. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de serie de casos en el que se incluyeron pacientes con parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales tratados mediante cordectomía posterior entre enero de 2004 y enero de 2010. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos para obtener los datos y registros endolaringoscópicos de control pre y posquirúrgico.

  12. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  13. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  14. Low temperature resistance in saplings and ramets of Polylepis sericea in the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, Fermín; García-Núñez, Carlos; Rangel, Sairo

    2009-09-01

    The frequent occurrence of all year-round below zero temperatures in tropical high mountains constitutes a most stressful climatic factor that plants have to confront. Polylepis forests are found well above the continuous forest line and are distributed throughout the Andean range. These trees require particular traits to overcome functional limitations imposed on them at such altitudes. Considering seedling and sapling stages as filter phases in stressful environments, some functional aspects of the regeneration of Polylepis sericea, a species associated to rock outcrops in the Venezuelan Andes, were studied. We characterized microclimatic conditions within a forest, in a forest gap and surrounding open páramo and determined low temperature resistance mechanisms in seedlings, saplings and ramets. Conditions in the forest understory were more stable compared to the forest gaps and open surrounding páramo. Minimum temperatures close to the ground were 3.6 °C lower in the open páramo compared to the forest understory. Maximum temperatures were 9.0 °C higher in the open páramo. Ice nucleation and injury temperatures occurred between -6 and -8 °C for both ramets and saplings, an evidence of frost avoidance to low nighttime temperatures. In this particular forest, this resistance ability is determinant in their island-like distribution in very specific less severe temperature habitats.

  15. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins. PMID:26623624

  16. Late Quaternary vegetation, fire and climate history reconstructed from two cores at Cerro Toledo, Podocarpus National Park, southeastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunschön, Corinna; Behling, Hermann

    2009-11-01

    The last ca. 20,000 yr of palaeoenvironmental conditions in Podocarpus National Park in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes have been reconstructed from two pollen records from Cerro Toledo (04°22'28.6"S, 79°06'41.5"W) at 3150 m and 3110 m elevation. Páramo vegetation with high proportions of Plantago rigida characterised the last glacial maximum (LGM), reflecting cold and wet conditions. The upper forest line was at markedly lower elevations than present. After ca. 16,200 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation decreased slightly while mountain rainforest developed, suggesting rising temperatures. The trend of increasing temperatures and mountain rainforest expansion continued until ca. 8500 cal yr BP, while highest temperatures probably occurred from 9300 to 8500 cal yr BP. From ca. 8500 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation re-expanded with dominance of Poaceae, suggesting a change to cooler conditions. During the late Holocene after ca. 1800 cal yr BP, a decrease in páramo indicates a change to warmer conditions. Anthropogenic impact near the study site is indicated for times after 2300 cal yr BP. The regional environmental history indicates that through time the eastern Andean Cordillera in South Ecuador was influenced by eastern Amazonian climates rather than western Pacific climates.

  17. Loss of Talent? Citizenship and Higher Education Access for Undocumented Students. The Claremont Letter. Volume 4, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, William

    2009-01-01

    The author began studying undocumented students in the spring of 2006 to better understand the educational experiences of those who wanted to go to college or who were already in college. He invited three of his CGU (Claremont Graduate University) students--Richard Cortes, Heidi Coronado, and Karina Ramos--to join his research team. To better…

  18. PARSING BY MATRIX--A DEVELOPMENT IN SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN. RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEIGER, AMELIA JANIOTIS

    RESEARCH IN SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN, WHICH WAS DEVELOPED IN A PROGRAM FOR COMPUTER-AIDED RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATION, IS DESCRIBED. THE CORPUS CONSISTED OF 15 RUSSIAN MATHEMATICAL ARTICLES. THE THEORY USED IS THE "FULCRUM" APPROACH OF BUNKER-RAMO, BUT THE COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION HAS DEVELOPED ALONG DISTINCT LINES. THREE TYPES OF SYNTACTIC…

  19. Aptamer-Nanoparticle Strip Biosensor for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xun; Phillips, Joseph A.; Xu, Hui; Tan, Weihong; Zeng, Lingwen; Liu, Guodong

    2009-01-01

    We report an aptamer-nanoparticle strip biosensor (ANSB) for the rapid, specific, sensitive and low-cost detection of circulating cancer cells. Known for their high specificity and affinity, aptamers were first selected from live cells by the cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) process. When next combined with the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), ANSBs were prepared on a lateral flow device. Ramos cells were used as a model target cell to demonstrate proof of principle. Under optimal conditions, the ANSB was capable of detecting a minimum of 4000 Ramos cells without instrumentation (visual judgment) and 800 Ramos cells with a portable strip reader within 15 minutes. Importantly, ANSB has successfully detected Ramos cells in human blood, thus providing a rapid, sensitive and low-cost quantitative tool for the detection of circulating cancer cells. ANSB therefore shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:19904989

  20. Local initiatives: USAID / Peru supports national legislation on domestic violence.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This brief article describes the activities of USAID-funded groups that promote gender equality and the protection of women and children against domestic violence in Peru. The Peruvian legislature passed Public Law 26260 in 1993, which addresses the issue of domestic violence. The Movimiento Mujers Peruanas Manuela Ramos received support from USAID to develop a registration, protection, redress, and referral system for women who suffer domestic violence. A campaign was conducted that used leaflets and radio and television to educate women about the new law and their rights under it. USAID also supported the Ombudsman's Office for Women. This office instituted a national study on domestic violence that will provide a database for monitoring reductions in domestic violence expected from the new law and the campaign. ReproSalud has a reproductive health project that USAID is funding. This group as well as 18 other groups function under an umbrella group, the Manuela Ramos. The target is poor women living in disadvantaged rural and urban areas, who are at greater risk of domestic violence. Manuela Ramos conducted participatory, qualitative research that helps women rank their reproductive health needs. All 18 organizations found domestic violence to be a reproductive health problem. One organization identified it as the most serious problem, and one that contributes to complications during delivery. Manuela Ramos works to make men more aware of the negative impact that domestic violence has on women.

  1. Leaders' Perceptions of Mobile Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristin R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…

  2. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  3. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spatial deconvolution code (Quintero Noda+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.

    2015-05-01

    This deconvolution method follows the scheme presented in Ruiz Cobo & Asensio Ramos (2013A&A...549L...4R) The Stokes parameters are projected onto a few spectral eigenvectors and the ensuing maps of coefficients are deconvolved using a standard Lucy-Richardson algorithm. This introduces a stabilization because the PCA filtering reduces the amount of noise. (1 data file).

  5. A Primer on Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) for Behavioral Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of statistical procedures (e.g., Bangert & Baumberger, 2005; Kieffer, Reese, & Thompson, 2001; Warne, Lazo, Ramos, & Ritter, 2012) show that one of the most common multivariate statistical methods in psychological research is multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). However, MANOVA and its associated procedures are often not…

  6. Explosive radiation in high Andean Hypericum-rates of diversification among New World lineages.

    PubMed

    Nürk, Nicolai M; Scheriau, Charlotte; Madriñán, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The páramos, high-elevation Andean grasslands ranging from ca. 2800 m to the snow line, harbor one of the fastest evolving biomes worldwide since their appearance in the northern Andes 3-5 million years (Ma) ago. Hypericum (St. John's wort), with over 65% of its Neotropical species, has a center of diversity in these high Mountain ecosystems. Using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of a broad sample of New World Hypericum species we investigate phylogenetic patterns, estimate divergence times, and provide the first insights into diversification rates within the genus in the Neotropics. Two lineages appear to have independently dispersed into South America around 3.5 Ma ago, one of which has radiated in the páramos (Brathys). We find strong support for the polyphyly of section Trigynobrathys, several species of which group within Brathys, while others are found in temperate lowland South America (Trigynobrathys s.str.). All páramo species of Hypericum group in one clade. Within these páramo Hypericum species enormous phenotypic evolution has taken place (life forms from arborescent to prostrate shrubs) evidently in a short time frame. We hypothesize multiple mechanisms to be responsible for the low differentiation in the ITS region contrary to the high morphological diversity found in Hypericum in the páramos. Amongst these may be ongoing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, as well as the putative adaptive radiation, which can explain the contrast between phenotypic diversity and the close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24062764

  7. Explosive radiation in high Andean Hypericum—rates of diversification among New World lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nürk, Nicolai M.; Scheriau, Charlotte; Madriñán, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The páramos, high-elevation Andean grasslands ranging from ca. 2800 m to the snow line, harbor one of the fastest evolving biomes worldwide since their appearance in the northern Andes 3–5 million years (Ma) ago. Hypericum (St. John's wort), with over 65% of its Neotropical species, has a center of diversity in these high Mountain ecosystems. Using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of a broad sample of New World Hypericum species we investigate phylogenetic patterns, estimate divergence times, and provide the first insights into diversification rates within the genus in the Neotropics. Two lineages appear to have independently dispersed into South America around 3.5 Ma ago, one of which has radiated in the páramos (Brathys). We find strong support for the polyphyly of section Trigynobrathys, several species of which group within Brathys, while others are found in temperate lowland South America (Trigynobrathys s.str.). All páramo species of Hypericum group in one clade. Within these páramo Hypericum species enormous phenotypic evolution has taken place (life forms from arborescent to prostrate shrubs) evidently in a short time frame. We hypothesize multiple mechanisms to be responsible for the low differentiation in the ITS region contrary to the high morphological diversity found in Hypericum in the páramos. Amongst these may be ongoing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, as well as the putative adaptive radiation, which can explain the contrast between phenotypic diversity and the close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24062764

  8. Thrusting, halotectonics, and sedimentation in the Spanish Pyrenees

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasio, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Spanish Pyrenees are a linked system of regional thrust sheets and intermontane basins which formed during the Tertiary collision of the European and Iberian plates. The structural evolution of the Pyrenees was controlled by Mesozoic extensional structures and evaporite-bearing strata which served as the regional decollement and produced widespread pre- to postthrusting halotectonic folds. Palinspastic restoration of Cretaceous strata from the Pyrenean realm delineates a large normal-faulted embayment in the northern Iberian margin. Thicker sediments within the bay, coupled with the southward emplacement of the Cotiella-Montsec thrust sheet, caused underlying evaporites to flow toward the basin margins, producing folds such as the Mediano anticline.

  9. The use of the linear reservoir concept to quantify the impact of changes in land use on the hydrology of catchments in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; de Bièvre, B.; Wyseure, G.; Deckers, J.

    The high Andes region of South Ecuador (The Páramo) is characterised by a cold and wet climate. Most soils of the Páramo region are Andosols and Histosols, with a very high water retention capacity that is affected irreversibly by drying. This key property of Páramo soils buffers catchment outflow, resulting in an almost uniform outflow pattern which, notwithstanding the variability in rainfall, can be very variable in space and time. These soils serve as the most important reservoir of drinking and irrigation water for the densely populated inter-Andean depression region. The Páramo has long served only as an extensive grazing area but recent population pressure and land scarcity have increased cultivation. Two small Páramo catchments (about 2 km2) were monitored intensively for precipitation and discharge for over a year to assess the effect of such land-use changes on the hydrological properties. One catchment is in an undisturbed area and grazed intensively while in the other, local farmers started intensive drainage for cultivation of potatoes about five years ago. The linear reservoir concept has been used to assess the overall retention capacity of the catchments in terms of both peak response and base flow. In this model, every catchment is considered as a series of independent parallel reservoirs, each characterised by mean residence times (T). In every catchment, three major mean residence times can be distinguished. In the undisturbed catchment, an immediate response, characterised by a T of 5.4 hours, is followed by a slower response with a T of 44.3 h. The base flow has a mean T value of 360 h. The response of the cultivated catchment is similar with T values of 3.6 h, 27.2 h and 175 h, respectively. As a result, in the disturbed catchment, water release is about 40% faster than in the undisturbed catchment, so that the base flow falls rapidly to lower levels. The linear reservoir model is a simple way of quantifying the impact of land use changes

  10. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  11. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress. PMID:24744049

  12. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  13. A qualitative analysis of posttraumatic stress among Mexican victims of disaster.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H; Weisshaar, D L; Conrad, M L; Diaz, E M; Murphy, A D; Lbañez, G E

    2001-10-01

    In unstructured interviews, 24 Mexicans described survivors' responses to disasters in Guadalajara, Jalisco (n = 9), Homestead, Florida (n = 6), and Puerto Angel, Oaxaca (n = 9). This analysis assessed the extent to which symptom descriptions corresponded to the 17 criterion symptoms of PTSD. Nineteen participants (79%) mentioned from 1 to 9 criterion symptoms. Event-related distress, hypervigilance, recurrent recollections, and avoiding reminders were described most often. Only 3 criterion symptoms were never described. Twenty participants (83%) provided 109 separate expressions that could not be classified specifically as criterion symptoms. These phrases were sorted by 9 independent Mexican volunteers and cluster analyzed. Clusters composed of ataques de nervios, depression, lasting trauma, and somatic complaints provided the best description of the data. PMID:11776421

  14. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  15. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  16. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  17. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided. PMID:21594032

  18. A duplex-triplex nucleic acid nanomachine that probes pH changes inside living cells during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Song, Jian; Cheng, Tao; Fu, Pei-Yu

    2013-07-01

    A duplex-triplex switchable DNA nanomachine was fabricated and has been applied for the demonstration of intracellular acidification and apoptosis of Ramos cells, with graphene oxide (GO) not only as transporter but also as fluorescence quencher. The machine constructed with triplex-forming oligonucleotide exhibited duplex-triplex transition at different pH conditions. By virtue of the remarkable difference in affinity of GO with single-stranded DNA and triplex DNA, and the super fluorescence quenching efficiency of GO, the nanomachine functions as a pH sensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Moreover, taking advantage of the excellent transporter property of GO, the duplex-triplex/GO nanomachine was used to sense pH changes inside Ramos cells during apoptosis. Fluorescence images showed different results between living and apoptotic cells, illustrating the potential of DNA scaffolds responsive to more complex pH triggers in living systems.

  19. February 2015 erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Correction to an article published in November 2014 of JOSPT: Llamas-Ramos R, Pecos-Martín D, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Llamas-Ramos I, Plaza-Manzano G, Ortega-Santiago R, Cleland J, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Comparison of the short-term outcomes between trigger point dry needling and trigger point manual therapy for the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(11):852-861. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5229 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(2):147. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.45.2.147. PMID:25641312

  20. February 2015 erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Correction to an article published in November 2014 of JOSPT: Llamas-Ramos R, Pecos-Martín D, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Llamas-Ramos I, Plaza-Manzano G, Ortega-Santiago R, Cleland J, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Comparison of the short-term outcomes between trigger point dry needling and trigger point manual therapy for the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(11):852-861. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5229 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(2):147. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.45.2.147.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human lymphoblastoid B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Chiseko He, Jinsong; Takano, Tomoko; Tanaka, Chisato; Kondo, Toshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Tohyama, Yumi

    2007-11-03

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study we investigated its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death. EGCG induced dose- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death accompanied by loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cleavage of pro-caspase-9 to its active form. EGCG also enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells.

  2. [Encephalopathy and neuromyelitis optica: the importance of recognising atypical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Hervás-García, José V; Grau-López, Laia; Doménech-Puigcerver, Sira; Ramo-Tello, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La neuromielitis optica (NMO) o enfermedad de Devic es un trastorno autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que afecta principal y caracteristicamente al nervio optico y a la medula espinal. Los anticuerpos antiacuaporina-4 (AQ-4) son un biomarcador especifico de esta entidad y, desde su descubrimiento, se ha ampliado el numero de sintomas y datos radiologicos de la enfermedad y se ha definido el concepto de espectro clinico de NMO. Caso clinico. Mujer de 66 años diagnosticada de NMO por haber sufrido brotes de neuritis optica y mielitis de repeticion junto con anticuerpos AQ-4 positivos. Presento un cuadro de disminucion del nivel de conciencia, con resonancia magnetica cerebral que mostro multiples lesiones en la sustancia blanca, sin realce de contraste, que se resolvio sin tratamiento. Un mes despues, sufrio empeoramiento del estado general, sindrome confusional y ceguera. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral se observaron nuevas lesiones en la sustancia blanca y aumento del tamaño de otras ya existentes. Se emitio el diagnostico de encefalopatia en el contexto de NMO y se trato a la paciente con corticoides e inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, con lo que se produjo mejoria clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. Desde el descubrimiento de los anticuerpos AQ-4, ha aumentado el numero de manifestaciones clinicas y radiologicas de la NMO mas alla de la afectacion del nervio optico y de la medula espinal, entre ellas las manifestaciones cerebrales. Reconocerlas es muy importante para hacer un diagnostico precoz, evitar pruebas complementarias no necesarias e instaurar el tratamiento adecuado.

  3. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  4. [Therapeutic possibilities in refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Puertas-Martin, Verónica; Carreras-Saez, Inmaculada; Marana, Ana; Ruiz-Falco Rojas, M Luz; Cantarin-Extremera, Verónica; Calleja-Gero, M Lourdes

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. El complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) cursa frecuentemente con epilepsia de dificil control, lo que condiciona la calidad de vida y el nivel cognitivo de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas epidemiologicas, clinicas y el tratamiento de los pacientes afectos de CET con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se han revisado retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 30 pacientes menores de 18 años, diagnosticados de CET y epilepsia registrados en nuestra base de datos. Resultados. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en los pacientes con CET en nuestra serie esta comprendida entre el primer mes de vida y los 4 años. Todos comenzaron con crisis parciales. Dos presentaron sindrome de West y cuatro, espasmos infantiles sin hipsarritmia. En 19 de los pacientes, la epilepsia se comporto como farmacorresistente. Respecto al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, 11 estan en monoterapia, 10 en biterapia, siete en triterapia y uno con cuatro farmacos. Dos recibieron ACTH, dos tienen implantado un estimulador del nervio vago, cuatro reciben tratamiento con everolimus y ocho han sido sometidos a cirugia. Conclusiones. La epilepsia es un problema muy frecuente y de inicio en los primeros años de vida en el CET. Las opciones terapeuticas actuales son muchas, sin embargo el 63,3% de los pacientes tiene una epilepsia no controlada y la mayoria de ellos presenta crisis diarias. El mal control de las crisis se correlaciona con retraso mental y trastorno del espectro autista. Señalar la respuesta positiva obtenida con otras posibilidades terapeuticas: inhibidores de la via mTOR, cirugia y el estimulador del nervio vago.

  5. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. Los pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) frecuentemente desarrollan disfuncion anorrectal. Las estructuras neuromusculares del suelo pelvico y los mecanismos de control voluntario de la defecacion pueden afectarse por las lesiones parcheadas de la EM o secundarias a la discapacidad del paciente. La implicacion multifactorial limita la comprension de la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en la EM. Tests neurofisiologicos especificos valoran la funcionalidad de los elementos del sistema nervioso central y periferico implicados en las disfunciones anorrectales. Objetivo. Proponer un protocolo diagnostico de estudios neurofisiologicos estandarizados del suelo pelvico para caracterizar la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron estudios de electromiografia de esfinter anal externo, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales desde el nervio pudendo interno, registro de reflejos sacros anales y neurografia del nervio pudendo a 16 pacientes con EM definida y criterios de estreñimiento o incontinencia fecal. Resultados. Las caracteristicas clinicas y neurofisiologicas fueron heterogeneas. Nueve pacientes presentaron estreñimiento; dos, incontinencia fecal aislada; y cinco, combinacion de ambos. La abolicion o el retraso de la latencia de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales fue el hallazgo mas frecuente (n = 12), seguido de la deteccion de contraccion paradojica (n = 11) y de reclutamiento deficitario (n = 8) en la electromiografia de esfinter anal externo. Conclusiones. La correcta interpretacion de cada test neurofisiologico disponible y la correlacion de los hallazgos en conjunto permiten comprender la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal. La protocolizacion de estudios neurofisiologicos del suelo pelvico permite ajustar el diagnostico al identificar la lesion nerviosa, central o periferica, determinante de disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM.

  6. Motexafin gadolinium modulates levels of phosphorylated Akt and synergizes with inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jason; Sirisawad, Mint; Miller, Richard; Naumovski, Louie

    2006-05-01

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd, Xcytrin) is a tumor-selective expanded porphyrin that targets oxidative stress-related proteins. MGd treatment of the follicular lymphoma-derived cell line HF-1 resulted in growth suppression and apoptosis whereas MGd treatment of the Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line Ramos resulted in growth suppression but not apoptosis. Because phosphorylation status of Akt/protein kinase B is regulated by oxidative stress, we monitored total and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells. Levels of pAkt increased within 30 minutes after MGd treatment of HF-1 but after 4 hours began to show a progressive decline to below baseline levels before cells underwent apoptosis. In MGd-treated Ramos cells, pAkt increased approximately 2-fold within 4 hours and remained persistently elevated. Because pAkt activates survival pathways, we determined if MGd-induced cell death could be enhanced by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt. The addition of specific inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation (Akt inhibitor 1 or SH-5) reduced pAkt levels in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells and synergistically enhanced MGd-induced cell death. MGd was also evaluated in combination with celecoxib, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, or docetaxel, a microtubule inhibitor that can decrease Akt phosphorylation. The combination of MGd/celecoxib or MGd/docetaxel resulted in decreased Akt phosphorylation and in synergistic cytotoxicity compared with either agent alone. These data point to a potential protective role for pAkt in MGd-induced apoptosis and suggest that MGd activity may be enhanced by combining it with agents that inhibit Akt phosphorylation.

  7. NSB nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Reagan has nominated three members to the National Science Board (NSB), the governing body of the National Science Foundation (NSF). None have been confirmed by Congress. They are Simon Ramo, director of TRW, Inc.; Annelise G. Anderson, a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University; and K. June Lindstedt-Siva, manager for environmental sciences at Atlantic Richfield Company and a director of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco.

  8. Long-term effects of climate and land cover change on freshwater provision in the tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Mora, D.; Balthazar, V.

    2015-06-01

    Andean headwater catchments play a pivotal role to supply fresh water for downstream water users. However, few long-term studies exist on the relative importance of climate change and direct anthropogenic perturbations on flow regimes. In this paper, we assess multi-decadal change in freshwater provision based on long time series (1974-2008) of hydrometeorological data and land cover reconstructions for a 282 km2 catchment located in the tropical Andes. Three main land cover change trajectories can be distinguished: (1) rapid decline of native vegetation in montane forest and páramo ecosystems in ~1/5 or 20% of the catchment area, (2) expansion of agricultural land by 14% of the catchment area, (3) afforestation of 12% of native páramo grasslands with exotic tree species in recent years. Given the strong temporal variability of precipitation and streamflow data related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, we use empirical mode decomposition techniques to detrend the time series. The long-term increasing trend in rainfall is remarkably different from the observed changes in streamflow that exhibit a decreasing trend. Hence, observed changes in streamflow are not the result of long-term climate change but very likely result from direct anthropogenic disturbances after land cover change. Partial water budgets for montane cloud forest and páramo ecosystems suggest that the strongest changes in evaporative water losses are observed in páramo ecosystems, where progressive colonization and afforestation of high alpine grasslands leads to a strong increase in transpiration losses.

  9. Isotope Tracers as Tools for Identifying Water Sources in Developing Regions: Case of Study in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, G.; Lazo, P.; Crespo, P.; Célleri, R.

    2014-12-01

    ramo ecosystems are widely recognized for their high water regulation capacity and as the main source of runoff generation in the Andean region. Understanding the hydrological functioning of the fragile wet Andean páramo ecosystems is critical in the mountainous regions of South America given their high susceptibility to global and local stressors such as land use change and climate change and variability . Despite this, most of the basins in the Andean mountain range are still ungauged, resulting in a currently hindered hydrologic analysis of the water sources contributing to runoff generation in the high-elevation páramo ecosystems. To improve this situation and provide a baseline for future tracer-based hydrologic studies, the isotopic signature of water samples collected within the Zhurucay River experimental basin (7.53 km2) was analyzed. The study area is located in the southern Ecuador and stretches over an altitudinal range of 3200 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples in rainfall, streamflow, and soils were collected between May 2011 and May 2013. Streamflow hydrometric and isotopic information within the study site was collected using a nested monitoring system. The main soils in the study site are the Andosols mainly located in the steep slopes, and the Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) predominantly located at the bottom of the valley. Results reveal that the Andosols drain the infiltrated rainfall water to the Histosols. The Histosols on their turn feed creeks and small rivers. Pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation throughout the year. Defining the water sources contributing to runoff generation is the first step towards the establishment of scientifically-based programs of management and conservation of water resources in the Andean region; and the monitoring of isotopic information has proven useful to improve the understanding of the ecosystem's hydrologic behavior.

  10. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based (129)Xe NMR.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keunhong; Netirojjanakul, Chawita; Munch, Henrik K; Sun, Jinny; Finbloom, Joel A; Wemmer, David E; Pines, Alexander; Francis, Matthew B

    2016-08-17

    We have synthesized targeted, selective, and highly sensitive (129)Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST (129)Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo. PMID:27454679

  11. 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Abbott, Mark B.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Bezada, Maximiliano; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2005-11-01

    Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9°N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ˜15,500 cal yr B.P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B.P. At this time, a lycopod assemblage bearing no modern analog colonized the superpáramo. Although this community persisted until ˜6000 cal yr B.P., it began to decline somewhat earlier, in synchrony with cooling following the Holocene thermal maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, the pioneer assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity superpáramo community that became established ˜9000 cal yr B.P. This replacement coincides with regional declines in temperature and/or available moisture. Modern, more diverse superpáramo assemblages were not established until ˜4600 cal yr B.P., and were accompanied by a dramatic decline in Alnus, probably the result of factors associated with climate, humans, or both. Pollen influx from upper Andean forests is remarkably higher than expected during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene, especially between 14,000 and 12,600 cal yr B.P., when unparalleled high values are recorded. We propose that intensification of upslope orographic winds transported lower elevation forest pollen to the superpáramo, causing the apparent increase in tree pollen at high altitude. The association between increased forest pollen and summer insolation at this time suggests a causal link; however, further work is needed to clarify this relationship.

  12. Examination of Land Use, Hydrology, and Perceptions of Use and Management of the Colombian Paramo with Implications for Water Quality and Availability Concerns for Affected Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. F.; Covino, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern and Central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system on Earth. In particular, páramo ecosystems, high elevation grasslands of the tropical Andes of Colombia, are undergoing rapid conversion to cropland and pasture. These systems have strong hydrologic buffering capacity and have historically provided consistent freshwater flows to downstream communities. Therefore, loss of these systems could threaten the viability of freshwater resources in the region. While this region has some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, the resiliency of these hydrologic systems and the influence LULC change may have on them remains poorly understood. Here we seek to develop a deeper understanding of these relationships through quantitative analyses of LULC change and impacts on the quantity and quality of water exported from páramo landscapes of Colombia. Our results indicate the intensity and spatial distribution of LULC change, build upon past remote sensing studies of the region, and aid in prioritizing areas of concern for hydrologic research on the ground. This information provides an initial framework for characterizing the degree of modification and impact to water quantity/quality, as well as the long-term sustainability of water resources in the region. We highlight the complexities of watershed management practices in the Colombian páramo and the need to account for the impact of human activity on changes in water quantity and quality in the region.

  13. Determination of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. II. Novel online monitoring method.

    PubMed

    Amoabediny, Ghassem; Abbas, Mahdi Pesaran Haji; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, a new online monitoring method for the determination of the CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms, based on the values of the respiration factors [OTR (oxygen transfer rate) and CTR (carbon dioxide transfer rate)], obtained by using the RAMOS (respiratory activity monitoring system) device considering a variety of aeration rates in the measuring flask, is investigated. Based on the data of the OTR, obtained by RAMOS under a variety of specific aeration rates, the proposed new method was developed as an online monitoring method for CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. A maximum accumulated CO₂ concentration of 12% was derived in applied methods, provided that the cultivation system is carried out under optimal conditions. Additionally, to predict these conditions, an unsteady-state gas transfer model in shaken bioreactors would be very advantageous. The data of OTR obtained using the RAMOS device were analysed and recalculated by a programme considering the calibration factor (Cf). The major advantage of the new method is the possibility to determine the metabolic activity, regardless of manual sampling.

  14. Models as multiple working hypotheses: Hydrological simulation of neotropical alpine wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Beven, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Tropical alpine grasslands, locally known as páramos, are the water towers of the northern Andes. They are an essential water source for drinking water, irrigation schemes and hydropower plants. But despite their high socio-economic relevance, their hydrological processes are very poorly understood. Since environmental change, ranging from small scale land-use changes to global climate change, is expected to have a strong impact on the hydrological behaviour, a better understanding and hydrological prediction is urgently needed. In this study, we apply a set of nine hydrological models of different complexity to a small, well monitored upland catchment in the Ecuadorian Andes. The models represent different hypotheses on the hydrological functioning of the páramo ecosystem at catchment scale. Interpretation of the results of the model prediction and uncertainty analysis of the model parameters reveals important insights in the evapotranspiration, surface runoff generation and base flow in the páramo. However, problems with boundary conditions, particularly spatial variability of precipitation, pose serious constraints on the differentiation between model representations.

  15. Freezing tolerance in grasses along an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edjuly J; Rada, Fermín; Fariñas, Mario R

    2006-12-01

    The tropical high Andes experience greater daily temperature oscillations compared to seasonal ones as well as a high frequency of night frost occurrence year round. Survival of organisms, under such environmental conditions, has been determined by selective forces which have evolved into adaptations including avoidance or tolerance to freezing. These adaptations have been studied in different species of trees, shrubs and perennial herbs in páramo ecosystems, while they have not been considered in grasses, an important family of the páramo. In order to understand survival of Poaceae, resistance mechanisms were determined. The study was performed along an altitudinal gradient (2,500-4,200 m a.s.l.) in the páramo. Supercooling capacity and frost injury temperature were determined in nine species in order to establish cold resistance mechanisms. Grasses registered a very low supercooling capacity along the altitudinal gradient, with ice formation between -6 and -3 degrees C. On the other hand, frost injury temperature oscillated between -18 and -7 degrees C. Our results suggest that grasses exhibit freezing tolerance as their main cold resistance mechanism. Since grasses grow at ground level, where greatest heat loss takes place, tolerance may be related to this life form as reported for other small life forms. PMID:17024382

  16. Directed evolution of mammalian anti-apoptosis proteins by somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Majors, Brian S; Chiang, Gisela G; Pederson, Nels E; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have created novel fluorescent proteins by harnessing the somatic hypermutation ability of B cells. In this study, we examined if this approach could be used to evolve a non-fluorescent protein, namely the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-x(L), using the Ramos B-cell line. After demonstrating that Ramos cells were capable of mutating a heterologous bcl-x(L) transgene, the cells were exposed to multiple rounds of the chemical apoptosis inducer staurosporine followed by rounds of recovery in fresh medium. The engineered B cells expressing Bcl-x(L) exhibited progressively lower increases in apoptosis activation as measured by caspase-3 activity after successive rounds of selective pressure with staurosporine treatment. Within the B-cell genome, a number of mutated bcl-x(L) transgene variants were identified after three rounds of evolution, including a mutation of Bcl-x(L) Asp29 to either Asn or His, in 8 out of 23 evaluated constructs that represented at least five distinct Ramos subpopulations. Subsequently, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells engineered to overexpress the Bcl-x(L) Asp29Asn variant showed enhanced apoptosis resistance against an orthogonal apoptosis insult, Sindbis virus infection, when compared with cells expressing the wild-type Bcl-x(L) protein. These findings provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of evolution of a recombinant mammalian protein in a mammalian expression system. PMID:22160868

  17. Pointers from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem. PMID:12288567

  18. Pointers from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem.

  19. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  20. Tumor localization and antitumor efficacy of novel sapphyrin compounds.

    PubMed

    Naumovski, Louie; Sirisawad, Mint; Lecane, Philip; Chen, Jun; Ramos, Jason; Wang, Zhong; Cortez, Cecilia; Magda, Darren; Thiemann, Patti; Boswell, Garry; Miles, Dale; Cho, Dong Gyu; Sessler, Jonathan L; Miller, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Sapphyrins are pentapyrrolic metal-free expanded porphyrins with potential medical use as anticancer agents. The novel sapphyrin derivative, PCI-2050, functionalized with 2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy groups to enhance solubility and a modified bipyrrole moiety was found to be more potent in inducing apoptosis than the previously described sapphyrin PCI-2000. Because some sapphyrins may localize to tumors, we took advantage of the intrinsic fluorescence of these compounds to develop a flow cytometry-based assay to track sapphyrin biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice. Ex vivo analysis of sapphyrin-injected animals revealed that PCI-2050 preferentially localized to tumor, whereas PCI-2000 distributed into normal tissues rather than tumor. PCI-2050 uptake in xenograft tumor cells and resultant tumor cell cytotoxicity was dose dependent. To investigate structure-activity relationships, we focused on PCI-2050 and three derivatives that differ by their alkyl substituents on the bipyrrole moiety: PCI-2051, PCI-2052, and PCI-2053. Treatment of Ramos cells in culture or treatment of Ramos xenograft-bearing animals with each of the sapphyrins followed by ex vivo growth of tumor cells revealed the same pattern of cytotoxicity: PCI-2050 > PCI-2052 > PCI-2051 > PCI-2053. Thus, subtle changes in the alkyl substituents on the bipyrrole moiety result in significant changes in antitumor activity. PCI-2050 displayed significant antitumor efficacy in both Ramos and RKO xenograft models without hematologic, hepatic, or renal abnormalities as assessed by complete blood counts and serum chemistries. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the sapphyrin PCI-2050 warrants further evaluation as a potential anticancer agent due to its intrinsic proapoptotic activity and tumor localization ability.

  1. The use of circulation weather types to predict upwelling activity along the Western Iberian Peninsula coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a phenomenon that occurs in most western oceanic coasts due to the presence of mid-latitude high-pressure systems that generate equatorward winds along the coast and consequent offshore displacement of surface waters that in turn cause deeper, colder, nutrient-rich waters to arise. In western Iberian Peninsula (IP) the high-pressure system associated to northerly winds occurs mainly during spring and summer. Upwelling systems are economically relevant, being the most productive regions of the world ocean and crucial for fisheries. In this work, we evaluate the intra- and inter-annual variability of the Upwelling Index (UI) off the western coast of the IP considering four locations at various latitudes: Rias Baixas, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz and Cabo da Roca. In addition, the relationship between the variability of the occurrence of several circulation weather types (Ramos et al., 2011) and the UI variability along this coast was assessed in detail, allowing to discriminate which types are frequently associated with strong and weak upwelling activity. It is shown that upwelling activity is mostly driven by wind flow from the northern quadrant, for which the obtained correlation coefficients (for the N and NE types) are higher than 0.5 for the four considered test locations. Taking into account these significant relationships, we then developed statistical multi-linear regression models to hindcast upwelling series (April to September) at the four referred locations, using monthly frequencies of circulation weather types as predictors. Modelled monthly series reproduce quite accurately observational data, with correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all locations, and relatively small absolute errors. Ramos AM, Ramos R, Sousa P, Trigo RM, Janeira M, Prior V (2011) Cloud to ground lightning activity over Portugal and its association with Circulation Weather Types. Atmospheric Research 101:84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.01

  2. TRAF3 forms heterotrimers with TRAF2 and modulates its ability to mediate NF-{kappa}B activation.

    PubMed

    He, Liusheng; Grammer, Amrie C; Wu, Xiaoli; Lipsky, Peter E

    2004-12-31

    FRET experiments utilizing confocal microscopy or flow cytometry assessed homo- and heterotrimeric association of human tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAF) in living cells. Following transfection of HeLa cells with plasmids expressing CFP- or YFP-TRAF fusion proteins, constitutive homotypic association of TRAF2, -3, and -5 was observed, as well as heterotypic association of TRAF1-TRAF2 and TRAF3-TRAF5. A novel heterotypic association between TRAF2 and -3 was detected and confirmed by immunoprecipitation in Ramos B cells that constitutively express both TRAF2 and -3. Experiments employing deletion mutants of TRAF2 and TRAF3 revealed that this heterotypic interaction minimally involved the TRAF-C domain of TRAF3 as well as the TRAF-N domain and zinc fingers 4 and 5 of TRAF2. A novel flow cytometric FRET analysis utilizing a two-step approach to achieve linked FRET from CFP to YFP to HcRed established that TRAF2 and -3 constitutively form homo- and heterotrimers. The functional importance of TRAF2-TRAF3 heterotrimerization was demonstrated by the finding that TRAF3 inhibited spontaneous NF-kappaB, but not AP-1, activation induced by TRAF2. Ligation of CD40 on Ramos B cells by recombinant CD154 caused TRAF2 and TRAF3 to dissociate, whereas overexpression of TRAF3 in Ramos B cells inhibited CD154-induced TRAF2-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Together, these results reveal a novel association between TRAF2 and TRAF3 that is mediated by unique portions of each protein and that specifically regulates activation of NF-kappaB, but not AP-1.

  3. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  4. A Tale of an Isotope: Where Does the Water Come from in Tropical Andean Ecosystems? A Case of Study in South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Giovanny; Breuer, Lutz; Windhorst, David; Célleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio; Vaché, Kellie; Crespo, Patricio

    2015-04-01

    Only few catchments in the Andean mountain range are currently monitored. Most basins in the region remain ungauged, and as a result, little knowledge is available on the processes governing their hydrological behavior. In particular, despite the importance of tropical alpine grasslands of the northern Andes (commonly known as the páramo) as providers of abundant high-quality water for downstream populations as well as a variety of other environmental services, very little is known about their hydrologic functioning. Understanding the hydrological behavior of the fragile Andean páramo ecosystems is critical given their high susceptibility to global and local stressors such as changes in land use, and the impacts of climate change and variability. To improve this situation, an analysis of the isotopic composition of oxygen-18 in the Zhurucay River experimental catchment (7.53 km2) located in south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. was conducted. Water samples for isotopic analysis were collected in rainfall, streamflow, and soils between May 2011 and May 2013. The main soils in the study site are the Andosols mainly located in the steep slopes, and the Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) predominantly located at the bottom of the valley. Results from the tracer analysis show that pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation, demonstrating hydrologic connectivity between the Histosols and the drainage network; while the most common soils, the Andosols, laterally drain the infiltrated rainfall recharging the lower situated Histosols. Overall, these findings depict that the use of stable isotopes for investigating hydrological processes at catchment scale provides a more complete understanding of the ecosystem's hydrologic functioning. Moreover, in developing regions, such as the Andean region, acquiring better understanding of the origin and fate of water is a crucial step towards the establishment of scientifically

  5. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Carol P.

    2006-09-01

    South America delivers more freshwater runoff to the ocean per km 2 land area than any other continent, and much of that water enters the fluvial system from headwaters in the Andes Mountains. This paper reviews ways in which human occupation of high mountain landscapes in the Andes have affected the delivery of water and sediment to headwater river channels at local to regional scales for millennia, and provides special focus on the vulnerability of páramo soils to human impact. People have intentionally altered the fluvial system by damming rivers at a few strategic locations, and more widely by withdrawing surface water, primarily for irrigation. Unintended changes brought about by human activities are even more widespread and include forest clearance, agriculture, grazing, road construction, and urbanization, which increase rates of rainfall runoff and accelerate processes of water erosion. Some excavations deliver more sediment to river channels by destabilizing slopes and triggering processes of mass-movement. The northern and central Andes are more affected by human activity than most high mountain regions. The wetter northern Andes are also unusual for the very high water retention characteristics of páramo (high elevation grass and shrub) soils, which cover most of the land above 3000 m. Páramo soils are important regulators of headwater hydrology, but human activities that promote vegetation loss and drying cause them to lose water storage capacity. New data from a case study in southern Ecuador show very low bulk densities (median 0.26 g cm - 3 ), high organic matter contents (median 43%), and high water-holding capacities (12% to 86% volumetrically). These data document wetter soils under grass than under tree cover. Effects of human activity on the fluvial system are evident at local scales, but difficult to discern at broader scales in the regional context of geomorphic adjustment to tectonic and volcanic processes.

  6. The effect of land-use changes on the hydrological behaviour of Histic Andosols in south Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Wyseure, G.; de Bièvre, B.; Deckers, J.

    2005-12-01

    The south Ecuadorian Andean mountain belt between 3500 and 4500 m altitude is covered by a highly endemic and fragile ecosystem called páramo. The Histic Andosols covering this region have highly developed hydric properties and exert a key function in the hydrological regulation of the páramo ecosystem. Unlike most Andosols, their extreme water retention capacity is not due to the presence of typical minerals such as allophane or imogolite. Although these minerals are virtually absent, the large organic carbon content, due to organometallic complexation, gives rise to similar properties. The water content at 1500 kPa can exceed 2000 g kg-1, and the high hydraulic conductivity at saturation (about 15 mm h-1) drops sharply when low suction is applied. The three methods applied, i.e. the inverted auger hole, the tension infiltrometer and the constant-head permeameter method, give very similar results. The páramo is characterized by a slow hydrological response and a good water regulation, caused by the combination of a high water storage capacity and high conductivity. The wide pore size distribution of the organometallic complexes results in a water retention curve that differs significantly from the classic Mualem-Van Genuchten description, but can better be described with a simple linear or semilogarithmic model. The soils investigated are very prone to irreversible structural changes caused by land-use changes. The conversion of natural land for cultivation has a large impact on the hydrological function of the region. The water storage capacity increases by 5 to 30%, and the hydraulic conductivity is 31% higher in cultivated catchments. These changes are related to a larger peak flow, a smaller base flow and generally a smaller discharge buffering capacity, despite the higher storage capacity. Copyright

  7. Insights into the water mean transit time in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Giovanny M.; Segura, Catalina; Vaché, Kellie B.; Windhorst, David; Breuer, Lutz; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of the mean transit time (MTT) of water and its spatial variability in a tropical high-elevation ecosystem (wet Andean páramo). The study site is the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2) located in southern Ecuador. A lumped parameter model considering five transit time distribution (TTD) functions was used to estimate MTTs under steady-state conditions (i.e., baseflow MTT). We used a unique data set of the δ18O isotopic composition of rainfall and streamflow water samples collected for 3 years (May 2011 to May 2014) in a nested monitoring system of streams. Linear regression between MTT and landscape (soil and vegetation cover, geology, and topography) and hydrometric (runoff coefficient and specific discharge rates) variables was used to explore controls on MTT variability, as well as mean electrical conductivity (MEC) as a possible proxy for MTT. Results revealed that the exponential TTD function best describes the hydrology of the site, indicating a relatively simple transition from rainfall water to the streams through the organic horizon of the wet páramo soils. MTT of the streams is relatively short (0.15-0.73 years, 53-264 days). Regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between the catchment's average slope and MTT (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.05). MTT showed no significant correlation with hydrometric variables, whereas MEC increases with MTT (R2 = 0.89, p < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that (1) baseflow MTT confirms that the hydrology of the ecosystem is dominated by shallow subsurface flow; (2) the interplay between the high storage capacity of the wet páramo soils and the slope of the catchments provides the ecosystem with high regulation capacity; and (3) MEC is an efficient predictor of MTT variability in this system of catchments with relatively homogeneous geology.

  8. 12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x 10' contact print; May 12, 1982 revision of a January 18, 1974 as built drawing by F. Marquez Ramos, in possesion of the Bridge Evaluation Office of the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works) BRIDE (sic) OVER RIO GRANDE DE LOIZA, ROAD NO. 980 KM. 10.6 - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  9. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  10. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells' electrical properties, the cells' positions, and the OET device's geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  11. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopusgriseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  12. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  13. Two New Species of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the High Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Juan S; Moncada, Ligia I; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The females, males, pupae, and larvae of two new species of Simulium are described and illustrated from a small stream 3950 m above sea level in the Lake Otún area of the Colombian Andes Mountains. Simulium (Pternaspatha) quimbayium n. sp. represents a 630-km northeastern extension of the distributional range of previously known members of the subgenus Pternaspatha, and Simulium (Psilopelmia) machetorum n. sp. represents the highest altitude recorded for a species of the subgenus Psilopelmia. These species illustrate the unique simuliid biodiversity in the páramo ecosystem of the high northern Andes.

  14. A spatial implementation of the BIOME-BGC to model grassland GPP production and water budgets in the Ecuadorian Andean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Mynett, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    Many terrestrial biogeochemistry process models have been applied around the world at different scales and for a large range of ecosystems. Grasslands, and in particular the ones located in the Andean Region are essential ecosystems that sustain important ecological processes; however, just a few efforts have been made to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) and the hydrological budgets for this specific ecosystem along an altitudinal gradient. A previous study, which is one of the few available in the region, considered the heterogeneity of the main properties of the páramo vegetation and showed significant differences in plant functional types, site/soil parameters and daily meteorology. This study extends the work above mentioned and uses spatio-temporal analysis of the BIOME-BGC model results. This was done to simulate the GPP and the water fluxes in space and time, by applying altitudinal analysis. The catchment located at the southwestern slope of the Antisana volcano in Ecuador was selected as a representative area of the Andean páramos and its hydrological importance as one of the main sources of a water supply reservoir in the region. An accurate estimation of temporal changes in GPP in the region is important for carbon budget assessments, evaluation of the impact of climate change and biomass productivity. This complex and yet interesting problem was integrated by the ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC, the results were evaluated and associated to the land cover map where the growth forms of vegetation were identified. The responses of GPP and the water fluxes were not only dependent on the environmental drivers but also on the ecophysiology and the site specific parameters. The model estimated that the GPP at lower elevations doubles the amount estimated at higher elevations, which might have a large implication during extrapolations at larger spatio-temporal scales. The outcomes of the stand hydrological processes demonstrated a wrong

  15. On the role of the four-qubit state in two-qubit gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. R. M.; Mendes, F. V.; Ramos, R. V.

    2016-05-01

    The full analysis of quantum protocols requires the knowledge of the role of quantum states, bases of measurement and quantum gates involved. In what concerns the famous two-qubit quantum gate teleportation protocol, the role of the basis of measurement was considered in a recent work by Mendes and Ramos. In this work, we analyze the role of the four-qubit state used as resource. We show that the quantum two-qubit gate teleportation divides the set of pure four-qubit states in two classes. For one class, deterministic and probabilistic teleportation can be achieved, while for the other class, probabilistic remote two-qubit gate preparation is achieved.

  16. Simulations of operation dynamics of different type GaN particle sensors.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  17. [Aicardi syndrome with Dandy-Walker type malformation].

    PubMed

    Laguado-Herrera, Yuly V; Manrique-Hernández, Edgar F; Peñaloza-Mantilla, Camilo A; Quintero-Gómez, David A; Contreras-García, Gustavo A; Sandoval-Martínez, Diana K

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi (OMIM 304050) fue descrito en 1965. Su triada clasica esta compuesta por espasmos infantiles, agenesia parcial o total del cuerpo calloso y alteraciones oculares, como lagunas coriorretinianas. Se postula un mecanismo de herencia ligado a X dominante. Caso clinico. Niña nacida a termino, sin antecedentes familiares patologicos ni consanguinidad parental, con diagnostico prenatal de malformacion tipo Dandy-Walker, quien presento episodios convulsivos, coloboma del nervio optico, bloque vertebral toracico con presencia de escoliosis, ecografia transfontanelar con agenesia del cuerpo calloso y cariotipo 46,XX. Se diagnostico de sindrome de Aicardi y fallecio con mes y medio de edad. En la autopsia se evidencio hidrocefalia supratentorial con presencia de papiloma de los plexos coroideos, quiste en la fosa posterior (cuarto ventriculo), hipoplasia del vermis cerebeloso, agenesia del hemisferio del cuerpo calloso y cerebeloso izquierdo, rasgos faciales caracteristicos del sindrome, paladar ojival, pectus excavatum, escoliosis, quiste paraovarico y hepatomegalia. Conclusiones. Pocos casos han descrito la asociacion de la patologia y la presencia de malformacion de Dandy-Walker. Se comunica un nuevo caso con esta asociacion, teniendo en cuenta que las alteraciones relacionadas, principalmente agenesia o hipoplasia del cuerpo calloso, sugieren que tiene un componente genetico de base. El estudio de busqueda de la etiologia de centrarse en evaluar aquellos genes que tengan relacion con el neurodesarrollo y su activacion en la etapa de organogenia. El diagnostico definitivo establece el pronostico, manejo y asesoria genetica a la familia.

  18. [Optic neuritis in childhood. A pediatric series, literature review and treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martin, D; Martinez-Anton, J

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. En la edad pediatrica, la forma mas frecuente de neuritis optica se presenta generalmente despues de un cuadro infeccioso, con edema de papila, que suele ser bilateral y tiene buen pronostico. La conversion a esclerosis multiple es infrecuente. Objetivo. Presentar las caracteristicas clinicas y de laboratorio de una serie pediatrica de neuritis optica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una serie de 17 casos de neuritis optica en niños y jovenes de 4 a 14 años, referidos entre los años 2000 y 2015. Resultados. La edad mediana de la serie fue de 11 años. Predominaron los pacientes de sexo femenino y el antecedente infeccioso fue poco frecuente; en cinco pacientes, la afectacion fue bilateral, y cuatro casos se presentaron como neuritis optica retrobulbar. La resonancia magnetica mostro hiperintensidad en T2 en los nervios opticos afectados en cinco pacientes. El estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo y bandas oligoclonales fue normal en todos los casos. Los pacientes, tratados con metilprednisolona intravenosa, tuvieron buena recuperacion. Solo en tres casos se comprobo una evolucion posterior a esclerosis multiple. Conclusiones. En esta serie, los casos que evolucionaron a esclerosis multiple no mostraron diferencias clinicas, aunque si presentaron mayor cantidad de lesiones hiperintensas en la resonancia magnetica. Este hecho, descrito en trabajos previos, apoya nuestro esquema diagnostico y terapeutico en un intento por acercarnos al manejo optimo de esta patologia.

  19. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population. PMID:19526330

  20. Sapphyrins induce apoptosis in hematopoietic tumor-derived cell lines and show in vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Naumovski, Louie; Ramos, Jason; Sirisawad, Mint; Chen, Jun; Thiemann, Patti; Lecane, Philip; Magda, Darren; Wang, Zhong; Cortez, Cecilia; Boswell, Garry; Gyu Cho, Dong; Sessler, Jonathan; Miller, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Sapphyrins are pentapyrrolic, metal-free, expanded porphyrins. In the present study, the activity of sapphyrins as anticancer agents in hematopoietic-derived tumor cells was explored. It was found that a dihydroxylated water-soluble sapphyrin derivative (PCI-2000) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cell lines including lymphoma (Ramos, DHL-4, and HF-1), leukemia (Jurkat and HL-60), and myeloma (8226/S, 1-310, C2E3, and 1-414). PCI-2000 triggers an apoptotic pathway in these tumor cells as shown by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; activation of caspases 9, 8, and 3; cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; and Annexin V binding. Apoptosis can be partially inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 or treatment with benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-fluoromethylketone, a cell-permeable caspase inhibitor. Both PCI-2000 and PCI-2010, a tetrahydroxy bis-carbamate derivative of PCI-2000, result in increased levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation resulted in a synergistic increase of PCI-2000 cytotoxicity. PCI-2010 showed less toxicity in mice than PCI-2000 and was active in slowing the growth of Ramos and HL-60 tumor xenografts in nude mice. These results provide preclinical rationale for the further study of sapphyrins for potential use in the treatment of hematopoietic-derived tumors.

  1. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes. PMID:26133999

  2. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  3. Rapid synthesis of tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles by microwave induced thermohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jouhannaud, J. Rossignol, J.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-06-15

    Tin oxide nanopowders, with an average size of 5 nm, were prepared by microwave flash synthesis. Flash synthesis was performed in aqueous solutions of tin tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid using a microwave autoclave (RAMO system) specially designed by the authors. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were used to characterize these nanoparticles. Compared with conventional synthesis, nanopowders can be produced in a short period (e.g. 60 s). In addition, high purity and high specific surface area are obtained. These characteristics are fundamental for gas sensing applications. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide-based gas sensors have been extensively studied in recent years in order to understand and improve their sensing properties to a large variety of gaseous species. As is well known, high specific surface area increase the responses of gas sensors. Microwave-induced thermohydrolysis appears as an efficient way to produce nanoparticles in a very short time, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high-specific area (160-190 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation (multicolour candy represent obtained material), and a typical TEM image of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  4. DOCK2 regulates cell proliferation through Rac and ERK activation in B cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Taichi; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanino, Mishie; Nishio, Mitsufumi; Obara, Masato; Endo, Tomoyuki; Koike, Takao; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-04-23

    DOCK2; a member of the CDM protein family, regulates cell motility and cytokine production through the activation of Rac in mammalian hematopoietic cells and plays a pivotal role in the modulation of the immune system. Here we demonstrated the alternative function of DOCK2 in hematopoietic tumor cells, especially in terms of its association with the tumor progression. Immunostaining for DOCK2 in 20 cases of human B cell lymphoma tissue specimens including diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma revealed the prominent expression of DOCK2 in all of the lymphoma cells. DOCK2-knockdown (KD) of the B cell lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and Raji, using the lentiviral shRNA system presented decreased cell proliferation compared to the control cells. Furthermore, the tumor formation of DOCK2-KD Ramos cell in nude mice was significantly abrogated. Western blotting analysis and pull-down assay using GST-PAK-RBD kimeric protein suggested the presence of DOCK2-Rac-ERK pathway regulating the cell proliferation of these lymphoma cells. This is the first report to clarify the prominent role of DOCK2 in hematopoietic malignancy.

  5. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  6. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes. PMID:26133999

  7. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-07-02

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes.

  8. Multi-model vs mixed-physics ensemble of climate runs: implications for climate change impacts in cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Domínguez, Marta; Gaertner, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    This work compares the uncertainty of impact projections of climate change on agriculture when using climate ensembles built with different criteria. Two ensembles based on Regional Climate Models were used: a multi-model ensemble of 5 RCMs at 50 x 50 km of resolution and a mixed-physics ensemble of 5 different parameterizations of the RCM PROMES. Both ensembles of climate were used to run crop simulations. A crop model was used for simulating growth and development of irrigated wheat across main agricultural areas of Spain. These simulations extended the work done in Ruiz-Ramos et al. (2009) for maize, including contrasting growing seasons in the uncertainty analysis. The simulations considered 10 years of control climate and 10 years of A2 IPCC SRES scenario, for the five members of both ensembles of climate. Uncertainties analysis focused on the degree of coincidence on the sign of impact of crop yield projections, and on the magnitude of impacts when comparing projections from ensemble members. The results allowed for evaluating the contribution of RCM parameterizations to uncertainty generated through the modelling chain from climate to impacts. They also provided insights about the constraints and proper use of different sorts of ensembles of climate for evaluating agricultural impacts of climate change. References Ruiz-Ramos M, Domínguez M, and Gaertner MA, 2009. Contribution of changes in RCM parameterizations to uncertainties in the projections of climate change impacts in cropping systems. Geophysical Research Abstracts,Vol. 11, EGU2009-7773.

  9. Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

    2014-07-21

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes.

  10. Evaluation of impacts of extreme events projected by Regional Climate Models on cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula by the end of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Gallardo, Clemente; Sánchez, Enrique; Inés Mínguez, M.

    2010-05-01

    Increasing of extreme events is expected under climate change. The impact of such increase will depend on the vulnerability of the evaluated system. For Mediterranean agricultural systems, extremes temperatures and water deficit are main hazards. The vulnerability of crops and cropping systems varies according to the extreme event considered and timing of crop development. Indexes for extreme events of temperature and water stress were defined and calculated from outputs of an ensemble comprising 10 Regional Climate Models, for control (1960-1990) and future climate (A2 IPCC SRES scenario for 2070-2100). Maize and wheat simulation models were run also using outputs from the same ensemble of RCMS, obtaining phenological dates describing crop development. Extreme indexes were then recalculated for vulnerable phenological periods, extending the work presented in Ruiz-Ramos et al. (2009). The work analysed the "effective" impact of extreme events related to specific crops and growing seasons, which is a valuable information to design optimum adaptation strategies. The use of an ensemble of climate allows us for analyzing the uncertainty related to differences among RCMs in the modelling chain from climate to impacts. References Ruiz-Ramos M, Gallardo C, Sánchez E and Mínguez MI, 2009. Impacts on cropping systems of present and future extreme events assessed with various regional climate models in the Iberian Peninsula. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 11, EGU2009-8555.

  11. Apoptotic Death of Hematopoietic Tumor Cells through Potentiated and Sustained Adhesion to Fibronectin via VLA-4*

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Owaki, Toshiyuki; Matsunaga, Takuya; Saze, Mizue; Miura, Shogo; Maeda, Mao; Eguchi, Mayu; Tanaka, Rika; Taira, Junichi; Kodama, Hiroaki; Goto, Sumio; Niitsu, Yoshiroh; Terada, Hiroshi; Fukai, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that inactivated β1-integrins are involved in the disordered growth of hematopoietic tumor cells. We recently found that TNIIIA2, a peptide derived from tenascin-C, strongly activates β1-integrins through binding with syndecan-4. We show here that Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cells can survive and grow in suspension but undergo apoptosis when kept adhering to fibronectin by stimulation with TNIIIA2. Other integrin activators, Mg2+ and TS2/16 (an integrin-activating antibody), were also capable of inducing apoptosis. The inactivation of ERK1/2 and Akt and the subsequent activation of Bad were involved in the apoptosis. The results using other hematopoietic tumor cell lines expressing different levels of fibronectin receptors (VLA-4 and VLA-5) showed that potentiated and sustained adhesion to fibronectin via VLA-4 causally induces apoptosis also in various types of hematopoietic tumor cells in addition to Ramos cells. Because TNIIIA2 requires syndecan-4 as a membrane receptor for activation of β1-integrins, it induced apoptosis preferentially in hematopoietic tumor cells, which expressed both VLA-4 and syndecan-4 as membrane receptors mediating the effects of fibronectin and TNIIIA2, respectively. Therefore, normal peripheral blood cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, which poorly expressed syndecan-4, were almost insusceptible to TNIIIA2-induced apoptosis. The TNIIIA2-related matricryptic site of TN-C could contribute, once exposed, to preventing prolonged survival of hematopoietic malignant progenitors through potentiated and sustained activation of VLA-4. PMID:20007695

  12. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes.

  13. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  14. Coalescence of fog droplets: Differential fog water deposition on wet and dry forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobón, C.; Barrero, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Páramo ecosystem is a high-altitude (2800 - 4500 masl), natural ecosystems which comprises approximately 42000 km2, extending across the Andes from north of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and western part of Venezuela. Andean páramos are widely considered to be prime suppliers of large volumes of high-quality water for large cities and for hydropower production. As páramos tend to be subjected to persistent fog incidence, fog interception by the vegetation is a common process in these ecosystems, representing not only an extra input of water to the ecosystem but also to suppress evaporation. In this process, small drops of water, transported by the wind, are captured by the surfaces of the vegetation, acting as physical obstacles to the flow of fog. These drops condense in the exposed surfaces and drip towards the ground or evaporate from the surfaces. The quantification of the magnitude of these processes is important for the quantification of the water balance of river basins where these types of ecosystems exist. Although the great hydrological importance of fog in montane tropical ecosystems little is known about its physical principles related to the interception of fog by physical barriers as vegetation, notably the differential behaviour of a wet and dry vegetation in the efficiency of capturing water from the fog. To characterize and quantify this efficiency of páramo vegetation in capturing water from the fog, during wet and dry canopy conditions, an experimental design was set up at the Páramo de Chingaza (Colombia) where paired samples of espeletia branches (dry and wet) were exposed to different fog events, and at the same time Juvik cylinders were exposed by the side of the experimental site, to measured fog inputs. Cylinders were also paired (wet and dry) at the beginning of the experiments. Results indicated that exposed wet and dry samples have a significant difference on the magnitude of water intercepted from the fog, being, in average, the wet

  15. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  16. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  17. [Longitudinal assessment of body composition by different methods as product of a integral intervention for treating obesity in Chilean children school].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Diaz, Erik; Lera, Lydia; Vásquez, Loretta; Anziani, Alyerina; Leyton, Bárbara; Burrows, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En Chile, el principal problema nutricional de la población infantil, lo constituye la obesidad. El alarmante incremento de la obesidad infantil, ha generado la imperiosa necesidad de desarrollar programas de prevención y tratamiento, pero los resultados han sido poco alentadores ya que no han logrado el impacto esperado en el estado nutricional de la población objetivo. Para lo cual es necesario utilizar otras estrategias, como la incorporación del ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto de una intervención integral (ejercicio físico, educación alimentaria y apoyo psicológico) en la composición corporal de escolares obesos al finalizar la intervención y en la post-intervención. Métodos: La muestra fue de 61 niños obesos (IMC = p 95) de ambos sexos, entre 8 y 13 2013s, que participaron en una intervención integral para tratar la obesidad infantil a corto plazo (3 meses) y mediano plazo (12 meses). Se evaluó la composición corporal por dilución isotópica, pletismografía, absorciometría radiográfica y el modelo de cuatro compartimentos de Fuller. Resultados: En ambos sexos se produjo un incremento significativo en el tiempo en MLG (kg) por 4C, en GC (%) por dilución isotópica en niños se redujo en la post-intervención, mientras en las niñas disminuyó significativamente en el tiempo y en MLG (kg) por dilución isotópica aumentó significativamente en ambos sexos. En relación a la magnitud y dirección de los cambios en el tiempo, sólo hubo diferencia significativa por sexo en MLG (%) por dilución isotópica, el incremento fue significativamente mayor en niños, como producto de la intervención (p=0,000). Conclusiones: Una intervención que incluye ejercicio físico programado mejora la composición corporal, pero su efecto se revierte a mediano plazo si el entrenamiento cesa. Lo anterior, reafirma la necesidad de la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones en el tiempo.

  18. Properties of immunotoxins against a glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wiels, J; Junqua, S; Dujardin, P; Le Pecq, J B; Tursz, T

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody (38-13) which recognizes Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells, by reacting with the neutral glycolipid Gal alpha 1 leads to 4-Gal beta 1 leads to 4-Glc beta 1 leads to 1-ceramide, was recently characterized. This monoclonal IgM was coupled to either ricin A chain or gelonin. The two different immunotoxins obtained retained the apparent immunological specificity of 38-13 IgM, as shown by flow cytofluorometry analysis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity test. The BL Ramos cells and the apparently irrelevant Epstein-Barr virus-containing lymphoblastoid Priess cells were used as targets in in vitro assays of the cytotoxic properties of the two immunotoxins by measuring the inhibition of protein synthesis. Isolated ricin A chain, gelonin, and 38-13 IgM exhibited very low intrinsic cytotoxicity on both target cells. 38-13 ricin A chain and 38-13 gelonin conjugates exerted toxic effects on both target cells which were about 6000-fold and 3000-fold higher than uncoupled ricin A chain and gelonin, respectively. The toxicity of these conjugates almost reached that of intact ricin. On Ramos BL cells, the kinetics of action of the 38-13 ricin A chain conjugate was almost as fast as that of intact ricin, because 50% protein synthesis inhibition was reached after 3 hr. In contrast, the kinetics of action in the non-BL Priess was much slower (50% protein synthesis inhibition after 10 hr). An obviously irrelevant immunotoxin (anti-trinitrophenol IgM-ricin A chain) had no significant cytotoxic effect on BL Ramos and non-BL Priess cells. An excess of D-galactose was shown previously to inhibit the 38-13 IgM from binding to the reactive glycolipid antigen bearing a terminal galactose. An excess of D-galactose (0.1 M) inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the two 38-13 immunotoxins, whereas it did not prevent the cytotoxic effect of the anti-trinitrophenol immunotoxin on the same trinitrophenol labeled target cells. These data suggest that the

  19. [Calciphylaxis, renal failure and gout. A patient with hyperuricemia as a risk factor for death].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Marco Ulises; Román-Acosta, Susana; Alvarez-Reyes, Juan Manuel; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la gota es una artropatía inflamatoria que frecuentemente se asocia con obesidad, consumo de alcohol, hipertensión e hipertrigliceridemia. La calcifilaxis se caracteriza por la calcificación metastásica de los vasos de mediano y pequeño calibre. En forma independiente ambas se asocian con mortalidad elevada. Cuando la hiperuricemia y la calcifilaxis están presentes, el riesgo de muerte es de 80%. Caso clínico: hombre de 51 años de edad, con antecedentes de alcoholismo e hipertensión arterial sistémica, quien desarrolló úlceras en extremidades, edema generalizado y síndrome urémico. Tres semanas después de su ingreso falleció debido a sepsis ocasionada por Staphylococcus aureus. El diagnóstico fue calcifilaxis asociada con síndrome metabólico, comorbilidades, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de insuficiencia renal. Conclusiones: la hiperuricemia es parte del complejo que conforma el síndrome metabólico, resultante de factores genéticos y ambientales. Se reconoce que es un factor asociado con la mortalidad cardiovascular, lo que obliga a considerar a la hiperuricemia en las guías de práctica clínica en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades con alta mortalidad debido a las complicaciones que se presentan.

  20. [Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. A case report and bibliography review].

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Javier; Molina-Ramírez, Daniel; Mata-Quintero, Carlos Javier; García-Arrona, Luis Roberto; Peña-Rosas, Diana Pérez; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la incidencia de sarcomas de tejidos blandos es de 1.8 a 5 casos por año; 50% aparecen en las extremidades, 40% en el tronco y retroperitoneo. Los liposarcomas primarios de mediastino representan menos de 1% de los tumores mediastinales. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 53 años de edad, originaria y residente de Tabasco, con antecedente de liposarcoma pleomórfico de mediastino anterior (durante su tercer embarazo) 16 años antes de su ingreso actual; fue tratada en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología con resección y radioterapia. Acudió a su unidad de adscripción por dolor torácico, tos y expectoración hialina, la trataron como neumonía. Después se agregó disnea de medianos esfuerzos, y edema de miembros pélvicos; con la tomografía computada de tórax se diagnosticó un tumor mediastinal delimitado de 9 × 9 cm; la enviaron a nuestra unidad para su resección. Conclusiones: los liposarcomas representan menos de 1% de los tumores del mediastino, y requieren seguimiento a largo plazo por su alta recidiva después de un largo periodo libre de enfermedad.

  1. Photo-Nernst current in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Aivazian, Grant; Fei, Zaiyao; Ross, Jason; Cobden, David H.; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    Photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying the spatially resolved optoelectronic and electrical properties of a material or device. Generally speaking there are two classes of mechanism for photocurrent generation: those involving separation of electrons and holes, and thermoelectric effects driven by electron temperature gradients. Here we introduce a new member in the latter class: the photo-Nernst effect. In graphene devices in a perpendicular magnetic field we observe photocurrent generated uniformly along the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. The signal is antisymmetric in field, shows a peak versus gate voltage at the neutrality point flanked by wings of opposite sign at low fields, and exhibits quantum oscillations at higher fields. These features are all explained by the Nernst effect associated with laser-induced electron heating. This `photo-Nernst’ current provides a simple and clear demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in a gapless material.

  2. Simulations on time-of-flight ERDA spectrometer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julin, Jaakko; Arstila, Kai; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a time-of-flight spectrometer consisting of two timing detectors and an ionization chamber energy detector has been studied using Monte Carlo simulations for the recoil creation and ion transport in the sample and detectors. The ionization chamber pulses have been calculated using Shockley-Ramo theorem and the pulse processing of a digitizing data acquisition setup has been modeled. Complete time-of-flight-energy histograms were simulated under realistic experimental conditions. The simulations were used to study instrumentation related effects in coincidence timing and position sensitivity, such as background in time-of-flight-energy histograms. Corresponding measurements were made and simulated results are compared with data collected using the digitizing setup.

  3. Can an "impulse response" really be defined for a photoreceiver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Pelaez, F. Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we examine the validity of the concept of impulse response employed to characterize the time response and the signal-to-noise ratio of p-i-n and similar photodetecting devices. We analyze critically the way in which the formalism of analog linear systems has been extrapolated, by employing results from macroscopic electromagnetic theory such as the Shockley-Ramo theorem or any equivalent approach, to the extreme case of a single-photon detection. We argue that the concept of "response to an optical impulse" is ill-defined in the customary terms it is envisioned in the literature, this is, as an output current pulse having a certain predictable, calculated temporal shape, in response to the detection of an optical "Dirac delta" impulse, conceived in turn as the absorption of a single photon.

  4. Low-temperature Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy on Alpha-Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, Sami; Nakotte, H.; Migliori, A.; Ledbetter, H.; Betts, J.; Harrington, S.

    2005-03-01

    We measured the elastic constants of polycrystalline Alpha-plutonium (16 atoms per unit cell) as a function of temperature (18-350K) using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy^1. A smooth behavior in the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli curves is found, with no evidence for any electronic, magnetic or structural phase transitions. The data can be fit by the quasiharmonic Einstein-oscillator model. The high-temperature bulk modulus yields an anharmonic Grüneisen parameter gamma of 5.1, and the low-temperature elastic constants results a Debye temperature θD of about 205K^2. [1] Albert Migliori and John Sarrao, ``Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy,'' John Wiley & Sons, INC 1997 [2] A. Migliori, H. Ledbetter, J. Betts, M. Ramos, S. Harrington, and S. El-Khatib, to be submitted to Physical Review B, 2004

  5. Current impulse response of thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes using full band structure Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, A. H.; Cheang, P. L.

    2007-02-01

    A random response time model to compute the statistics of the avalanche buildup time of double-carrier multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using full band structure Monte Carlo (FBMC) method is discussed. The effect of feedback impact ionization process and the dead-space effect on random response time are included in order to simulate the speed of APD. The time response of InP p+-i-n+ diodes with the multiplication region of 0.2μm is presented. Finally, the FBMC model is used to calculate the current impulse response of the thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes with multiplication lengths of 0.05 and 0.2μm using Ramo's theorem [Proc. IRE 27, 584 (1939)]. The simulated current impulse response of the FBMC model is compared to the results simulated from a simple Monte Carlo model.

  6. Simulations on time-of-flight ERDA spectrometer performance.

    PubMed

    Julin, Jaakko; Arstila, Kai; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a time-of-flight spectrometer consisting of two timing detectors and an ionization chamber energy detector has been studied using Monte Carlo simulations for the recoil creation and ion transport in the sample and detectors. The ionization chamber pulses have been calculated using Shockley-Ramo theorem and the pulse processing of a digitizing data acquisition setup has been modeled. Complete time-of-flight-energy histograms were simulated under realistic experimental conditions. The simulations were used to study instrumentation related effects in coincidence timing and position sensitivity, such as background in time-of-flight-energy histograms. Corresponding measurements were made and simulated results are compared with data collected using the digitizing setup. PMID:27587115

  7. Comment on “Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes” (Carol P. Harden, Geomorphology 79, 249 263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert; Celleri, Rolando; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Seppe

    2008-04-01

    The high altitude grasslands of the tropical Andes, known as páramo, are a very fragile and unique ecosystem. Despite increasing human activities, many of its geomorphological and hydrological processes are still very poorly understood. We therefore welcome the paper of Harden [Harden, C.P., 2006. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes. Geomorphology 79, 249-263.] about "Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes" as a valuable contribution to a better understanding of this complex ecosystem. However, in view of the available literature, we would like to complement the interpretation of the presented results and discuss some of the claims made in the paper.

  8. The Current Trajectory of Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Ruddick, Barry R.; Biescas-Gorriz, Berta

    2013-09-01

    Seismic oceanography (SO) uses multichannel seismic techniques to visualize the ocean's fine structure, yielding a tool for investigating ocean mixing processes and their links with mesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, and currents. Ten years after the seminal paper initiating the SO field (W. S. Holbrook, P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling, Science, 301, 821-824, 2003), a special session and mini-workshop were convened at the International Congress on Acoustics in Montreal on 2-7 June 2013. At the workshop, participants discussed the successes of SO, the challenges it faces as an observational tool, and ways to move the field forward.

  9. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices.

    PubMed

    Marian, D; Zanghì, N; Oriols, X

    2016-03-18

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments. PMID:27035291

  10. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Huseyin . E-mail: huseyinm@hotmail.com; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-04-21

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified {sub 194}LRMEKLNI{sub 201} as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES.

  11. ANNOTATION TAKEN, IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRIMINAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AS WELL AS IN CRIMINOLOGY, TO THE DECISION OF THE PORTUGUESE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, OF JANUARY 13, 2011--WITH RESPECT TO THE PROBLEMS OF "CONSENT" AND "MEDICAL ACT".

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Gonçalo S de Melo

    2014-07-01

    1--Summary of the decision taken by the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011; 2--Complete text of the decision of the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011, Judge Maria João ANTUNES (Reporter), Judge Carlos Pamplona de OLIVEIRA, Judge José Borges SOEIRO, Judge Gil GALVÃO, Judge Rui Manuel Moura RAMOS (President)--in terms of the appositive declaration to the sentence n. 487/2010: t.c.http://www. tribunalconstitucional.pt, August 1, 2011; 3--Brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.1--Plus some conclusions on the brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.2--Brief annotation to the problem of "consent"--continuation of the previous comments; 4--Conclusions. It must never be forgotten that "consent" does not stand as the only cause of exclusion of unlawfulness.

  12. [Food security, income, and the Bolsa Família program: a cohort study of municipalities in Paraíba State, Brazil, 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Caroline Sousa; Lopes, Amanda Gonçalves; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the conditional cash transfer program known as Bolsa Família in overcoming food insecurity. A cohort study was conducted in 2005 and 2011 in a sample of families in São José dos Ramos and Nova Floresta, Paraíba State, Brazil. In 2005, 609 households were interviewed, and in 2011 we located and re-interviewed 406 families. There had been an increase in food security and mild food insecurity and an improvement in socioeconomic indicators. A significant association was observed between higher income and improved food security. The program showed a positive impact by increasing income and providing improved levels of food security and mild food insecurity. Other socioeconomic variables may be contributing to this improvement. The fight against food insecurity and malnutrition thus requires additional policies and programs that act on other determinants.

  13. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, D.; Zanghı, N.; Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  14. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices.

    PubMed

    Marian, D; Zanghì, N; Oriols, X

    2016-03-18

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  15. Inferring runoff generation processes through high resolution spatial and temporal UV-Vis absorbance measurements in a mountainous headwater catchment in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, David; Schob, Sarah; Zang, Carina; Crespo, Patricio; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The alpine grassland páramo - typically occurring in the headwater catchments of the Andes - plays an important role in flow regulation, hydropower generation and local water supply. However, hydrological and hydro-biogeochemical processes in the páramo and their potential reactions to climate and land use change are largely unknown. Therefore, we used a UV-Vis absorbance spectrometer to investigate fluxes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and nitrate (NO3-N) in a small headwater catchment (91.31 km²) in the páramo in south Ecuador on a 5 min temporal and 100 m spatial resolution to gain first insights in its hydrological functioning. Spatial sampling was realized during three snapshot sampling campaigns along the 14.2 km long stream between October 2013 and January 2014, while temporal sampling took place at a permanent sampling site within the catchment between February and June 2014. To identify the runoff generation processes the spatial patterns have been associated with local site specific (e.g. fish ponds) and sub-catchment wide (e.g. land use) characteristics. Storm flow events within the time series allowed to further study temporal changes and rotational patterns of concentration-discharge relations (hysteresis). In total, 35 events were identified to be suitable for analyzing hysteresis effects of BOD, COD, and turbidity. Nitrate concentrations could be studied for 20 events. Regardless of the flow conditions nitrate leaching increased with a growing share of non-native pine forests or pastures in the study area. During low flow conditions, the high water holding capacity of the upstream páramo areas ensured a continuous supply of BOD to the stream. Pasture and pine forest sites, mostly occurring in the downstream section of the stream, contributed to BOD only during discharge events. Contradicting the expectations the trout farms along the lower part of the streams had a relatively closed nutrient cycle and

  16. Terrestrial applications of FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules. [power systems using Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center program of transferring the FEP-encapsulated solar cell technology developed for the space program to terrestrial applications is presented. The electrical power system design and the array mechanical design are described, and power systems being tested are discussed. The latter are located at NOAA-RAMOS weather stations at Sterling, Va., and Mammoth Mountain, Calif.; on the roof of the Lewis Research Center; on a NOAA-Coast Guard buoy in the Gulf of Mexico; in a U.S. Forest Service mountaintop voice repeater station in the Inyo National Forest, Calif., and in a backpack charger for portable transmitter/receivers being used in the same place. Preliminary results of testing are still incomplete, but show that rime ice can cause cracks in modular cells without damaging the FEP though, which keeps the grid lines intact, and that electrically active elements of the module must be completely sealed from salt water to prevent FEP delamination.

  17. Signals induced by charge-trapping in EDELWEISS FID detectors: analytical modeling and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Q.; Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Billard, J.; Blümer, J.; de Boissière, T.; Broniatowski, A.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Foerster, N.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Heuermann, G.; De Jésus, M.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kéfélian, C.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Marnieros, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Piro, M.-C.; Poda, D.; Queguiner, E.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Scorza, S.; Siebenborn, B.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Vagneron, L.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.

    2016-10-01

    The EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter search experiment uses cryogenic HP-Ge detectors Fully covered with Inter-Digitized electrodes (FID). They are operated at low fields (< 1 V/cm), and as a consequence charge-carrier trapping significantly affects both the ionization and heat energy measurements. This paper describes an analytical model of the signals induced by trapped charges in FID detectors based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. It is used to demonstrate that veto electrodes, initially designed for the sole purpose of surface event rejection, can be used to provide a sensitivity to the depth of the energy deposits, characterize the trapping in the crystals, perform heat and ionization energy corrections and improve the ionization baseline resolutions. These procedures are applied successfully to actual data.

  18. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  19. [Marina de Vasconcellos and the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro: a study of the social circles].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adelia Maria Miglievich

    2008-06-01

    An investigation of the career of one of the "founding mothers" of the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro, Marina de Vasconcellos, successor of Arthur Ramos, is one way of understanding how anthropology was established in Rio de Janeiro. Conflicts and alliances, continuities and discontinuities, lie behind the pioneering Brazilian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology and the Institute of Social Sciences, both at Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Marina de Vasconcellos' professional life bore the marks of the clash between different schools of thought regarding anthropology at a time when university courses were being introduced. As a professor, she was committed to educating new professionals, and in 1968, she was steadfast in the struggle for university autonomy. The study leads to a reflection upon the criteria for success in academia, countering the view that this depends entirely on the publication of books and articles.

  20. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  1. Benchhmark of NIMROD kinetic electron closures with the NEO code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric; Kruger, Scott; Belli, Emily; Callen, James

    2010-11-01

    The need to close the extended magnetohydrodynamic equations to include perturbed bootstrap current physics in response to magnetic island formation has long been recognized. In this work we discuss a numerical solution of the second-orderootnotetextJ. Ramos, private communication drift-kinetic equation (DKE) which supplies the bootstrap current closure for the perturbed Ohms Law in simulations of slowly growing, neoclassical tearing modes. Important aspects of this numerical solution include the conservative properties of the adopted Chapman-Enskog like approach as well as the fully implicit solution for the electron DKE which is staggered in time from the advancing fluid equations. The complexity of the analytic formulation and numerical implementation makes verification of this closure paramount. To this end, we compare axisymmetric NIMROD calculations with the results of NEOootnotetextE. A. Belli, J. M. Candy PPCF 50, 095010 (2008)., which numerically solves the DKE in 2D geometry, and with various analytic formulas.

  2. [Moebius syndrome. Clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Palmer-Morales, Yusvisaret; Zárate-Márquez, Rosario Elena; Prince-Vélez, Roberto; González-Méndez, Roberto; Zamarripa-Sandoval, Thania Ayerim; Verdugo-Salazar, Nahim; Torres-Félix, Victor Gabriel; Salcido-Daniel, Remigio; Valdez-Hernández, Pedro; Morfín-Vela, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de Moebius (MBS) es una enfermedad poco frecuente que tiene una incidencia de 1 por cada 10 000 nacimientos. Se caracteriza principalmente por parálisis facial bilateral congénita debido a una agenesia de los núcleos de los nervios craneales del VI y VII par. Además, es frecuente encontrar anomalías orofaciales y de extremidades torácicas y pélvicas en estos pacientes. El diagnóstico se basa fundamentalmente en las distintas manifestaciones clínicas del trastorno. Caso clínico: niña recién nacida con el cuadro clínico de síndrome de Moebius. Se discuten los aspectos genéticos y medioambientales asociados a esta patología. Desde la introducción del misoprostol y su uso inadecuado como agente abortivo e inductor de actividad uterina, y en combinación con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, se ha observado un incremento en la frecuencia de recién nacidos con síndrome de Moebius asociados al uso de este medicamento. Actualmente, el factor genético y el medioambiental se encuentran asociados a este síndrome. Conclusiones: es importante alertar a la comunidad médica y a la población en general acerca del riesgo teratogénico del misoprostol y de la importancia del consejo de los genetistas cuando nace un paciente con síndrome de Moebius.

  3. [Invasive management of trigeminal neuralgia. 8 years experience].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; Álvarez-Vázquez, Leonardo; Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la neuralgia del trigémino (NT) se caracteriza por un dolor estereotipado, repetitivo, unilateral referido como eléctrico, desencadenado por la estimulación de  ramas del nervio trigémino. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres, 2:1 con respecto a sexo masculino. El objetivo fue conocer la eficacia del tratamiento quirúrgico de NT contra el dolor mediante las técnicas de descompresión microvascular (DMV) y microcompresión percutánea con balón (MPB). Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, en el periodo entre enero de 2005 y enero de 2013, de 73 pacientes tratados por NT. Los 60 pacientes del grupo 1 fueron tratados con DMV, y los 13 del grupo 2 con MPB. Se evaluó la presencia de dolor de los pacientes en el postoperatorio inmediato y a 1, 3 y 5 años. Resultados: se incluyeron 55 pacientes del sexo femenino y 18 hombres. La edad media de presentación de NT fue a los 55 años de edad. En el grupo 1 hubo remisión del dolor en el postoperatorio inmediato en 95 % de los casos, en 92 % al primer año, 91 % a los 3 años y 88 % a los 5 años y en el grupo 2: 85 %, 84 %, 84% y 70 % respectivamente. Conclusiones: los dos procedimientos terapéuticos redujeron el dolor de NT a largo plazo en la mayoría de los pacientes. Nuestros resultados muestran resolución alta y perdurable del dolor con escasa morbimortalidad.

  4. [Epidermoid neoplasm of the fourth ventricle. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Vallejo-Moncada, Cristóbal; Collado-Arce, Griselda; Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Sandoval-Balanzario, M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: los tumores epidermoides representan 1 % de las neoplasias intracraneales; el ángulo pontocerebeloso es la localización más frecuente y en el cuarto ventrículo son raros. Casos clínicos: caso 1: mujer de 22 años de edad con cefalea intensa de tres meses de evolución. Al ingreso se identificó hipertensión endocraneana. La tomografía mostró hidrocefalia con aumento del volumen del cuarto ventrículo. La paciente fue tratada con derivación ventrículo-peritoneal; posteriormente se extirpó tumoración encapsulada de aspecto perlado. El estudio histológico indicó tumor epidermoide en el cuarto ventrículo. Caso 2: mujer de 44 años de edad con vértigo ocasional de cinco años de evolución, así como con diploplía y disfagia intermitentes de tres años de evolución. Al ingresó se identificó paresia bilateral de los nervios craneales VI y VII. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética mostraron lesión en el cuatro ventrículo. El manejo fue quirúrgico. Conclusiones: la resonancia magnética es el estudio diagnóstico específico para el diagnóstico del tumor epidermoide del cuarto ventrículo que, sin embargo, puede confundirse con neurocisticercosis. Están indicados la exéresis del quiste y el tratamiento de la hidrocefalia.

  5. [Occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic migraine].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Pedro E; Torres, Cristina V; Sola, Rafael G

    2015-06-01

    Introduccion. La estimulacion de nervios occipitales (ENO) es un tratamiento preventivo de la migraña cronica refractaria que esta adquiriendo una importancia creciente en los ultimos años. Objetivo. Evaluar el mecanismo de accion, estudios clinicos, tecnica de implantacion y criterios de inclusion de la ENO en el tratamiento preventivo de la migraña. Desarrollo. Se realiza una revision no sistematica de la bibliografia sobre los aspectos anteriormente expuestos en la ENO como tratamiento para la migraña cronica. Esta patologia afecta aproximadamente al 2% de la poblacion y da lugar a una importante disminucion de la calidad de vida e interferencia con las actividades laborales y sociales. La ENO es una terapia emergente y prometedora para el tratamiento de la migraña cronica que ha demostrado una disminucion superior al 50% en el dolor en la mayoria de los estudios abiertos y ensayos clinicos publicados. Aunque el mecanismo de accion es desconocido, parece existir una neuromodulacion de la informacion nociceptiva trigeminal en el nucleo caudal del trigemino explicada mediante la teoria de la puerta de entrada de Melzack y Wall. La ENO es un tratamiento seguro y bien tolerado, y los efectos secundarios son habitualmente locales, como desplazamiento de los electrodos o infecciones de la herida quirurgica, que habitualmente no requieren su retirada. Conclusiones. La ENO es un tratamiento eficaz, bien tolerado y seguro en la prevencion de la migraña cronica, y supone una opcion util para aquellos pacientes con migraña cronica refractaria a los tratamientos medicos convencionales.

  6. [Detection of the PMP22 gene duplication in peripheral neuropathy patients: a study in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Hernán; Hernández-Hernández, Óscar; Bautista-Tirado, Teresa; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es una neuropatia que afecta los nervios motores y sensitivos, y la CMT1A es el subtipo mas frecuente en el mundo. La CMT1A se produce por una duplicacion de 1,5 Mb en el locus 17p11.2-p12, donde se localiza el gen PMP22. Para el diagnostico de CMT1A es importante contar con tecnicas moleculares especificas para la determinacion de esta mutacion. Objetivos. Establecer un metodo de uso rutinario para detectar la duplicacion de PMP22 en la poblacion mexicana y estimar su frecuencia en pacientes con caracteristicas clinicas para la CMT. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizaron 157 pacientes mexicanos no relacionados entre si, diagnosticados de CMT por valoracion clinica. La determinacion de la duplicacion de PMP22 se realizo a traves de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real mediante el metodo comparativo 2–ΔΔCT. Resultados. El metodo 2–ΔΔCT para detectar la duplicacion del gen PMP22 mostro ser sensible y fiable. Los resultados fueron consistentes con los obtenidos mediante la tecnica de hibridacion in situ fluorescente. Se detecto la duplicacion de PMP22 en 79 pacientes (50,3%), con un comportamiento similar a lo comunicado en Estados Unidos, Australia, Finlandia, Suecia y España. Sin embargo, se observo que existen diferencias con otras poblaciones. Conclusiones. La tecnica de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa se implemento como un diagnostico molecular de CMT1A eficaz y de bajo coste, por lo que puede utilizarse rutinariamente en Mexico. Esto es esencial para el asesoramiento genetico y el tratamiento oportuno de los pacientes con CMT. La frecuencia de la duplicacion del gen PMP22 varia entre regiones geograficas, por lo que es importante estimarla en diferentes poblaciones.

  7. [Aicardi syndrome: retrospective study of a series of seven case reports].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín Alejandro; López-Laso, Eduardo; Simón-De Las Heras, Rogelio; Camino-León, Rafael; Guerra-García, Pilar; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Aguilar-Quintero, María; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi es un trastorno presumiblemente dominante ligado al cromosoma X, que afecta en exclusiva a mujeres, clasicamente definido por la triada de agenesia del cuerpo calloso, lagunas coriorretinianas y espasmos infantiles, letal en varones en la vida intrauterina. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticadas y seguidas hasta el final de la edad pediatrica de sindrome de Aicardi en dos hospitales universitarios durante un periodo de 29 años. Resultados. Encontramos siete niñas, todas desarrollaron espasmos infantiles antes de los 6 meses de edad. La evolucion fue a espasmos mas alla de la infancia (n = 2), a epilepsia parcial farmacorresistente (n = 3) y a epilepsia parcial bien controlada (n = 1). Seis casos presentaron retraso mental grave-profundo, y uno, moderado-grave. Fallecieron dos niñas a los 2 y 6 años. En todas, los estudios de neuroimagen mostraron agenesia del cuerpo calloso, quistes intracraneales y malformaciones del desarrollo cortical cerebral, ademas de lesiones oftalmologicas: lagunas coriorretinianas (n = 7), anoftalmia/microftalmia (n = 4) y coloboma del nervio optico (n = 3). Otros hallazgos fueron cardiopatia congenita, anomalias costovertebrales, linfangioma cervical e hipertricosis focal. Conclusiones. El sindrome de Aicardi debe sospecharse en niñas con espasmos infantiles y agenesia del cuerpo calloso. Deben descartarse en estas pacientes las alteraciones oftalmologicas, las anomalias de la migracion y organizacion neuronal y los quistes intracraneales. El pronostico es grave por su elevada morbimortalidad y por la frecuente evolucion a epilepsia refractaria y retraso mental grave.

  8. [Surgical management of paraclinoid aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Magallón-Barajas, Eduardo; Abdo-Toro, Miguel; Flores-Robles, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los aneurismas paraclinoideos se originan en los segmentos clinoideo C5 y oftálmico C6 de la arteria carótida interna. Su frecuencia aproximada es del 5 al 11 %. Para su manejo microquirúrgico se requiere de un conocimiento anatómico de la región y del aneurisma. El objetivo es mostrar el manejo neuroquirúrgico de los aneurismas paraclinoideos. Métodos: se hizo un estudio retrospectivo en un servicio de neurocirugía, de enero de 2009 a enero de 2015. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con aneurisma paraclinoideo. Se obtuvieron las características clínicas, la evolución, las complicaciones y los resultados de los pacientes al revisar los expedientes clínicos y radiológicos. Resultados: 61 pacientes (92.4 %) pertenecieron al sexo femenino; a 65 se les realizó clipaje neuroquirúrgico y a uno se le realizó bypass cerebral con exclusión del aneurisma. Tuvieron ruptura del aneurisma con hemorragia subaracnoidea 46 pacientes. Por su localización 35 aneurismas paraclinoideos (53 %) fueron superiores, 20 mediales (30.3 %) y cuatro inferiores (6 %). Tuvieron aneurismas pequeños 33 pacientes (50 %), 23 grandes (34.8 %) y 10 gigantes (15.5 %). Presentaron buenos resultados 51 pacientes después del manejo quirúrgico, dado que sacaron calificaciones de 4 y 5 según el Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). La amaurosis fue la complicación funcional más seria atribuible a la cirugía (tres pacientes). Conclusión: la microcirugía sigue siendo el tratamiento para estos aneurismas debido a su capacidad de excluirlos totalmente, además de que es el mejor método para descomprimir el nervio óptico.

  9. [Vagus nerve stimulation in patients with migraine].

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Antonio J; López-Manzanares, Lydia; Canneti, Beatrice; Barroso, Alejandro; García-Navarrete, Eduardo; Valdivia, Antonio; Vivancos, José

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. La estimulacion del nervio vago (ENV) esta aprobada para el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria cuando no es posible cirugia resectiva, con una eficacia bien establecida. Series publicadas sugieren un efecto beneficioso de la ENV en la migraña. Objetivos. Determinar el grado de mejoria de la cefalea en pacientes migrañosos a los que se les habia implantado una ENV para tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria y evaluar que variables se asocian a mayor posibilidad de exito con esta medida. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional y retrospectivo desde el 1 de enero de 1999 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010. Se contacto telefonicamente con los pacientes con ENV para epilepsia refractaria, seleccionando a aquellos que cumplian los criterios de la Sociedad Internacional de Cefaleas para la migraña. Se recogieron edad, genero, año de implantacion, edad de inicio de la epilepsia y la migraña, mejoria de crisis y de migraña, presencia de aura migrañosa y coexistencia de sindrome ansiosodepresivo. Se contacto con 94 pacientes con ENV y se selecciono a 13 pacientes migrañosos. Resultados. Tras la implantacion de la ENV, se observo una disminucion de al menos el 50% de los episodios de migraña en nueve pacientes (69%) (p = 0,004), asi como una disminucion del numero de episodios de migraña en aquellos pacientes que tambien habian reducido sus crisis epilepticas (p = 0,012). No se observaron asociaciones estadisticamente significativas en cuanto al sexo, edad, tiempo de evolucion, existencia de aura migrañosa o coexistencia de sindrome ansiosodepresivo. Conclusiones. La ENV podria resultar beneficiosa en pacientes con migraña, especialmente en casos de dificil control. Debido al tipo estudio, hay que tomar estas conclusiones con precaucion. Seran necesarios estudios clinicos prospectivos antes de llevarse a la practica clinica habitual.

  10. [Postmastectomy pain syndrome in our region: characteristics, treatment, and experience with gabapentin].

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Jimeno, Juan M; Forner-Cordero, Isabel; Zabalza-Azparren, Marta; Matute-Tobias, Belinda

    2016-03-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de dolor posmastectomia puede afectar a mas de la mitad de pacientes intervenidas por cancer de mama. Objetivos. Revisar las caracteristicas clinicas de este sindrome y su evolucion, y evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento farmacologico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 65 pacientes con un seguimiento superior a cinco años. Resultados. El 88% de las pacientes estaba sin diagnosticar. Su edad media era de 56,49 años y permanecieron con dolor un promedio de 29,15 meses. En el 71%, las alteraciones neurologicas correspondieron al segundo nervio intercostobraquial. La media en la puntuacion de dolor antes del tratamiento fue de 66,5 puntos en la escala analogica visual y de 13,14 en el indice de Lattinen. El tratamiento con gabapentina (dosis media: 1.135 mg/dia; duracion media: 14 semanas) disminuyo el dolor en el 80% de las pacientes (p < 0,0001). La mejoria se mantuvo a largo plazo. Un 10% continuo en tratamiento y el 10% debio suspenderlo por efectos secundarios. El numero necesario de pacientes que hubo que tratar fue de 2,13. Recidivo el 35% y preciso cambiar de farmaco el 15,68% de las tratadas con gabapentina, frente al 50% de las tratadas con otros farmacos (p = 0,046). No se encontraron diferencias en la eficacia entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El dolor posmastectomia es una patologia infradiagnosticada. El tratamiento (en especial con gabapentina) puede ser eficaz y bien tolerado hasta en el 90% de las pacientes de forma significativa.

  11. Blue light emitting diode induces apoptosis in lymphoid cells by stimulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Minjoo; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy by blue LED irradiation, and the contribution of autophagy to apoptosis in B cell lymphoma A20 and RAMOS cells exposed to blue LED. Irradiation with blue LED reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death, as indicated by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and fragmentation of DNA. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and apoptotic proteins (PARP, caspase 3, Bax, and bcl-2) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the formation of autophagosomes and level of LC3-II were increased in blue LED-irradiated A20 and RAMOS cells, but inhibited after pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), widely used as an autophagy inhibitor. Inhibition of the autophagic process by pretreatment with 3-MA blocked blue LED irradiation-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, a significant reduction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis after transfection with ATG5 and beclin 1 siRNAs was shown by the annexin V/PI staining, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in blue LED-induced apoptosis in cells. Additionally, the survival rate of mice irradiated with blue LED after injection with A20 cells increased compared to the control group. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, in conjunction with autophagy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED-induced immune cell death.

  12. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  13. Soil porosity correlation and its influence in percolation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Ruis-Ramos, Margarita; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of percolation in natural soils is relevant for modeling root growth and optimizing infiltration of water and nutrients. Also, it would improve our understanding on how pollutants as pesticides, and virus and bacteria (Darnault et al., 2003) reach significant depths without being filtered out by the soil matrix (Beven and Germann, 2013). Random walk algorithms have been used successfully to date to characterize the dynamical characteristics of disordered media. This approach has been used here to describe how soil at different bulk densities and with different threshold values applied to the 3D gray images influences the structure of the pore network and their implications on particle flow and distribution (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2009). In order to do so first we applied several threshold values to each image analyzed and characterized them through Hurst exponents, then we computed random walks algorithms to calculate distances reached by the particles and speed of those particles. At the same time, 3D structures with a Hurst exponent of ca 0.5 and with different porosities were constructed and the same random walks simulations were replicated over these generated structures. We have found a relationship between Hurst exponents and the speed distribution of the particles reaching percolation of the total soil depth. REFERENCES Darnault, C.J. G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K.L. Oveson, T.S. Steenhuis, J.Y. Parlange, M. Jenkins, W.C. Ghiorse, and P. Baveye (2003), Preferential transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in variably saturated subsurface environments, Water Environ. Res., 75, 113-120. Beven, Keith and Germann, Peter. 2013. Macropores and water flow in soils revisited. Water Resources Research, 49(6), 3071-3092. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20156. Ruiz-Ramos, M., D. del Valle, D. Grinev, and A.M. Tarquis. 2009. Soil hydraulic behaviour at different bulk densities. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-6234.

  14. More Than A SketchUp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Derrick D.

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 summer internship assignment at John F. Kennedy Space Center (K.S.C) was conducted with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Technology (NE) group in support of the Control and Data Systems Division (NE-C) within the Test, Operations & Support Software Engineering Branch (NE-C2). The primary focus of this project was to assist Branch Chief Laurie B. Griffin, to support NASA's Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) mission, by mastering the capabilities of 3-D modeling software called SketchUp. I used SketchUp to create a virtual environment for different laboratories of the NE-00 Division. My mission was to have these models uploaded into a K.S.C Partnerships Website and be used as a visual aid to viewers who browsed the site. The leads of this project were Kay L. Craig, Business and Industry Specialist (AD-A) and Steven E. Cain, (FA-C). I teamed with fellow intern Tait Sorenson of the Flight Structures and Thermal Protection Systems Branch (NE-M5) and met with many K.S.C lab managers willing to display their lab's structure and capabilities. The information collected during these lab tours was vital to the building of the K.S.C Partnerships Website. To accomplish this goal Sorenson and I later teamed with fellow Marketing intern Marlee Pereda-Ramos, of the Spaceport Planning Office In Center Planning And Development (AD-A) Along with Ramos, Tait and I toured an array of laboratories and got first hand exposure to their functions and capabilities.

  15. A microfluidic localized, multiple cell culture array using vacuum actuated cell seeding: integrated anticancer drug testing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Peng; Pappas, Dimitri

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we introduced a novel and convenient approach to culture multiple cells in localized arrays of microfluidic chambers using one-step vacuum actuation. In one device, we integrated 8 individually addressable regions of culture chambers, each only requiring one simple vacuum operation to seed cell lines. Four cell lines were seeded in designated regions in one device via sequential injection with high purity (99.9 %-100 %) and cultured for long-term. The on-chip simultaneous culture of HuT 78, Ramos, PC-3 and C166-GFP cells for 48 h was demonstrated with viabilities of 92 %+/-2 %, 94 %+/-4 %, 96 %+/-2 % and 97 %+/-2 %, respectively. The longest culture period for C166-GFP cells in this study was 168 h with a viability of 96 %+/-10 %. Cell proliferation in each individual side channel can be tracked. Mass transport between the main channel and side channels was achieved through diffusion and studied using fluorescein solution. The main advantage of this device is the capability to perform multiple cell-based assays on the same device for better comparative studies. After treating cells with staurosporine or anti-human CD95 for 16 h, the apoptotic cell percentage of HuT 78, CCRF-CEM, PC-3 and Ramos cells were 36 %+/-3 %, 24 %+/-4 %, 12 %+/-2 %, 18 %+/-4 % for staurosporine, and 63 %+/-2 %, 45 %+/-1 %, 3 %+/-3 %, 27 %+/-12 % for anti-human CD95, respectively. With the advantages of enhanced integration, ease of use and fabrication, and flexibility, this device will be suitable for long-term multiple cell monitoring and cell based assays.

  16. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  17. Transient induction of a nuclear antigen unrelated to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen in cells of two human B-lymphoma lines converted by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Fresen, K O; zur Hausen, H

    1977-01-01

    Infection of cells of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human B-lymphoma lines BJAB and Ramos with EBV preparations from P3HR-1 or B 95-8 cells converted these cells to EBV genome carriers expressing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) in almost 100% of these cells. Induction of these cells as well as of clones from P3HR-1 EBV-converted BJAB cells with iododeoxyuridine, aminopterin, and hypoxanthine resulted in the appearance of a nuclear antigen in about 1-6% of the cells 1-4 days after induction. The antigen is different from known EBV-induced antigens like EBNA, viral capsid antigen (VCA) or the D- and R-subspecificities of the early antigen (EA) complex. It is demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and inactivated after acetone fixation. The antigen was not detectable after induction of uninfected BJAB and Ramos cells nor has it been found in noninduced or induced P3HR-1 and Raji cells. Thus, it appears that EBV-infection mediates the expression of this antigen, for which the name TINA (transiently induced nuclear antigen) is suggested. Sera reacting against TINA generally contained high antibody titers against EBV-induced EA. Only a limited number of highly EA-reactive sera, however, were also positive for TINA. Among 200 sera tested thus far, TINA reactivity was most frequently observed in sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (7 out of 28), in sera of the only two patients with immunoblastoma tested and occasionally in sera from patients with Hodgkin's disease and chronic lymphatic leukemia. Among 70 sera from nontumor patients, TINA reactivity was observed three times: two patients suffered from "chronic" infectious mononucleosis, the other revealed persistent splenomegaly. PMID:189313

  18. The effect of varying carboxylate ligation on the electronic environment of N2O(x) (x = 1-3) nonheme iron: a DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Cappillino, Patrick J; McNally, Joshua S; Wang, Feng; Caradonna, John P

    2012-01-14

    Mononuclear nonheme iron oxygenase (MNO) enzymes contain a subclass of metalloproteins capable of catalyzing the O(2)-dependent hydroxylation of unactivated substrates at a ferrous ion center coordinated to a highly conserved His-His-Glu/Asp motif. These enzymes, which utilize additional reducing equivalents obtained from the decarboxylation of a coordinated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) cofactor, do not readily interact with O(2) in the absence of αKG binding. Density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP functional were performed to gain insight into the electrochemical behavior of three sets of Fe(II/III) complexes containing a core N, N, O facial binding motif in which the number of carboxylate ligands was systematically altered, to provide one, two (cis) or three (fac) labile sites. The calculated trend in Fe(II/III) reduction potentials was observed to parallel that observed in cyclic voltammetry experiments, showing a decrease in potential (stabilized oxidized state) with increasing carboxylate ligation. This trend does not appear to be the result of differential charge on the metal complex. Changes in the redox-active molecular orbital (RAMO) energy due to covalent effects dominate across the series of complexes when chloride is modeled as the labile ligand, with the π anti-bonding nature of the RAMO being an important factor. With water molecules as the labile ligands, however, a much steeper redox dependence on the number of carboxylate ligands is observed and this effect seems to be largely electrostatic in origin. Differential relaxation of the occupied molecular orbitals in the ferric complexes appears to contribute to the redox trend as well. Finally, these observations are placed in the context of MNO enzyme mechanisms. PMID:22042235

  19. Pleistocene climate and biome evolution modulated at orbital, millennial, and centennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooghiemstra, H.

    2013-05-01

    For the northern Andes we present a multi-proxy record of environmental and climatic change at millennial- to century-scale resolution of the full Pleistocene. The composite record includes the 540-m Funza core (2250-27 ka; 1050-yr resolution) from the Bogotá basin (~4°N, 2550 m asl, 2100 samples), the 58-mcd core (284-27 ka; 60-yr resolution) from the Fúquene basin (~5°N, 2540 m asl 4700 samples), and the 12-m core (last 14 ka; 25-yr resolution) from the La Cocha basin (1°N, 2780 m asl, 550 samples). At high elevations climatic variability is mainly driven by the 41-kyr component of orbital forcing changing into a dominant 100-kyr frequency during the last 0.9 Ma. High elevation intraAndean environments are mainly driven by temperature and atmospheric pCO2 while changes in moisture is an important driver of the Andean environments on the Amazonian flank. The Pleistocene is reflected by MIS 87 to 1, the last interglacial-glacial cycle by D/O-cycles 28 to 1 (and during MIS 7-6 another 15 D/O-style cycles), and the Holocene shows many events with an acceleration of climate change. Repeatedly the subpáramo shrub biome is temporarily lost suggesting vertical migration of forest exceeded the maximum migration capacity of the subpáramo biome. Continuous changes in altitidinal vegetation distribution caused mountains above ~1500 m were alternatingly covered by different biomes. Forests reached only ~125 ka modern species compositions indicating most of the Pleistocene record shows nonanalog vegetation associations, however not preventing modern ecological ranges can be applied to reconstruct past environments. Comparison with Greenland, Antarctic and marine climate records is demonstrated.

  20. Integration of Proteomics and Transcriptomics Data Sets for the Analysis of a Lymphoma B-Cell Line in the Context of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Droste, Conrad; Dégano, Rosa M; González-Muñoz, María; Ibarrola, Nieves; Pérez-Andrés, Martín; Garin-Muga, Alba; Segura, Víctor; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy; LaBaer, Joshua; Orfao, Alberto; Corrales, Fernando J; De Las Rivas, Javier; Fuentes, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the molecular active landscape of human cells can be undertaken to integrate two different but complementary perspectives: transcriptomics, and proteomics. After the genome era, proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool to simultaneously identify and characterize the compendium of thousands of different proteins active in a cell. Thus, the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is promoting a full characterization of the human proteome combining high-throughput proteomics with the data derived from genome-wide expression profiling of protein-coding genes. Here we present a full proteomic profiling of a human lymphoma B-cell line (Ramos) performed using a nanoUPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap Velos proteomic platform, combined to an in-depth transcriptomic profiling of the same cell type. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001933. Integration of the proteomic and transcriptomic data sets revealed a 94% overlap in the proteins identified by both -omics approaches. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis of the proteomic profiles showed an enrichment of several functions directly related to the biological and morphological characteristics of B-cells. In turn, about 30% of all protein-coding genes present in the whole human genome were identified as being expressed by the Ramos cells (stable average of 30% genes along all the chromosomes), revealing the size of the protein expression-set present in one specific human cell type. Additionally, the identification of missing proteins in our data sets has been reported, highlighting the power of the approach. Also, a comparison between neXtProt and UniProt database searches has been performed. In summary, our transcriptomic and proteomic experimental profiling provided a high coverage report of the expressed proteome from a human lymphoma B-cell type with a clear insight into the biological processes that characterized these cells. In this way, we demonstrated the usefulness of

  1. Multi-Parameter Cell Affinity Chromatography: Separation and Analysis in a Single Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sort and capture more than one cell type from a complex sample will enable a wide variety of studies of cell proliferation, death, and the analysis of disease states. In this work, we integrated a pneumatic actuated control layer to an affinity separation layer to create different antibody coating regions on the same fluidic channel. The comparison of different antibody capture capabilities to the same cell line was demonstrated by flowing Ramos cells through anti-CD19 and anti-CD71 coated regions in the same channel, respectively. It was determined that cell capture density on anti-CD19 region was 2.44±0.13 times higher than on anti-CD71 coated region. This approach can be used to test different affinity molecules for selectivity and capture efficiency using a single cell line in one separation. Selective capture of Ramos and HuT 78 cells from a mixture was also demonstrated using two antibody regions in the same channel. Greater than 90% purity was obtained on both capture areas in both continuous flow and stop flow separation modes. A four-region antibody coated device was then fabricated to study the simultaneous, serial capture of three different cell lines. In this case the device showed effective capture of cells in a single separation channel, opening up the possibility of multiple cell sorting. Multi-parameter sequential blood sample analysis was also demonstrated with high capture specificity (>97% for both CD19+ and CD4+ leukocytes). The chip can also be used to selectively treat cells after affinity separation. PMID:22958145

  2. Magnetic graphene oxide-supported hemin as peroxidase probe for sensitive detection of thiols in extracts of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Zhao, Tingting; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic graphene oxide (GO)-hemin probes containing disulfide bonds are simply and effectively synthesized through amide reaction to covalently link magnetic particles to GO surface and π-π stacking interaction between hemin and GO to immobilize hemin on GO. Based on the strong nucleophilicity of sulfhydry, we have developed a colorimetric detection system for thiols by using glutathione (GSH) as a model analyte. Upon the introduction of GSH to the fabricated magnetic particle (MP)-GO-hemin probes, the disulfides can be readily reduced by thiols, resulting in the release of GO-hemin hybrids to solution. Due to the existence of hemin on GO surface, the released GO-hemin that has the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity can catalyze the oxidation of ABTS(2-) by H2O2 to form the colored radical product ABTS(·-). A broad linear dynamic range of 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M GSH is achieved with a detection limit of 8.2×10(-11) M (3σ). Moreover, the new probe is successfully applied to the detection of non-protein thiols and protein thiols in the extracts of Ramos cells, which shows favorable correlationship with the results obtained by electrochemical method. In addition, the MP-GO-hemin probe can detect non-protein thiols in Ramos extracts as low as 500 cells. In this assay, the prepared MP-GO-hemin conjugates are thoroughly characterized by SEM, AFM, UV-Vis, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Sugawara, Shigeki; Fujii, Yuki; Koide, Yasuhiro; Terada, Daiki; Iimura, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Keisuke G.; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Kanaly, Robert A.; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujita, Hideaki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt’s lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface. PMID:26694420

  4. Retained Textile Foreign Bodies: Experience of 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Soykan; Kocakusak, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Introdução e Objetivos: A retenção de materiais têxteis após a cirurgia é uma situação indesejada, tanto para o doente como para o cirurgião. Frequentemente são subnotificados por questões de natureza médico-legal. Apresentamos 14 casos de textilomas (compressoma) que foram tratados ou seguidos pessoalmente por dois cirurgiões gerais num período de 27 anos para descrever e definir as características clínicas e patológicas. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente os dados relativos a uma serie de casos, nomeadamente: características dos doentes (sexo e idade), localização anatómica do corpo estranho, intervalo de tempo até ao diagnóstico, apresentação clínica, queixas, abordagem diagnóstica, motivo de cirurgia, tipo de tratamento cirúrgico e complicações. Resultados: Foram identificados nove doentes do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com uma média de idades de 43,07 ± 15,23 (mediano: 45) anos para o momento do diagnóstico. Em três doentes a cirurgia prévia foi cesariana, em quatro casos herniorrafia inguinal, um doente submetido a laparotomia exploradora por abdome agudo, um doente no qual foi realizado uma sigmoidectomia, uma doente submetida a apendicectomia e salpingooforectomia direita, uma doente na qual a cirurgia anterior tinha sido para corrigir uma hérnia incisional após laparotomia por neoplasia do ovário, um caso de tiroidectomia total, uma herniorrafia por hérnia epigástricae uma doente submetida cirurgia conservadora bilateral da mama com pesquisa de gânglio sentinela. A localização mais frequente dos compressomas foi intra-abdominal em sete casos, em quatro doentes a localização foi inguinal, um caso localizado na incisão da correcção da hérnia epigástrica, um doente com textiloma na loca de tiroidectomia, e no caso da doente submetida a cirurgia conservadora da mama em ambas regiões axilares se encontraram corpos estranhos/compressomas. O intervalo de tempo foi em média14

  5. HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST PHENOTYPE AND CARDIOMETABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Cabral Rocha, Anna Ligia; Feliciano Pereira, Patricia; Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cassia; Segheto, Wellington; da Silva, Danielle Cristina Guimarães; Pacheco Andrade, Marcio; Zarbato Longo, Giana

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: evaluar la prevalencia de alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun el fenotipo cintura hipertrigliceridemica (CH) en adultos brasilenos. Métodos: estudio transversal, de base poblacional, con 976 (n = 533 mujeres) individuos de 20 a 59 anos. El CH fue definido por un aumento en las concentraciones de trigliceridos y en la circunferencia de la cintura (CC). Todos los analisis fueron ajustados por el efecto del diseno del estudio y ponderados por genero, edad y escolaridad. Fue realizado un análisis descriptivo de promedio y presentados sus respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC 95%). La prevalencia de las alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun la presencia o no del fenotipo CH y segun el sexo fue calculada y comparada a traves del test chi-cuadrado de Pearson. El nivel de significancia estadistica adoptado fue de 0,05. Se estimo la probabilidad de riesgo de evento coronario en 10 anos, a partir del score de Framinghan a traves del grafico de densidad de Kernel. Resultados: la prevalencia del fenotipo CH en la muestra fue de 17,32% (IC 95% 13,54-21,89), no se observo diferencia entre sexos. Se observaron mayores promedios para todos los factores de riesgo cardiometabolico analizados en aquellos con CH. Solo Se verificaron menores valores medianos para el HDL en este grupo. Los individuos con CH presentaban mayor probabilidad de evolucionar hacia un evento cardiovascular en 10 anos que aquellos sin el fenotipo. Conclusión: el fenotipo CH constituye un importante marcador precoz del riesgo cardiovascular. Su utilizacion en la practica clinica debe ser incentivada, ya que se trata de una herramienta sencilla y de bajo coste.

  6. [Perforated duodenal diverticula. Case report and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Guardado-Bermúdez, Fernando; Ardisson-Zamora, Fernando Josafat; Rojas-González, Juan Daniel; Medina-Benítez, Alberto; Corona-Suárez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los divertículos duodenales los describió por primera vez Chromel en 1710. El divertículo duodenal es el segundo sitio más frecuente de divertículos en el tubo digestivo, el diagnóstico se limita a los casos con complicaciones y síntomas. Los divertículos duodenales se localizan en 10- 67% en la segunda porción del duodeno. Su hallazgo en la mayoría de los casos es incidental. Cerca de 90% de los pacientes cursan asintomáticos y sólo se manifiestan cuando sobrevienen las complicaciones, como la hemorragia digestiva y la perforación. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 78 años de edad, que acudió al hospital debido a disnea de medianos esfuerzos y epigastralgia moderada, distensión abdominal, constipación y dificultad para canalizar gases. La laparotomía identificó un divertículo duodenal con perforación en su cúpula de 5 mm que dio pie a la realización de la diverticulectomía. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de divertículo duodenal, como etiología de abdomen agudo, debe contemplarse en cualquier diagnóstico diferencial con cuadro de abdomen agudo, apoyados siempre en la imagenología y endoscopia. El tratamiento quirúrgico del divertículo duodenal, en especial su resección, sigue siendo la recomendación dirigida a la menor morbilidad y mejor recuperación.

  7. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index; assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carla Alberici; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad pronostica del Índice Inflamatorio-Nutricional (INI) en pacientes con cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal y pulmón. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, con pacientes de un servicio de quimioterapia en Brasil, entre Julio de 2008 y Mayo de 2010. INI (Albúmina/CRP) y el estadio nutricional (Valoración Global Subjetiva-SGA) fueran evaluados. INI de riesgo fue definido como menor que 0.35. El tiempo medio de acompañamiento fue 1.6 año. Analices estadísticas fueran realizadas con el programa Stata 11.1™. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 74 pacientes, con edad media de 63.4 años, la mayoría hombres (58%) e con cáncer gastrointestinal (71%). Desnutrición fue identificada en 87% de los pacientes (22% con desnutrición grave). El INI medio fue 2.67 y 54% de los individuos presentaban INI de riesgo. Durante el acompañamiento hubieran 49 óbitos (66%). El tiempo mediano de sobrevida de los pacientes con INI de riesgo fue significantemente más corto que de los pacientes con INI normal (p = 0.002). El grupo con INI de riesgo llevó 0.78 año para decaer 50%, en cuanto el grupo con INI normal llevó 2.78 año (p = 0.001). INI de riesgo y desnutrición grave fueron factores independientes de peor sobrevida. Conclusión: El INI demostró capacidad pronostica en esta amuestra y puede ser una herramienta útil, basada testes rutineros y disponibles, para evaluar pacientes con cáncer.

  8. [Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Preliminary outcomes].

    PubMed

    Pérez-de la Torre, Ramiro Antonio; Calderón-Vallejo, Alejandra; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Gallardo-Ceja, David; Carrera-Pineda, Raúl; Guinto-Balanzar, Gerardo; Magallón-Barajas, Eduardo; Corlay-Noriega, Irma; Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Parkinson puede justificar un procedimiento quirúrgico que consiste en la estimulación cerebral profunda. Se presentan resultados a mediano y largo plazo de una cohorte de 60 pacientes del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: los pacientes fueron operados con una metodología estereotáctica convencional a través del protocolo FrameLink (Medtronics Inc.). La técnica consistió en la evaluación preoperatoria de los pacientes, la colocación de marco estereotáctico, la realización de estudios de imagen, la planeación preoperatoria, el microrregistro, la macroestimulación y la colocación de implantes, que estuvo conformada por electrodos y generador en dos fases. La escala unificada para la evaluación de la enfermedad de Parkinson (UPDRS) preoperatoria, a tres, 12, y 36 meses fue utilizada como medida estándar. Se analizaron los resultados y las complicaciones como variables de interés. Resultados: se operaron 60 pacientes (41 hombres y 19 mujeres), con edad promedio de 56.5 años (rango de 39-70). Se obtuvieron de buenos a excelentes resultados en la mayoría de los pacientes con UPDRS promedio en periodo preoperatorio, a 3, 12 y 36 meses de 79.57, 66.85, 65.29 y 58.75, respectivamente (p < 0.0001). Las complicaciones se presentaron en forma mínima (en nueve pacientes: 15 %) y fueron manejadas de forma conservadora. Conclusiones: hubo una mejoría progresiva en el UPDRS durante los 36 meses de seguimiento.

  9. Twenty Years of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Single Portuguese Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas Brito, Margarida; Campilho, Fernando; Branca, Rosa; Vaz, Carlos; Roncon, Susana; Campos, António

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: O linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células B pode ser curado em 60% - 70% dos doentes. O transplante autológo de progenitores hematopoiéticos é o tratamento de intenção curativa standard à recidiva. Este tratamento intensivo após primeira remissão num grupo selecionado de doentes de alto risco é controverso e fez parte da estratégia do nosso Serviço durante alguns anos. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, consulta do processo clínico. Resultados: Este estudo analisa o outcome de 113 doentes transplantados entre 1992 e 2012. Formaram-se quatro grupos com base no status pré-transplante: a) primeira remissão completa após 1 ciclo de quimioterapia (n = 64); b) segunda remissão completa após ≥ duas linhas de quimioterapia (n = 15); c) segunda remissão completa (n = 15); d) doença mais avançada (n = 19). O protocolo de quimioterapia de primeira linha mais utilizado foi R-CHOP (n = 71) e CHOP (n = 28). O seguimento mediano foi de 34 meses (1 - 221). Aos cinco anos a sobrevivência global foi de 73% (± 5) e a sobrevivência livre de progressão 75% (± 5). Conclusão: A imunoquimioterapia convencional seguida de transplante autólogo é uma opção segura e eficaz no tratamento de casos selecionados de linfoma difuso de grandes células B. Na nossa casuística cerca de 70% dos doentes de alto risco atingiram remissões duráveis com esta estratégia terapêutica.

  10. [Pharmacovigilance of calcineurin inhibitor in peidatric kidney and liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Riva, N; Cáceres Guido, P; Rousseau, M; Dip, M; Monteverde, M; Imventarza, O; Mato, G; Schaiquevich, P

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Desarrollar un programa de farmacovigilancia de pacientes pediátricos trasplantados hepáticos y renales centrado en inmunosupresores calcineurínicos del Hospital de Pediatría JP Garrahan de Argentina. Métodos: Se evaluaron las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) de los pacientes pediátricos trasplantados renales y hepáticos de nuestro hospital tratados con inhibidores de calcineurina (ciclosporina y tacrolimus) por revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes trasplantados en 2010-2011, y análisis prospectivo por farmacovigilancia activa de trasplantados fuera de dicho período, cuyas complicaciones se hayan presentado en los ateneos semanales del Servicio de Trasplante desde marzo de 2011. Las RAM se notificaron a la autoridad sanitaria nacional. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 59 pacientes, 28 trasplantados renales y 31 hepáticos. Se notificaron, en ambos trasplantes, 60 RAM a ciclosporina destacándose (número de casos) hipertensión arterial (19) y nefrotoxicidad (6). Asimismo, se registraron 46 RAM a tacrolimus, incluyendo hipomagnesemia (25), hipertensión (7) y nefrotoxicidad (5). El 95% y 96% de los eventos adversos a ciclosporina y a tacrolimus, respectivamente, han sido agrupados como probables o definitivos. El 70% y 98% de los eventos adversos a ciclosporina y a tacrolimus respectivamente, han sido de severidad moderada o grave. Conclusiones: Este es el primer proyecto en América Latina que propone y desarrolla el estudio cuali-cuantitativo intensivo de RAM a inhibidores de calcineurina en trasplante pediátrico renal y hepático. Es necesario estimular la notificación espontánea así como continuar el seguimiento de RAM a mediano y largo plazo para mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente trasplantado.

  11. Mesozoic transtensional basin history of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombian Andes: Inferences from tectonic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Rojas, L. F.; Van Wess, J. D.; Cloetingh, S.

    2006-09-01

    factors >1.4) and maximum stretching of the subcrustal lithosphere. During the Aptian-early Albian, the basin extended toward the south in the Upper Magdalena Valley. Differences between crustal and subcrustal stretching values suggest some lowermost crustal decoupling between the crust and subcrustal lithosphere or that increased thermal thinning affected the mantle lithosphere. Late Cretaceous subsidence was mainly driven by lithospheric cooling, water loading, and horizontal compressional stresses generated by collision of oceanic terranes in western Colombia. Triassic transtensional basins were narrow and increased in width during the Triassic and Jurassic. Cretaceous transtensional basins were wider than Triassic-Jurassic basins. During the Mesozoic, the strike-slip component gradually decreased at the expense of the increase of the extensional component, as suggested by paleomagnetic data and lithosphere stretching values. During the Berriasian-Hauterivian, the eastern side of the extensional basin may have developed by reactivation of an older Paleozoic rift system associated with the Guaicáramo fault system. The western side probably developed through reactivation of an earlier normal fault system developed during Triassic-Jurassic transtension. Alternatively, the eastern and western margins of the graben may have developed along older strike-slip faults, which were the boundaries of the accretion of terranes west of the Guaicáramo fault during the Late Triassic and Jurassic. The increasing width of the graben system likely was the result of progressive tensional reactivation of preexisting upper crustal weakness zones. Lateral changes in Mesozoic sediment thickness suggest the reverse or thrust faults that now define the eastern and western borders of the EC were originally normal faults with a strike-slip component that inverted during the Cenozoic Andean orogeny. Thus, the Guaicáramo, La Salina, Bitúima, Magdalena, and Boyacá originally were transtensional

  12. Quantifying the effect of Tmax extreme events on local adaptation to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldon, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Lizaso, Jon; Dosio, Alessandro; Sanchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Extreme events of Tmax can threaten maize production on Andalusia (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011). The objective of this work is to attempt a quantification of the effects of Tmax extreme events on the previously identified (Gabaldón et al., 2013) local adaptation strategies to climate change of irrigated maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of the 21st century. This study is focused on five Andalusia locations. Local adaptation strategies identified consisted on combinations of changes on sowing dates and choice of cultivar (Gabaldón et al., 2013). Modified cultivar features were the duration of phenological phases and the grain filling rate. The phenological and yield simulations with the adaptative changes were obtained from a modelling chain: current simulated climate and future climate scenarios (2013-2050) were taken from a group of regional climate models at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). After bias correcting these data for temperature and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) crop simulations were generated by the CERES-maize model (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) under DSSAT platform, previously calibrated and validated. Quantification of the effects of extreme Tmax on maize yield was computed for different phenological stages following Teixeira et al. (2013). A heat stress index was computed; this index assumes that yield-damage intensity due to heat stress increases linearly from 0.0 at a critical temperature to a maximum of 1.0 at a limit temperature. The decrease of crop yield is then computed by a normalized production damage index which combines attainable yield and heat stress index for each location. Selection of the most suitable adaptation strategy will be reviewed and discussed in light of the quantified effect on crop yield of the projected change of Tmax extreme events. This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on

  13. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  14. [Solitary fibrous hemangiopericytoma of atypical location: importance of immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Soriano-Hernández, María Isabel; Husein-ElAhmed, Husein; Ruíz-Molina, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el tumor fibroso solitario es un tumor poco común. Anteriormente se suponía que afectaba sólo la cavidad torácica, en especial la pleura; posteriormente, se relacionó con otras membranas serosas y se observó en diversas localizaciones extraserosas, entre ellas la piel. El conocimiento de este tumor, junto con el aspecto histológico característico y el patrón de expresión inmunohistoquímica con intensa positividad para CD34 permiten que cada vez se diagnostique con mayor frecuencia. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad con un nódulo indoloro en el pulpejo del primer dedo izquierdo, que sugería clínicamente un melanoma nodular o granuloma piógeno. Mediante biopsia excisional y estudio inmunohistoquímico se diagnosticó como tumor fibroso solitario. Discusión: hasta la fecha se han publicado 11 casos de tumores fibrosos solitarios cutáneos, localizados en cabeza, mejilla, muslo, pecho, espalda y vestíbulo nasal. El caso que se comunica constituye la primera lesión de estas características que afecta la mano. El diagnóstico clínico diferencial del tumor fibroso solitario incluye otros tumores como: melanoma nodular, granuloma piógeno, tumor de células gigantes tenosinovial, fibroma y tumor de vaina de nervio periférico benigno. En cuanto a la histología, se planteó el diagnóstico diferencial con otras neoplasias que también expresan CD34. Conclusiones: el tumor fibroso solitario deriva de células mesenquimatosas y expresa CD34, lo que explica su aparición en cualquier localización, como en este caso, que fue en el pulpejo del quinto dedo.

  15. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  16. Probabilistic forecasting of extreme weather events based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or extreme temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting extreme weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly extreme weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on extreme value theory that aims to provide early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of extreme events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: provide inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of extreme events. These problems can be solved with bivariate extremes (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of extremal dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic

  17. Overview of Lockheed Martin cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J.; Champagne, P.; Evtimov, B.; Frank, D.; Roth, E.; Renna, T.

    2006-02-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (LM-ATC) in Palo Alto, California, has been active in space cryogenic developments for over 30 years. In prior years, work focused on stored cryogen systems for temperatures up to 125 K. As the mechanical cryocoolers matured and demonstrated reliable operation these stored cryogen systems gradually became replaced. LM-ATC is currently developing solid hydrogen systems for temperatures below 7 K [Naes L, Wu S, Cannon J. WISE solid hydrogen cryostat design overview. In: Proceedings of SPIE, cryogenic optical systems and instruments XI, vol. 5904, August, 2005], but these coolers will soon be replaced by mechanical cryocoolers. This paper will present a summary of cryocooler developments at LM-ATC and will describe the recent performance of multiple stage systems. A four-stage pulse tube cryocooler developed under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been recently developed and operated at 3.8 K [Olson JR, Moore M, Champagne P, Roth E, Evtimov B, Jensen J, et al. Development of a space-type-4-stage pulse tube cryocooler for very low temperatures, Adv Cryogen Engr, vol. 50, Amer Inst of Physics, New York, in press]. Coolers with one, two and three stages have also been widely developed [Nast TC et al. Miniature pulse tube cryocooler for space applications. Cryocoolers, vol. 11. New York: Plenum Press; 2000. p. 145-54; Olson J et al. Development of a 10 K pulse tube cryocooler for space applications. In: Ross R, editor. Cryocoolers, vol. 12. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2003. p. 241-6; Nast TC et al. Lockheed Martin two-stage pulse tube cryocooler for GIFTS. Cryocoolers, vol. 13. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005; Frank D et al. Lockheed Martin RAMOS engineering model cryocooler. Cryocoolers, vol. 13. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005]. A staging approach is required to achieve very low temperatures, and also provides cooling at warmer temperatures, which is

  18. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows < Q35). Variations in source contributions are controlled by antecedent soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and duration of rainy periods. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils, higher than the year-round low precipitation intensity, indicates that Hortonian overland flow rarely occurs during high intensity precipitation events. Deep groundwater contributions to discharge seem to be minimal. These results suggest that, in this high-elevation tropical ecosystem: 1) subsurface flow is a dominant hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major

  19. Combining Traditional Hydrometric Data, Isotope Tracers and Biophysical Landscape Characteristics to Improve the Understanding of Landscape Hydrology in the Humid Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, G.; Lazo, P.; Célleri, R.; Wilcox, B. P.; Breuer, L.; Windhorst, D.; Crespo, P.

    2014-12-01

    Only few catchments in the Andean mountain range are currently monitored. Most basins in the region remain ungauged, and as a result, little knowledge is available on the processes governing their hydrological behavior. In particular, despite the importance of tropical alpine grasslands of the northern Andes (commonly known as the páramo) as providers of abundant high-quality water for downstream populations as well as a variety of other environmental services, very little is known about their hydrologic functioning. To improve this situation, an analysis of 1) the isotopic signature of oxygen-18, and 2) the relations between various landscape attributes and hydrologic behavior in the Zhurucay River experimental catchment (7.53 km2) was conducted. The catchment is located in southern Ecuador between 3200 and 3900 m a.s.l. The isotopic analysis was conducted in water samples collected in rainfall, streamflow, and soils. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover, catchment area, geology, and topography on runoff coefficient, and streamflow rates was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results reveal that water yield accounts for a high percentage of the water budget; runoff coefficient, and high and moderate streamflow rates are highly correlated with the extent of Histosols soils (Andean páramo wetlands), and increase with catchment size; and low streamflow rates are highly correlated with steep slopes. Results from the tracer analysis show that pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation, demonstrating hydrologic connectivity between the Histosols (mainly located at the bottom of the valley) and the drainage network; while the most common soils, the Andosols (mainly located on the steep slopes), laterally drain the infiltrated rainfall recharging the lower situated Histosols. Overall, these findings depict that the combination of different methodologies for investigating hydrological processes at catchment

  20. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in Ecuadorian Andosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Tonneijck, Femke; Nierop, Klaas; Verstraten, Koos

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic ash soils contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Whether soils become a net carbon source or sink upon climate and/or land-use change depends on the stability of SOM against decomposition, which is influenced by stabilisation mechanisms in the soil. To clarify the role of chemical and physical carbon stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils, we applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under natural upper montane forest as well as grassland (páramo). From several soils SOM was further characterized at a molecular level using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks under forest as well as páramo vegetation roughly doubled global averages for volcanic ash soils. The carbon stabilization mechanisms involved are: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity. When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved, hinting at fungal degradation in the face of inhibited bacterial decomposition. Both vegetation types contributed to soil acidification, thus increasing SOM accumulation and inducing positive feedbacks. Most types of land-use change will result in immediate and substantial carbon loss to the atmosphere. Our results stress the urgent need to protect the Tropical Andes 'hotspot' from destructive land-use change, not only for the

  1. Palynological signal of the Younger Dryas in the tropical Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Montoya, Encarni; Bezada, Maximiliano; Abbott, Mark B.

    2010-11-01

    The occurrence, or not, of the Younger Dryas cold reversal in the tropical Andes remains a controversial topic. This study reports a clear signal for this event in the Venezuelan Andes, employing high-resolution palynological analysis of a well-dated sediment core from Laguna de Los Anteojos, situated around 3900 m elevation, within grass páramo vegetation. The lake is surrounded by some Polylepis forests which are close to their upper distribution limit. The section of the core discussed here is 150-cm long and dated between about 14.68 and 9.35 cal kyr BP, using a polynomial age-depth model based on six AMS radiocarbon dates. Between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP, an abrupt shift occurred in the pollen assemblage, manifested by a decline of Podocarpus, Polylepis and Huperzia, combined with an increase in Poaceae and Asteraceae. The aquatic pteridophyte Isoëtes also decreased and disappeard, and the algae remains show their minimum values. Pollen assemblages from the Younger Dryas interval show maximum dissimilarity values compared with today's pollen assemblage, and are more similar to modern analogs from superpáramo vegetation, growing at elevations 400-500 m higher. A lowering of vegetation zones of this magnitude corresponds to a temperature decline of between 2.5 and 3.8 °C. During this colder interval lake levels may have been lower, suggesting a decrease in available moisture. The vegetation shift documented in Anteojos record between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP is comparable to the El Abra Stadial in the Colombian Andes but it differs in magnitude. The Anteojos shift is better dated and coincides with the Younger Dryas chron as recorded in the Cariaco Basin sea surface temperature reconstructions and records of continental runoff, as well as in the oxygen isotope measurements from the Greenland ice cores. When compared to other proxies of quasi-immediate response to climate, the time lag for the response of vegetation to climate is found to be negligible

  2. CD4 T cell activation by B cells in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. Methods CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Results Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased frequency of CD25hiCD127- cells among CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, B cells upregulated the costimulatory molecule CD86. These changes were not observed in PBMCs from healthy subjects, indicating participation of Leishmania-specific lymphocytes expanded in vivo. Purified B cells from these patients, when interacting with purified CD4 T cells and Leishmania antigens, were capable of inducing significant increases in CD25 and CD69 expression and CD25hiCD127- frequency in CD4 T cells. These changes were associated with upregulation of CD86 in B cells. Comparison of changes in CD4 T cell activation parameters between PBMC and B cell/CD4 T cell cultures showed no statistically significant differences; further, significant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 was induced in both types of cultures. Additionally, culture with Leishmania antigens enhanced BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin in Ramos human B cells. Conclusions The capacity of B cells specific for Leishmania antigens in peripheral blood of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to

  3. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    DOE PAGES

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; et al

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targetingmore » either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT

  4. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0

  5. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in

  6. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  7. Impact of the variability of the seasonal snow cover on the ground surface regimes in Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    Seasonally snow cover has a great impact on the thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost. Ground temperatures over a year are strongly affected by the timing, duration, thickness, structure and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The purpose of this communication is to characterize the shallow ground thermal regimes, with special reference to the understanding of the influence snow cover in permafrost spatial distribution, in the ice-free areas of the north western part of Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". We have analyzed and ground temperatures as well as snow thickness data in four sites distributed along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2013: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). At each study site, data loggers were installed for the monitoring of air temperatures (at 1.5 m high), ground temperatures (5, 20 and 40 cm depth) and for snow depth (2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 cm) at 4-hour intervals. The winter data suggests the existence of three types of seasonal stages regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: (a) shallow snow cover with intense ground temperatures oscillations; (b) thick snow cover and low variations of soil temperatures; and (c) stability of ground temperatures. Ground thermal conditions are also conditioned by a strong variability. Winter data indicates that Nuevo Incinerador site experiences more often thicker snow cover with higher ground temperatures and absence of ground temperatures oscillations. Collado Ramos and Ohridski show frequent variations of snow cover thickness, alternating between shallow snow cover with high ground temperature fluctuation and thick snow cover and low ground temperature fluctuation. Reina Sofia in all the years has thick snow cover with little variations in soil

  8. Performance of the Fourier transform reconstructor for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Reyes, M.; Le Louarn, M.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    The forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes, and the new generation of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, carry on a boost in the number of actuators that makes the real-time correction of the atmospheric aberration computationally challenging. It is necessary to study new algorithms for performing Adaptive Optics at the required speed. Among the last generation algorithms that are being studied, the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR) appears as a promising candidate. Its feasibility to be used for Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics has been extensively proved by Poyneer et al.[1] As part of the activities supported by the ELT Design Study (European Community's Framework Programme 6) we have studied the performance of this algorithm applied to the case of the European ELT, in two different cases: single-conjugate and ground-layer adaptive optics and we are studying different approaches to apply it to the more complex multi-conjugate case. The algorithm has been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The performance has been compared with other algorithms as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions. The good results on performance and robustness, and the possibility of parallelizing the algorithm (shown by Rodríguez-Ramos and Marichal-Hernández) make it an excellent alternative to the typically used Matrix-Vector Multiply algorithm.

  9. Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 in human immunodeficiency virus 1-positive and human immunodeficiency virus 1-negative populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Taguchi, H; Katano, H; Mori, S; Nakamura, T; Nojiri, N; Nakajima, K; Tadokoro, K; Juji, T; Iwamoto, A

    1999-02-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) among human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-positive (HIV-1+) and HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) populations in Japan, 276 HIV-1+ patients and 1,000 HIV-1- blood donors were enrolled in this study. Antibodies against HHV8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were examined through indirect immunofluorescent assay by using a B-cell line that was infected latently with HHV8 (body cavity-based lymphoma 1). An HHV8- and Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line (Ramos) was used as a control. Thirty-two seropositive cases against LANA (anti-LANA+) were identified among the 276 HIV-1+ patients who were studied. Five cases were foreigners living in Japan. The risk factor of all 27 Japanese cases was unprotected sexual intercourse, and the great majority of these cases (23 in 27; 85%) reported homosexual/bisexual behavior. Anti-LANA+ status correlated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as amoeba and HBV infection, further suggesting male homosexual behavior as the main route of HHV8 transmission in Japan. Only two LANA+ cases were identified among 1,000 HIV- blood donors in Japan; thus, seroprevalence of HHV8 identified by LANA was estimated to be 0.2% among HIV-1- populations in this country. PMID:9892401

  10. Modelling adaptation to climate change of Ecuadorian agriculture and associated water resources: uncertainties in coastal and highland cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Bastidas, Wellington; Cóndor, Amparo; Villacís, Marcos; Calderón, Marco; Herrera, Mario; Zambrano, José Luis; Lizaso, Jon; Hernández, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian

    2016-04-01

    Climate change threatens sustainability of farms and associated water resources in Ecuador. Although the last IPCC report (AR5) provides a general framework for adaptation, , impact assessment and especially adaptation analysis should be site-specific, taking into account both biophysical and social aspects. The objective of this study is to analyse the climate change impacts and to sustainable adaptations to optimize the crop yield. Furthermore is also aimed to weave agronomical and hydrometeorological aspects, to improve the modelling of the coastal ("costa") and highland ("sierra") cropping systems in Ecuador, from the agricultural production and water resources points of view. The final aim is to support decision makers, at national and local institutions, for technological implementation of structural adaptation strategies, and to support farmers for their autonomous adaptation actions to cope with the climate change impacts and that allow equal access to resources and appropriate technologies. . A diagnosis of the current situation in terms of data availability and reliability was previously done, and the main sources of uncertainty for agricultural projections have been identified: weather data, especially precipitation projections, soil data below the upper 30 cm, and equivalent experimental protocol for ecophysiological crop field measurements. For reducing these uncertainties, several methodologies are being discussed. This study was funded by PROMETEO program from Ecuador through SENESCYT (M. Ruiz-Ramos contract), and by the project COOP-XV-25 funded by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  11. Supersonic regime of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics resistive tearing instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ahedo, Eduardo; Ramos, Jesus J.

    2012-07-15

    An earlier analysis of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) tearing instability [E. Ahedo and J. J. Ramos, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 055018 (2009)] is extended to cover the regime where the growth rate becomes comparable or exceeds the sound frequency. Like in the previous subsonic work, a resistive, two-fluid Hall-MHD model with massless electrons and zero-Larmor-radius ions is adopted and a linear stability analysis about a force-free equilibrium in slab geometry is carried out. A salient feature of this supersonic regime is that the mode eigenfunctions become intrinsically complex, but the growth rate remains purely real. Even more interestingly, the dispersion relation remains of the same form as in the subsonic regime for any value of the instability Mach number, provided only that the ion skin depth is sufficiently small for the mode ion inertial layer width to be smaller than the macroscopic lengths, a generous bound that scales like a positive power of the Lundquist number.

  12. The SF3B1 inhibitor spliceostatin A (SSA) elicits apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells through downregulation of Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Larrayoz, M; Blakemore, S J; Dobson, R C; Blunt, M D; Rose-Zerilli, M J J; Walewska, R; Duncombe, A; Oscier, D; Koide, K; Forconi, F; Packham, G; Yoshida, M; Cragg, M S; Strefford, J C; Steele, A J

    2016-02-01

    The pro-survival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 is expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), with high expression correlated with progressive disease. The spliceosome inhibitor spliceostatin A (SSA) is known to regulate Mcl-1 and so here we assessed the ability of SSA to elicit apoptosis in CLL. SSA induced apoptosis of CLL cells at low nanomolar concentrations in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but independently of SF3B1 mutational status, IGHV status and CD38 or ZAP70 expression. However, normal B and T cells were less sensitive than CLL cells (P=0.006 and P<0.001, respectively). SSA altered the splicing of anti-apoptotic MCL-1(L) to MCL-1(s) in CLL cells coincident with induction of apoptosis. Overexpression studies in Ramos cells suggested that Mcl-1 was important for SSA-induced killing since its expression inversely correlated with apoptosis (P=0.001). IL4 and CD40L, present in patient lymph nodes, are known to protect tumour cells from apoptosis and significantly inhibited SSA, ABT-263 and ABT-199 induced killing following administration to CLL cells (P=0.008). However, by combining SSA with the Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) antagonists ABT-263 or ABT-199, we were able to overcome this pro-survival effect. We conclude that SSA combined with Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) antagonists may have therapeutic utility for CLL.

  13. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment. PMID:27656940

  14. Thermal residual stresses in amorphous thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to calculate the internal stresses in a cylindrically shaped polycarbonate (LEXAN-GE) component, subjected to an arbitrary cooling rate, will be described. The differential volume relaxation arising as a result of the different thermal history suffered by each body point was considered as the primary source of stresses build up [1-3]. A numerical routine was developed accounting for the simultaneous stress and structural relaxation processes and implemented within an Ansys® environment. The volume relaxation kinetics was modeled by coupling the KAHR (Kovacs, Aklonis, Hutchinson, Ramos) phenomenological theory [4] with the linear viscoelastic theory [5-7]. The numerical algorithm translates the specific volume theoretical predictions at each body point as applied non-mechanical loads acting on the component. The viscoelastic functions were obtained from two simple experimental data, namely the linear viscoelastic response in shear and the PVT (pressure volume temperature) behavior. The dimensionless bulk compliance was extracted from PVT data since it coincides with the memory function appearing in the KAHR phenomenological theory [7]. It is showed that the residual stress scales linearly with the logarithm of the Biot's number.

  15. OSU-DY7, a novel D-tyrosinol derivative, mediates cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Burkitt lymphoma through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Ma, Yihui; Kulp, Samuel K.; Wang, Shu-Huei; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Frissora, Frank; Mani, Rajeswaran; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug resistance and associated immune deregulation limit use of current therapies in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), thus warranting alternative therapy development. Herein we demonstrate that OSU-DY7, a novel D-tyrosinol derivative targeting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mediates cytotoxicity in lymphocytic cell lines representing CLL (MEC-1), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (697 cells), Burkitt lymphoma (Raji and Ramos) and primary B cells from CLL patients in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on caspase activation, as evidenced by induction of caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and rescue of cytotoxicity by Z-VAD-FMK. Interestingly, OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is mediated through activation of p38 MAPK, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream target protein MAPKAPK2. Pretreatment of B-CLL cells with SB202190, a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, results in decreased MAPKAPK2 protein level with concomitant rescue of the cells from OSU-DY7-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is associated with down regulation of p38 MAPK target BIRC5, that is rescued at protein and mRNA levels by SB202190. This study provides evidence for a role of OSU-DY7 in p38 MAPK activation and BIRC5 down regulation associated with apoptosis in B lymphocytic cells, thus warranting development of this alternative therapy for lymphoid malignancies. PMID:21470196

  16. Rare case of isolated osteochondroma of the zygomatic bone: an endoscopic-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Antonio; Dell'Aversana, Giovanni; Corvino, Raffaele; Abbate, Vincenzo; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2015-11-03

    L’osteocondroma è una neoplasia benigna che nel distretto cranio-facciale colpisce spesso il corpo ed il ramo mandibolare e soltanto di rado può interessare il processo coronoide e l’arco zygomatico. In questo articolo descriviamo un raro caso di osteocondroma isolato dell’osso zygomatico trattato mediante approccio chirurgico intraorale endoscopicamente assistito ed in letteratura non sono riportati altri casi di questa patologia trattati con procedure endoscopicamente assistite. Una donna caucasica di cinquantadue anni, è stata osservata nel nostro reparto nel mese di marzo del 2012, la paziente lamentava dolore in regione zygomatica destra. La tomografia computerizzata (TC) del distretto osseo interessato mostrava una lesione sessile non definita. Il sospetto diagnostico è stato di osteocondroma. L’intervento è stato realizzato in anestesia generale mediante approccio intraorale endoscopicamente assistito. All’esame istologico del campione operatorio è stata confermata la diagnosi di osteocondroma. Nell’immediato post operatorio la paziente non ha presentato edema, dolore o febbre. L’uso dell’endoscopia nel trattamento chirurgico di questa patologia quindi ha consentito di ottenere una maggiore precisione e una maggiore rispetto delle strutture anatomiche. L’approccio intraorale ci garantisce l’assenza di cicatrici visibili e l’ausilio dell’endoscopia ci consente di avere una migliore visione di tutte le strutture anatomiche, una buona gestione della patologia riducendo quindi il rischio di complicanze intraoperatorie quali: fratture patologiche e lesioni del VII nervo cranico.

  17. [Anthropometric measures in urban child population from 6 to 12 years from the northwest of México].

    PubMed

    Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; López-Leal, Josefa; Exiga-González, Emma Beatriz; Armenta-Llanes, Oscar; Jorge-Plascencia, Blanca; Domínguez-Banda, Alberto; López-Morales, Mónica; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Sabag-Ruiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el grado de sobrepeso-obesidad tendrá variaciones de acuerdo con las condiciones de cada población, según el ámbito geográfico, la raza o etnia, el status socioeconómico y la susceptibilidad de cada individuo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar medidas antropométricas en la población infantil urbana de 6 a 12 años de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron 684 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad, sanos y de ambos géneros de la zona urbana de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, en quienes se midieron peso, talla, perímetro braquial (PB), cintura e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se realizó estadística descriptiva mediante frecuencias, porcentajes, e inferencial mediante t de Student para comparar las tablas de crecimiento de Ramos Galván y las del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).

  18. Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Berthelin, C. Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-03-15

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades.

  20. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Montaner, Beatriz; Navarro, Sira; Piqué, Maria; Vilaseca, Marta; Martinell, Marc; Giralt, Ernest; Gil, Joan; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure.Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases.Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens.These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug. PMID:11015311

  1. Extinction arouses attention to the context in a behavioral suppression method with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A; León, Samuel P

    2013-01-01

    One experiment assessed predictions from the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP, J. M. Rosas, J. E. Callejas-Aguilera, M. M. Ramos-Álvarez, & M. J. F. Abad, 2006, Revision of retrieval theory of forgetting: What does make information context-specific? International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, Vol. 6, pp. 147-166) that extinction arouses attention to contextual stimuli. In a video-game method, participants learned a biconditional discrimination (RG+/BG-/RY-/BY+) either after extinction of another stimulus had occurred, or not. When contextual stimuli were relevant to solving the discrimination (i.e., all RG+/BG- trials occurred in one context and all RY-/BY+ in another), prior extinction of another stimulus facilitated the discrimination, as if extinction enhanced attention to the contexts. Results are discussed briefly in terms of ATCP and the model of N. A. Schmajuk, Y. W. Lam, & J. A. Gray (1996, Latent inhibition: A neural network approach, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Vol. 22, pp. 321-349).

  2. Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-01-01

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. PMID:24036586

  3. Implementation of chiral quantum optics with Rydberg and trapped-ion setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermersch, Benoît; Ramos, Tomás; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We propose two setups for realizing a chiral quantum network, where two-level systems representing the nodes interact via directional emission into discrete waveguides, as introduced in T. Ramos et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062104 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104]. The first implementation realizes a spin waveguide via Rydberg states in a chain of atoms, whereas the second one realizes a phonon waveguide via the localized vibrations of a string of trapped ions. For both architectures, we show that strong chirality can be obtained by a proper design of synthetic gauge fields in the couplings from the nodes to the waveguide. In the Rydberg case, this is achieved via intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the dipole-dipole interactions, while for the trapped ions it is obtained by engineered sideband transitions. We take long-range couplings into account that appear naturally in these implementations, discuss useful experimental parameters, and analyze potential error sources. Finally, we describe effects that can be observed in these implementations within state-of-the-art technology, such as the driven-dissipative formation of entangled dimer states.

  4. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  5. TNF receptor-associated factor-3 signaling mediates activation of p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase, cytokine secretion, and Ig production following ligation of CD40 on human B cells.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; Swantek, J L; McFarland, R D; Miura, Y; Geppert, T; Lipsky, P E

    1998-08-01

    CD40 engagement induces a variety of functional outcomes following association with adaptor molecules of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family. Whereas TRAF2, -5, and -6 initiate NF-kappaB activation, the outcomes of TRAF3-initiated signaling are less characterized. To delineate CD40-induced TRAF3-dependent events, Ramos B cells stably transfected with a dominant negative TRAF3 were stimulated with membranes expressing recombinant CD154/CD40 ligand. In the absence of TRAF3 signaling, activation of p38 and control of Ig production were abrogated, whereas Jun N-terminal kinase activation and secretion of IL-10, lymphotoxin-alpha, and TNF-alpha were partially blocked. By contrast, induction of apoptosis, activation of NF-kappaB, generation of granulocyte-macrophage CSF, and up-regulation of CD54, MHC class II, and CD95 were unaffected by the TRAF3 dominant negative. Together, these results indicate that TRAF3 initiates independent signaling pathways via p38 and JNK that are associated with specific functional outcomes.

  6. Reformatting Rituximab into Human IgG2 and IgG4 Isotypes Dramatically Improves Apoptosis Induction In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Könitzer, Jennifer D.; Sieron, Annette; Wacker, Angelika; Enenkel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The direct induction of cell death, or apoptosis, in target cells is one of the effector mechanisms for the anti CD20 antibody Rituximab. Here we provide evidence that Rituximab’s apoptotic ability is linked to the antibody IgG isotype. Reformatting Rituximab from the standard human IgG1 heavy chain into IgG2 or IgG4 boosted in vitro apoptosis induction in the Burkitt’s lymphoma B cell line Ramos five and four-fold respectively. The determinants for this behavior are located in the hinge region and CH1 domain of the heavy chain. By transplanting individual IgG2 or IgG4 specific amino acid residues onto otherwise IgG1 like backbones, thereby creating hybrid antibodies, the same enhancement of apoptosis induction could be achieved. The cysteines at position 131 of the CH1 domain and 219 in the hinge region, involved in IgG2 and IgG4 disulfide formation, were found to be of particular structural importance. Our data indicates that the hybrid antibodies possess a different CD20 binding mode than standard Rituximab, which appears to be key in enhancing apoptotic ability. The presented work opens up an interesting engineering route for enhancing the direct cytotoxic ability of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26713448

  7. Visualization of the light injection in one dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta-Garcia, Raul

    2005-03-01

    In this work we present time variation simulations of the light injection in one dimension photonic crystals (1D-PC). This phenomenon is due to the coupling of an incoming plane-wave to the discrete vibration modes in finite 1D-PC. In order to present a live animation of the system we proceed in two stages. First, we present the discrete relation dispersion and then we choose the better combination of frequency and wave-vector. Second, for this combination we reconstruct the field amplitudes in each one of the media. This phenomenon has been described in three previous works [1-3] for the case of a metal-dielectric-metal system. In this work we present the simulation of this system and also the extension of the idea for the case of a multilayer system. The visualization of the electromagnetic field gives a better comprehension of the phenomena. [1]R. Garcia-Llamas, J.A. Gaspar-Armenta, F.Ramos-Mendieta, R.F. Haglund, R. Ruiz. ``Design, manufacturing and testing of planar optical waveguide devices'',.), Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4439, 2001, pp 88-94. [2] F. Villa, T. Lopez-Rios, L.E. Regalado, ``Electromagnetic modes in metal-insulator-metal structures'', Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 165103. [3] A.S. Ramirez-Duverger, R. Garcia-Llamas, ``Light scattering from a multimode waveguide of planar metalic walls'', Optics Communications, (2003)

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Water maser emission toward post-AGB and PN (Gomez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. F.; Rizzo, J. R.; Suarez, O.; Palau, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The observed sources are listed in Table 1. They comprise most of the sources in Ramos-Larios et al. (2009A&A...501.1207R). They are post-AGB stars and PN candidates with the IRAS color criteria of Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) and with signs of strong optical obscuration. We have also included some optically visible post-AGB stars from Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) that were not included in our previous water maser observations of Suarez et al. (2007A&A...467.1085S, 2009A&A...505..217S) or for which those observations had poor sensitivity. We observed the 616-523 transition of H2O (rest frequency = 22235.08MHz) using three different telescopes: the DSS-63 antenna (70m diameter) at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) near Robledo de Chavela (Spain), the 64m antenna at the Parkes Observatory of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), and the 100m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The observed positions, rms noise per spectral channel, and observing dates are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  9. Determination of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. I. Novel method based on the resistance of sterile closure.

    PubMed

    Amoabediny, Ghassem; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    Influence of carbon dioxide on growth and product kinetics of industrially important micro-organisms is essential for the interpretation of a bioprocess. In this research, the CO₂ effects on productivity and growth rate of micro-organisms have been studied by using a variety of kplug. The applied method is based on a different concentration of CO₂ in the headspace of ventilation flasks. The presented method is simple, inexpensive and shows similar results compared to large-scale fermentation regarding the evolution of CO₂ in a batch system. For the investigation of the proposed method, experiments employing Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Corynebacterium glutamicum (DM1730 and ATCC WT13032) and Hansenula polymorpha DSM70277 as model organisms in the ventilation flasks are performed. The fermentations in the RAMOS (respiratory activity monitoring system) device were carried out with a normal aeration rate (1 vvm) and under the same operating conditions as the ventilation flask f1. The modified unsteady-state model was used to predict the operation conditions of a biological system in the ventilation flasks. In the present study, a novel and easy method for the quantification of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors (called ventilation flask) was achieved.

  10. Protecting our peoples.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1997-01-01

    In this speech, delivered at the Opening Ceremonies of the 4th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Philippines President Fidel Ramos called for international cooperation in seeking solutions to the universal problem posed by HIV/AIDS. The Philippines proclaimed 1997 as national AIDS prevention year, and the nation is aware that the disease is a socioeconomic and development problem, not merely a public health problem. This recognition has allowed the Philippines to craft a response to HIV/AIDS that is holistic and comprehensive, rather than isolationist. By pooling resources effectively, Asian countries should be able to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention efforts and, hopefully, to efforts to cure the disease. In the Philippines, nongovernmental organizations have shown how much can be accomplished through effective management of scarce resources. The Department of Health (DOH) also stretches its modest HIV/AIDS prevention and care budget through effort, enthusiasm, and networking. The Philippines National AIDS Council, an advisory body, includes a representative from an organization of people with HIV. The DOH has established a home for people with HIV/AIDS and hires HIV-positive patients to work as health educators. The government's labor policies also protect people with HIV/AIDS from discrimination. A proposed law will extend protection of the rights of HIV-positive individuals and will address prevention efforts. Asian-Pacific region countries must act collectively to meet the challenge of protecting their peoples from HIV/AIDS.

  11. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-02-10

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin.

  12. Relationship between X(5) models and the interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect

    Barea, Jose; Arias, Jose M.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The connections between the X(5) models [the original X(5) using an infinite square well, X(5)-{beta}{sup 8}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 6}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 4}, and X(5)-{beta}{sup 2}], based on particular solutions of the geometrical Bohr Hamiltonian with harmonic potential in the {gamma} degree of freedom, and the interacting boson model (IBM) are explored. This work is the natural extension of the work presented in Garcia-Ramos and Arias, Phys. Rev. C 77, 054307 (2008) for the E(5) models. For that purpose, a quite general one- and two-body IBM Hamiltonian is used and a numerical fit to the different X(5) model energies is performed; then the obtained wave functions are used to calculate B(E2) transition rates. It is shown that within the IBM one can reproduce well the results for energies and B(E2) transition rates obtained with all these X(5) models, although the agreement is not so impressive as for the E(5) models. From the fitted IBM parameters the corresponding energy surface can be extracted and, surprisingly, only the X(5) case corresponds in the moderately large N limit to an energy surface very close to the one expected for a critical point, whereas the rest of models are situated a little further away.

  13. Extinction arouses attention to the context in a behavioral suppression method with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A; León, Samuel P

    2013-01-01

    One experiment assessed predictions from the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP, J. M. Rosas, J. E. Callejas-Aguilera, M. M. Ramos-Álvarez, & M. J. F. Abad, 2006, Revision of retrieval theory of forgetting: What does make information context-specific? International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, Vol. 6, pp. 147-166) that extinction arouses attention to contextual stimuli. In a video-game method, participants learned a biconditional discrimination (RG+/BG-/RY-/BY+) either after extinction of another stimulus had occurred, or not. When contextual stimuli were relevant to solving the discrimination (i.e., all RG+/BG- trials occurred in one context and all RY-/BY+ in another), prior extinction of another stimulus facilitated the discrimination, as if extinction enhanced attention to the contexts. Results are discussed briefly in terms of ATCP and the model of N. A. Schmajuk, Y. W. Lam, & J. A. Gray (1996, Latent inhibition: A neural network approach, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Vol. 22, pp. 321-349). PMID:23316978

  14. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin. PMID:27395992

  15. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  16. An examination of the resettlement program at Mayon Volcano: what can we learn for sustainable volcanic risk reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamah, Muhibuddin; Haynes, Katharine

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates a resettlement program for communities impacted by volcanic hazards from Mayon volcano in the Philippines. Two resettlement sites are selected, the first FVR-FNM village (named after President Fidel V. Ramos and Mayor Florencio N. Munoz) was settled after the 1993 eruption. The second, Bungkaras Village, was settled after the 2006 eruption and associated typhoon Reming lahar event. These two sites were selected in order to explore the process of relocation over the short and longer term, although the main focus of the study is in the more recently settled Bungkaras Village. The overall aim is to determine if exposure to volcanic hazards has decreased without adding to vulnerability through loss of livelihood, community and culture, and exposure to new risks. A mixed method qualitative approach was utilized including semistructured interviews, participant observations, and a participatory workshop. This enabled an in-depth understanding of life and the challenges faced at the resettlement sites vis-à-vis the original settlements. In order to document the process of site selection, planning, and building, semistructured interviews were conducted with key government officials, emergency managers, and donors of the resettlement projects. This research demonstrates that a volcanic resettlement program must be directed by meaningful consultation with the impacted community who also share in the decision making. Successful resettlement must consider aspects of livelihood security, house design, and the availability of public and lifeline facilities.

  17. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Montaner, B; Navarro, S; Piqué, M; Vilaseca, M; Martinell, M; Giralt, E; Gil, J; Pérez-Tomás, R

    2000-10-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure. Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases. Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens. These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug.

  18. Development of a conceptual model of the hydrologic response of tropical Andean micro-catchments in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, P.; Feyen, J.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Frede, H.-G.; Ramírez, M.; Breuer, L.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a lumped conceptual model designed for simulating the rainfallrunoff response of mountain micro-catchments with natural vegetation located in the south of Ecuador. The conceptual model is mimicking the soil hydrology and consists of a maximum of three linear reservoirs in series. A two and three reservoir model structure were tested, respectively A GLUE uncertainty analysis was applied to assess the model performance. Simulation results of the discharge confirmed the applicability of the soil-based conceptual model structure for the selected study areas, during model calibration and validation. The three reservoir model best predicted the runoff, nevertheless the two reservoir model well captures the rainfall-runoff process of the micro-catchments with páramo vegetation. Although differences in climate regime, vegetation, and soil of the selected catchments runoff is strongly controlled by the precipitation and soil type, and the horizons contributing to runoff are defined by their antecedent wetness. Results confirm that the discharge is mainly controlled by lateral subsurface flow through the organic horizons, while during dry conditions the C-horizon and the bedrock mainly contribute to discharge. Lateral transport through the densely rooted top horizon and the litter layer occurs during storm events, being under those conditions the major discharge component. Overland flow is a local phenomenon, negligible in comparison to the other flow components.

  19. Holocene coastal paleoenvironments in Atlantic Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Bonorino, G.; Bujalesky, G.; Colombo, F.; Ferrero, M.

    1999-11-01

    The Atlantic shoreline in Patagonia, southernmost South America, is a paraglacial coast that has undergone extensive erosion and retreat since the late Pleistocene, releasing a large volume of sand and gravel to southward littoral drift. Despite regional erosive conditions, accretionary landforms developed during the Holocene in three coastal reentrants. These are, from north to south along a 200 km long shoreline stretch: (1) the cuspate foreland that underlies Bustamante Point, in the Rı´o Gallegos Estuary; (2) the cuspate foreland with incipient spit underlying Dungeness Point, in the eastern Strait of Magellan; (3) the San Sebastián Bay tidal flat; and (4) the El Páramo Spit, partly enclosing the San Sebastián Bay. These accretionary landforms contain a record of relative sea level changes for approximately the past 7 ka, and indicate a tectonically driven drop of about 3 m during growth of Bustamante Point and of 1-2 m in the other areas. Differential sea level fall influenced development of the landforms, with slower rates favoring spit development in the south.

  20. Some effects of giant Andean stem-rosettes on ground microclimate, and their ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of giant Andean stem-rosettes ( Coespeletia lutescens) on air and soil temperatures was studied in the Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Venezuela) at 4265 and 4385 m altitude during the dry season, which is the coldest season in this tropical mountain area. Maximum air temperatures beneath a plant canopy were only slightly higher than in the open. Minimum temperatures below the stem-rosettes were 4.7° to 7.0°C higher than in the open. This substantially reduced the intensity of nightly freezing. Soil temperature minima at 20 cm depth were 2.4° to 4.2°C higher below plants, but maxima were somewhat lower than in bare soil. These microclimatic alterations are ecologically significant for stemprosette seedlings, which should have a higher probability of survival due to the reduced frequency of frost and needle ice formation below large plants. Warmer soils at night should also result in greater water uptake by seedlings during the early morning hours, thus reducing dry-season mortality.

  1. Crossed molecular beam study of gas phase reactions relevant to the chemistry of planetary atmospheres: The case of C 2+C 2H 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Hickson, Kevin M.; Segoloni, Enrico; Balucani, Nadia; Le Picard, Sébastien D.; Foggi, Paolo; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between dicarbon (C 2) and acetylene was recently suggested as a possible competitive reaction in the atmospheres of Titan, Saturn and Uranus by rate constant measurements at very low temperatures [see Canosa, A., Páramo, A., Le Picard, S.D., Sims, I.R., 2007. An experimental study of the reaction kinetics of C 2(X 1Σ g+) with hydrocarbons (CH 4, C 2H 2, C 2H 4, C 2H 6 and C 3H 8) over the temperature range 24-300 K: implications for the atmospheres of Titan and the Giant Planets. Icarus 187, 558-568]. We have investigated the reaction of the two low lying electron states of C 2 and acetylene by the crossed molecular beam (CMB) technique with mass spectrometric detection. C 4H, already identified as a primary product in previous CMB experiments, is confirmed as such, even though the mechanism of formation is inferred to be partly different with respect to the previous study. An experimental setup has been devised to characterize the internal population of C 2 and refine the interpretation of the scattering results. The implications for the modelling of the atmospheres of Giant Planets and Titan, as well as cometary comae and the interstellar medium, are discussed.

  2. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Restrepo, Silvia; Zambrano, María Mercedes

    2016-03-01

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. PMID:26746719

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades. PMID:25796324

  4. Erosion surfaces and Neogene landscape evolution in the NE Duero Basin (north-central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2007-08-01

    We present a chronological model of erosion surface development in the Iberian and Cantabrian Ranges of north-central Spain. We map four erosion surfaces and interpret these to be related to Duero basin continental sediments and tectonic activity from Upper Oligocene to Plio-Pleistocene. The oldest erosion surface, SE1, formed across Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene synorogenic deposits; while surface SE2 was contemporaneous with the Middle Miocene alluvial systems, ending with an uplift stage in the Astaracian. The two most recent erosion surfaces, SE3 and SE4, developed during extensional tectonic episodes and are associated with the deposition of Upper Páramo sedimentary units at the end of the Miocene (Upper Turolian) and alluvial fan deposits, known as rañas (Plio-Pleistocene). With the exception of SE1, which seems to be associated with a relatively wet climate, the surfaces formed during periods of marked aridity and generally warm temperatures. Through geostatistical reconstruction of the best preserved surface (SE2), applying ordinary kriging method to the topography (DEM) of the erosion surface and its correlating sedimentary plains, we identify the deformation processes which occurred on this surface after its formation.

  5. Evolving proteins in mammalian cells using somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsien, Roger Y

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new method to mutate target genes through somatic hypermutation (SHM) and to evolve proteins directly in living mammalian cells. Target genes are expressed under the control of an inducible promoter in a B-cell line that hypermutates its immunoglobulin (Ig) V genes constitutively. Mutations can be introduced into the target gene through SHM upon transcription. Mutant genes are then expressed and selected or screened for desired properties in cells. Identified cells are subjected to another round of mutation and selection or screening. This process can be iterated easily for numerous rounds, and multiple reinforcing mutations can be accumulated to produce desirable phenotypes. This approach bypasses labor-intensive in vitro mutagenesis and samples a large protein sequence space. In this protocol a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1.2) was evolved in Ramos cells to afford a mutant (mPlum) with far-red emission. This method can be adapted to evolve other eukaryotic proteins and to be used in other cells able to perform SHM. For each round of evolution, it takes approximately 1 d to mutate the target gene, approximately 0.5-1 d to select or screen, and 2-4 d to propagate the cells for the next round depending on how many cells are collected. PMID:17406421

  6. Targeted Cancer Therapy with a Novel Anti-CD37 Beta-Particle Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Patzke, Sebastian; Fleten, Karianne G.; Didierlaurent, David; Pichard, Alexandre; Pouget, Jean Pierre; Dahle, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1) is a novel anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mice with subcutaneous Ramos xenografts were treated with different activities of 177Lu-HH1, 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-rituximab) and non-specific 177Lu-DOTA-IgG1 (177Lu-IgG1) and therapeutic effect and toxicity of the treatment were monitored. Significant tumor growth delay and increased survival of mice were observed in mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1 as compared with mice treated with similar activities of 177Lu-rituximab or non-specific 177Lu-IgG1, 0.9% NaCl or unlabeled HH1. All mice injected with 530 MBq/kg of 177Lu-HH1 tolerated the treatment well. In contrast, 6 out of 10 mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-rituximab experienced severe radiation toxicity. The retention of 177Lu-rituximab in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system was longer than for 177Lu-HH1, which explains the higher toxicity observed in mice treated with 177Lu-rituximab. In vitro internalization studies showed that 177Lu-HH1 internalizes faster and to a higher extent than 177Lu-rituximab which might be the reason for the better therapeutic effect of 177Lu-HH1. PMID:26066655

  7. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raddy L; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O'Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  8. Closeout of IE Bulletin 82-04: deficiencies in primary containment electrical penetration assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.; Hennick, A.

    1984-07-01

    IE Information Notice 82-40 was issued September 22, 1982 as an early notification of a potentially significant problem pertaining to electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) supplied by the Bunker Ramo Corporation (BRC) of Chatsworth, California. All deficiencies described in the Notice were identified as existing in BRC EPAs with a hard epoxy module design. IE Bulletin 82-40 was issued December 3, 1982 to require responses and specific actions by all licensees and holders of construction permits. Evaluation of utility responses, deficiency reports and NRC/IE inspection reports has resulted in Bulletin closeout for 124 of the 129 current facilities. Deficiencies described in the Bulletin were identified at 11 facilities, of which two are operating and nine are under construction. Followup of corrective actions and verification of inspection procedures are proposed in Appendix C for the five facilities with open status. Inspection findings and the replacement/repair status of the 11 facilities with affected assemblies are summarized in Table B.6.

  9. Highly sensitive detection of leukemia cells based on aptamer and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yating; Duan, Siliang; He, Jian; Liang, Wei; Su, Jing; Zhu, Jianmeng; Hu, Nan; Zhao, Yongxiang; Lu, Xiaoling

    2016-08-01

    Detection of leukemia at the early stage with high sensitivity is a significant clinical challenge for clinicians. In the present study, we developed a sensitive detector consisting of the product of oligonucleotides hybridized with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to generate a stronger fluorescent signal so that leukemic cells can be captured. In the present study, a biotin-modified Sgc8 aptamer was used to identify CCRF-CEM cells, and then biotin-appended QDs were labeled with the aptamer via streptavidin and biotin amplification interactions. We described the complex as QDs-bsb-apt. CEM and Ramos cells were used to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the novel complex. These results revealed that the complex could be more effective in diagnosing leukemia at the early stage. In conclusion, an innovative structure based on aptamer and QDs for leukemia diagnosis was provided. It has the potential to image tumor cells in vitro or in vivo and to realize the early diagnosis of disease. Furthermore, it may be used to provide guidance for clinicians to implement individualized patient therapy. PMID:27375197

  10. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. PMID:26746719

  11. How to pose the question matters: Behavioural Economics concepts in decision making on the basis of ensemble forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2014-05-01

    Part of recent research in ensemble and probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasting analyses which probabilistic information is required by decision makers and how it can be most effectively visualised. This work, in addition, analyses if decision making in flood early warning is also influenced by the way the decision question is posed. For this purpose, the decision-making game "Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions?", which Ramos et al (2012) conducted at the EGU General Assembly 2012 in the city of Vienna, has been repeated with a small group and expanded. In that game decision makers had to decide whether or not to open a flood release gate, on the basis of flood forecasts, with and without uncertainty information. A conclusion of that game was that, in the absence of uncertainty information, decision makers are compelled towards a more risk-averse attitude. In order to explore to what extent the answers were driven by the way the questions were framed, in addition to the original experiment, a second variant was introduced where participants were asked to choose between a sure value (for either loosing or winning with a giving probability) and a gamble. This set-up is based on Kahneman and Tversky (1979). Results indicate that the way how the questions are posed may play an important role in decision making and that Prospect Theory provides promising concepts to further understand how this works.

  12. Reconciling the effects of inflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal cell osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; James, Aaron W; Blough, Jordan; Donneys, Alexis; Wang, Stewart C; Cederna, Paul S; Buchman, Steven R; Levi, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells are a popular current avenue for development and utilization, especially in the fields of de novo tissue engineering (Sanchez-Ramos J, Song S, Cardozo-Pelaez F, et al. Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro. Exp Neurol 2000;164:247.) or tissue regeneration after physical injury (Kitoh H, Kitakoji T, Tsuchiya H, et al. Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma during distraction osteogenesis-a preliminary result of three cases. Bone 2004;35:892; Shumakov VI, Onishchenko NA, Rasulov MF, Krasheninnikov ME, Zaidenov VA. Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells more effectively stimulate regeneration of deep burn wounds than embryonic fibroblasts. Bull Exp Biol Med 2003;136:192; Bruder SP, Fink DJ, Caplan AI. Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy. J Cell Biochem 1994;56:283.). The osteogenic potential of these cells is of particular interest, given their recent usage for the closure of critical-sized bone defects and other nonhealing bone scenarios such as a nonunion. Recent literature suggests that inflammatory cytokines can significantly impact the osteogenic potential of these cells. A review of relevant, recent literature is presented regarding the impact of the inflammatory cascade on the osteogenic differentiation of these cells and how this varies across species. Finally, we identify areas of conflicting or absent evidence regarding the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells in response to inflammatory cytokines.

  13. Selective Delivery of PEGylated Compounds to Tumor Cells by Anti-PEG Hybrid Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tung, Hsin-Yi; Su, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Bing-Mae; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Huang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Yan, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to many peptides, proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to reduce their immunogenicity and improve their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Here, we describe hybrid antibodies that can selectively deliver PEGylated medicines, imaging agents, or nanomedicines to target cells. Human IgG1 hybrid antibodies αPEG:αHER2 and αPEG:αCD19 were shown by ELISA, FACS, and plasmon resonance to bind to both PEG and HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 breast adenocarcinoma and BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells or CD19 receptors on Ramos and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. In addition, αPEG:αHER2 specifically targeted PEGylated proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells that overexpressed HER2, but not to HER2-negative MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles into SK-BR-3 cells was induced specifically by the αPEG:αHER2 hybrid antibody, as observed by confocal imaging of the accumulation of Qdots inside SK-BR-3 cells. Treatment of HER2(+) SK-BR-3 and BT-474 cancer cells with αPEG:αHER2 and the clinically used chemotherapeutic agent PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin for 3 hours enhanced the in vitro effectiveness of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by over two orders of magnitude. Hybrid anti-PEG antibodies offer a versatile and simple method to deliver PEGylated compounds to cellular locations and can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PEGylated medicines. PMID:25852063

  14. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  15. Assessment of selected water-quality and biological data collected in the Wichita River basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    2000-01-01

    The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this basin generally is of poor quality—dissolved solids concentrations vary from slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) to very saline (10,000 to 35,000 mg/L).

  16. Effects of surface roughening on the mass transport and mechanical properties of ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Longfei; Asaka, Kinji; Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2014-06-01

    Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) has been well-documented of being a promising functional material in extensive applications. In its most popular and traditional manufacturing technique, roughening is a key process to ensure a satisfying performance. In this paper, based on a lately established multi-physical model, the effect of roughening process on the inner mass transportation and the electro-active output of IPMC were investigated. In the model, the electro-chemical field was monitored by Poisson equation and a properly simplified Nernst-Planck equation set, while the mechanical field was evaluated on the basis of volume strain effect. Furthermore, with Ramo-Shockley theorem, the out-circuit current and accumulated charge on the electrode were bridged with the inner cation distribution. Besides, nominal current and charge density as well as the curvature of the deformation were evaluated to characterize the performance of IPMC. The simulation was implemented by Finite Element Method with Comsol Multi-physics, based on two groups of geometrical models, those with various rough interface and those with different thickness. The results of how the roughening impact influences on the performance of IPMC were discussed progressively in three aspects, steady-state distribution of local potential and mass concentration, current response and charge accumulation, as well as the curvature of deformation. Detailed explanations for the performance improvement resulted from surface roughening were provided from the micro-distribution point of view, which can be further explored for the process optimization of IPMC.

  17. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O’Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  18. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in B-cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, D; Li, W; Zhang, L; Qian, H; Yao, S; Qi, X

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin superfamily that has been reported to be involved in a number of neurological and psychological situations. Recently, high expression level of BDNF is observed in diverse human malignancies, delineating a role of BDNF in tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, its effect on B-cell lymphoma remains unclear. In this study, RNA interference technology mediated by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was performed to inhibit endogenous BDNF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells. Results showed that knockdown of BDNF reduced cell growth and proliferation of Raji and Ramos cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of BDNF induced a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Raji cells, and consequently led to cell apoptosis in vitro. Meanwhile, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed in Raji cells when endogenous BDNF was inhibited. Besides, we also found that suppression of BDNF in Raji cells increased their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Our research provides a promising therapeutic strategy for human B-cell lymphoma by targeting BDNF.

  19. Adalimumab (TNF α Inhibitor) Therapy Exacerbates IgA Glomerulonephritis Acute Renal Injury and Induces Lupus Autoantibodies in a Psoriasis Patient.

    PubMed

    Wei, S S; Sinniah, R

    2013-01-01

    Adalimumab (Humira) is a tumour necrosis factor α (TNF α ) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Sullivan and Preda (2009), Klinkhoff (2004), and Medicare Australia). Use of TNF α inhibitors is associated with the induction of autoimmunity (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like granulomas) (Ramos-Casals et al. (2010)). We report a patient with extensive psoriasis presenting with renal failure and seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis after 18 months treatment with adalimumab. He has renal biopsy proven IgA nephritis instead. Renal biopsy is the key diagnostic tool in patients presenting with adalimumab induced nephritis and renal failure. He made a remarkable recovery after adalimumab cessation and steroid treatment. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a psoriasis patient presenting with seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis renal failure and had renal biopsy proven IgA glomerulonephritis after receiving adalimumab.

  20. Two splice variants of Golgi-microtubule-associated protein of 210 kDa (GMAP-210) differ in their binding to the cis-Golgi network.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Morales, F; Vime, C; Bornens, M; Fedriani, C; Rios, R M

    2001-01-01

    GMAP-210 (Golgi-microtubule-associated protein of 210 kDa) is a peripheral Golgi protein that interacts with the minus end of microtubules through its C-terminus and with cis-Golgi network membranes through its N-terminus; it participates in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the Golgi apparatus [Infante, Ramos-Morales, Fedriani, Bornens and Rios (1999) J. Cell Biol. 145, 83--98]. We report here the cloning of a new isoform of GMAP-210 that lacks amino acid residues 105--196. On the basis of the analysis of the gmap-210 genomic sequence, we propose that the small isoform, GMAP-200, arises from alternative splicing of exon 4 of the primary transcript. Overexpression of GMAP-200 induces perturbations in both the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule network that are similar to those previously reported for GMAP-210 overexpression. We show that both isoforms are able to oligomerize under overexpression conditions. Analysis in vitro and in vivo, with the green fluorescent protein as a marker, reveals that the binding of the N-terminal domain of GMAP-200 to the cis-Golgi network membranes is lower than that of the N-terminal domain of GMAP-210. Implications for the regulation of interaction between the cis-Golgi network and microtubules are discussed. PMID:11463340

  1. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  2. Differential expression of a novel protein kinase in human B lymphocytes. Preferential localization in the germinal center.

    PubMed

    Katz, P; Whalen, G; Kehrl, J H

    1994-06-17

    B lymphocytes which reside in the germinal center region of lymphoid follicles are functionally and phenotypically distinct from the surrounding mantle zone B cells. We have isolated cDNA clones for several genes that are differentially expressed between these two populations of B lymphocytes. One such gene, BL44, is preferentially expressed in germinal center B cells. The nucleotide sequence of a 2,874-base pair BL44 cDNA was determined and a 2,451-bp open reading frame found that encodes for a 97-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase referred to as GC kinase. It has an NH2-terminal catalytic domain most similar to that of the Drosophila NinaC protein and the yeast STE20 protein. GC kinase mRNA transcripts are not unique to germinal center B cells and are found in several other tissues, including brain, lung, and placenta. The GC kinase protein was immunoprecipitated from transfected COS cells and from the Burkitt cell line RAMOS. GC kinase immunoprecipitated from transfected COS cells phosphorylated the substrates casein and myelin basic protein. In addition, a 97-kDa phosphoprotein likely to be GC kinase itself was detected. GC kinase may participate in an important signal transduction pathway in germinal center B cells.

  3. The HB22.7-vcMMAE antibody-drug conjugate has efficacy against non-Hodgkin lymphoma mouse xenografts with minimal systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abuhay, Mastewal; Kato, Jason; Tuscano, Emily; Barisone, Gustavo A; Sidhu, Ranjit S; O'Donnell, Robert T; Tuscano, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, HB22.7, an anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, was used for specific, targeted delivery of monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). MMAE was covalently coupled to HB22.7 through a valine-citrulline peptide linker (vc). Maleimide-functionalized vcMMAE (mal-vcMMAE) was reacted with thiols of the partially reduced mAb. Approximately 4 molecules of MMAE were conjugated to HB22.7 as determined by residual thiol measurement and hydrophobic interaction chromatography-HPLC (HIC-HPLC). HB22.7-vcMMAE antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) retained its binding to Ramos NHL cells and also exhibited potent and specific in vitro cytotoxicity on a panel of B cell NHL cell lines with IC50s of 20-284 ng/ml. HB22.7-vcMMAE also showed potent efficacy in vivo against established NHL xenografts using the DoHH2 and Granta 519 cell lines. One dose of the ADC induced complete and persistent response in all DoHH2 xenografts and 90 % of Granta xenografts. Minimal toxicity was observed. In summary, HB22.7-vcMMAE is an effective ADC that should be evaluated for clinical translation. PMID:27506529

  4. In-situ laser synthesis of rare earth aluminate coatings in the system Ln-Al-O ( Ln = Y, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Francisco, I.; Lennikov, V. V.; Bea, J. A.; Vegas, A.; Carda, J. B.; de la Fuente, G. F.

    2011-09-01

    Laser zone melting (LZM) was employed in this work to prepare Ln-Al-O coatings on polycrystalline Al 2O 3 substrates, using the corresponding mixtures of powdered rare-earth oxides and Al 2O 3 as starting materials. In-situ synthesis of the compounds Ln = Y, Gd was performed using a CO 2 laser, emitting at 10.6 μm. Microstructure (SEM) and phase nature (XRD) demonstrated in-situ formation of Al 2O 3/Y 3Al 5O 12(YAG) and Al 2O 3/GdAlO 3(GAP) eutectic systems. The interaction with the substrate resulted in mechanically stable, well integrated 200-500 μm thick composite coatings, as observed in nanoindentation tests. The phase relations found in these materials are consistent with the crystallographic concepts advanced by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, J. Solid State Chem. 128 (1997) 69), where cation sub-arrays are proposed to play an important role in governing metal oxide structures. These sub-arrays are suggested as the structural drive behind eutectic oxide formation. LZM proves to be a convenient method to investigate the behaviour of complex oxide systems at high temperature, to apply a rational concept towards the understanding of phase relations and to develop design criteria for oxide coatings.

  5. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  6. Development of a simplified simulation model for performance characterization of a pixellated CdZnTe multimodality imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    Current requirements of molecular imaging lead to the complete integration of complementary modalities in a single hybrid imaging system to correlate function and structure. Among the various existing detector technologies, which can be implemented to integrate nuclear modalities (PET and/or single-photon emission computed tomography with x-rays (CT) and most probably with MR, pixellated wide bandgap room temperature semiconductor detectors, such as CdZnTe and/or CdTe, are promising candidates. This paper deals with the development of a simplified simulation model for pixellated semiconductor radiation detectors, as a first step towards the performance characterization of a multimodality imaging system based on CdZnTe. In particular, this work presents a simple computational model, based on a 1D approximate solution of the Schockley-Ramo theorem, and its integration into the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) platform in order to perform accurately and, therefore, improve the simulations of pixellated detectors in different configurations with a simultaneous cathode and anode pixel readout. The model presented here is successfully validated against an existing detailed finite element simulator, the multi-geometry simulation code, with respect to the charge induced at the anode, taking into consideration interpixel charge sharing and crosstalk, and to the detector charge induction efficiency. As a final point, the model provides estimated energy spectra and time resolution for 57Co and 18F sources obtained with the GATE code after the incorporation of the proposed model.

  7. Development of a simplified simulation model for performance characterization of a pixellated CdZnTe multimodality imaging system.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Santos, A; Darambara, D G

    2008-02-21

    Current requirements of molecular imaging lead to the complete integration of complementary modalities in a single hybrid imaging system to correlate function and structure. Among the various existing detector technologies, which can be implemented to integrate nuclear modalities (PET and/or single-photon emission computed tomography with x-rays (CT) and most probably with MR, pixellated wide bandgap room temperature semiconductor detectors, such as CdZnTe and/or CdTe, are promising candidates. This paper deals with the development of a simplified simulation model for pixellated semiconductor radiation detectors, as a first step towards the performance characterization of a multimodality imaging system based on CdZnTe. In particular, this work presents a simple computational model, based on a 1D approximate solution of the Schockley-Ramo theorem, and its integration into the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) platform in order to perform accurately and, therefore, improve the simulations of pixellated detectors in different configurations with a simultaneous cathode and anode pixel readout. The model presented here is successfully validated against an existing detailed finite element simulator, the multi-geometry simulation code, with respect to the charge induced at the anode, taking into consideration interpixel charge sharing and crosstalk, and to the detector charge induction efficiency. As a final point, the model provides estimated energy spectra and time resolution for (57)Co and (18)F sources obtained with the GATE code after the incorporation of the proposed model. PMID:18263961

  8. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  9. Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas from the Cincinnati, Ohio area

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of pelecypod faunas in the Late Ordovician strata exposed in the Cincinnati, Ohio area, points to a close relationship between lithofacies type and the life habits of these Ordovician bivalves. Muddy clastic shallow marine facies of Edenian, Maysvillian, and early Richmondian age support faunas dominated by endobyssate filter-feeding species, including a variety of modiomorphids and the genus Ambonychia, plus infaunal filter-feeding orthonotids, and in faunal deposit-feeding palaeotaxodonts. These pelecypod groups occur in claystones with a fauna of calymenid and asaphid trilobites, nautiloids, cyclomyan monoplacophorans, and occasionally crinoids and asterozoans. Younger Richmondian strata in the area are predominantly carbonate platform facies and support pelecypod faunas dominated by robust endobyssate and epibyssate ambonychiids, cyrtodontids, and colpomyids. These pelecypods are associated with diverse assemblage of articulate brachiopods, trepostome ectoprocts, solitary rugose corals, and mollusks in skeletal limestones representing storm-reworked thickets or ramos ectoprocts. This fundamental dichotomy in Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas is recognized not only in the Cincinnati area, but in Late Ordovician strata exposed on Manitoulin Island in Ontario and eastward into Quebec. Reconstructions of the life habits of these pelecypods demonstrates the dominance of the endobyssate mode of life in these Early Paleozoic pelecypods.

  10. Studies on charge collection and transport properties on semi-insulating materials in the presence of a non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanichelli, Massimiliano; Pavesi, Maura; Marchini, Laura; Zappettini, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    II-VI semiconductors obtain a real interest in the scientific community for their wide applications in several fields: from optoelectronic and solar cell technology to applications as radiation detectors. The charge collection efficiency (C.C.E.) - i.e. the ratio between the photo-generated charge and the charge collected by the electrodes - is closely related both to the material transport properties and to the internal electric field. It could be exploited to study the transport parameters of these materials and the electric field profile inside the devices under irradiation. Under opportune conditions, C.C.E., as a function of applied bias, should follow Hecht or Many's equation, depending on the penetration length of incident radiation. A central requirement in both these models is a uniform internal electric field but in real devices this condition is seldom satisfied due to the presence of spatial charge, as demonstrated by Pockels measurements and bad photocurrent curve fitting. The authors, starting from the Ramo-Shockley theorem and assuming a linear shape of the electric field, present a new model to describe the C.C.E. as a function of applied bias, with the mobility life-time product μτ and the field slope as parameters. This model, with respect to the previous ones, gives information also about the internal electric field profile and, despite its simplicity, it seems to be a good approximation in several cases, as shown by the experimental analyses reported here.

  11. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    literature. They include indices as the Karst Disturbance Index (van Beynen & Townsend, 2005; North et al., 2009), the Karst Sustainibility Index (van Beynen et al., 2012), as well as indices defined for protected areas (Angulo et al., 2013), and for single caves, including those open to tourists (Cigna & Forti, 1988; de Freitas, 2010; Pani & Cigna, 2013; Ramos Donato et al., 2014; Trofimova, 2014). Each index will be critically reviewed, and its main aim(s) and scales of application (national, regional, protected karst area, show cave, single cave, etc.) described, by analyzing their practical implementation, and pointing out to the problems and difficulties, as well as to their advantages. References Angulo B., Morales T., Uriarte J.A. & Antigüedad I., 2013, Implementing a comprehensive approach for evaluating significance and disturbance in protected karst areas to guide management strategies. J. Environ. Management, 130, 386-96. Cigna A.A. & Forti P., 1988. The environmental impact assessment of a tourist cave. Proc. Int. Symp. 170th Anniv. Postojnska Jama, 29-38. de Freitas C.R., 2010, The role and importance of cave microclimate in the sustainable use and management of show caves. Acta Carsologica, 39 (3), 477-489. North L.A., van Beynen P.E. & Parise M., 2009, Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: West-central Florida and southeast Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 90 (5), 1770-1781. Pani D. & Cigna A.A., 2013, The paradox of cave mine conservation. In: De Waele J., Forti P. & Naseddu A. (eds.), Mine Caves. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, ser. II, 28, 247-262. Ramos Donato C., de Souza Ribeiro A. & de Sousa Souto L., 2014, A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments. International Journal of Speleology, 43 (3), 315-322. Trofimova E.V., 2014, A new approach to the assessment of cave environmental changes (as exemplified by caves in the Muradimovskoe Uschelie Natural Park). Geographia

  12. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To

  13. Middle and Late Holocene climate in the tropics : contribution of a high-resolution palynological and geochemical record in northwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Uribe, P.; Jojoa, M.; Velásquez, C.; Gorin, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Records of climate change in the tropics are particularly important because it is where major thermal energy interchanges take place between oceans and atmosphere. Climate events like the ENSO and ITCZ are associated with the tropics, but influence the global climate. High-resolution data are needed to look for their potential signature in the Holocene. Among all the paleoclimate proxies in the continental realm, palynology has been used extensively in the Holocene to study climatically-induced environmental changes. The high-altitude wet zones (ca. 3’500 m amsl) of the Páramo de Frontino in the northwestern termination of the Colombian Andes are strategically exposed to influences from both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In the studied wet zone, a ca. 7 m thick, continuous, sedimentary record spanning the last 9’000 years has been cored and studied by palynology and X-ray fluorescence. Palynological data with a time-resolution of less than 50 years provide information on the vertical migration of vegetation belts, indicative of climate variations. The geochemical signature of cored sediments derived from X-ray fluorescence is another potential proxy for climatically-induced environmental parameters, essentially related to pluviosity, erosion rates in the drainage basin and variations of the water table in the wet zone. Palynological data from the Páramo de Frontino document vegetation changes and related variations in temperature and humidity in the northern part of the Western Cordillera over the last 9’000 years. The upper part of the Early Holocene is warm and dry. A major change occurs at the transition between Early and Middle Holocene with the onset of a very humid and less warm climate during the Middle Holocene. The Middle Holocene climatic optimum is not observed in the Western Cordillera, which records much higher humidity than in the Central and Eastern cordilleras. Many fluctuations in temperature and humidity occurred during the Late

  14. Changes in circulation type frequencies for present and future climates - the case of Northwestern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gimeno, L.

    2010-05-01

    Circulation types are associated with surface climatic variables, like precipitation or temperature. Because of these links, the circulation types can also be a useful tool not only to validate the control simulations of the coupled general circulation models (CGCM) but also to analyze changes in the circulation patterns under future climate change scenarios. In this study, the circulation type used was an automated version of the Lamb weather types adopted with success for the NW Iberian Peninsula in 2008 by Lorenzo et al and using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Mean seasonal circulation type frequencies for the period 1948-2008 were also computed. Linear trends were analyzed taking into account not only all period of analysis but also for two sub-periods (1948-1975 and 1976-2008); these two sub-periods are coincident with a general change in circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (Trenberth, 1990; Ramos et al, 2009). The Mann-Kendall test was applied to analyze the trends' significance. We have also studied changes in WT frequency in future climate change scenarios based on the output runs of several GCMs used for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The chosen models were the IPSL-CM4; the ECHAM5/MPI-OM and the CCSM3 motivated by the availability of the daily data. To do so, we have used Sea Level Pressure (SLP) data from different forcing simulations corresponding to three emission scenarios representing low (B1), medium (A1B) and high (A2) concentration of CO2 and from a 20th century control simulation. The difference between the seasonal mean SLP fields of three models and the reanalysis are computed in order to evaluate the ability of the models to reproduce the present climate. Since our WT classification (Lorenzo et al, 2008) is sensitive to the SLP fields, the circulation types for each model were computed by removing the correspondent systematic seasonal errors observed in the SLP fields of each model. The comparison between seasonal frequency of circulation

  15. Historical Shoreline Changes at Rincon, Puerto Rico, 1936-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Rodriguez, Rafael W.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.

    2007-01-01

    The coast from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena in Rincon, Puerto Rico is experiencing long-term erosion. This study documents historical shoreline changes at Rincon for the period 1936-2006 and constitutes a significant expansion and revision of previous work. The study area extends approximately 8 km from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena. Fourteen historical shoreline positions were compiled from existing data, new orthophotography, and Global Positioning System (GPS) field surveys. The study area can be divided into four distinct reaches on the basis of observed erosion rates, consistent with previous work. The coast of Reach A, from Punta Higuero to the north end of the Balneario de Rincon, is fairly stable and has a long-term (70 years) average erosion rate of -0.2 ? 0.1 m/yr. The coast of Reach B, from the Balneario de Rincon to 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos, has an average long-term erosion rate of -1.1 ? 0.3 m/yr. The coast of Reach C, from 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos to Corcega, has an average long-term erosion rate of -0.4 ? 0.2 m/yr. The coast of Reach D, from Corcega to Punta Cadena, has an average long-term change rate of -0.2 ? 0.2 m/yr. Previous work (Thieler and others, 1995) identified an apparent increase in erosion rate in Reach B that probably began between 1977 and 1987. New data and statistical analysis suggest that long-term and short-term rates of shoreline change are statistically similar. Nevertheless, the coast in Reach B is eroding at a rapid and statistically significant rate that is 2 to 10 times greater than in the other three reaches. Comparison of the 1994 and 2006 GPS shoreline positions indicates the following erosion rates occurred over the past 12 years: Reach A, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach B, -1.0 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach C, -0.7 ? 0.4 m/yr; and Reach D, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr. Thieler and others (1995) speculated that the increased erosion rate in Reach B could be attributed to the effects of marina construction in

  16. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  17. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    characterized in each region by high/low quality wines. Finally, we also investigated how climate variability is related to DOC wine quality for different regions using North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Results reveal a strong dependence of wine quality for all regions on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season) as expected. However the role of temperature on wine quality seems to be distinct among the diverse regions probably due to their different climate zoning. Moreover, it is shown that the differences associated with high/low quality wine are in agreement with different synoptic fields patterns. Our results suggest that this type of analysis may be used in developing a tool that may help anticipating a vintage/high quality year, based on already available seasonal climate outlooks. Santo F.E., de Lima M.I.P., Ramos A.M., Trigo R.M., Trends in seasonal surface air temperature in mainland Portugal, since 1941, International Journal Climatolology, 34: 1814-1837, doi: 10.1002/joc.3803 (2014) de Lima M.I.P., Santo F.E., Ramos A.M. , Trigo, R.M., Trends and correlations in annual extreme precipitation indices for mainland Portugal, 1941-2007, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-013-1079-6 (2014) Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  18. Ability of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to overcome interacting stresses in tropical environments

    PubMed Central

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Single stressors such as scarcity of water and extreme temperatures dominate the struggle for life in severely dry desert ecosystems or cold polar regions and at high elevations. In contrast, stress in the tropics typically arises from a dynamic network of interacting stressors, such as availability of water, CO2, light and nutrients, temperature and salinity. This requires more plastic spatio-temporal responsiveness and versatility in the acquisition and defence of ecological niches. Crassulacean acid metabolism The mode of photosynthesis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is described and its flexible expression endows plants with powerful strategies for both acclimation and adaptation. Thus, CAM plants are able to inhabit many diverse habitats in the tropics and are not, as commonly thought, successful predominantly in dry, high-insolation habitats. Tropical CAM habitats Typical tropical CAM habitats or ecosystems include exposed lava fields, rock outcrops of inselbergs, salinas, savannas, restingas, high-altitude páramos, dry forests and moist forests. Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM phenotypes allow a wide ecophysiological amplitude of niche occupation in the tropics. Physiological and biochemical plasticity appear more responsive by having more readily reversible variations in performance than do morphological adaptations. This makes CAM plants particularly fit for the multi-factor stressor networks of tropical forests. Thus, while the physiognomy of semi-deserts outside the tropics is often determined by tall succulent CAM plants, tropical forests house many more CAM plants in terms of quantity (biomass) and quality (species diversity). PMID:22476063

  19. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Knockout of Kaiso results in concordant high expression of Bcl6 and c-Myc in spleen. •Kaiso binds the Bcl6 promoter and represses Bcl6 transcription by recruiting NCoR. •Upregulated Bcl6 increases splenocyte proliferation and causes large diffused GC. •Cell cycle-inhibition genes such as Cdkn1b and Cdkn1a are repressed by Bcl6. -- Abstract: Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  20. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Induces Tumoricidal Effects on Lymphoma Cells Through Hydrogen Peroxide Mediation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao Daniel; Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Bongso, Ariff

    2016-09-01

    Several groups have reported that human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) possess unique tumoricidal properties against many cancers. However, the exact mechanisms as to how hWJSCs inhibit tumor growth are not known. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of cancer cells to high hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels from H2 O2 -releasing drugs causes their death. We therefore explored whether the tumoricidal effect of hWJSCs on lymphoma cells was mediated via H2 O2 . We first exposed lymphoma cells to six different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) concentrates of hWJSC-conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) (3, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 kDa) for 48 h. Since, the 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate showed the greatest cell inhibition we then investigated whether the tumoricidal effect of the specific 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate on two different lymphoma cell lines (Ramos and Toledo) was mediated via accumulation of H2 O2 . We used a battery of assays (MTT, propidium iodide, mitochondria membrane potential, apoptosis, cell cycle, oxidative stress enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation) to test this mechanism. The hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate significantly decreased cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell death and apoptosis in both lymphoma cell lines. There were significant increases in superoxide dismutase with concomitant decreases in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and thioredoxin peroxidase activities. H2 O2 levels, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation were also significantly increased in both lymphoma cell lines. The results suggested that the hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate regulates cellular H2 O2 leading to a tumoricidal effect and may thus be a promising anti-lymphoma agent. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2045-2055, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27392313

  1. Upper-mantle seismic structure beneath SE and Central Brazil from P- and S-wave regional traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Schimmel, Martin; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We present models for the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath SE and Central Brazil using independent tomographic inversions of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals (including core phases) from teleseismic earthquakes. The events were recorded by a total of 92 stations deployed through different projects, institutions and time periods during the years 1992-2004. Our results show correlations with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. All interpretations are based on robust anomalies, which appear in the different inversions for P- and S-waves. The resolution is variable through our study volume and has been analyzed through different theoretical test inversions. High-velocity anomalies are observed in the western portion of the São Francisco Craton, supporting the hypothesis that this Craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate (San Franciscan Plate). Low-velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning, which is consistent with the good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low-velocity anomalies in this region. Our results show that the basement of the Paraná Basin is formed by several blocks, separated by suture zones, according to model of Milani & Ramos. The slab of the Nazca Plate can be observed as a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Paraná Basin, between the depths of 700 and 1200 km. Further, we confirm the low-velocity anomaly in the NE area of the Paraná Basin which has been interpreted by VanDecar et al. as a fossil conduct of the Tristan da Cunha Plume related to the Paraná flood basalt eruptions during the opening of the South Atlantic.

  2. Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

    2008-05-01

    A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe” is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades” by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets” with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

  3. Drought assessment in the Duero basin (Central Spain) by means of multivariate extreme value statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallache, M.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts cause important losses. On the Iberian Peninsula, for example, non-irrigated agriculture and the tourism sector are affected in regular intervals. The goal of this study is the description of droughts and their dependence in the Duero basin in Central Spain. To do so, daily or monthly precipitation data is used. Here cumulative precipitation deficits below a threshold define meteorological droughts. This drought indicator is similar to the commonly used standard precipitation index. However, here the focus lies on the modeling of severe droughts, which is done by applying multivariate extreme value theory (MEVT) to model extreme drought events. Data from several stations are assessed jointly, thus the uncertainty of the results is reduced. Droughts are a complex phenomenon, their severity, spatial extension and duration has to be taken into account. Our approach captures severity and spatial extension. In general we find a high correlation between deficit volumes and drought duration, thus the duration is not explicitely modeled. We apply a MEVT model with asymmetric logistic dependence function, which is capable to model asymptotic dependence and independence (cf. Ramos and Ledford, 2009). To summarize the information on the dependence in the joint tail of the extreme drought events, we utilise the fragility index (Geluk et al., 2007). Results show that droughts also occur frequently in winter. Moreover, it is very common for one site to suffer dry conditions, whilst neighboring areas experience normal or even humid conditions. Interpolation is thus difficult. Bivariate extremal dependence is present in the data. However, most stations are at least asymptotically independent. The according fragility indices are important information for risk calculations. The emerging spatial patterns for bivariate dependence are mostly influenced by topography. When looking at the dependence between more than two stations, it shows that joint extremes can occur more

  4. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata, Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  5. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  6. Effects of mTOR and calcineurin inhibitors combined therapy in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wowro, Sylvia J; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Tong, Giang; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a severe complication in solid organ transplant recipients, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in pediatric patients and occasionally presents as Burkitt- or Burkitt-like lymphoma. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been described as a possible antitumor target whose inhibition may influence lymphoma development and proliferation after pediatric transplantation. We treated Epstein-Barr virus positive (Raji and Daudi) and negative (Ramos) human Burkitt lymphoma derived cells with mTOR inhibitor everolimus alone and in combination with clinically relevant immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin A). Cell proliferation, toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolic activity were analyzed. The effect on mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets p70 S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, and S6 ribosomal protein activation was also investigated. We observed that treatment with everolimus alone significantly decreased Burkitt lymphoma cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin A had a stronger suppressive effect in Epstein-Barr virus negative but not in Epstein-Barr virus positive cells. In contrast, tacrolimus completely abolished the everolimus-mediated suppressive effects. Moreover, we showed a significant decrease in activation of mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets after treatment with everolimus that was attenuated when combined with tacrolimus, but not with cyclosporin A. For the first time we showed the competitive effect between everolimus and tacrolimus when used as combination therapy on Burkitt lymphoma derived cells. Thus, according to our in vitro data, the combination of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A with everolimus is preferred to the combination of tacrolimus and everolimus. PMID:26613512

  7. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  8. Field-controlled spin-density-wave order and quantum critically in Sr3 Ru2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Stephen

    The quasi-2D metamagnetic perovskite metal Sr3Ru2O7 has been an enigma for the last decade. The application of a large magnetic field of 8T parallel to the c-axis creates a new phase at low temperatures. This phase shows ``electronic nematic'' properties in that strong anisotropy its resistivity can be created by tilting the field away from the c-axis. In addition, measurement of transport and thermodynamic properties suggest that the phase is at the centre of a quantum critical region. Here we use neutron scattering to show that the magnetic field actually induces spin-density-wave magnetic order in the proximity of a metamagnetic critical endpoint. In fact, Sr3Ru2O7 can be tuned through two magnetically-ordered SDW states which exist over relatively small ranges in field (< 0.4 T). Their origin is probably due to the electronic fine structure near the Fermi energy. The magnetic field direction is shown to control the SDW domain populations which naturally explains the strong resistivity anisotropy or ''electronic nematic'' behaviour observed in this material. We find that Sr3Ru2O7 is also unique in that its the quantum critical region is controlled by overdamped incommensurate low-energy spin fluctuations with a diverging relaxation time. The low-energy electronic properties reflect the presence of these fluctuations and, in particular, the field-dependent low-temperature specific heat is proportional to the spin relaxation rate. [Based on C. Lester, S. Ramos, R. S. Perry at el. Natural Materials 14, 373 (2015).

  9. Tunneling splitting in double-proton transfer: Direct diagonalization results for porphycene

    SciTech Connect

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-11-07

    Zero-point and excited level splittings due to double-proton tunneling are calculated for porphycene and the results are compared with experiment. The calculation makes use of a multidimensional imaginary-mode Hamiltonian, diagonalized directly by an effective reduction of its dimensionality. Porphycene has a complex potential energy surface with nine stationary configurations that allow a variety of tunneling paths, many of which include classically accessible regions. A symmetry-based approach is used to show that the zero-point level, although located above the cis minimum, corresponds to concerted tunneling along a direct trans − trans path; a corresponding cis − cis path is predicted at higher energy. This supports the conclusion of a previous paper [Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174513 (2007)] based on the instanton approach to a model Hamiltonian of correlated double-proton transfer. A multidimensional tunneling Hamiltonian is then generated, based on a double-minimum potential along the coordinate of concerted proton motion, which is newly evaluated at the RI-CC2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. To make it suitable for diagonalization, its dimensionality is reduced by treating fast weakly coupled modes in the adiabatic approximation. This results in a coordinate-dependent mass of tunneling, which is included in a unique Hermitian form into the kinetic energy operator. The reduced Hamiltonian contains three symmetric and one antisymmetric mode coupled to the tunneling mode and is diagonalized by a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm implemented in the Jadamilu software for sparse matrices. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the observed splitting of the zero-point level and several vibrational fundamentals after a partial reassignment, imposed by recently derived selection rules. They also agree well with instanton calculations based on the same Hamiltonian.

  10. The interaction between parent material, climate and volcanism as the major soil forming factor in the Ecuadorian high Andes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Duyck, H.; Dercon, G.; Deckers, J.; Wyseure, G.

    2003-04-01

    The high Andes region of Ecuador and Colombia (>3500m a.s.l.) is covered by the so-called páramo ecosystem, characterised by a cold climate, a typical grass or small shrub vegetation and volcanic soils. Soil profiles of the paramo in the Austro Ecuatoriano, South Ecuador, were studied in order to reveal genetic relationships with geology, volcanic ash deposits, climate and land use. A gradual diminuation of Andic properties was found, related to the distance of the pedon to the active volcanoes of the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Pedons in the north of the region, closer to these volcanoes (Sangay, Tungurahua) are classified as non-allophanic Histic Andosols. The influence of the vicinity of the volcanoes leads to a higher oxalate extractable aluminium and iron. The genesis of the Andosols seems to be strongly related to the presence and thickness of volcanic ash depositions. The limit of these depositions is situated south of the city of Cuenca. Pedons further to the south are classified as Histosols. However, they also have clear Andic properties. Several differences in chemical properties between the Western and Eastern cordilleras where found, that are most probable related with a difference in mother material, and maybe also a different climatic regime. Correlation of the chemical properties with land use reveals that no chemical differences can be found that are invoked by occupying natural Andosols for agricultural purposes, within the first five years of cultivation. At last, the conclusions were used to revisit the World Reference Base for Soil Resources in order to sharpen up differenciation between Andosols and Histosols.

  11. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: which method is the most efficient?

    PubMed

    Maunoury, L; Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Dubois, M; Dupuis, M; Frigot, R; Grinyer, J; Jardin, P; Leboucher, C; Lamy, T

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well. PMID:24593427

  12. Improvement and scale-down of a Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol to microtiter plates enables high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Kruithof, Paulien; Meier, Kristina; Sieben, Michaela; Antonov, Elena; Hommes, Ronald W J; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, high-throughput screening is essential for determining the best microbial strains and fermentation conditions. Although microtiter plates allow higher throughput in screening than shake flasks, they do not guarantee sufficient oxygen supply if operated at unsuitable conditions. This is especially the case in viscous fermentations, potentially leading to poor liquid movement and surface growth. Therefore, in this study, two aims were pursued. First, an industrial Trichoderma reesei shake flask protocol is improved with respect to oxygen supply and production. Second, this improved shake flask protocol is scaled down into microtiter plate under consideration of similar oxygen supply. For this purpose, the respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) was applied. An approach based on a sulfite system was introduced to ensure equal maximum oxygen transfer capacities (OTRmax) in microtiter plates and shake flasks. OTRmax-values of 250 mL shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates were determined in a wide range of operating conditions. These sulfite datasets were used to identify operating conditions leading to the same oxygen supply for T. reesei in shake flasks and 24-well microtiter plates. For 24-well microtiter plates, the shake flask OTRmax of 20 mmol/L/h of an industrial protocol was obtained under the following optimal operating conditions: 1 mL filling volume per well, 200 rpm shaking frequency and 50 mm shaking diameter. With these conditions almost identical oxygen transfer rates and product concentrations were measured in both scales. The proposed approach is a fast and accurate means to scale-down established screening procedures into microtiter plates to achieve high-throughput.

  13. The application of utility analysis processes to estimate the impact of training for nuclear maintenance personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Groppel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test two utility analysis models, the Cascio-Ramos Estimate of Performance in Dollars (CREPID) model and Godkewitsch financial utility analysis model and to determine their appropriateness as tools for evaluating training. This study was conducted in conjunction with Philadelphia Electric Company's Nuclear Training Group. Job performance of nuclear maintenance workers was assessed to document the impact of the training program. Assessment of job performance covered six job performance themes. Additionally, front-line nuclear maintenance supervisors were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the nuclear maintenance training. A comparison of supervisor's perceptions and outcomes of the utility analysis models was made to determine the appropriateness of utility analysis as quantitative tools for evaluating the nuclear maintenance training program. Application of the CREPID utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training through utility analysis was $5,843,750 which represented only four of the job performance themes. Application of the Godkewitsch utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training was $3,083,845 which represented all six performance themes. A comparison of the outcomes indicated a sizeable difference between the dollar values produced by the models. Supervisors indicated training resulted in improved productivity, i.e., improved efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, supervisors believed training was valuable because it provided nonmonetary benefits, e.g., improved self-esteem and confidence. The application of utility analysis addressed only monetary benefits of training. The variation evidenced by the difference in the outcome of the two models suggests that utility analysis [open quotes]estimates[close quotes] may not accurately reflect the impact of training.

  14. Battle of the bedroom.

    PubMed

    1992-08-21

    The Philippine government's position on aggressive population management is in conflict with the Catholic Church's opposition to artificial means of birth control, particularly sterilization. The Episcopal Commission for Family Life plans to increase its campaign against contraception at their local level. The government effort through the Department of health will provide access to contraception in a network of 600 hospitals and 1500 rural health units. Government support comes from 2 Protestant churches, the Church of Christ, which is the largest independent church in the Philippines, and the United Church of Christ. Leaders of both churches gave the Minister of Health letters of support which stated that family planning (FP) was necessary to curb population growth which was too high, and China and Thailand are countries which are economically better off with population planning. The government position is similar to former President Corazon Aquino's. The new President, Fidel Ramos, is a protestant and wants economic prosperity for the Philippines; part of the formula for achieving economic growth is slowing population growth. There is limited resources in a sluggish economy and the push for zero population growth can be accomplished through effective contraception. The birth rate fuels poverty is the position of Juan Flavier, Health Secretary. Annual population growth is 2.3% and family size is 4.8/couple while agricultural growth is only 1%. The ideal family size recommended is 2 children/family. The Philippine Commission on Population in its 6-year plan is hoping to obtain 200 million in foreign aid and involve a larger network of nongovernmental organizations. Choice is the key component. Women need to be convinced that birth spacing will reduce maternal and infant mortality. Flavier has reassured Cardinal Jaime Sin of the Catholic Church that Natural methods or the rhythm method would be taught. Health experts argue that the discipline and sacrifice

  15. Fc gamma receptor IIb on target B cells promotes rituximab internalization and reduces clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sean H; Vaughan, Andrew T; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Williams, Emily L; Dixon, Sandra V; Chan, H T Claude; Beers, Stephen A; French, Ruth R; Cox, Kerry L; Davies, Andrew J; Potter, Kathleen N; Mockridge, C Ian; Oscier, David G; Johnson, Peter W M; Cragg, Mark S; Glennie, Martin J

    2011-09-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb rituximab is central to the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but resistance remains a significant problem. We recently reported that resistance could be explained, in part, by internalization of rituximab (type I anti-CD20) from the surface of certain B-cell malignancies, thus limiting engagement of natural effectors and increasing mAb consumption. Internalization of rituximab was most evident in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but the extent of internalization was heterogeneous within each disease. Here, we show that the inhibitory FcγRIIb on target B cells promotes this process and is largely responsible for the observed heterogeneity across a range of B-cell malignancies. Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. Furthermore, transfection of FcγRIIb into FcγRIIb negative Ramos cells increased internalization of rituximab in a dose-dependent manner. Target-cell FcγRIIb promoted rituximab internalization in a cis fashion and was independent of FcγRIIb on neighboring cells. It became phosphorylated and internalized along with CD20:anti-CD20 complexes before lysosomal degradation. In MCL patients, high FcγRIIb expression predicted less durable responses after rituximab-containing regimens. Therefore, target-cell FcγRIIb provides a potential biomarker of response to type I anti-CD20 mAb.

  16. Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax δD in modern lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, Pratigya J.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 watersheds that span a range of precipitation D/H, vegetation types and climates. The apparent isotopic fractionation ( ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were -125 ± 5‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lake water isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands versus forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0-2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax δD measurements and independent proxies for lake water changes with regional aridity. To illustrate this approach, we employ paired plant-wax δD and carbonate-δ 18O measurements on lake sediments to estimate the isotopic composition of Miocene precipitation on the Tibetan plateau.

  17. Experimental and modeling study of the phase behavior of (methane + CO2 + water) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Al Ghafri, Saif Z S; Forte, Esther; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Rodriguez-Henríquez, José J; Trusler, J P Martin

    2014-12-11

    In this work we report phase equilibrium measurements on the system (methane + carbon dioxide + water) carried out with a high-pressure quasi-static-analytical apparatus. The measurements have been made under conditions of two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium, three-phase vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium (VLLE), and four-phase vapor-liquid-liquid-hydrate equilibrium. The compositions of three coexisting fluid phases have been obtained along eight isotherms at temperatures from (285.15 to 303.5) K and at pressures up to either the upper critical end point (UCEP) or up to the hydrate formation locus. Compositions of coexisting vapor and liquid phases have been obtained along three isotherms at temperatures from (323.15 to 423.15) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. The quadruple curve, along which hydrates coexist with the three fluid phases, was also measured along its entire length. The VLLE data obtained for this mixture have been compared with the predictions of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR), implemented with the square-well potential and using parameters fitted to pure-component and binary-mixture data. Specifically, we used the SAFT-VR parameters reported by Mı́guez and co-workers [Mı́guez, J. M.; dos Ramos, M. C.; Piñeiro, M. M.; Blas, F. J. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 9604]. The pressure along the quadruple curve was compared with the predictions of two different thermodynamic models. Furthermore, a detailed study of the ternary mixtures was carried out based on comparison with available ternary data of the type (CO2 + n-alkane + water) and available data for the constituent binary subsystems. In this way, we analyzed the observed effects on the solubility when the n-alkane component was changed or a third component was added. PMID:25406634

  18. Spatial and temporal rainfall variability in mountainous areas: A case study from the south Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Celleri, Rolando; Willems, Patrick; De Bièvre, Bert; Wyseure, Guido

    2006-10-01

    SummaryParticularly in mountain environments, rainfall can be extremely variable in space and time. For many hydrological applications such as modelling, extrapolation of point rainfall measurements is necessary. Decisions about the techniques used for extrapolation, as well as the adequacy of the conclusions drawn from the final results, depend heavily on the magnitude and the nature of the uncertainty involved. In this paper, we examine rainfall data from 14 rain gauges in the western mountain range of the Ecuadorian Andes. The rain gauges are located in the western part of the rio Paute basin. This area, between 3500 and 4100 m asl, consists of mountainous grasslands, locally called páramo, and acts as major water source for the inter-Andean valley. Spatial and temporal rainfall patterns were studied. A clear intraday pattern can be distinguished. Seasonal variation, on the other hand, is low, with a difference of about 100 mm between the dryest and the wettest month on an average of about 100 mm month -1, and only 20% dry days throughout the year. Rain gauges at a mutual distance of less than 4000 m are strongly correlated, with a Pearson correlation coefficient higher than 0.8. However, even within this perimeter, spatial variability in average rainfall is very high. Significant correlations were found between average daily rainfall and geographical location, as well as the topographical parameters slope, aspect, topography. Spatial interpolation with thiessen gives good results. Kriging gives better results than thiessen, and the accuracy of both methods improves when external trends are incorporated.

  19. Runoff Generation Mechanisms and Mean Transit Time in a High-Elevation Tropical Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding runoff generation processes in tropical mountainous regions remains poorly understood, particularly in ecosystems above the tree line. Here, we provide insights on the process dominating the ecohydrology of the tropical alpine biome (i.e., páramo) of the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory. The study site is located in south Ecuador between 3400-3900 m in elevation. We used a nested monitoring system with eight catchments (20-753 ha) to measure hydrometric data since December 2010. Biweekly samples of rainfall, streamflow, and soil water at low tension were collected for three years (May 2011-May2014) and analyzed for water stable isotopes. We conducted an isotopic characterization of rainfall, streamflow, and soil waters to investigate runoff generation. These data were also integrated into a lumped model to estimate the mean transit time (MTT) and to investigate landscape features that control its variability. The isotopic characterization evidenced that the water stored in the shallow organic horizon of the Histosol soils (Andean wetlands) located near the streams is the major contributor of water to the streams year-round, whereas the water draining through the hillslope soils, the Andosols, regulates discharge by recharging the wetlands at the valley bottoms. The MTT evaluation indicated relatively short MTTs (0.15-0.73 yr) linked to short subsurface flow paths of water. We also found evidence for topographic controls on the MTT variability. These results reveal that: 1) the ecohydrology of this ecosystem is dominated by shallow subsurface flow in the organic horizon of the soils and 2) the combination of the high storage capacity of the Andean wetlands and the slope of the catchments controls runoff generation and the high water regulation capacity of the ecosystem.

  20. Rainfall/runoff processes in a small peri-urban catchment in the Andes mountains. The Rumihurcu Quebrada, Quito (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Bouvier, C.; Janeau, J. L.; Ménez, G.; Cruz, F.

    2001-04-01

    Situated at the foot of the Pichincha volcano, the city of Quito is frequently subjected to hydroclimatic hazards. In 1995 an 11·2 km2 watershed, located in the vicinity of the city, was equipped with eight rain gauges and two flow gauges to better understand the local rainfall/runoff transformation processes. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out on more than 40 one-square-metre plots to measure infiltration point-processes. The high density of measurement devices allowed us to identify the origin and nature of the various contributions to runoff for the different physiographic units of the watershed: urban area from an altitude of 2800 to 3200 m; farmland, pasture and forested land, and finally páramo above 3900 m. Runoff occurs mainly in the lower part of the basin and is caused by urbanization; however, the natural soils of this area can also produce Hortonian runoff, which is predominant in a few events. This contribution can be studied through rainfall simulation experiments. In the upper natural zone, the younger and more permeable soils generate less runoff on the slopes. However, almost permanently saturated contributing areas, which are located in the bottom of the quebradas, may generate flood events, the size of which depends on the extent of the area concerned. Variations in the runoff coefficients are related first to the baseflow and second to the amount of rainfall in the previous 24 h. This analysis, which underlines the complexity of a small, peri-urban, volcanic catchment, is a necessary preliminary to runoff modelling in an area where very few experiments have been carried out on small catchments.

  1. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Maldonado, Jesús E; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D; Martínez-C, Juan M; Rutter, Amy R; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Garcia, Franger J; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID

  2. Can soils be used as paleo-ecological records in spite of bioturbation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonneijk, F.; Jansen, B.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic ash soils typically have a high accumulation and preservation of organic matter. In some cases, such as in the northern Ecuadorian Andes, the accumulation or organic matter is such that the soil actually grows vertically, much like peat deposits do. Like peat deposits, such volcanic ash soils show high potential for use as paleo-ecological records, trapping proxies for past vegetation and or climate in the form of e.g. fossil pollen and biomarkers. A significant advantage over traditional paleo-ecological records such as peat deposits and lacustrine sediments is that one is not restricted to the chance occurrence of a peat bog or lake to obtain a record. However, unlike peat deposits and lacustrine sediments, soils are subject to bioturbation by soil fauna. The latter is a serious point of concern as bioturbation may obliterate the chronology that is essential for use in paleo-ecological reconstructions. Therefore, in a recent assessment of the usefulness of volcanic ash soils from the Ecuadorian Andes for paleo-ecological research, we specifically considered the effects of bioturbation on the chronology of the soil organic matter. We performed a semi-quantitative micro-morphological analysis of soil faunal pedofeatures and related it to the vertical distribution of SOM and radiocarbon dating. Our results show that bioturbation is responsible for the chrono-stratification of SOM in the studied volcanic ash soils under forest and páramo vegetation in Northern Ecuador. Chrono-stratification was possible because mixing occurred over short vertical distances, thus limiting contamination of radiocarbon ages. We conclude that the resolution of paleo-ecological records contained in the studied soils is at least 5 cm, certainly enabling the use of the studied soil profiles in paleo-ecological reconstructions.

  3. Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax δD in Modern Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, P. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Plant waxes are preserved over geologic timescales, and are found in diverse ancient sediments and soils. Observations that these molecules have hydrogen isotopic signatures that can be systematically related to that of modern precipitation have fueled aspirations to reconstruct ancient precipitation δD values. However, molecular isotopic signatures also reflect climate and plant physiological factors, and until better understood, these limit our ability to quantitatively interpret sedimentary lipid records. To advance our understanding of the influence of both ecosystem flora and climate (especially aridity) at the field scale, we analyzed the deuterium content of plant-waxes from sediments in 28 modern lakes located in watersheds which receive precipitation with a wide range of δD values, and are characterized by distinct vegetation types and regional climates. We found that the apparent isotopic fractionation (ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were: -125 ± 5 ‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130 ‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9 ‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6 ‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lakewater isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands vs. forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0 to 2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax

  4. The relationship between ovarioles number and female size in blackflies of the high Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, L A; Moncada, L I; Panza, C A; Camacho, I G; Colorado, F A; Matta, N E

    2015-02-01

    Fitness of a single species is often measured in terms of the number of viable offspring produced. We explore the relationship between the number of ovarioles and the size of females in five species of Simuliidae in two páramo regions of Colombia. Individuals of seven species of female blackflies that landed on animals were collected from mules in the Ucumarí Regional Park (RPNU) and from cattle in the Chingaza Natural National Park (ChNNP). The ovarioles of the five most abundant species were dissected out and counted, and a one-factor ANOVA was performed to explore differences in the mean number of ovarioles produced by different female size categories. Simulium ignescens Roubaud and S. ignescens-like species were collected in RPNU and S. ignescens, Simulium muiscorum Bueno et al, Simulium cormonsi Wygodzinsky and Simulium pautense Coscarón & Takaoka, in ChNNP. In addition, we also analyzed the Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean number of ovarioles per blackfly and female size within species using those which more than 20 individuals were collected. Ovarioles were meroistic-polytrophic type. A multiple range test (least significant difference) indicated that the largest size group had the largest mean number of ovarioles per female. In the other size groups, there were approximately equal numbers of ovarioles per female. Pearson's correlation coefficient was separately measured and indicated a 50% correlation between female size and ovariole number in S. ignescens. Although ovariole number is probably a genetically driven feature, other environmental and physiological conditions, including infections, can influence the number of eggs. PMID:26013017

  5. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Maldonado, Jesús E; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D; Martínez-C, Juan M; Rutter, Amy R; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Garcia, Franger J; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics.

  6. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Design: Representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. Interventions: None. Measurements: Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration ≥ 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: ≥ 6 h of sleep (“normal sleep duration”) and < 6 h of sleep (“short sleep duration”). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. Results: No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Conclusions: Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the “executive control of attention.” These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Calhoun S; Bixler EO; Pejovic S; Karataraki M; Liao D; Vela-Bueno A; Ramos-Platon MJ; Sauder KA; Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with

  7. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  9. COMMITTEES: LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Karsten Danzmann, AEI/University of Hannover Mike Cruise, University of Birmingham Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Alberto Lobo (Chair), ICE-CSIC and IEEC Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Peter Bender, University of Colorado Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Neil Cornish, Montana State University Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Craig Hogan, University of Washington Scott Hughes, MIT Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Sterl Phinney, Caltech Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Kip Thorne, Caltech Roger Blandford, Stanford University Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Carlos F Sopuerta,ICE-CSIC and IEEC Enrique Garcia-Berro, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Jay Marx, LIGO Laboratory Stephen Merkowitz, NASA/Goddard Benoit Mours, Laboratoire d'Annec Gijs Nelemans, IMAPP, Nijmegen Enric Verdaguer, University of Barcelona Clifford M Will, Washington University, St Louis Local Organising Committee (LOC) Anna Bertolín (IEEC) Priscilla Cañizares (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Carlos F Sopuerta (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Ivan Lloro (ICE-CSIC and IEEC),Chair Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Nacho Mateos (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Pilar Montes (IEEC) Miquel Nofrarias (IEEC) Juan Ramos-Castro (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) Josep Sanjuán (IEEC)

  10. Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning over 10 Years Following Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents’ treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N=213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps=.011 to <.0001), visuospatial memory (p=.0002), and verbal attention/working memory (p=.020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Further, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps<.05), while substance abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use. PMID:21443308

  11. Permafrost and Active Layer Monitoring in the Maritime Antarctic: A Contribution to TSP and ANTPAS projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.; Batista, V.; Caselli, A.; Correia, A.; Fragoso, M.; Gruber, S.; Hauck, C.; Kenderova, R.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; Melo, R.; Mendes-Victor, L. A.; Miranda, P.; Mora, C.; Neves, M.; Pimpirev, C.; Rocha, M.; Santos, F.; Blanco, J. J.; Serrano, E.; Trigo, I.; Tome, D.; Trindade, A.

    2008-12-01

    Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the Maritime Antarctic (PERMANTAR) is a Portuguese funded International Project that, in cooperation with the Spanish project PERMAMODEL, will assure the installation and the maintenance of a network of boreholes and active layer monitoring sites, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the physical and thermal properties of permafrost, as well as the periglacial processes in Livingston and Deception Islands (South Shetlands). The project is part of the International Permafrost Association IPY projects Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Permafrost, Soils and Periglacial Environments (ANTPAS). It contributes to GTN-P and CALM-S networks. The PERMANTAR-PERMAMODEL permafrost and active layer monitoring network includes several boreholes: Reina Sofia hill (since 2000, 1.1m), Incinerador (2000, 2.3m), Ohridski 1 (2008, 5m), Ohridski 2 (2008, 6m), Gulbenkian-Permamodel 1 (2008, 25m) and Gulbenkian- Permamodel 2 (2008, 15m). For active layer monitoring, several CALM-S sites have been installed: Crater Lake (2006), Collado Ramos (2007), Reina Sofia (2007) and Ohridski (2007). The monitoring activities are accompanied by detailed geomorphological mapping in order to identify and map the geomorphic processes related to permafrost or active layer dynamics. Sites will be installed in early 2009 for monitoring rates of geomorphological activity in relation to climate change (e.g. solifluction, rockglaciers, thermokarst). In order to analyse the spatial distribution of permafrost and its ice content, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and seismic refraction surveys have been performed and, in early 2009, continuous ERT surveying instrumentation will be installed for monitoring active layer evolution. The paper presents a synthesis of the activities, as well as the results obtained up to the present, mainly relating to ground temperature monitoring and from permafrost characteristics and

  12. Conventional and Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy Using Bismuth-213 to Target and Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Expressing CD20: A Preclinical Model toward Optimal Consolidation Therapy to Eradicate Minimal Residual Disease.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Steven I.; Shenoi, Jaideep; Pagel, John M.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Orgun, Nural; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Back, Tom; Lin, Yukang; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.

    2010-11-18

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with α-emitting radionuclides is an attractive approach for the treatment of minimal residual disease (MRD) because the short path lengths and high energies of α-particles produce optimal cytotoxicity at small target sites while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Pretargeted RIT (PRIT) using antibody-streptavidin (Ab-SA) constructs and radiolabeled biotin allows rapid, specific localization of radioactivity at tumor sites, making it an optimal method to target α-emitters with short half-lives, such as bismuth-213 (213Bi). Athymic mice bearing Ramos lymphoma xenografts received anti-CD20 1F5(scFv)4SA fusion protein (FP), followed by a dendrimeric clearing agent and [213Bi]DOTA-biotin. After 90 min, tumor uptake for 1F5(scFv)4SA was 16.5 ± 7.0 % injected dose per gram (ID/g) compared with 2.3 ± 0.9 % ID/g for the control FP. Mice treated with anti-CD20 PRIT and 600 µCi [213Bi]DOTA-biotin exhibited marked tumor growth delays compared to controls (mean tumor volume 0.01 ± 0.02 vs. 203.38 ± 83.03 mm3 after 19 days, respectively). The median survival for the 1F5(scFv)4SA group was 90 days compared to 23 days for the control FP (p<0.0001). Treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related mortalities. This study demonstrates the favorable biodistribution profile and excellent therapeutic efficacy attainable with 213Bi-labeled anti-CD20 PRIT.

  13. Sonographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis().

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, D; Falcini, F; Kaloudi, O; Bandinelli, F; Nacci, F; Matucci Cerinic, M

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: L'artrite Idiopatica giovanile (AIG) determina alterazioni a carico della testa condilare dell'articolazione temporomandibolare (ATM). Nell'esordio oligo-articolare (OA) l'interessamento dell'ATM viene spesso trascurato perchè può essere asintomatico. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare la presenza di versamento intrarticolare (V) dell'ATM, mediante esame ecografico (US), nelle fasi precoci di malattia. MATERIALE E METODI: Sono stati studiati 68 bambini (57 bambine e 11 bambini, di età compresa tra 9,1 e 16, anni, età media: 11,02 ± 4,2 mesi) con AIG ad esordio OA. I pazienti (pz) erano sintomatici quando uno dei quattro sintomi seguenti era presente: 1) dolore ricorrente (a riposo o durante il movimento di apertura della bocca); 2) presenza di scrosci articolari; 3) presenza di limitazione nell'apertura della bocca; 4) locking intermittente. US è stato eseguito su entrambe le ATM sia in fase statica che dinamica, mediante ecografo General Electric (LOGIQ7) con sonda lineare (8,5 MHz) posizionata lungo l'asse maggiore del ramo condilare. Il V era presente quando lo spessore della capsula articolare era ≥1,5 mm. RISULTATI: 46/68 (68%) hanno presentato V a carico delle ATM; in 16 (35%) il V era bilaterale. 2/46 con V erano sintomatici, mentre in 44 non erano presenti sintomi. CONCLUSIONI: Questi dati suggeriscono che un'alta percentuale di bambini e giovani adulti con AIG ad esordio OA, nella fase iniziale della malattia, presenta un interessamento flogistico delle ATM anche in assenza di sintomi. L'US, non invasivo e facilmente ripetibile, ci offre importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento articolare delle ATM ed è risultato utile nella diagnosi all'esordio.

  14. Transcription factor Sp4 regulates expression of nervous wreck 2 to control NMDAR1 levels and dendrite patterning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinxin; Pinacho, Raquel; Saia, Gregory; Punko, Diana; Meana, J Javier; Ramos, Belén; Gill, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Glutamatergic signaling through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is important for neuronal development and plasticity and is often dysregulated in psychiatric disorders. Mice mutant for the transcription factor Sp4 have reduced levels of NMDAR subunit 1 (NR1) protein, but not mRNA, and exhibit behavioral and memory deficits (Zhou et al., [2010] Human Molecular Genetics 19: 3797-3805). In developing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), Sp4 controls dendrite patterning (Ramos et al., [2007] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 9882-9887). Sp4 target genes that regulate dendrite pruning or NR1 levels are not known. Here we report that Sp4 activates transcription of Nervous Wreck 2 (Nwk2; also known as Fchsd1) and, further, that Nwk2, an F-BAR domain-containing protein, mediates Sp4-dependent regulation of dendrite patterning and cell surface expression of NR1. Knockdown of Nwk2 in CGNs increased primary dendrite number, phenocopying Sp4 knockdown, and exogenous expression of Nwk2 in Sp4-depleted neurons rescued dendrite number. We observed that acute Sp4 depletion reduced levels of surface, but not total, NR1, and this was rescued by Nwk2 expression. Furthermore, expression of Nr1 suppressed the increase in dendrite number in Sp4- or Nwk2- depleted neurons. We previously reported that Sp4 protein levels were reduced in cerebellum of subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) (Pinacho et al., [2011] Bipolar Disorders 13: 474-485). Here we report that Nwk2 mRNA and NR1 protein levels were also reduced in postmortem cerebellum of BD subjects. Our data suggest a role for Sp4-regulated Nwk2 in NMDAR trafficking and identify a Sp4-Nwk2-NMDAR1 pathway that regulates neuronal morphogenesis during development and may be disrupted in bipolar disorder.

  15. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsunaka, Misae; Arai, Reina; Ohashi, Ayaka; Koyama, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox) led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia), and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27504186

  16. Moral recovery. Couples should be more responsible in bringing up the number of children that they can support and educate.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1993-03-01

    The remarks of Filipino Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani are summarized from her speech delivered in the Philippine Senate chambers on August 19, 1992. She also responds to 17 questions on family planning issues. In addition to her high-level international background with the UN, she also was Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1986 and has been an active proponent of family planning. A number of bills have been introduced by her for an AIDS center, protecting spouses from sexually transmitted diseases, provision of benefits for single parents and their children, prohibiting teenagers from appearing in advertisements for liquor and cigarettes, and other bills which enhance women's status. Over the next 6 years, she plans to continue to go to selected provinces to ensure the cooperation and commitment of local executives to family planning (FP). The country will be helped because there is a President and a Health Secretary who are strong supporters of FP. Although her background is in policy making, she was aware that deficiencies exist in training FP workers, assuring adequate supplies of contraceptives, and providing sufficient information and education. FP should be directed to spacing and limiting births and helping with infertility in a friendly atmosphere. Postponing marriage to an older age should be encouraged. Working before having children, to ensure economic support, needs to be encouraged. FP must be voluntary and without coercion. People have a basic right to information on FP and human sexuality. Support for FP does not mean support for abortion, which is illegal and prohibited by the Catholic Church. Hopefully, knowledge about FP method will prevent the high number of illegal abortions. There is more support now in the legislature for FP. The Senator continues to promote her "moral recovery program." The program emphasizes that people must have the right values concerning discipline, hard work, love of country, and sense of common good. FP is a moral

  17. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  18. Target-induced self-assembly of DNA nanomachine on magnetic particle for multi-amplified biosensing of nucleic acid, protein, and cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Cui, Yangyang; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Ningbo

    2014-03-15

    A biosensing system is established for the multi-amplified detection of DNA or specific substrates of aptamers under isothermal conditions, which combines nicked rolling circle amplification (N-RCA) and beacon assisted amplification (BAA) with sensitive colorimetric technique by using DNAzymes as reporter units. According to the configuration, the analysis of DNA is accomplished by recognizing the target to capture nucleic acid-functionalized magnetic particles, followed by the self-assembly of the other two nucleic acids into multicomponent DNA supramolecular structure on magnetic particles. After magnetic separation, the circularization with ligase and the fragmentation with polymerase activate N-RCA and BAA in the presence of polymerase, dNTPs, and the nicking endonuclease, successively producing horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzymes that act as colorimetric reporter to catalyze the oxidation of ABTS(2-) by H2O2 in the presence of hemin. Under the optimized conditions, we obtain a wide dynamic range for DNA analysis over 6 orders of magnitude from 1.0 × 10(-14) to 1.0 × 10(-9)M with a low limit of detection of 6.8 × 10(-15)M. In the absence of a target, neither self-assembly of nucleic acids nor amplification process can be initiated, indicating an excellent selectivity of the proposed strategy. Similarly, an analogous system is activated by cancer cells or lysozyme through cooperative self-assembly of nucleic acids on magnetic particles in the presence of respective substrates of aptamers to synthesize HRP-mimicking DNAzymes that give the readout signal for the recognition events, achieving LODs of 81 Ramos cells and 7.2 × 10(-15)M lysozyme, respectively.

  19. Water requirements in monomer folding and dimerization of triosephosphate isomerase in reverse micelles. Intrinsic fluorescence of conformers related to reactivation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Velasco, D A; Sepúlveda-Becerra, M; Galina, A; Darszon, A; Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M; Gómez-Puyou, A

    1995-01-10

    The possibility of using reverse micelles to stabilize monomers prior to formation of dimeric triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from rabbit muscle was studied. TPI denatured with guanidine hydrochloride undergoes reactivation in reverse micelles formed with n-octane, hexanol, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and water. Reactivation of around 80% is observed at TPI concentrations of about 2 micrograms/mL of reverse micelles and water concentrations above 4.0%. With 3.0% water, reactivation is about 10%. If denatured TPI is incubated for a few seconds in reverse micelles with 5.0% water (or higher) followed by incubation in 3.0% water, reactivation is between 35% and 50%. That is, a brief exposure of denatured TPI to reverse micelles with a relatively high water concentration yielded a significant amount of structures competent for formation of catalytically active dimers. As evidenced by kinetic data, these structures correspond to monomers of TPI [Garza-Ramos, G. Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M., Gómez-Puyou, A., & Gracy R. W. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 208, 389-395]. After a 5-2.0% water transition, competent monomers were stabilized for at least 30 min; a subsequent rise in water concentration led to dimerization and appearance of activity. By changes in the amount of water, it was possible to determine in reverse micelles the amount of water required for monomer folding and dimerization; i.e., less water was required in the dimerization step. Experiments with a model system, trypsin and the soybean inhibitor, showed that, in reverse micelles with 2.0% water, protein-protein interactions readily take place.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Timescales of degassing and crystallization implied by 210Po- 210Pb- 226Ra disequilibria for andesitic lavas erupted from Arenal volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark K.; Tepley, Frank J.; Gill, James B.; Wortel, Matthew; Garrison, Jennifer

    2006-09-01

    Disequilibrium between 210Po, 210Pb, and 226Ra was measured on whole rocks and plagioclase mineral separates erupted between 1968 and 2003 from Arenal volcano with a goal of monitoring the volatile fluxing and crystallization in the decades and years leading up to eruption. Degassing during the eruption was found to remove nearly all 210Po from Arenal lavas, which appears to be true of lava eruptions in general. Most of Arenal's lavas have ( 210Pb)/( 226Ra) ratios within 20% of equilibrium, indicating that most of the magmas involved in this eruption did not have strong, persistent fluxes of 222Rn in or out of the system during the decades leading to eruption. This is consistent with a time-frame of differentiation from basalt to basaltic andesite exceeding a century. Lava erupted in 1971 had ( 210Pb) in excess of ( 226Ra) by as much as a factor of 2. These lavas were the first to mark the change in geochemical trends that were likely caused by the arrival of a new magma at the surface at Arenal [Ryder, C.H., Gill, J.B., Tepley III, F., Ramos, F., Reagan, M., this issue. Closed to open system differentiation at Arenal Volcano (1968-2003). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.], suggesting that the 210Pb excess was related to the first appearance of this magma. The high ( 210Pb)/( 226Ra) ratio in this lava apparently reflects Rn-degassing from large volumes of underlying magma and/or extraction of Rn from conduit-area rocks or fluids due to deformation and heating. Plagioclase mineral separates had 210Po- 210Pb- 226Ra disequilibrium patterns suggesting a growth period stretching over a period of more than 50 years up to the time of eruption.

  1. Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Sleep Problems in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Ramos, Kara; LeBourgeois, Monique; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Seifer, Ronald; Fritz, Gregory K.; Klein, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we examine the association of asthma (asthma symptoms, asthma control, lung function) and sleep problems in a group of urban children. The role of allergic rhinitis (AR), a comorbid condition of asthma, on children's sleep problems is also examined. Finally, we investigate whether sleep hygiene moderates the association between asthma and sleep problems, and whether there are differences in these associations based on ethnic background. Methods: Non-Latino White, Latino, and African American urban children with asthma (n = 195) ages 7–9 (47% female) and their primary caregivers participated in a baseline visit involving interview-based questionnaires on demographics, asthma and rhinitis control, and caregiver report of children's sleep problems and sleep hygiene. Children and their caregivers participated in a clinical evaluation of asthma and AR, followed by a month monitoring period of children's asthma using objective and subjective methods. Results: Total sleep problem scores were higher in children of the sample who were from African American and Latino backgrounds, compared to non-Latino white children. Poor asthma control was predictive of higher levels of sleep problems in the entire sample. Poorer AR control also was related to more sleep problems, over and above children's asthma in the sample. This association was more robust in non-Latino white children. Poor sleep hygiene heightened the association between poor asthma control and sleep problems in the entire sample and in African American children. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary interventions integrating the co-management of asthma, AR, and the effects of both illnesses on children's sleep, need to be developed and tailored to children and their families' ethnic background. Citation: Koinis-Mitchell D, Kopel SJ, Boergers J, Ramos K, LeBourgeois M, McQuaid EL, Esteban CA, Seifer R, Fritz GK, Klein RB. Asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sleep problems in urban children. J Clin

  2. Worlds apart 2: Thailand and the Philippines. Heroes and villains in an Asian population drama.

    PubMed

    Ness, G D

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."

  3. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunoury, L.; Delahaye, P.; Angot, J.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  4. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: which method is the most efficient?

    PubMed

    Maunoury, L; Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Dubois, M; Dupuis, M; Frigot, R; Grinyer, J; Jardin, P; Leboucher, C; Lamy, T

    2014-02-01

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO2), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  5. Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

  6. Implications of mitochondrial DNA polyphyly in two ecologically undifferentiated but morphologically distinct migratory birds, the masked and white-browed woodswallows Artamus spp. of inland Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Leo; Wilke, Thomas; Ten Have, Jose; Chesser, R. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The white-browed woodswallow Artamus superciliosus and masked woodswallow A. personatus(Passeriformes: Artamidae) are members of Australia's diverse arid- and semi-arid zone avifauna. Widely sympatric and among Australia's relatively few obligate long-distance temperate-tropical migrants, the two are well differentiated morphologically but not ecologically and vocally. They are pair breeders unlike other Artamus species, which are at least facultative cooperative breeders. For these reasons they are an excellent case in which to use molecular data in integrative study of their evolution from ecological and biogeographical perspectives. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to test whether they are each other's closest relatives, whether they evolved migration independently, whether they have molecular signatures of population expansions like some other Australian arid zone birds, and to estimate the timing of any inferred population expansions. Their mtDNAs are monophyletic with respect to other species of Artamusbut polyphyletic with respect to each other. The two species appear not to have evolved migration independently of each other but their morphological and mtDNA evolution have been strongly decoupled. Some level of hybridization and introgression cannot be dismissed outright as being involved in their mtDNA polyphyly but incomplete sorting of their most recent common ancestor's mtDNA is a simpler explanation consistent with their ecology. Bayesian phylogenetic inference and analyses of diversity within the two species (n=77) with conventional diversity statistics, statistical parsimony, and tests for population expansion vs stability (Tajima's D, Fu's Fsand Ramos-Onsin and Rozas's R2) all favour recent population increases. However, a non-starlike network suggests expansion(s) relatively early in the Pleistocene. Repeated population bottlenecks corresponding with multiple peaks of Pleistocene aridity could explain our findings, which add a new

  7. Dominant Microbial Populations in Limestone-Corroding Stream Biofilms, Frasassi Cave System, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Macalady, Jennifer L.; Lyon, Ezra H.; Koffman, Bess; Albertson, Lindsey K.; Meyer, Katja; Galdenzi, Sandro; Mariani, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Waters from an extensive sulfide-rich aquifer emerge in the Frasassi cave system, where they mix with oxygen-rich percolating water and cave air over a large surface area. The actively forming cave complex hosts a microbial community, including conspicuous white biofilms coating surfaces in cave streams, that is isolated from surface sources of C and N. Two distinct biofilm morphologies were observed in the streams over a 4-year period. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were constructed from samples of each biofilm type collected from Grotta Sulfurea in 2002. β-, γ-, δ-, and ɛ-proteobacteria in sulfur-cycling clades accounted for ≥75% of clones in both biofilms. Sulfate-reducing and sulfur-disproportionating δ-proteobacterial sequences in the clone libraries were abundant and diverse (34% of phylotypes). Biofilm samples of both types were later collected at the same location and at an additional sample site in Ramo Sulfureo and examined, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The biomass of all six stream biofilms was dominated by filamentous γ-proteobacteria with Beggiatoa-like and/or Thiothrix-like cells containing abundant sulfur inclusions. The biomass of ɛ-proteobacteria detected using FISH was consistently small, ranging from 0 to less than 15% of the total biomass. Our results suggest that S cycling within the stream biofilms is an important feature of the cave biogeochemistry. Such cycling represents positive biological feedback to sulfuric acid speleogenesis and related processes that create subsurface porosity in carbonate rocks. PMID:16885314

  8. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D.; Martínez-C., Juan M.; Rutter, Amy R.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Garcia, Franger J.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID

  9. Future carbon beams at SPIRAL1 facility: Which method is the most efficient?

    SciTech Connect

    Maunoury, L. Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Frigot, R.; Grinyer, J.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.

    2014-02-15

    Compared to in-flight facilities, Isotope Separator On-Line ones can in principle produce significantly higher radioactive ion beam intensities. On the other hand, they have to cope with delays for the release and ionization which make the production of short-lived isotopes ion beams of reactive and refractory elements particularly difficult. Many efforts are focused on extending the capabilities of ISOL facilities to those challenging beams. In this context, the development of carbon beams is triggering interest [H. Frånberg, M. Ammann, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Köster, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A708 (2006); M. Kronberger, A. Gottberg, T. M. Mendonca, J. P. Ramos, C. Seiffert, P. Suominen, and T. Stora, in Proceedings of the EMIS 2012 [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source (to be published)]: despite its refractory nature, radioactive carbon beams can be produced from molecules (CO or CO{sub 2}), which can subsequently be broken up and multi-ionized to the required charge state in charge breeders or ECR sources. This contribution will present results of experiments conducted at LPSC with the Phoenix charge breeder and at GANIL with the Nanogan ECR ion source for the ionization of carbon beams in the frame of the ENSAR and EMILIE projects. Carbon is to date the lightest condensable element charge bred with an ECR ion source. Charge breeding efficiencies will be compared with those obtained using Nanogan ECRIS and charge breeding times will be presented as well.

  10. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  11. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment–apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Natasha M.; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B.; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  12. Evaluation of local adaptation strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldón, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Inés Mínguez, M.; Dosio, Alessandro; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2013-04-01

    grain filling period with the consequent reduction in yield (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011) and with the supraoptimal temperatures in pollination. Finally, results of simulated impacts and adaptations were compared to previous studies done without bias correction of climatic projections, at low resolution and with previous versions of crop models (Mínguez et al., 2007). This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE - JPI) of EU and is financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Jones, C.A., and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. Mínguez, M.I., M. Ruiz-ramos, C.H. Díaz-Ambrona, and M. Quemada. 2007. First-order impacts on winter and summer crops assessed with various high-resolution climate models in the Iberian Peninsula. Climatic Change 81: 343-355. Ruiz-Ramos, M., E. Sanchez, C. Galllardo, and M.I. Minguez. 2011. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11: 3275-3291. Stockle, C.O., M. Donatelli, and R. Nelson. 2003. CropSyst , a cropping systems simulation model. European Journal of Agronomy18: 289-307.

  13. Prognostic Factors after Liver Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Matias, Margarida; Casa-Nova, Mafalda; Faria, Mariana; Pires, Ricardo; Tato-Costa, Joana; Ribeiro, Leonor; Costa, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A ressecção de metástases hepáticas é o único tratamento potencialmente curativo em doentes com metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal, resultando numa sobrevida global de 36-58%. Até à data foram publicados múltiplos trabalhos sobre factores de prognóstico após hepatectomia em doentes com metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal. No entanto, poucos apresentaram modelos de prognóstico que permitam estratificar os doentes em grupos de risco, relacionando-os com sobrevida após metastasectomia hepática.Objectivos: Identificar, avaliar e comparar os diferentes scores de prognóstico após recessão de metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal.Material e Métodos: Pesquisa na PubMed, Cochrane e Embase, de artigos publicados entre 1990 e 2013, usando os termos ‘recessão hepática’, ‘cancro colo-rectal’, ‘metástases hepáticas’, ‘hepatectomia’, ‘prognóstico’ e ‘modelo’. Apenas os artigos que apresentaram modelos de prognóstico com base em variáveis clínico-patológicas foram incluídos.Resultados: De 1996 a Junho de 2013, 19 modelos de prognóstico foram identificados, incluindo um nomograma. Foram identificados 30 diferentes factores prognósticos, embora nenhum factor fosse comum a todos os modelos prognósticos. Os factores mais frequentemente incluídos foram: número de metástases hepáticas, envolvimento ganglionar regional do tumor primário, nível sérico de CEA pré-operatório e tamanho máximo das metástases. A amostra mediana foi de 305 doentes (81-1 568 doentes) e o seguimento mediano foi de 33 meses (16-54 meses). Todos os estudos foram retrospectivos e utilizaram o modelo proporcional de Cox para análise multivariada.Conclusão: Vários factores têm sido constantemente reportados como tendo valor prognostico após ressecção de metástases hepáticas de cancro colorectal, no entanto, não existe consenso sobre o modelo ideal de prognóstico.

  14. [Long-term home oxygen therapy in children: evidences and open issues].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lia; Coelho, Joana; Ferreira, Rosário; Nunes, Teresa; Saianda, Ana; Pereira, Luisa; Bandeira, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo está indicada em doentes com hipoxémia crónica. Pretendemos descrever a populaçÉo em programa de oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo acompanhada numa Unidade de Pneumologia Pediátrica de Hospital Terciário entre 2003-2012 e comparar com revisÉo de 1991-2000; verificar conformidade com orientações nacionais e internacionais, refletindo sobre necessidade de orientações nacionais especificamente pediátricas, inexistentes em Portugal.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo, descritivo e comparativo por consulta de processo clínico. Pesquisa de orientações sobre oxigenoterapia em idade pediátrica.Resultados: Incluímos 86 doentes (59,3% rapazes). A idade mediana de início da oxigenoterapia foi 0,0 (0,0-216,0) meses e a duraçÉo mediana de 15,0 (3,0-223,0) meses. O diagnóstico mais frequente foi displasia broncopulmonar (53,5%), seguindo-se bronquiolite obliterante (14,0%), doença neurológica (10,5%), fibrose quística (8,1%), síndromes polimalformativas (5,8%), doença de células falciformes (3,5%), outras doenças pulmonares neonatais (2,3%) e doenças pulmonares intersticiais (2,3%). Mantêm acompanhamento 53 (61,6%) doentes, 38 mantendo oxigenoterapia; 12 (13,9%) faleceram. O tempo mediano de seguimento foi 39,5 (1,0-246,0) meses, mínimo nas outras doenças pulmonares neonatais e máximo na fibrose quística. Comparativamente ao estudo anterior revela aumento relativo dos lactentes com bronquiolite obliterante e displasia broncopulmonar, aumento da duraçÉo nestes últimos e inclusÉode doentes neurológicos e hematológicos.DiscussÉo: A prescriçÉo de oxigenoterapia domiciliária de longa duraçÉo em pediatria ocorre sobretudo em doenças específicas dos lactentes e idade pré-escolar. Doentes neurológicos e hematológicos sÉo novos grupos de prescriçÉo, à semelhança da literatura internacional.ConclusÉo: O conhecimento da realidade nacional e orienta

  15. Off-Label and Unlicensed Drug Use in Neonatology: Reality in a Portuguese University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joana; Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Soares, Henrique; Guimarães, Hercília

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Este estudo pretende caracterizar os medicamentos usados numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais portuguesa, avaliar a frequência do uso de fármacos off-label ou não licenciados de acordo com a informação disponível no Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento e comparar resultados entre recém-nascidos prematuros e de termo.Material e Métodos: Um estudo retrospetivo transversal foi conduzido na nossa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais no primeiro semestre de 2013. Os dados das prescrições realizadas foram comparados com a informação pediátrica contida nos Resumos das Caraterísticas do Medicamento.Resultados: Analisámos 1011 prescrições respeitantes a 84 substâncias ativas, feitas em 218 admissões. Em 42,9% dos casos, os fármacos foram usados de acordo com a informação do Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento; 27,9% dos fármacos eram aprovados para o período neonatal mas usados de forma off-label; medicamentos off-label para a idade neonatal foram usados em 10,1%, enquanto aqueles com estado de aprovação indeterminado ou contraindicados foram usados em 6,0% e 8,7% dos casos, respetivamente. As prescrições não licenciadas representaram 4,4% do total. Os recém-nascidos pré-termo receberam uma taxa superiorde fármacos usados de acordo com o Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento (p < 0,0001), enquanto os de termo receberam mais fármacos off-label para dose/frequência (p < 0,0001) e contraindicados para recém-nascidos (p < 0,012).Discussão: Os prematuros receberam um número mediano de fármacos superior, o que se relaciona com o seu internamento mais prolongado. A principal razão para prescrições off-label foi a utilização de doses/frequências de administração diferentes das referidas no Resumo das Caraterísticas do Medicamento, reforçando a necessidade de atualização destes documentos. A manipulação dosmedicamentos é uma das causas para o seu uso não licenciado, enfatizando a falta de

  16. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  17. Let us look at the population issue unflinchingly.

    PubMed

    Shahani, L R

    1992-09-01

    This abridged statement of Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani argues for a coherent and comprehensive policy on population that does not aim to control numbers but intends to provide people with choices. Over the past three decades, the population of the Philippines has tripled, to 60.7 million. Distribution is unequal. The nation's capital region, which is 0.2% of the country's land area, contains 13% of the total population: there 12,498 people occupy a square kilometer. The primary sewage network in Metro Manila was built in 1904 to accommodate 500,000 people. Even the planned expansion will accommodate only 20% of Metro Manila's present population. There are regions of the Philippines where children have no access to schools, despite a law providing free and compulsory elementary education. Some 912,000 people in rural areas are without employment. Their response is often to move to the cities or ecologically sensitive areas. The Philippines has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Infant mortality has remained at about 61 deaths per 1000 live births for the past decade. Family planning can be an effective weapon against these statistics; studies done in the Philippines indicate that infant and child mortality rates would drop by 25% each if pregnancy were avoided by women younger than 20 or older than 35, or with 4 or more children, or who are less than 15 months postpartum. A majority of respondents in a 1991 nationwide survey stated that they did not feel strongly restricted from using family planning, whether by their religion, education, or doctors. Any population policy must have an ethical and moral dimension, in keeping with freedom, human dignity, personal values, and culture. Couples have the right to choose any means, natural or artificial, they find appropriate to plan their families. Legislative efforts of the 1980s have not fulfilled their tasks. The population policy of the Philippines should: 1) deal with with underlying

  18. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    appropriate hydro turbine system is necessary. Therefore, pumps as turbine (PAT) are used in alternative to a classical hydraulic turbine (Carravetta et al., 2013). PAT can be easily regulated by hydraulic system, of by an inverter, granting the necessary flexibility of energy production with a sensible reduction of machinery cost. Maisonneuve J, Pillay P, Laflamme C.B. Pressure-retarded osmotic power system model considering non-ideal effects. Renewable Energy. 2015; 75(3): 416-424. Carravetta A, Del Giudice G, Fecarotta O, Ramos HM. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water. 2013; 5(3):1211-1225.

  19. Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgin, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thirel, Guillaume; Andreassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    consequence, the use of both techniques is recommended in hydrological ensemble forecasting. Bourgin, F., Ramos, M.H., Thirel, G., Andreassian, V. (2014). Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting, Journal of Hydrology, 519, Part D, 2775-2784.

  20. Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.

    PubMed

    Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2016-08-01

    Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage. PMID:26817739

  1. 1958 NASA/USAF Space Probes (Able-1). Volume 1; Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Early in calendar year 1958 Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. (STL) (then Space Technology Laboratories, a division of the Ramo-Wooldridge Corp.) developed for the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division (AFBMD) an Advanced Re-entry Test Vehicle (ARTV) for the purpose of testing ballistic missile nose cones at the full range of 5500 nautical miles. The two-stage ARTV utilized the Thor ballistic missile and the second stage propulsion system developed for the Vanguard program. In late 1957 and early 1958, STL/AFBMD prepared studies of various missile combinations which could be utilized for space testing. The Thor, in combination with the Vanguard second and third stages, was one of the vehicles considered which offered a very early capability of placing a reasonable payload in a lunar orbit. These STL/AFBMD studies were presented to various appropriate groups including the Killian, Millikan, H. J . Stewart Committees; Headquarters, Air Research and Development Command, and ARDC Centers. Subsequently the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) contacted STL relative to the availability of hardware for an early lunar shot. By utilizing existing spares already purchased for the ARTV, and by making use of the ARTV contractors already in being, it appeared feasible to launch by the third quarter of calendar year 1958 a payload which would be captured by the moon's gravitational force. On 27 March 1958, ARPA directed STL to proceed with a program of three lunar shots. As much as possible, these shots were to utilize existing ARTV spare hardware and impose no interference with the ballistic missile programs. In September this program was transferred to the direction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). On 17 August 1958 the first launching of the Able-1 vehicle was attempted, but the flight was terminated by a propulsion failure of the first stage. Subsequent launchings were attempted on 13 October and 8 November 1958. Of these launchirigs the

  2. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  3. Chemical evolution on planetary surfaces: from simple gases to organic macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stefan; Strasdeit, Henry

    ., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Lazcano, A., Bada, J. L. (2008), Science, 322, 404. [3] Cronin, J. R., Pizzarello, S. (1983), Adv. Space Res., 3, 5. [4] Shapiro, R. (1984), Orig. Life, 14, 565. [5] Sobral, A. J. F. N., Rebanda, N. G. C. L., da Silva, M., Lampreia, S. H., Ramos Silva, M., Matos Beja, A., Paixão, J. A., and d'A. Rocha Gonsalves, A. M. (2003), Tetrahedron Lett., 44, 3971. a

  4. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    the finger-like plumes. We demonstrate the potential applicability of our model to clustering of arc magmatism in several subduction zones, such as Baja California (Ramos-Velázquez et al., Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas,2008), North Island of New Zealand (Booden et al., J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2010), Northeast Japan (Kimura and Yoshida,Journal of Petrology, 2006); Ecuador (Schütte et al., Tectonophysics,2010) and Lesser Antilles (Labanieh et al., EPSL,2010).

  5. PREFACE: 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia; Santiago-Avilés, Jorge J.

    2013-03-01

    The 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012) was held in Carolina, Puerto Rico on 16-19 October 2012. IBERSENSOR is a forum of the Spanish and Portuguese speaking scientific community, working in the fields of sensors of every possible kind and their applications. Previous conferences in the series were successfully carried out in La Habana, Cuba (1998); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000); Lima, Perú (2002); Puebla, México (2004); Montevideo, Uruguay (2006); Sao Paulo, Brasil (2008) and Lisboa, Portugal (2010). IBERSENSOR 2012 participants included researchers from eleven countries in the Americas and Europe, in particular young men and women. The conference was organized and sponsored by the Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-DMR-0934195) a collaborative program between the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) and the University of Pennsylvania (PENN) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, sponsored by the USA National Science Foundation (NSF). Other sponsors included the Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras and the Nano/Bio Interface Center (NBIC) at PENN. The Proceedings of IBERSENSOR 2012 include a selection of 21 research papers in the areas of Materials and Processes for Sensor Development, Nano-Sensors, Chemical Sensors, Mechanical Sensors, Optical Sensors, Wireless Sensors, Sensor signal conditioning and Instrumentation, Microfluidic Devices, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications. Editors Idalia Ramos University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Puerto Rico Jorge J Santiago-Avilés University of Pennsylvania, USA Group photograph Logos Ibero-American Congress on Sensors Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (Ibersensor) Main Sponsors PENN-UPRH-PREM Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (PENN-UPRH-PREM) University of Puerto Rico at Humacao USA National Science Foundation USA National Science Foundation Other Sponsors Center for Advanced

  6. Toward Design Principles for Diffusionless Transformations: The Frustrated Formation of Co-Co Bonds in a Low-Temperature Polymorph of GdCoSi2.

    PubMed

    Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-06-20

    Diffusionless (or displacive) phase transitions allow inorganic materials to show exquisite responsiveness to external stimuli, as is illustrated vividly by the superelasticity, shape memory, and magnetocaloric effects exhibited by martensitic materials. In this Article, we present a new diffusionless transition in the compound GdCoSi2, whose origin in frustrated bonding points toward generalizable design principles for these transformations. We first describe the synthesis of GdCoSi2 and the determination of its structure using single crystal X-ray diffraction. While previous studies based on powder X-ray diffraction assigned this compound to the simple CeNi1-xSi2 structure type (space group Cmcm), our structure solution reveals a superstructure variant (space group Pbcm) in which the Co sublattice is distorted to create zigzag chains of Co atoms. DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, coupled with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis, trace this superstructure to the use of Co-Co isolobal bonds to complete filled 18 electron configurations on the Co atoms, in accordance with the 18-n rule. The formation of these Co-Co bonds is partially impeded, however, by a small degree of electron transfer from Si-based electronic states to those with Co-Co σ* character. The incomplete success of Co-Co bond creation suggests that these interactions are relatively weak, opening the possibility of them being overcome by thermal energy at elevated temperatures. In fact, high-temperature powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction data, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, indicate that a reversible Pbcm to Cmcm transition occurs at about 380 K. This transition is diffusionless, and the available data point toward it being first-order. We expect that similar cases of frustrated interactions could be staged in other rare earth-transition metal-main group phases, providing a potentially rich source of compounds exhibiting diffusionless transformations

  7. Radioastronomía: Una Mirada Más Amplia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Viviana

    2004-12-01

    The existence of the celestial bodies is known due to the light they emit. But light is a small part of a bigger phenomenon known as electromagnetic radiation. The representation of all kinds of electromagnetic radiation as a function of its frequency is called the electromagnetic spectrum. If we only studied the visible part of the spectrum, we would ignore a great deal of information. The celestial bodies emit radiation in all the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, with very different intensity. To capture these data, astronomers design new types of telescopes that capture radiation at different wavelengths, among them the radiotelescopes that, as the name indicates, detect radio waves. The radiotelescope can be compared to a regular radio set. A radio station sends information by means of radio waves. The radio set captures these waves by means of its antenna, processes it and reproduces the information (music, etc.) in audible form. In the field of radioastronomy, interesting observations can be carried out: radio emission from stars, nebulas, pulsars, distant galaxies and stars, radiogalaxies, the Milky Way, the Sun, Jupiter, etc. La presencia de los cuerpos celestes se conoce gracias a que emiten luz. Pero la luz constituye solo una pequeña parte de un fenómeno mucho mas amplio conocido como radiación electromagnética. La representación de todas las clases de radiación como función de su frecuencia se denomina espectro electromagnético. Si solo estudiáramos la parte visual del espectro ignoraríamos una gran cantidad de información. Los cuerpos celestes emiten radiación en todas las regiones del espectro electromagnético, aunque con muy distinta intensidad. Para captar estos datos, los astrónomos deben diseñar nuevos tipos de telescopios que puedan captar la radiación de distintas longitudes de ondas, entre ellos los radiotelescopios, qué como su nombre lo indica detectan ondas de radio. El radiotelescopio puede compararse a un aparato

  8. Time-Motion and Biological Responses in Simulated Mixed Martial Arts Sparring Matches.

    PubMed

    Coswig, Victor S; Ramos, Solange de P; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2016-08-01

    Coswig, VS, Ramos, SdP, and Del Vecchio, FB. Time-motion and biological responses in simulated mixed martial arts sparring matches. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2156-2163, 2016-Simulated matches are a relevant component of training for mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. This study aimed to characterize time-motion responses and investigate physiological stress and neuromuscular changes related to MMA sparring matches. Thirteen athletes with an average age of 25 ± 5 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 9.5 kg, height of 176.2 ± 5.5 cm, and time of practice in MMA of 39 ± 25 months participated in the study. The fighters executed three 5-minute rounds with 1-minute intervals. Blood and salivary samples were collected and physical tests and psychometric questionnaires administered at 3 time points: before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 hours after the combat (48 h). Statistical analysis applied analysis of variance for repeated measurements. In biochemical analysis, significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between PRE and POST (glucose: 80.3 ± 12.7 to 156.5 ± 19.1 mg·ml; lactate: 4 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 4.8 mmol·dl), POST and 48 hours (glucose: 156.5 ± 19.1 to 87.6 ± 15.5 mg·ml; lactate: 15.6 ± 4.8 to 2.9 ± 3.5 mmol·dl; urea: 44.1 ± 8.9 to 36.3 ± 7.8 mg·ml), and PRE and 48 hours (creatine kinase [CK]: 255.8 ± 137.4 to 395.9 ± 188.7 U/L). In addition, time-motion analyses showed a total high:low intensity of 1:2 and an effort:pause ratio of 1:3. In conclusion, simulated MMA sparring matches feature moderate to high intensity and a low degree of musculoskeletal damage, which can be seen by absence of physical performance and decrease in CK. Results of the study indicate that sparring training could be introduced into competitive microcycles to improve technical and tactical aspects of MMA matches, due to the high motor specificity and low muscle damage.

  9. Soil and water losses on citrus orchards under Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Organic against chemical farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; García-Orenes, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems is highly dependent on the land use and land management (Cerdà et al., 2010). This is due mainly to the impact of agriculture (Cerdà et al., 2009) as a consequence of tillage and the use of herbicides. Both strategies contribute to a reduction in the vegetation cover and the soil biological activities (García-Orenes et al., 2009). The impact of soil erosion on agronomic productivity and environmental quality is widely known (Lal, 1998), although little has been researched in the Mediterranean. The impact of agriculture on soil erosion and water losses in the Mediterranean basin has been studied in olive orchards (Gómez, 2004); vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2004), citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), cereals (De Santisteban et al., (2005), and the high erosion rates were found to be related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). The current Mediterranean agriculture is based on tillage and herbicides, which contribute to high soil and water losses. The development of sustainable agriculture practices is a challenge for farmers, technicians and politicians. Organic farming use strategies to reduce the soil losses and develop new strategies of soil conservation. Moreover organic farming recover the soil fertility and biodiversity (Maeder et al., 2002). Organic farming is growing in the Mediterranean but little is know about his effect on soil conservation. There is a lack in the knowledge of how organic farming affect the soil properties and, there is no information on his effect on soil and water losses. This paper aims to measure the impact of organic farming on soil and water losses. 10 plots of 1 x 0,5 m were selected in a chemically managed farm in Montesa (Eastern Spain) and 10 plots in a nearby organic farming managed farm. Both of them were cultivated with citrus. The ten paired plots were monitored. After earch rainfall event the sediment and water collected were measured and analized

  10. Flow cytometric assessment of the signaling status of human B lymphocytes from normal and autoimmune individuals.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Amrie C; Fischer, Randy; Lee, Olivia; Zhang, Xuan; Lipsky, Peter E

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in lymphocyte signaling cascades are thought to play an important role in the development of autoimmune disease. However, the large amount of cellular material needed for standard biochemical assessment of signaling status has made it difficult to evaluate putative abnormalities completely using primary lymphocytes. The development of technology to employ intracellular staining and flow cytometry to assess the signaling status of individual cells has now made it possible to delineate the perturbations that are present in lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune disease. As an example, human B cells from the Ramos B cell line and the periphery of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients or normal nonautoimmune controls were assessed for activation of the NF-kappaB and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades by intracellular multiparameter flow cytometric analysis and biochemical Western blotting. In combination with fluorochrome conjugated antibodies specific for surface proteins that define B cell subsets, antibodies that recognize activated, or phosphorylated inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaB) as well as the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 MAPKs were used to stain fixed and permeabilized human B cells and analyze them flow cytometrically. Examination of the known signaling pathways following engagement of CD40 on human B cells confirmed that intracellular flow cytometry and Western blotting equivalently assay CD154-induced phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB proteins as well as phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK, JNK and p38. In addition, B cells from the periphery of SLE patients had a more activated status immediately ex vivo as assessed by intracellular flow cytometric analysis of phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 when compared with B cells from the periphery of normal, nonautoimmune individuals. Together, these results indicate that multiparameter intracellular flow cytometric

  11. Flow cytometric assessment of the signaling status of human B lymphocytes from normal and autoimmune individuals

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Amrie C; Fischer, Randy; Lee, Olivia; Zhang, Xuan; Lipsky, Peter E

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in lymphocyte signaling cascades are thought to play an important role in the development of autoimmune disease. However, the large amount of cellular material needed for standard biochemical assessment of signaling status has made it difficult to evaluate putative abnormalities completely using primary lymphocytes. The development of technology to employ intracellular staining and flow cytometry to assess the signaling status of individual cells has now made it possible to delineate the perturbations that are present in lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune disease. As an example, human B cells from the Ramos B cell line and the periphery of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients or normal nonautoimmune controls were assessed for activation of the NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades by intracellular multiparameter flow cytometric analysis and biochemical Western blotting. In combination with fluorochrome conjugated antibodies specific for surface proteins that define B cell subsets, antibodies that recognize activated, or phosphorylated inhibitors of κB (IκB) as well as the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 MAPKs were used to stain fixed and permeabilized human B cells and analyze them flow cytometrically. Examination of the known signaling pathways following engagement of CD40 on human B cells confirmed that intracellular flow cytometry and Western blotting equivalently assay CD154-induced phosphorylation and degradation of IκB proteins as well as phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK, JNK and p38. In addition, B cells from the periphery of SLE patients had a more activated status immediately ex vivo as assessed by intracellular flow cytometric analysis of phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 when compared with B cells from the periphery of normal, nonautoimmune individuals. Together, these results indicate that multiparameter intracellular flow cytometric analysis of

  12. The Halo of NGC 2438 scrutinized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Haloes and multiple shells around planetary nebulae trace the mass-loss history of the central star. The haloes provide us with information about abundances, ionization or kinematics. Detailed investigations of these haloes can be used to study the evolution of the old stellar population in our galaxy and beyond.Different observations show structures in the haloes like radial rays, blisters and rings (e.g., Ramos-Larios et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 3753 or Matsuura et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1067). The origin of these features has been associated with ionization shadows (Balick 2004, AJ, 127, 2262). They can be observed in regions, where dense knots are opaque to stellar ionizing photons. In this regions we can see leaking UV photons.In this work, we present a detailed investigation of the multiple shell PN NGC 2438. We derive a complete data set of the main nebula. This allows us to analize the physical conditions from photoionization models, such as temperature, density and ionization, and clumping.Data from ESO (3.6m telescope - EFOSC1 - direct imaging and long slit spectroscopy) and from SAAO (spectroscopic observations using a small slit) were available. These data were supplemented by imaging data from the HST archive and by archival VLA observations. The low-excitation species are found to be dominated by clumps. The emission line ratios show no evidence for shocks. We find the shell in ionization equilibrium: a significant amount of UV radiation infiltrates the inner nebula. Thus the shell still seems to be ionized.The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to model the nebular properties and to derive a more accurate distance and ionized mass. The model supports the hypothesis that photoionization is the dominant process in this nebula, far out into the shell.If we want to use extragalactic planetary nebulae as probes of the old stellar population, we need to assess the potential impact of a halo on the evolution. Also the connection of observations and models must

  13. Defusing Complexity in Intermetallics: How Covalently Shared Electron Pairs Stabilize the FCC Variant Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) (x ≈ 0.9).

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Brandon J; Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-08-17

    Simple sphere packings of metallic atoms are generally assumed to exhibit highly delocalized bonding, often visualized in terms of a lattice of metal cations immersed in an electron gas. In this Article, we present a compound that demonstrates how covalently shared electron pairs can, in fact, play a key role in the stability of such structures: Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) (x ≈ 0.9). Mo2Cu(x)Ga(6-x) adopts a variant of the common TiAl3 structure type, which itself is a binary coloring of the fcc lattice. Electronic structure calculations trace the formation of this compound to a magic electron count of 14 electrons/T atom (T = transition metal) for the TiAl3 type, for which the Fermi energy coincides with an electronic pseudogap. This count is one electron/T atom lower than the electron concentration for a hypothetical MoGa3 phase, making this structure less competitive relative to more complex alternatives. The favorable 14 electron count can be reached, however, through the partial substitution of Ga with Cu. Using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) method, we show that the favorability of the 14 electron count has a simple structural origin in terms of the 18 - n rule of T-E intermetallics (E = main group element): the T atoms of the TiAl3 type are arranged into square nets whose edges are bridged by E atoms. The presence of shared electron pairs along these T-T contacts allows for 18 electron configurations to be achieved on the T atoms despite possessing only 18 - 4 = 14 electrons/T atom. This bonding scheme provides a rationale for the observed stability range of TiAl3 type TE3 phases of ca. 13-14 electrons/T atom, and demonstrates how the concept of the covalent bond can extend even to the most metallic of structure types.

  14. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  15. Theory of multiple-stage interband photovoltaic devices and ultimate performance limit comparison of multiple-stage and single-stage interband infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkey, Robert T.; Yang, Rui Q.

    2013-09-01

    A theoretical framework for studying signal and noise in multiple-stage interband infrared photovoltaic devices is presented. The theory flows from a general picture of electrons transitioning between thermalized reservoirs. Making the assumption of bulk-like absorbers, we show how the standard semiconductor transport and recombination equations can be extended to the case of multiple-stage devices. The electronic noise arising from thermal fluctuations in the transition rates between reservoirs is derived using the Shockley-Ramo and Wiener-Khinchin theorems. This provides a unified noise treatment accounting for both the Johnson and shot noise. Using a Green's function formalism, we derive consistent analytic expressions for the quantum efficiency and thermal noise in terms of the design parameters and macroscopic material properties of the absorber. The theory is then used to quantify the potential performance improvement from the use of multiple stages. We show that multiple-stage detectors can achieve higher sensitivities for applications requiring a fast temporal response. This is shown by deriving an expression for the optimal number of stages in terms of the absorption coefficient and absorber thicknesses for a multiple-stage detector with short absorbers. The multiple-stage architecture may also be useful for improving the sensitivity of high operating temperature detectors in situations where the quantum efficiency is limited by a short diffusion length. The potential sensitivity improvement offered by a multiple-stage architecture can be judged from the product of the absorption coefficient, α, and diffusion length, Ln, of the absorber material. For detector designs where the absorber lengths in each of the stages are equal, the multiple-stage architecture offers the potential for significant detectivity improvement when αLn ≤ 0.2. We also explore the potential of multiple-stage detectors with photocurrent-matched absorbers. In this architecture, the

  16. From synchronous to sequential double proton transfer: quantum dynamics simulations for the model porphine.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Antonio; Barth, Ingo; Kühn, Oliver; Manz, Jörn

    2010-10-28

    Quantum dynamics simulations of double proton transfer (DPT) in the model porphine, starting from a nonequilibrium initial state, demonstrate that a switch from synchronous (or concerted) to sequential (or stepwise or successive) breaking and making of two bonds is possible. For this proof of principle, we employ the simple model of Smedarchina, Z.; Siebrand, W.; Fernández-Ramos, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 127, 174513, with reasonable definition for the domains D for the reactant R, the product P, the saddle point SP2 which is crossed during synchronous DPT, and two intermediates I = I(1) + I(2) for two alternative routes of sequential DPT. The wavepacket dynamics is analyzed in terms of various properties, from qualitative conclusions based on the patterns of the densities and flux densities, until quantitative results for the time evolutions of the populations or probabilities P(D)(t) of the domains D = R, P, SP2, and I, and the associated net fluxes F(D)(t) as well as the domain-to-domain (DTD) fluxes F(D1,D2) between neighboring domains D1 and D2. Accordingly, the initial synchronous mechanism of the first forward reaction is due to the directions of various momenta, which are imposed on the wavepacket by the L-shaped part of the steep repulsive wall of the potential energy surface (PES), close to the minimum for the reactant. At the same time, these momenta cause initial squeezing followed by rapid dispersion of the representative wavepacket. The switch from the synchronous to sequential mechanism is called indirect, because it is mediated by two effects: First, the wavepacket dispersion; second, relief reflections of the broadened wavepacket from wide regions of the inverse L-shaped steep repulsive wall of the PES close to the minimum for the product, preferably to the domains I = I(1) + I(2) for the sequential DPT during the first back reaction, and also during the second forward reaction, etc. Our analysis also discovers a variety of minor effects, such as

  17. Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  18. The age and diversification of terrestrial New World ecosystems through Cretaceous and Cenozoic time.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Eight ecosystems that were present in the Cretaceous about 100 Ma (million years ago) in the New World eventually developed into the 12 recognized for the modern Earth. Among the forcing mechanisms that drove biotic change during this interval was a decline in global temperatures toward the end of the Cretaceous, augmented by the asteroid impact at 65 Ma and drainage of seas from continental margins and interiors; separation of South America from Africa beginning in the south at ca. 120 Ma and progressing northward until completed 90-100 Ma; the possible emission of 1500 gigatons of methane and CO(2) attributed to explosive vents in the Norwegian Sea at ca. 55 Ma, resulting in a temperature rise of 5°-6°C in an already warm world; disruption of the North Atlantic land bridge at ca. 45 Ma at a time when temperatures were falling; rise of the Andes Mountains beginning at ca. 40 Ma; opening of the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica at ca. 32 Ma with formation of the cold Humboldt at ca. 30 Ma; union of North and South America at ca. 3.5 Ma; and all within the overlay of evolutionary processes. These processes generated a sequence of elements (e.g., species growing in moist habitats within an overall dry environment; gallery forests), early versions (e.g., mangrove communities without Rhizophora until the middle Eocene), and essentially modern versions of present-day New World ecosystems. As a first approximation, the fossil record suggests that early versions of aquatic communities (in the sense of including a prominent angiosperm component) appeared early in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, the lowland neotropical rainforest at 64 Ma (well developed by 58-55 Ma), shrubland/chaparral-woodland-savanna and grasslands around the middle Miocene climatic optimum at ca. 15-13 Ma, deserts in the middle Miocene/early Pliocene at ca. 10 Ma, significant tundra at ca. 7-5 Ma, and alpine tundra (páramo) shortly thereafter when cooling temperatures were augmented

  19. Maternal Mortality among Tribal Women at a Tertiary Level of Care in Bastar, Chhattisgarh

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Prabha; Chauhan, V. K. S.; Shrivastava, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to study Maternal Mortality as per Gravidity among Tribal women at a tertiary level of care in Bastar, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital based, retrospective, reproductive-age mortality study (RAMOS) of tribal women of Bastar region, Chhattisgarh, that were admitted and managed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department Govt. Medical College, Jagdalpur, Bastar, Chhattisgarh, between July 2007 and October 2011. There were total 120 cases. Result: Results of the present study showed that among 120 deceased tribal women highest maternal mortality 65 cases (54.166%) was noted in Primigravida (Nullipara G1P0), second highest maternal mortality 44 cases (38.333%) was noted in 2nd to 4th Gravida (Multipara), 10 cases (8.333%) were in 6th and 7th Grand Multigravida (Grand Multipara), and 01 case (0.833%) was in 8th Great Grand Multigravida. Direct causes of maternal mortality were highest 46 cases (38.333%) due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Among direct causes second highest 18 cases (14.999%) maternal mortality were due to Rupture Uterus, third highest 12 cases (09.999%) of Septicemia, 06 cases (04.999%) of obstructed labor, 06 (04.999%) of Hemorrhage, 02 cases (01.666%) of unsafe Abortion, 02 cases (01.666%) of Pulmonary Embolism and 01 case (0.833%) due to Aspiration. Indirect causes of maternal mortality maximum 15 cases (12.5%) of Malaria and 10 cases (08.333%) were due to Anemia and 02 cases (01.666%) were of Sickle cell Anemia. The result of the present study showed that in tertiary level of care of Bastar in the year 2007 – 2008, 2008 - 2009, 2009 – 2010 and 2010 - 2011 the total maternal deaths were 34 (n=34); 35 (n=35); 27 (n=27) and 26 (n=26) respectively. The Maternal Mortality Ratio was 1611.876; 1615.881; 1168.325 and 1000.769 Per 1, 00,000 live births in the year 2007- 2008; 2008 - 2009; 2009 – 2010 and 2010 - 2011 respectively. In the year 2007 - 2008, maternal

  20. Regionalization of scaling properties of heavy rainfall for short durations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresetti, D.; Molinié, G.; Creutin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The region of study, Cévennes-Vivarais in the South-East of France, is prone to severe rainfall and floods with serious consequences. Therefore, a relatively dense rainfall survey has been developed since the middle of the last century by means of hourly and daily rain gauges, and enhanced during the last 20 years in densifying the rain gauge network and implementing a radar network. It is well known that understanding, forecasting and assessing forecasts of heavy rainfall events necessitate to manage with point and spatialized rainfall data with different temporal resolutions. Moreover, it has been shown (Ramos et al., 2005, J. of Hydrology, V. 315) that storm severity from a socio-economical point of view depends both on the rainfall intensity and on the spatial and temporal scales at which it is assessed (return periods at given temporal and spatial scales). The need to compare storm severity from different data sets (raingauges, radar, model outputs) motivates our investigations of scale relationships in rainfall fields of the Cévennes-Vivarais region. Hourly rainfall series of raingauges support the evidence that the probability density functions of the most intense rainfall rates behave as power-laws. However, a careful determination of the power-law parameters is needed to avoid idiosyncratic parameter values of point rainfall in rainfall fields. Following Goldstein et al., 2004 (Eur. Phys. J. B, V. 41), the lower cut-off of the distribution has been been determined by an objective statistical method based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The maximum likelihood estimator has been implemented has it gives unbiased estimates of the power-law exponent compared to the classical least square fitting. Even though, the terrain elevation of the region is complex, well-defined spatial structures at the hourly and daily time scales have been found. These results are in good agreement with heavy rainfall features determined by classical extreme rainfall analysis

  1. Intracellular delivery and trafficking dynamics of a lymphoma-targeting antibody-polymer conjugate.

    PubMed

    Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Convertine, Anthony J; Shi, Julie; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Duvall, Craig L; Pun, Suzie H; Press, Oliver W; Stayton, Patrick S

    2012-12-01

    Ratiometric fluorescence and cellular fractionation studies were employed to characterize the intracellular trafficking dynamics of antibody-poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) conjugates in CD22+ RAMOS-AW cells. The HD39 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directs CD22-dependent, receptor-mediated uptake in human B-cell lymphoma cells, where it is rapidly trafficked to the lysosomal compartment. To characterize the intracellular-release dynamics of the polymer-mAb conjugates, HD39-streptavidin (HD39/SA) was dual-labeled with pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 488 and pH-sensitive pHrodo fluorophores. The subcellular pH distribution of the HD39/SA-polymer conjugates was quantified as a function of time by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, and the average intracellular pH value experienced by the conjugates was also characterized as a function of time by flow cytometry. PPAA was shown to alter the intracellular trafficking kinetics strongly relative to HD39/SA alone or HD39/SA conjugates with a control polymer, poly(methacryclic acid) (PMAA). Subcellular trafficking studies revealed that after 6 h, only 11% of the HD39/SA-PPAA conjugates had been trafficked to acidic lysosomal compartments with values at or below pH 5.6. In contrast, the average intracellular pH of HD39/SA alone dropped from 6.7 ± 0.2 at 1 h to 5.6 ± 0.5 after 3 h and 4.7 ± 0.6 after 6 h. Conjugation of the control polymer PMAA to HD39/SA showed an average pH drop similar to that of HD39/SA. Subcellular fractionation studies with tritium-labeled HD39/SA demonstrated that after 6 h, 89% of HD39/SA was associated with endosomes (Rab5+) and lysosomes (Lamp2+), while 45% of HD39/SA-PPAA was translocated to the cytosol (lactate dehydrogenase+). These results demonstrate the endosomal-releasing properties of PPAA with antibody-polymer conjugates and detail their intracellular trafficking dynamics and subcellular compartmental distributions over time.

  2. A Three-fold Outlook of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program Office (UEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, La Quilia E.

    2004-01-01

    , presentations, or any other documents related to the project. My next task was to document the author, date of creation, and all other properties of each document. To archive these documents I worked extensively with Microsoft Excel. different financial systems of accounting such as the SAP business accounting system. I also learned the best ways to present financial data and shadowed my mentor as she presented financial data to both UEET's project management and the Resources Analysis and Management Office (RAMO). I analyzed the June 2004 financial data of UEET and used Microsoft Excel to input the results of the data. This process made it easier to present the full cost of the project in the month of June. In addition I assisted in the End of the Year 2003 Reconciliation of Purchases of UEET.

  3. Spatial distribution and characteristics of permafrost in Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.; Trindade, A.; Gruber, S.; Hauck, C.; Mora, C.; Batista, V.; Neves, M.; Pimpirev, C.; Kenderova, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of Earth's regions experiencing a faster increase on temperatures, with Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MAAT) rising ca. 2.5 °C in the last 50 years. The northerly location of the Antarctic Peninsula in respect to the Antarctic and its oceanic setting originate a milder and moister climate than in the Antarctic continent. The Northern Antarctic Peninsula is roughly located between the isotherms of MAAT of -1 °C to -8 °C at sea-level and therefore the northern tip and especially the South Shetlands are close to the limits of permafrost occurrence. If the observed warming trend is to continue in the near future, the region might suffer widespread permafrost degradation. Research on the permafrost environment of Hurd Peninsula has been taking place with systematical measurements by our group since January 2000 and currently we are able to provide a good overview of the spatial distribution and characteristics of permafrost terrain in Hurd Peninsula. Our research is based on shallow boreholes (<2m) with a time series of 8 years (30 and 275m asl) and on a series of boreholes with 1 year data: a 25m borehole in Reina Sofia Peak (275m), a 15m borehole in the vicinity of Reina Sofia Peak near Hurd Glacier (269m), a 5m borehole at the CALM-S near Ohridski Station (136m) and a 4m borehole at Papagalo (147m). Other shallow boreholes (1.5m) are being monitored at Incinerador point (25m) and Collado Ramos (115m). In 2006 Electrical Tomography Resistivity and refraction seismic profiles have been performed, providing us with a good overview of the general conditions of the permafrost terrain in the area. Air temperatures are measured at different sites accounting for altitude since a few years and during 3 summer campaigns the radiation balance was monitored continuously at two sites. Detailed geomorphological mapping of periglacial features has been conducted at a scale 1:5,000 providing important information about the geomorphological dynamics

  4. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  5. Feasibility of Affibody Molecule-Based PNA-Mediated Radionuclide Pretargeting of Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Hadis; Westerlund, Kristina; Altai, Mohamed; Sandström, Mattias; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2016-01-01

    Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa), non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with a potential as targeting agents for radionuclide imaging of cancer. However, high renal re-absorption of Affibody molecules prevents their use for radionuclide therapy with residualizing radiometals. We hypothesized that the use of Affibody-based peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated pretargeting would enable higher accumulation of radiometals in tumors than in kidneys. To test this hypothesis, we designed an Affibody-PNA chimera ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 containing a 15-mer HP1 PNA recognition tag and a complementary HP2 hybridization probe permitting labeling with both (125)I and (111)In. (111)In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 bound specifically to HER2-expressing BT474 and SKOV-3 cancer cells in vitro, with a KD of 6±2 pM for binding to SKOV-3 cells. Specific high affinity binding of the radiolabeled complementary PNA probe (111)In-/(125)I-HP2 to ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-treated cells was demonstrated. (111)In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 demonstrated specific accumulation in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice and rapid clearance from blood. Pre-saturation of SKOV-3 with non-labeled anti-HER2 Affibody or the use of HER2-negative Ramos xenografts resulted in significantly lower tumor uptake of (111)In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. The complementary PNA probe (111)In/(125)I-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts when ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 was injected 4 h earlier. The tumor accumulation of (111)In/(125)I-HP2 was negligible without ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-injection. The uptake of (111)In-HP2 in SKOV-3 xenografts was 19±2 %ID/g at 1 h after injection. The uptake in blood and kidneys was approximately 50- and 2-fold lower, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that the use of Affibody-based PNA-mediated pretargeting enables specific delivery of radiometals to tumors and provides higher radiometal concentration in tumors than in kidneys.

  6. Social and Health Correlates of Sleep Duration in a US Hispanic Population: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Dudley, Katherine A.; Gallo, Linda C.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Penedo, Frank J.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ramos, Alberto R.; Redline, Susan; Reid, Kathryn J.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To define the prevalence of poor sleep patterns in the US Hispanic/Latino population, identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of short and long sleep duration, and the association between sleep and cardiometabolic outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: Adults age 18–74 y free of sleep disorders (n = 11,860) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos baseline examination (2008–2011). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The mean self-reported sleep duration was 8.0 h per night with 18.6% sleeping less than 7 h and 20.1% sleeping more than 9 h in age- and sex-adjusted analyses. Short sleep was most common in individuals of Puerto Rican heritage (25.6%) and the Other Hispanic group (27.4%). Full-time employment, low level of education, and depressive symptoms were independent predictors of short sleep, whereas unemployment, low household income, low level of education, and being born in the mainland US were independent predictors of long sleep. After accounting for sociodemographic differences, short sleep remained significantly associated with obesity with an odds ratio of 1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.12–1.49] but not with diabetes, hypertension, or heart disease. In contrast, long sleep was not associated with any of these conditions. Conclusions: Sleep duration is highly variable among US Hispanic/Latinos, varying by Hispanic/Latino heritage as well as socioeconomic status. These differences may have health consequences given associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic disease, particularly obesity. Citation: Patel SR, Sotres-Alvarez D, Castañeda SF, Dudley KA, Gallo LC, Hernandez R, Medeiros EA, Penedo FJ, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Ramos AR, Redline S, Reid KJ, Zee PC. Social and health correlates of sleep duration in a US Hispanic population: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1515–1522

  7. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  8. Enzyme activation by denaturants in organic solvent systems with a low water content.

    PubMed

    Garza-Ramos, G; Fernández-Velasco, D A; Ramírez, L; Shoshani, L; Darszon, A; Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M; Gómez-Puyou, A

    1992-04-15

    The effect of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdmCl) on the activity of heart lactate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was studied in low-water systems. Most of the experiments were made in a system formed with toluene, phospholipids, Triton X-100, and water in a range that varied over 1.0-6.5% (by vol.) [Garza-Ramos, G., Darszon, A., Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M. & Gómez-Puyou, A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 751-757]. In such conditions at saturating substrate concentrations, the activity of the enzymes was more than 10 times lower than in all-water media. However the activity of the first four aforementioned enzymes was increased between 4 and 20 times by the denaturants. The most marked activating effect was found with lactate dehydrogenase; with 3.8% (by vol.) water maximal activation was observed with 1.5 M GdmCl (about 20-fold); 4 M urea activated, but to a lower extent. Activation by guanidine thiocyanate was lower than with GdmCl. The activating and inactivating effects of GdmCl on lactate dehydrogenase depended on the amount of water; as the amount of water was increased from 2.0% to 6.0% (by vol.), activation and inactivation took place with progressively lower GdmCl concentrations. When activity was measured as a function of the volume of 1.5 M GdmCl solution, a bell-shaped activation curve was observed. In a low-water system formed with n-octane, hexanol, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 3.0% water, a similar activation of lactate dehydrogenase by GdmCl and urea was observed. The water solubility diagrams were modified by GdmCl and urea, and this could reflect on enzyme activity. However, from a comparison of denaturant concentrations on the activity of the enzymes studied, it would seem that, independently of their effect on the characteristics of the low-water systems, denaturants bring about activation through their known mechanism of action on the

  9. Investigating the origin of anorthitic plagioclase through a combination of experiments and natural observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, Craig C.; Tepley, Frank J.

    2006-09-01

    plagioclase phenocrysts from both 1968 and 1999 Arenal lavas. Although core compositions vary widely (0.7038-0.7052), all three phenocrysts have similar 87Sr/ 86Sr rim compositions (0.7043). The variability in 87Sr/ 86Sr at the phenocryst scale but homogeneity in 87Sr/ 86Sr at the bulk scale in Arenal lavas [Ryder, C.H., Gill, J.B., Tepley III, F.J., Ramos, F., Reagan, M., this volume. Closed to open differentiation at Arenal volcano (1968-2003). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.] could be explained by erupted lavas representing a near steady state balance between ascending magmas and a flux derived from diffusion-reaction processes occurring with surrounding crustal gabbros.

  10. Methods Development for In Situ Laser-Ablation Pb and Sr Isotopic Analyses Using a Double-Focusing Single-Collector ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Neymark, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser-ablation (LA) ICPMS isotopic analyses of Pb and Sr in geological materials have mostly used multi-collector instruments equipped with Faraday-type detectors (e.g., [1-3]). The main limitation of this approach is that samples with relatively high concentrations of Pb and Sr are typically required. Here we present the development of analytical methods for the accurate and precise in situ measurement of Pb and Sr isotope ratios in relatively low-concentration samples using a laser ablation system (193-nm excimer laser) with a double-focusing single-collector (SC) ICPMS (Nu AttoMTM). Our methods build on published techniques [4-6] that used different LA-SC-ICPMS instrumentation to demonstrate the benefits of fast-scanning ion-counting measurements combined with flat-top peaks. We have paid special attention to the characterization and correction of instrumental artifacts using solutions of the NIST SRM981 Pb and SRM987 Sr standards in "wet plasma" mode. For Pb, this includes correcting for the interference of 204Hg on 204Pb, characterizing the effects of tails from thallium (at masses 203 and 205) on the Pb peaks, evaluating the stability of the instrumental mass bias, and maintaining linearity of the detector response over the full dynamic range. For Sr, this includes correcting for the interference of 86Kr on 86Sr and 87Rb on 87Sr, verifying the accuracy of an internal correction for instrumental mass bias, and calibrating the ion optics scanning parameters. LA-SC-ICPMS results for Pb and Sr isotopic measurements of international glass standards and newly developed in-house mineral and glass reference materials will be presented. [1] Davidson et al. (2001) EPSL 184, 427-442. [2] Ramos et al. (2004) Chem. Geol. 211, 135-158. [3] Simon et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2014-2035. [4] Jochum et al. (2005) IJMS 242, 281-289. [5] Jochum et al. (2006) JAAS 21, 666-675. [6] Jochum et al. (2009) JAAS 24, 1237-1243.

  11. Feasibility of Affibody Molecule-Based PNA-Mediated Radionuclide Pretargeting of Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Hadis; Westerlund, Kristina; Altai, Mohamed; Sandström, Mattias; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2016-01-01

    Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa), non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with a potential as targeting agents for radionuclide imaging of cancer. However, high renal re-absorption of Affibody molecules prevents their use for radionuclide therapy with residualizing radiometals. We hypothesized that the use of Affibody-based peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated pretargeting would enable higher accumulation of radiometals in tumors than in kidneys. To test this hypothesis, we designed an Affibody-PNA chimera ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 containing a 15-mer HP1 PNA recognition tag and a complementary HP2 hybridization probe permitting labeling with both 125I and 111In. 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 bound specifically to HER2-expressing BT474 and SKOV-3 cancer cells in vitro, with a KD of 6±2 pM for binding to SKOV-3 cells. Specific high affinity binding of the radiolabeled complementary PNA probe 111In-/125I-HP2 to ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-treated cells was demonstrated. 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 demonstrated specific accumulation in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice and rapid clearance from blood. Pre-saturation of SKOV-3 with non-labeled anti-HER2 Affibody or the use of HER2-negative Ramos xenografts resulted in significantly lower tumor uptake of 111In-ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. The complementary PNA probe 111In/125I-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts when ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 was injected 4 h earlier. The tumor accumulation of 111In/125I-HP2 was negligible without ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 pre-injection. The uptake of 111In-HP2 in SKOV-3 xenografts was 19±2 %ID/g at 1 h after injection. The uptake in blood and kidneys was approximately 50- and 2-fold lower, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that the use of Affibody-based PNA-mediated pretargeting enables specific delivery of radiometals to tumors and provides higher radiometal concentration in tumors than in kidneys. PMID:26722376

  12. The age and diversification of terrestrial New World ecosystems through Cretaceous and Cenozoic time.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Eight ecosystems that were present in the Cretaceous about 100 Ma (million years ago) in the New World eventually developed into the 12 recognized for the modern Earth. Among the forcing mechanisms that drove biotic change during this interval was a decline in global temperatures toward the end of the Cretaceous, augmented by the asteroid impact at 65 Ma and drainage of seas from continental margins and interiors; separation of South America from Africa beginning in the south at ca. 120 Ma and progressing northward until completed 90-100 Ma; the possible emission of 1500 gigatons of methane and CO(2) attributed to explosive vents in the Norwegian Sea at ca. 55 Ma, resulting in a temperature rise of 5°-6°C in an already warm world; disruption of the North Atlantic land bridge at ca. 45 Ma at a time when temperatures were falling; rise of the Andes Mountains beginning at ca. 40 Ma; opening of the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica at ca. 32 Ma with formation of the cold Humboldt at ca. 30 Ma; union of North and South America at ca. 3.5 Ma; and all within the overlay of evolutionary processes. These processes generated a sequence of elements (e.g., species growing in moist habitats within an overall dry environment; gallery forests), early versions (e.g., mangrove communities without Rhizophora until the middle Eocene), and essentially modern versions of present-day New World ecosystems. As a first approximation, the fossil record suggests that early versions of aquatic communities (in the sense of including a prominent angiosperm component) appeared early in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, the lowland neotropical rainforest at 64 Ma (well developed by 58-55 Ma), shrubland/chaparral-woodland-savanna and grasslands around the middle Miocene climatic optimum at ca. 15-13 Ma, deserts in the middle Miocene/early Pliocene at ca. 10 Ma, significant tundra at ca. 7-5 Ma, and alpine tundra (páramo) shortly thereafter when cooling temperatures were augmented

  13. Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase blood pressure (BP) and induce hypertension. However, evidence supporting these associations is limited, and they may be confounded by exposure to traffic noise and biased due to inappropriate control for use of BP-lowering medications. Objectives: We evaluated the associations of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension, adjusting for transportation noise and assessing different methodologies to control for BP-lowering medications. Methods: We measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) at baseline (years 2003–2005) in 3,700 participants, 35–83 years of age, from a population-based cohort in Spain. We estimated home outdoor annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with a land-use regression model. We used multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results: A 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 levels was associated with 1.34 mmHg (95% CI: 0.14, 2.55) higher SBP in nonmedicated individuals, after adjusting for transportation noise. Results were similar in the entire population after adjusting for medication, as commonly done, but weaker when other methods were used to account for medication use. For example, when 10 mmHg were added to the measured SBP levels of medicated participants, the association was β = 0.78 (95% CI: –0.43, 2.00). NO2 was not associated with hypertension. Associations of NO2 with SBP and DBP were stronger in participants with cardiovascular disease, and the association with SBP was stronger in those exposed to high traffic density and traffic noise levels ≥ 55 dB(A). Conclusions: We observed a positive association between long-term exposure to NO2 and SBP, after adjustment for transportation noise, which was sensitive to the methodology used to account for medication. Citation: Foraster M, Basagaña X, Aguilera I, Rivera M, Agis D, Bouso L, Deltell A, Marrugat J, Ramos R, Sunyer J, Vila J, Elosua R, Künzli N. 2014

  14. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    García-Ramos, A, Padial, P, de la Fuente, B, Argüelles-Cienfuegos, J, Bonitch-Góngora, J, and Feriche, B. Relationship between vertical jump height and swimming start performance before and after an altitude training camp. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1638-1645, 2016-This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p < 0.01; ES: 0.48-0.52) after the training period were observed. The start time had similar correlations with the jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance.

  15. Topology of a percolating soil pore network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Hapca, S. M.; Houston, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    A connectivity function defined by the 3D-Euler number, is a topological indicator and can be related to hydraulic properties (Vogel and Roth, 2001). This study aims to develop connectivity Euler indexes as indicators of the ability of soils for fluid percolation. The starting point was a 3D grey image acquired by X-ray computed tomography of a soil at bulk density of 1.2 mg cm-3. This image was used in the simulation of 40000 particles following a directed random walk algorithms with 7 binarization thresholds. These data consisted of 7 files containing the simulated end points of the 40000 random walks, obtained in Ruiz-Ramos et al. (2010). MATLAB software was used for computing the frequency matrix of the number of particles arriving at every end point of the random walks and their 3D representation. In a former work (Capa et al., 2011) a criteria for choosing the optimal threshold of grey value was identified: Final positions were divided in two subgroups, cg1 (positions with frequency of the number of particles received greater than the median) and cg2 (frequency lower or equal to median). Images with maximum difference between the Z coordinate of the center of gravity of both subgroups were selected as those with optimal threshold that reflects the major internal differences in soil structure that are relevant to percolation. According to this criterion, the optimal threshold for the soil with density 1.2 mg cm-3 was 24.Thresholds above and below the optimal (23 and 25) were also considered to confirm this selection; therefore the analysis were conducted for three files (1 image with 3 grey threshold values, which have different porosity). Additionally, three random matrix simulations with the same porosity than the selected binaries images were used to test the existence of pore connectivity as a consequence of a non-random soil structure. Therefore, 6 matrix were considered (three structured and three random) for this study. Random matrix presented a normal

  16. Periodontitis and Sleep Disordered Breathing in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anne E.; Essick, Greg K.; Beck, James D.; Cai, Jianwen; Beaver, Shirley; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ramos, Alberto R.; Singer, Richard H.; Jimenez, Monik C.; Barnhart, Janice M.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    , Loredo JS, Ramos AR, Singer RH, Jimenez MC, Barhart JM, Redline S. Periodontitis and sleep disordered breathing in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1195–1203. PMID:25669183

  17. Large Sample Hydrology : Building an international sample of watersheds to improve consistency and robustness of model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for

  18. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). Trigo I. F. (2006) Climatology and interannual variability of storm-tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: A comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Clim. Dyn., 26, 127-143.

  19. Assessment of soft-bottom polychaete assemblages in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on a mesoscale survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrune, Céline; Grémare, Antoine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Sardá, Rafael; Gil, João; Taboada, Sergi

    2007-01-01

    the Gulf of Lions. Assemblage III was composed of 40 and 50 m deep stations; it was associated with terrigeneous coastal mud and found all over Gulf of Lions. Assemblage III was dominated by the sternaspid Sternaspis scutata. These three assemblages were tightly related with the benthic communities already described independently by Picard [Picard, J.,1965. Recherches qualitatives sur les biocénoses marines des substrats meubles dragables de la région marseillaise. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume 52, 1-160] and Guille [Guille, A., 1971b. Bionomie benthique du plateau continental de la côte catalane française. II - Les communautés de la macrofaune. Vie et Milieu 21, 149-280] based on samples collected along the Provençal and the French Catalan rocky coasts, respectively. Unfortunately, no quantitative data were available to compare the α-diversity of the three newly defined assemblages with historical data collected by these two authors. We therefore compared our diversity measurements with the data collected by Desbruyères et al. [Desbruyères, D., Guille, A., Ramos, J.M., 1972/73. Bionomie du plateau continental de la côte catalane espagnole. Vie et Milieu 23, 335-363] in the Bay of Rosas (Spanish Catalan coast). Due to differences in the sampling effort between the two studies, this comparison was restricted to trends between assemblages. Our results show maximal densities and minimal α-diversity in the Littoral Fine Sand assemblage, which was not the case in Desbruyères et al. [Desbruyères, D., Guille, A., Ramos, J. M., 1972/73. Bionomie du plateau continental de la côte catalane espagnole. Vie et Milieu 23, 335-363]. Major temporal changes obviously reflect the increases of Ditrupa arietina (in the Littoral Fine Sands assemblage), and to a lesser extent Lumbrineris latreilli (in the Littoral Sandy Mud assemblage).

  20. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    literature. They include indices as the Karst Disturbance Index (van Beynen & Townsend, 2005; North et al., 2009), the Karst Sustainibility Index (van Beynen et al., 2012), as well as indices defined for protected areas (Angulo et al., 2013), and for single caves, including those open to tourists (Cigna & Forti, 1988; de Freitas, 2010; Pani & Cigna, 2013; Ramos Donato et al., 2014; Trofimova, 2014). Each index will be critically reviewed, and its main aim(s) and scales of application (national, regional, protected karst area, show cave, single cave, etc.) described, by analyzing their practical implementation, and pointing out to the problems and difficulties, as well as to their advantages. References Angulo B., Morales T., Uriarte J.A. & Antigüedad I., 2013, Implementing a comprehensive approach for evaluating significance and disturbance in protected karst areas to guide management strategies. J. Environ. Management, 130, 386-96. Cigna A.A. & Forti P., 1988. The environmental impact assessment of a tourist cave. Proc. Int. Symp. 170th Anniv. Postojnska Jama, 29-38. de Freitas C.R., 2010, The role and importance of cave microclimate in the sustainable use and management of show caves. Acta Carsologica, 39 (3), 477-489. North L.A., van Beynen P.E. & Parise M., 2009, Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: West-central Florida and southeast Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 90 (5), 1770-1781. Pani D. & Cigna A.A., 2013, The paradox of cave mine conservation. In: De Waele J., Forti P. & Naseddu A. (eds.), Mine Caves. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, ser. II, 28, 247-262. Ramos Donato C., de Souza Ribeiro A. & de Sousa Souto L., 2014, A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments. International Journal of Speleology, 43 (3), 315-322. Trofimova E.V., 2014, A new approach to the assessment of cave environmental changes (as exemplified by caves in the Muradimovskoe Uschelie Natural Park). Geographia

  1. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  2. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the SAFRAN-gauge-based analysis system (Vidal et al., 2010). We have then built samples of maximal rainfalls for each cell location (the "point" rainfalls) and for different areas centered on each cell location (the areal rainfalls) of these gridded data. To compute rainfall quantiles, we have fitted a Gumbel law, with the L-moment method, on each of these samples. Our daily and hourly ARF have then shown four main trends: i) a sensitivity to the return period, with ARF values decreasing when the return period increases; ii) a sensitivity to the rainfall duration, with ARF values decreasing when the rainfall duration decreases; iii) a sensitivity to the season, with ARF values smaller for the summer period than for the winter period; iv) a sensitivity to the geographical location, with low ARF values in the French Mediterranean area and ARF values close to 1 for the climatic zones of Northern and Western France (oceanic to semi-continental climate). The results of this data-intensive study led for the first time on the whole French territory are in agreement with studies led abroad (e.g. Allen and DeGaetano 2005, Overeem et al. 2010) and confirm and widen the results of previous studies that were carried out in France on smaller areas and with fewer rainfall durations (e.g. Ramos et al., 2006, Neppel et al., 2003). References Allen R. J. and DeGaetano A. T. (2005). Areal reduction factors for two eastern United States regions with high rain-gauge density. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 10(4): 327-335. Arnaud P., Fine J.-A. and Lavabre J. (2007). An hourly rainfall generation model applicable to all types of climate. Atmospheric Research 85(2): 230-242. Cantet, P. and Arnaud, P. (2014). Extreme rainfall analysis by a stochastic model: impact of the copula choice on the sub-daily rainfall generation, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 28(6), 1479-1492. Neppel L

  3. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    policy. El Grano de los Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y también para proyectar el número total de rinocerontes con probabilidad de ser cazados ilegalmente desde 2014 hasta 2023. Las dinámicas poblacionales de los rinocerontes fueron entonces modeladas bajo ocho escenarios políticos diferentes que podrían implementarse para controlar la caza furtiva. También estimamos los costos económicos y los beneficios de cada escenario solamente bajo la ejecución aumentada del plan de manejo y el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte y usamos un marco de trabajo de apoyo a decisiones para ordenar los escenarios con el objetivo de mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual mientras se generan ganancias para los accionistas locales. Se predijo que la población de rinocerontes sureños blancos se extinguiría en menos de 20 años bajo el manejo actual. El escenario óptimo para mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual fue el de proporcionar un incremento mediano en el esfuerzo contra la caza furtiva e incrementar la multa monetaria de la condena. Sin legalizar el mercado, implementar tal escenario requeriría cubrir costos de aproximadamente $147, 000, 000 al año. Con

  4. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    policy. El Grano de los Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y también para proyectar el número total de rinocerontes con probabilidad de ser cazados ilegalmente desde 2014 hasta 2023. Las dinámicas poblacionales de los rinocerontes fueron entonces modeladas bajo ocho escenarios políticos diferentes que podrían implementarse para controlar la caza furtiva. También estimamos los costos económicos y los beneficios de cada escenario solamente bajo la ejecución aumentada del plan de manejo y el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte y usamos un marco de trabajo de apoyo a decisiones para ordenar los escenarios con el objetivo de mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual mientras se generan ganancias para los accionistas locales. Se predijo que la población de rinocerontes sureños blancos se extinguiría en menos de 20 años bajo el manejo actual. El escenario óptimo para mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual fue el de proporcionar un incremento mediano en el esfuerzo contra la caza furtiva e incrementar la multa monetaria de la condena. Sin legalizar el mercado, implementar tal escenario requeriría cubrir costo

  5. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  6. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    sedimentos presentan altos porcentajes de arcillas dispersivas en las zonas de dolinas. En las zonas en que no se han producido colapsos, se aprecian altos contenidos de arena de grano entre mediano y grueso, con una granulometría entre moderada y bastante uniforme, que probablemente rellenan un paleocanal. Las campañas electromagnéticas confirman la asociación entre los materiales arcillosos, eléctricamente conductivos, y la presencia de dolinas, mientras que los materiales arenosos, menos conductivos eléctricamente, se asocian a las zonas no colapsadas. Las dolinas se deben probablemente a procesos de erosión subsuperficial de los sedimentos arcillosos a lo largo de fracturas preexistentes. Estas fracturas se produjeron probablemente como resultado de la desecación del suelo en los periodos de descenso del nivel freático, en los últimos cien años.

  7. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    for significant events of the 2010-2013 period. The evaluation showed significant improvements in terms of flash flood event detection and effective warning lead-time, compared to warnings from the current AIGA setup (without any future precipitation). Various verification metrics (e.g., Relative Mean Error, Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score) show the skill of ensemble precipitation and flow forecasts compared to single-valued persistency benchmarks. In addition to propagating the QPF uncertainty to streamflow forecasts, we discuss how to account for other sources of forecast uncertainty, including precipitation observational uncertainty (Caseri et al. 2014) and hydrologic uncertainties. Planned enhancements include ingesting other probabilistic nowcast and NWP products from Météo-France's convection-permitting AROME model, as well as developing comprehensive observational and post-event damage database to determine decision-relevant thresholds for flood magnitude and probability. Caseri, A., Javelle, P., Ramos, M.H., Leblois, E., 2014. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management. Journal of Flood Risk Management (submitted). Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D., Arnaud, P., 2014. Evaluating flash flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system. Hydrological Sciences Journal. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.923970

  8. Active and Fossil Geothermal Activity at Lake Chapala, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zârate-del Vall, P.

    2002-12-01

    CPDB values we have two set of data: one near zero (-8.03 to -8.69 \\permil) that means a no contribution of organic carbon and other with low values (-0.35 to -0.75 \\permil) meaning an important contribution of organic carbon; from very low δ 18OPDB values (-8.5 to -0.27 \\permil) we deduced a precipitation in meteoric water with a temperature deposition higher than the surface that matchs with an hydrothermal origin. Mineralogy was confirmed by XRD diffractometry. Near the sub-lacustrine spring "Los Gorgos" there are some small land spots which look like islands (<3-4 m2) made of solid bitumen and which are linked to the bottom of the lake. Because of these hydrocarbon manifestations the company Petróleos Mexicanos drilled (2,348 m deep), without success, an oil exploration well (L¢pez-Ramos, 1979). The characterisation of this solid bitumen is in progress.

  9. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

  10. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    agriculture and forestry including bioenergy options. Results reveal that bioenergy targets have significant effects on conservation planning and nature conservation. The additional land utilization demands driven by bioenergy targets influence not only the restoration costs of wetland areas. Also wetland conservation targets in one place stimulate land use intensification elsewhere due to market linkages. It also implies that environmental stresses (to wetlands) may be transferred to other countries. In all the results show that an integrated modelling of environmental and land use changes in European scale is able to estimate the impacts of policy decisions in nature conservation and agriculture. As shown by the case study, the implementation of any targets concerning resource utilization need to be followed by adequate land use planning. References Schleupner C. (2007). Estimation of wetland distribution potentials in Europe. FNU-135, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg. Schneider U.A., J Balkovic, S. De Cara, O. Franklin, S. Fritz, P. Havlik, I. Huck, K. Jantke , A.M.I. Kallio, F. Kraxner, A. Moiseyev, M. Obersteiner, C.I. Ramos, C. Schleupner, E. Schmid, D. Schwab & R. Skalsky (2008). The European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model - EUFASOM. FNU-156, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg.

  11. Juvenile accretion (2360-2330 Ma) in the São Francisco Craton, and implications for the Columbia supercontinent: evidence from U-Pb zircon ages, Sr-Nd-Hf and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, W.; Ávila, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Mineiro and the Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá belts are segments of an Early Proterozoic orogen, in the São Francisco/West Congo-North Gabon craton. The latter segment includes island-arc rocks with preserved portions of the accretionary prism and back-arc basins, developed between 2.4 and 2.0 Ga. The Mineiro belt evolved marginally to the Minas passive margin basin (<2.55 to 2.35 Ga). It contains mainly granitoid rocks with ages between 2.25-2.20 Ga and 2.12-2.08 Ga, along with coeval back arc sequences. The overall framework includes regional metamorphism and related faults and shear zones across both belts. Similar tectonic features are portrayed by the West Central African belt (of Eburnean age) by considering the early contiguous African counterpart. We present an integrated geochronologic and geochemical study for the Resende Costa orthogneiss (Mineiro belt): the gneissic rocks are slightly metaluminous to peraluminous, subalkaline, show varied SiO2 (69 to 73wt.%) contents, and low K2O and high- Na2O +CaO ones. Chemically, they are compatible with high Al2O3 trondhjemites. They also show weak positive Eu/Eu* anomalies, low Rb (24 to 70ppm), Ba (500 to 1000ppm), Th (2.1 to 8.5ppm) contents, very high Sr/Y ratios (75 to 158) and variable LREE and low HREE patterns (Yb < 1.23 ppm). The Resende Costa pluton yields two U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon crystallization ages (2358±10 Ma and 2356±12 Ma), while the zircon rims yield 2133±32 Ma, interpreted as the age of metamorphism. The Sm/Nd TDM whole rock model ages are between 2.35-2.50 Ga, whereas the ɛNd(t) values range from +1.2 to +3.0, ɛSr(t) from +10 to -6, and ɛHf(t) in zircon between -3 to +6. The nearby Ramos gneissic pluton gives U-Pb zircon age of 2331±17 Ma, TDM age of 2.4 Ga, ɛNd(t) +2.2, ɛHf(t) (-9/+9) and ɛSr(t) +40 values. The overall signature implies to short crustal residence for the protholiths with minor contamination during the petrogenesis. Published data reveal that the nearby Lagoa Dourada

  12. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ramos on 'Electrohydrodynamic pumping in microsystems'. Of the papers submitted for publication 69 passed through the thorough review process and I take this opportunity to warmly thank the reviewers for their constructive criticism and rapid turnaround which has allowed the Proceedings to be delivered to the publisher on time. It is a pleasure also to thank members of the International Advisory Panel, and the Organizing and Programme Committees for their guidance and suggestions and especially Claire Garland and her team at the Institute of Physics for their support, all of which ensured a successful and enjoyable conference. Special thanks are due to Jeremy Smallwood for organising the pre-conference workshop, to Tom Jones, Martin Glor and Dave Swenson for their highly informative and educational contributions at the workshop, to CST for organising the simulation workshop, and to CST and JCI Chilworth for their much appreciated sponsorship of the conference. I am sure you will enjoy reading this record of Electrostatics 2011, covering as it does the wide range of subjects upon which static electricity impinges. Especially important is the development of electrostatic-based methods for reducing atmospheric pollution. In this context it is interesting to see how Masuda's work on the surface-discharge-based Boxer charger, first reported over 30 years ago, has now developed into dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) systems for the removal of noxious molecules from industrial and vehicle exhaust gases. Thanks to our hard working conference chairman, Paul Holdstock, the conference retained its now well-established reputation for providing a friendly, sociable atmosphere for discussing the newest developments in this important scientific area. Finally, my sincere thanks go to all the presenters and to all those who attended and contributed to another successful conference. Professor D. Martin TaylorProceedings EditorBangor, May 2011

  13. Astronomical tuning of long pollen records reveals the dynamic history of montane biomes and lake levels in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Vladimir; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Lourens, Lucas; Tzedakis, P. Chronis

    2013-03-01

    middle and late Pleistocene. The evolutionary changes of the páramo and montane forest biomes are described in terms of five characteristic stages. Most of the Pleistocene vegetation has no analogue to modern assemblages principally due to the late immigration events of Alnus (1.01 Ma) and Quercus (0.43 Ma) and we conclude that forest composition similar to modern was not established until the Last Interglacial. However, modern ecological constraints of suites of taxa that formed the vegetation of the pre-MIS 5 part of the record allow a reconstruction of environmental and climate change.

  14. Inhibited flammability and surface inactivation of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Mateum, Philip Edward R.; Orille, Ross William M.; Ramos, Rafael Julius U.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Ramos, Henry J.; Bo-ot, Luis Ma. T.

    2007-06-01

    Changes on the properties of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS) were examined. The experimental facility employed was an in-house constructed, compact gas discharge ion source with beam energies maintained approximately in the 1 keV range fixed at 1 mA discharge current, 3 mTorr gas filling pressure. Wood specimens used were of species endemic in the Philippines namely Shorea sp., Shorea polysperma and Cocos nucifera. Results showed the processed samples manifested characteristics of inhibited flammability, and became relatively hydrophobic after the treatment. In the fire resistance test, it was also observed during initial flaming that the processed surfaces accumulated less soot attesting to a much lower smoldering rate, i.e. lesser combustibility. To assess the increase in fire endurance time for the processed wood against the control substrates, a non-directional, two-tailed t-test was utilized. Significant at the 0.05 level, the t-statistic measured 9.164 as opposed to only 4.303 in its corresponding critical value at two degrees of freedom. Hence, the treatment appeared to show strong statistical evidence of being effective in enhancing fire resistance. The processed specimens also exhibited moisture absorptive inhibition time of more than 10 min versus an average absorption period of just 8 s for the unprocessed samples. Spectroscopy using a cast steel mass analyzer indicated a predominance of H+ with faint signals of H2+in the ion showers. It is hypothesized that the monatomic ion plays an essential participatory role in the surface modification process. Data from an earlier work using Narra wood (Pterocarpus indicus) [G.Q. Blantocas, H.J. Ramos, M. Wada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 8498] was extended in the current study to substantiate this hypothesis. The data is now presented as current density ratio H+ /H2+versus the change rate constant K of the wetting model equation. It is shown that wood affinity to water decreased as the

  15. Snow cover and ground surface temperature on a talus slope affected by mass movements. Veleta cirque, Sierra Nevada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Salvador-Franch, F.

    2012-04-01

    . In the mid-upper part (S5, S2) the thaw occurs in mid-August. The GST data provide evidence of the current absence of permafrost along the talus slope profile, although some years ago it was detected using BTS methods (Gómez et al., 2003. Gómez-Ortiz, A., Palacios, D., Luengo, E., Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. and Ramos, M., 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relationship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografisca Annaler 85 A (2), 165-182. Lambiel, C. and Pieracci, K. 2008. Permafrost distribution in talus slopes located within the alpine periglacial belt, Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 19: 293-304 Luetschg, M.; Stoeckli, M.; Lehning, M.; Haeberli, W., and Ammann, W. 2004. Temperatures in two boreholes at Flüela Pass, Eastern Swiss Alps: the effect of snow redistribution on permafrost distribution patterns in high mountain areas. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 15: 283-297. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  16. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    than when IKONOS or Landsat imagery was hand-digitized, as it was for the Dominican Republic (7) and Barbados. 1. T. Kennaway, E. H. Helmer. (Intl Inst of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, 2006). 2. A. Areces-Mallea et al. (The Nature Conservancy, 1999). 3. E. H. Helmer, O. Ramos, T. Lopez, M. Quiñones, W. Diaz, Carib J Sci 38, 165-183 (2002). 4. C. Daly, E. H. Helmer, M. Quiñones, Int J Climatology 23, 1359-1381 (2003). 5. T. G. Farr, M. Kobrick, Eos Transactions 81, 583-585 (2000). 6. E. H. Helmer, B. Ruefenacht, Photogrammetric Eng Rem Sens 71, 1079-1089 (2005). 7. S. Hernández, M. Pérez. (Secretaría de Estado de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la República Dominicana, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2005).

  17. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  18. PREFACE: Fourh Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Supercooled Fluids, Glasses and Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Laura; Giordano, Marco; Leporini, Dino; Tosi, Mario

    2007-04-01

    round-table discussion sessions were organized to discuss issues that have special impact on our current understanding (or lack of it) of the dynamics of glass transition: 'Low-energy excitations and relaxations in glasses' and 'An assessment of current theories: interconnections and relevance to experiments'. We are very grateful to M A Ramos and R Bömer, and to P G Debenedetti and H Z Cummins for organizing and leading these two activities. Two very active and profitable poster sessions collected contributions on the themes of relaxation processes, cooperativity in polymers and mixtures, polyamorphism and water, biomaterials, relaxation, aging phenomena in thin films, confined and complex systems, and theoretical aspect, energy landscape and molecular dynamics, low temperature, glass and PT procedures, tracer dynamics, heterogeneity and relaxation in glass formers We acknowledge the generous support given to the workshop by our institutions, and in particular by Scuola Normale Superiore. The organization of the events in its beautiful rooms and corridors, as well as the lunches and coffee breaks held in its courtyard, especially favoured meetings and discussions between the participants. Several public and private Institutions have also supported our efforts and we would like to thank them warmly: they are the 'Soft Matter' Center of Rome, the INFN Section in Pisa, the CNR/INFM Polylab, and Ital Scientifica, TA Instruments, Novocontrol Technologies, Up Group, Isole e Olena. Finally, we express our gratitude to all those individuals—we mention here in particular Dr Ciro Autiero, Dr Massimo Faetti, Dr Fabio Zulli, Ms Patrizia Pucci, and Ms Caterina D'Elia—who have given their work and time to the making and running of the Workshop.

  19. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  20. Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

    2010-05-01

    obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

  1. A new fit-for-purpose model testing framework: Decision Crash Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James

    2016-04-01

    decisions. In one case, we show the set of model building decisions has a low probability to correctly support the upgrade decision. In the other case, we show evidence suggesting another set of model building decisions has a high probability to correctly support the decision. The proposed DCT framework focuses on what model users typically care about: the management decision in question. The DCT framework will often be very strict and will produce easy to interpret results enabling clear unsuitability determinations. In the past, hydrologic modelling progress has necessarily meant new models and model building methods. Continued progress in hydrologic modelling requires finding clear evidence to motivate researchers to disregard unproductive models and methods and the DCT framework is built to produce this kind of evidence. References: Andréassian, V., C. Perrin, L. Berthet, N. Le Moine, J. Lerat, C. Loumagne, L. Oudin, T. Mathevet, M.-H. Ramos, and A. Valéry (2009), Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1757-1764. Klemeš, V. (1986), Operational testing of hydrological simulation models. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 31 (1), 13-24.

  2. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones in Azores for the last 800 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Ingles, Maria Jesus; Sánchez, Guiomar; Trigo, Ricardo; Francus, Pierre; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro; Freitas, Conceiçao; Borges, Paolo; Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Andrade, Cesar; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    .5 m long core allowed us to recover the whole sedimentary infill of Azul Lake, which has been characterized using a multiproxy (geochemistry, diatoms and chironomid head capsules) approach. The last 800 cal years BP, dated by the use of 14C (plant remains) and 210Pb, have been recorded in the 1.5 m of sediment. The layers of flood events deposits are characterized by low Ti content, no diatoms, and both high organic content and terrestrial plants remains. 14C and 210Pb dates obtained in this core have been used to link the flood events recorded in the offshore zones of the lake with the historical storms hitting the archipelago. According to the results of the studied sediment core, the number of tropical storms hitting the island has increased for the last 50 years. This is in accordance with the findings done by other authors (Liu et al., 2001 and Besonen et al., 2008). Moreover, two other periods located around the 1450s and the 1650s also recorded high number of storms. An increase of typhoons in China and hurricanes reaching the north Atlantic coast of United States during the same periods suggests a global climate pattern that ruled these extreme phenomena. LITERATURE: Andrade, C., Trigo R.M., Freitas, M.C., Gallego M.C., Borges, P., Ramos, A.M. (2008) "Comparing Historic Records of Storm frequency and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) chronology for the Azores region", The Holocene, 18, 745-754 Besonen M.R., Bradley S.B., Mudelsee M., Abbott M.B, Francus P. (2008) "A 1000-year, annually-resolved record of hurricane activity from Boston, Massachussets" Geophysical Research Letters. Vol.35, L14705. Liu, K.-b., Shen, C. and Louie, K.-s. (2001), A 1,000-Year History of Typhoon Landfalls in Guangdong, Southern China, Reconstructed from Chinese Historical Documentary Records. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91: 453-464. doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00253

  3. Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated with a Flash Flood Event in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Trigo, Isabel F.; María Durán-Quesada, Ana; Nieto, Raquel; Gimeno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). Margarida L. R. Liberato was also supported by a FCT grant (SFRH/BPD/45080/2008). Liberato M. L. R., A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, I. F. Trigo, A. M. Durán-Quesada, R. Nieto, and L. Gimeno (2012) Moisture Sources and Large-scale Dynamics Associated with a Flash Flood Event. Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere, Geophysical Monograph Series (in press). Stohl, A., and P. James (2004), A Lagrangian analysis of the atmospheric branch of the global water cycle. Part I: Method description, validation, and demonstration for the August 2002 flooding in central Europe, J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 656-678. Stohl, A., and P. James (2005), A Lagrangian analysis of the atmospheric branch of the global water cycle. Part II: Earth's river catchments, ocean basins, and moisture transports between them, J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 961-984. Zêzere, J. L., R. M. Trigo, and I. F. Trigo (2005), Shallow and deep landslides induced by rainfall in the Lisbon region (Portugal): Assessment of relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 331-344.

  4. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  5. Improving simulation of El Niño Impacts on summer cropping systems of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén

    2013-04-01

    confirm that crop yield can be used as an integrated bioclimatic indicator in Lugo. We observed that there is a non stationary relationship between maize yield in the Iberian Peninsula and El Niño. The climate fields that have significant influence on maize yield are maximum and minimum temperature of May. Low maximum and minimum temperature in May increased yield, and these temperatures are positively correlated with El Niño Index of several months before the cycle crop. These interactions and others found will be discussed in detail. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Capa-Morocho M., Rodríguez-Fonseca B. and Ruiz-Ramos M. 2012. Climatic variability effects on summer cropping systems of the Iberian Peninsula. European Geosciences Union.General Assembly 2012. April 2012, Vienna, Austria. Legler D.M, Bryant K.J and ÓBrien J.J. 1999. Impact of ENSO related climate anomalies on crop yields in the U.S. Climatic Change 42:351-375.

  6. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    ón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain ) I. McEwan, M. Richardson Ashima Research, Inc., Pasadena, CA, USA L. Castañer, M. Domínguez, V. Jiménez, L. Kowalski, J. Ricart Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain M.A. de Pablo, M. Ramos Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain M. de la Torre Juárez Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA J. Moreno, A. Peña, J. Serrano, F. Torrero, T. Velasco EADS-CRISA, Madrid, Spain N.O. Renno Michigan University, Ann Arbor, MI, USA M. Genzer, A.-M. Harri, H. Kahanpää, J. Polkko FMI, Finland R. Haberle NASA Ames Research Center, CA, USA R. Urquí INSA, Madrid, Spain

  7. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2008-01-01

    , Japan) P. Ghendrih (CEA, France) E. Gusakov (Ioffe Institute, Russia) T.C. Luce (GAT, USA) N. Oyama (JAEA, Japan) J.J. Ramos (MIT, USA) H. Takenaga (JAEA, Japan) In addition there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2007. Our thanks to them! Peer-review process We are pleased to report that further progress has been made in speeding up our publishing process, without any compromise of quality. Those authors who regularly submit work based on contributions to the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) will, perhaps, have noticed the reduction in times compared to earlier years. We believe that Nuclear Fusion maintains its position in the field because of the perceived high quality of the submissions, the refereeing and the editorial processes. This position of strength will be built upon as we endeavour to further improve the service to the journal's authors and readers.

  8. Topics in mathematical physics, general relativity, and cosmology in honor of Jerzy Plebanski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plebanski, Jerzy; Garcia-Compean, Hugo

    pt. 1. Historical data. Jerzy Plebanski: the quest for new worlds / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Pleasant memories with Jerzy Plebanski / D. Finley. My recollections of Jerzy Plebanski / A. Trautman. Working with Pleban / I. Robinson. List of Plebanski's publications -- pt. II. Invited papers (proceedings part). Organizing committee. The higher-energy precursor of the AdS/CFT correspondence / X. Amador ... [et al.]. How black holes grow / A. Ashtekar. Some theorems related to the Jacobi variational principle of analytical dynamics / S. L. Bazanski. Horizon structure of Born-Infeld black hole / N. Breton. Space-time torsion contribution to quantum interference phases / A. Camacho & A. Macias. Squeezing operator and squeeze tomography / O. Castanos ... [et al.]. A producer of universes / R. Cordero & E. Rojas. Moyal star-product on a Hilbert space / G. Dito. Null-Kahler structures, symmetries and integrability / M. Dunajski & M. Przanowski. Helicity basis and parity / V. V. Dvoeglazov. Second order supersymmetry transformations in quantum mechanics / D. J. Fernandez C. & A. Ramos. Generalized symmetries for the sDiff(2) Toda equation / D. Finley & J. K. Mciver. Differential equations and Cartan connections / S. Frittelli ... [et al.]. N = 2 String geometry and the heavenly equations / H. Garcia-Compean. Noncommutative topological and Einstein gravity from noncommutative SL(2, C) BF theory / H. Garcia-Compean ... [et al.]. Conservation laws, constants of the motion, and Hamiltonians / J. Goldberg. Electromagnetic wavelets as Hertzian pulsed beams in complex spacetime / G. Kaiser. Generalized k-deformations and deformed relativistic scalar fields on noncommutative Minkowski space / P. Kosinski ... [et al.]. Structure formation in the Lemaitre-Tolman cosmological model (a non-perturbative approach) / A. Krasinski & C. Hellaby. Ramond-Ramond fields in orientifold backgrounds and K-theory / O. Loaiza-Brito. Large N field theories, string theory and gravity / J

  9. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    subregions, the PNA-link is significant in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska and the WP-link is so along the U.S. West Coast. During OND, these links are significant in the Gulf of Alaska only. If AR-counts are calculated upon persistent (instead of instantaneous) ARs, the link to the NAO weakens over the British Isles and western Iberia. For the experimental set-ups most closely mirroring those applied in Lavers et al. (J Geophys Res Atmos 117, 2012. doi: 10.1029/2012JD018027) and Ramos et al. (J Hydrometeorol 16(2):579-597, 2015. doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0103.1), the NAO-links are completely or partly insignificant indicating that the inclusion of the persistence criterion notably alters the results. Visual support for the present study is provided by an exhaustive historical atmospheric river archive built at http://www.meteo.unican.es/atmospheric-rivers.

  10. High Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Indoor Noise and Air Pollution from Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by collinearity. Citation: Foraster M, Künzli N, Aguilera I, Rivera M, Agis D, Vila J, Bouso L, Deltell A, Marrugat J, Ramos R, Sunyer J, Elosua R, Basagaña X. 2014. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic. Environ Health Perspect 122:1193–1200; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307156 PMID:25003348

  11. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. In this work we use an automated AR detection algorithm for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin to identify the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The two different databases (extreme precipitation events and AR) will be analysed together in order to study ARs in detail in the North Atlantic Basin and, additionally, the relationship with precipitation-related events in Iberian Peninsula. Results confirm the significance link between these phenomena, as the TOP 20 days of the ranking of precipitation anomalies for the Iberian Peninsula includes 19 days that are clearly related with AR events. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  12. Dynamical Mechanisms and Variability of Dry and Wet Spells in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Montero, Irene; Gouveia, Célia

    2014-05-01

    Ecology and Management, 294: 62-75, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.032 Gouveia, C., , R. M. Trigo, , C. C. DaCamara (2009) Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9: 185-195 doi:10.5194/nhess-9-185-2009 Liberato M. L. R., J. G. Pinto, I. F. Trigo, R. M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66: 330-334 doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato, M. L. R., A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, I. F. Trigo, A. M. Durán-Quesada, R. Nieto, L. Gimeno (2013) Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated With a Flash Flood Event, in Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (eds J. Lin, D. Brunner, C. Gerbig, A. Stohl, A. Luhar and P. Webley), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 200: 111-126, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C. doi: 10.1029/2012GM001244

  13. The Dinner Creek Tuff: A Widespread Co-CRBG Ignimbrite Sheet in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. F.; Ricker, C.; Handrich, T.

    2011-12-01

    high temperature, A-type rhyolites of Oregon such as the Rattlesnake Tuff. The source area - yet to be mapped in detail - of the Dinner Creek Tuff lies between Castle Rock and Ironside Mountain and coincides with the hypothesized crustal magma reservoirs of the Columbia River Basalt group (CRBG) (Wolff et al., 2008). Given that the Dinner Creek eruptions coincide with the eruptions of the Grand Ronde Basalt member of the CRBG, it is plausible that these CRBG magmas provided the heat for crustal melting that formed the Dinner Creek Tuff. Nash, B.P., Perkins, M.E., Christensen, J.N. Lee, D-C., Halliday, A.N., 2006, Earth Planet Sci Let 247: 143-156. Streck, M.J., Ferns, M., 2004, U.S.G.S Open-File Report 2004-1222: 2-17 Wolff, J.A., Ramos, F.C., Hart, G.L., Patterson, J.D., Brandon, A.D., 2008, Nature Geosci 1: 177-180.

  14. Chronic respiratory disease in adults treated for tuberculosis in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, K.; Bjune, G.; El Sony, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    juillet 2013 et le 30 décembre 2013. Les données ont été recueillies grâce à des questionnaires standardisés ainsi qu'à une spirométrie avant et après bronchodilatateur. Résultats : L'âge moyen des cas et des témoins a été de 44,0 ans (DS 8,5) et 44,5 ans (DS 8,61), respectivement, avec 27,2% de femmes dans les deux groupes. Des symptômes respiratoires chroniques comme une toux chronique (OR 6,67 ; IC95% 2,98–14,90 ; P < 0,001) et la présence d'une obstruction chronique des voies aériennes (OR 12,39 ; IC%95 1,56–98,40 ; P = 0,02) ont été tous deux fortement associés à des antécédents de TBP après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Conclusion : Les caractéristiques cliniques des MRC sont fortement associées à des antécédents de TBP. Une approche intégrée visant à améliorer la prise en charge de ces pathologies fréquentes devrait être envisagée. Marco de referencia: La enfermedad pulmonar crónica (EPC) es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque la epidemia mundial de EPC rivaliza con la epidemia de tuberculosis (TB) en muchos entornos de países con bajos y medianos recursos, el riesgo de aparición de EPC asociado con la TB se ha descrito cabalmente en los países con una alta carga de morbilidad por TB. Métodos: Entre el 28 de julio y el 30 de diciembre del 2013, participaron en el estudio 136 pacientes con antecedente de tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) y baciloscopia positiva del esputo que habían recibido tratamiento en el consultorio de neumología del Hospital Universitario Omdurman de Jartún, en Sudán, y 136 testigos sanos de la comunidad, emparejados en función de la edad y el sexo. Se recogieron datos mediante cuestionarios normalizados y se practicó una espirometría antes y despuès una prueba de broncodilatación. Resultados: El promedio de la edad en el grupo de los casos fue 44,0 (desviación estándar 8,5 años) y en el grupo de testigos fue 44,5 años (8,6 años); la proporción de

  15. Chronic respiratory disease in adults treated for tuberculosis in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, K.; Bjune, G.; El Sony, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    juillet 2013 et le 30 décembre 2013. Les données ont été recueillies grâce à des questionnaires standardisés ainsi qu'à une spirométrie avant et après bronchodilatateur. Résultats : L'âge moyen des cas et des témoins a été de 44,0 ans (DS 8,5) et 44,5 ans (DS 8,61), respectivement, avec 27,2% de femmes dans les deux groupes. Des symptômes respiratoires chroniques comme une toux chronique (OR 6,67 ; IC95% 2,98–14,90 ; P < 0,001) et la présence d'une obstruction chronique des voies aériennes (OR 12,39 ; IC%95 1,56–98,40 ; P = 0,02) ont été tous deux fortement associés à des antécédents de TBP après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Conclusion : Les caractéristiques cliniques des MRC sont fortement associées à des antécédents de TBP. Une approche intégrée visant à améliorer la prise en charge de ces pathologies fréquentes devrait être envisagée. Marco de referencia: La enfermedad pulmonar crónica (EPC) es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque la epidemia mundial de EPC rivaliza con la epidemia de tuberculosis (TB) en muchos entornos de países con bajos y medianos recursos, el riesgo de aparición de EPC asociado con la TB se ha descrito cabalmente en los países con una alta carga de morbilidad por TB. Métodos: Entre el 28 de julio y el 30 de diciembre del 2013, participaron en el estudio 136 pacientes con antecedente de tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) y baciloscopia positiva del esputo que habían recibido tratamiento en el consultorio de neumología del Hospital Universitario Omdurman de Jartún, en Sudán, y 136 testigos sanos de la comunidad, emparejados en función de la edad y el sexo. Se recogieron datos mediante cuestionarios normalizados y se practicó una espirometría antes y despuès una prueba de broncodilatación. Resultados: El promedio de la edad en el grupo de los casos fue 44,0 (desviación estándar 8,5 años) y en el grupo de testigos fue 44,5 años (8,6 años); la proporción de

  16. Ephemeral skin-flows on talus affected by permafrost degradation (Corral del Veleta, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Gómez, A.

    2009-04-01

    destroyed but rather tends to ‘blur' as the years pass, although it does not completely lose its original shape: the fine material inside the lobes becomes compacted and the multiple lobes become blurred. In contrast, in other sectors of the slope, where the presence of permafrost levels or buried ice has been detected, the skin flows, once formed, change their physiognomy from year to year, which may be related to the influence of the nival dynamic along with the degradation of the permafrost and the dislodgement of the active layer. References Akerman, H, .J, 1984: Notes on talus morphology and processes in Spitsbergen. Geografiska Annaler 66A (4): 267-284. Benedict, J. B. 1970. Downslope soil movement in a Colorado alpine region: rates, processes, and climatic significance, Arctic and Alpine Research, 2(3): 165-226 Caine N (1976). The influence of snow and increased snowfall on contemporary geomorphic processes in alpine areas. In: Steinoff HW, Ives JD (eds) Ecological impacts of snowpack augmentation in the San Juan Mountains. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, pp 145-200 Castillo, A. and Fedeli, B. 2002. Algunas pautas del comportamiento hidrogeológico de rocas duras afectadas por glaciarismo y periglaciarismo en Sierra Nevada (España). Geogaceta, 32: 195-197. Gómez, A., Palacios, D., Ramos, M., Tanarro, L.M., Schulte, L and Salvador, F., 2001: Location of permafrost in marginal regions: Corral del Veleta, Sierra Nevada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12: 93-110. Gómez, A.; Palacios, D.; Luengo, E.; Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. & Ramos, M. 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relantionship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografiska Annaler, 85 A(2): 165-182. Hall, K., 1985: Some observations on ground temperatures and transport processes at a nivation site in northern Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 39: 27-37. Harris, C., 1987: Mechanisms of mass movement in periglacial

  17. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the SAFRAN-gauge-based analysis system (Vidal et al., 2010). We have then built samples of maximal rainfalls for each cell location (the "point" rainfalls) and for different areas centered on each cell location (the areal rainfalls) of these gridded data. To compute rainfall quantiles, we have fitted a Gumbel law, with the L-moment method, on each of these samples. Our daily and hourly ARF have then shown four main trends: i) a sensitivity to the return period, with ARF values decreasing when the return period increases; ii) a sensitivity to the rainfall duration, with ARF values decreasing when the rainfall duration decreases; iii) a sensitivity to the season, with ARF values smaller for the summer period than for the winter period; iv) a sensitivity to the geographical location, with low ARF values in the French Mediterranean area and ARF values close to 1 for the climatic zones of Northern and Western France (oceanic to semi-continental climate). The results of this data-intensive study led for the first time on the whole French territory are in agreement with studies led abroad (e.g. Allen and DeGaetano 2005, Overeem et al. 2010) and confirm and widen the results of previous studies that were carried out in France on smaller areas and with fewer rainfall durations (e.g. Ramos et al., 2006, Neppel et al., 2003). References Allen R. J. and DeGaetano A. T. (2005). Areal reduction factors for two eastern United States regions with high rain-gauge density. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 10(4): 327-335. Arnaud P., Fine J.-A. and Lavabre J. (2007). An hourly rainfall generation model applicable to all types of climate. Atmospheric Research 85(2): 230-242. Cantet, P. and Arnaud, P. (2014). Extreme rainfall analysis by a stochastic model: impact of the copula choice on the sub-daily rainfall generation, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 28(6), 1479-1492. Neppel L

  18. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo Ar; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-10-28

    .95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions: Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS.Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos

  19. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  20. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  1. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambia

  2. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambiar sus prácticas de manejo que aquellos con menos

  3. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  4. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    connection) and not need update (all upgrade are deployed on the remote server)and DSS is a classical client-server application. The client side will be an HTML 5-CSS 3 application, it runs in one of the most common browser. The server side consist in: A web server (Apache web server); a map server (Geoserver); a Geographical q3456Relational Database Management Sytem (Postgresql+Postgis); Tools based on GDAL Lybraries. A customized web page will be implemented to publish all hydrometeorological information and forecast runs (free) for all users in the world. In this first presentation of the project are invited to attend all those scientific / technical people, Universities, Research Centers (public or private) who want to collaborate in it, opening a brainstorming to improve the System. References: • Liu Z. and Todini E., (2002). Towards a comprehensive physically based rainfall-runoff model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), 6(5):859-881, 2002. • Thielen, J., Bartholmes, J., Ramos, M.-H., and de Roo, A., (2009): The European Flood Alert System - Part 1: Concept and development, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 125-140, 2009. • Coccia C., Mazzetti C., Ortiz E., Todini E., (2010) - A different soil conceptualization for the TOPKAPI model application within the DMIP 2. American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, San Francisco H21H-07, 2010. • Pappenberger, F., Cloke, H. L., Balsamo, G., Ngo-Duc, T., and Oki,T., (2010) Global runoff routing with the hydrological component of the ECMWF NWP system, Int. J. Climatol., 30, 2155-2174, 2010. • Coccia, G. and Todini, E., (2011). Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the Model Conditional Processor approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 3253-3274, 2011. • Wu, H., Adler, R. F., Hong, Y., Tian, Y., and Policelli, F.,(2012): Evaluation of Global Flood Detection Using Satellite-Based Rainfall and a Hydrologic Model, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1268-1284, 2012. • Simth M. et al., (2013

  5. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    connection) and not need update (all upgrade are deployed on the remote server)and DSS is a classical client-server application. The client side will be an HTML 5-CSS 3 application, it runs in one of the most common browser. The server side consist in: A web server (Apache web server); a map server (Geoserver); a Geographical q3456Relational Database Management Sytem (Postgresql+Postgis); Tools based on GDAL Lybraries. A customized web page will be implemented to publish all hydrometeorological information and forecast runs (free) for all users in the world. In this first presentation of the project are invited to attend all those scientific / technical people, Universities, Research Centers (public or private) who want to collaborate in it, opening a brainstorming to improve the System. References: • Liu Z. and Todini E., (2002). Towards a comprehensive physically based rainfall-runoff model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), 6(5):859-881, 2002. • Thielen, J., Bartholmes, J., Ramos, M.-H., and de Roo, A., (2009): The European Flood Alert System - Part 1: Concept and development, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 125-140, 2009. • Coccia C., Mazzetti C., Ortiz E., Todini E., (2010) - A different soil conceptualization for the TOPKAPI model application within the DMIP 2. American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, San Francisco H21H-07, 2010. • Pappenberger, F., Cloke, H. L., Balsamo, G., Ngo-Duc, T., and Oki,T., (2010) Global runoff routing with the hydrological component of the ECMWF NWP system, Int. J. Climatol., 30, 2155-2174, 2010. • Coccia, G. and Todini, E., (2011). Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the Model Conditional Processor approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 3253-3274, 2011. • Wu, H., Adler, R. F., Hong, Y., Tian, Y., and Policelli, F.,(2012): Evaluation of Global Flood Detection Using Satellite-Based Rainfall and a Hydrologic Model, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1268-1284, 2012. • Simth M. et al., (2013

  6. EGLACOM project: seismic and oceanographic data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronio, L.; Lipizer, M.; Rebesco, M.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.; Fragiacomo, C.

    2009-04-01

    studies show that the AW inflow is variable in nature, both in terms of heat content and of transport intensity, therefore a detailed study of its structure is of particular importance. In order to study the thermohaline structure and the spatial extension of the AW inflow with a seismic oceanography approach, about 1000 Km of multichannel seismic reflection lines were acquired simultaneously with several types of oceanographic data. Seismic data interpretation is supported by 60 XBT (Expandable Bathy-Thermograph) profiles obtained concurrently during the seismic acquisition, 6 additional CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) casts carried out within 10 days from the XBT launches and sea-surface temperature and salinity measured continuously by a thermosalinograph installed on the vessel prow. In addition, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) data were acquired during navigation to continuously monitor the velocity distribution in the upper water column. The velocity field, together with the sea-surface temperature data from the NOAA-18 satellite were used to obtain information on the dynamic in the area. The seismic data processing is still in progress as well as the elaboration of oceanographic data. The first results obtained display a good correlation between seismic reflectors and discontinuities in vertical temperature and salinity gradients. XBT sections and CTD profiles allow to recognise the spatial extension of the water masses of Atlantic and Arctic origin present in the area, and show the progressive cooling and shallowing of the warm and salty AW proceeding northwards. References: Holbrook W. S., P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and W. Schmitt, 2003, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling: Science, 301, 821-824. Jones S. M., R. J. J. Hardy, R. W. Hobbs, and D. Hardy, 2008, The new synergy between seismic reflection imaging and oceanography: First Break, 26, 51-57. Nakamura Y., T. Noguchi, T. Tsuji, S

  7. Can a novel combination of organic chemical analysis and inverse modeling help reconstruct the past upper forest line in the Ecuadorian Andes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, B.; van Loon, E. E.; Nierop, K. G. J.

    2009-04-01

    The higher parts of the Ecuadorian Andes consist of fragile ecosystems characterized by páramo grasslands and montane cloud forests. Natural climatic change and human interference (i.a. burning and clear-cutting) are believed to have dramatically lowered the UFL in the area to the point that its natural position in the absence of disturbance is now uncertain. This is impeding our understanding of the response of the UFL to global climate change and hindering a correct strategy to reforest areas in the frame of Kyoto Protocol driven activities to fix carbon dioxide. An important cause of the uncertainty is that the traditional method of pollen analysis from peat or sediment deposits alone does not suffice to reconstruct shifts in the UFL. Reasons are the spatial uncertainty caused by wind-blown dispersal of pollen and the limited availability of peat or sediment deposits at all altitudes of interest. The RUFLE* program tackles this problem by combining traditional pollen and vegetation analyses with a novel biomarker approach. In the latter, plant species typical for specific vegetation zones are examined for the presence of biomarkers, defined as plant-specific (combinations of) organic chemical components. Our results show that the leaves and roots of the higher plants responsible for the dominant biomass input in our study area in the Eastern Cordillera in the Northern Ecuadorian Andes contain unique combinations of n-alkanes and n-alcohols in the carbon number range of C20-C36(1). Furthermore, we found these compounds to be well preserved in peat deposits and soils in chronological order for extended time periods (>6000 14C years B.P.)(2,3). As such they offer great potential to serve as biomarkers for past vegetation dynamics, including UFL shifts. However, since it are unique combinations of otherwise ubiquitous n-alkanes, n-alcohols of various carbon chain-lengths that constitute our biomarkers, unraveling the mixed signal of various plants accumulated in

  8. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    lithologies from Late Triassic shallow marine to continental deposits suggests that substantial uplift also affected the inner forearc and magmatic arc region during the D2 event. We propose that dextral-oblique convergence, initiated during the middle Permian along this segment of the Gondwana margin, resulted in the transpressional uplift and juxtaposition of high pressure/temperature (P/T) Western Series against low P/T Eastern Series lithologies and culminated with deposition of Late Triassic, continental to shallow marine, coarse clastic sedimentary rocks in fault-bounded strike-slip basins adjacent to the exhumed Western Series. Large-scale dextral transpression and northward displacement of the accretionary complex during Late Permian to Late Triassic time along the Chilean margin of Gondwana are synchronous and kinematically compatible with widespread regional transpression, extension, and silicic magmatism inboard of the southern Gondwana margin at this time. We thank C. Mpodozis, M. Gardeweg, and J. Muñoz of the Servicio de Geología y Minería de Chile (SERNAGEOMIN) for their support of this work. Fruitful discussions with N. Blanco, F. Hervé, H. Moreno, C. Mpodozis, and F. Munizaga have aided in our understanding of the geology of the region. The hard work by the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's Puerto Varas office is graciously appreciated. We thank J.D. Walker and W.R. Van Schmus at the University of Kansas for allowing MWM use of their U-Pb and mass spectrometer facilities and J. Vargas and the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's geochemistry laboratory for their assistance in this project. F. Munizaga allowed us to cite an unpublished 40Ar-39Ar date. We thank G. Ya˜nez for access to aeromagnetic data. T. Kato wishes to thank W. G. Ernst. Comments by I. Dalziel, S. Kay, and V. Ramos helped clarify ideas presented in this paper and are greatly appreciated. This work is dedicated to our friend and colleague Alberto Campos C., who died in a climbing accident on Calbuco Volcano, 1996.

  9. [Discriminant analysis to predict the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Murata, Chiharu; Ramírez, Ana Belén; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Cruz, Alonso; Morales, José Luis; Lugo-Reyes, Saul Oswaldo

    2015-01-01

    cuatro enfermedades más prevalentes (agammaglobulinemia ligada al cromosoma X, enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, inmunodeficiencia común variable y ataxia-telangiectasia). Prácticamente en todos los casos el desempeño de la máquina fue superior al del experto humano en lo que respecta a la selección de los atributos más pertinentes para incorporar en los modelos. La predicción del diagnóstico con base en las ecuaciones construidas tuvo exactitud global de 83 a 94%, con sensibilidad de 60 a 100%, especificidad de 83 a 95% y coeficiente kappa de 0.37 a 0.76. Conclusiones: la selección de variables, en general, tiene plausibilidad clínica y tiene la ventaja práctica de utilizar solamente atributos clínicos, gérmenes encontrados y estudios de laboratorio de rutina (biometría hemática e inmunoglobulinas séricas). El desempeño del modelo como herramienta de predicción fue aceptable. Las principales limitaciones del estudio incluyen un tamaño de muestra limitado, lo que no permitió que realizáramos validación cruzada en la evaluación. Éste es solamente un primer paso en la construcción de un sistema de aprendizaje automático, con un abordaje más amplio que incluya una base de datos más grande y diferentes metodologías, para asistir el diagnóstico clínico de las inmunodeficiencias primarias.

  10. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    soil and water management techniques to the farmers and implement soil erosion mitigation policies at appropriate spatial scales. Acknowledgements The RECARE project is funded by the European Commission FP7 program, ENV.2013.6.2-4 "Sustainable land care in Europe". References Blavet, D., De Noni, G., Le Bissonnais, Y., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., Asseline, J., Leprun, J. C., Arshad, M. A., Roose, E.: Effect of land use and management on the early stages of soil water erosion in French Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research, 106, 124-136, 2009. Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., Davy, P.: Soil erosion rates in Burgundian vineyards, Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, Volume Speciale 6, 169-174, 2006. Casalí, J., Giménez, R., De Santisteban, L., Alvarez-Mozos, J., Mena, J., Del Valle de Lersundi, J.: Determination of long-term erosion rates in vineyards of Navarre (Spain) using botanical benchmarks, Catena, 78, 12-19, doi:10.1016/ j.catena.2009.02.015, 2009. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S. H.: Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils, Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010, 2007. Ferrero, A., Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J.: Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard, Soil & Tillage Research, 84, 127-138, 2005. Leh, M., Bajwa, S., Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geographic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degradation & Development, 24, 409- 421, doi 10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P.: Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in southern France, Catena, 32, 209-223, 1998. Martinez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., Benites, G.: Soil and water assessment tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (NE

  11. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    soil and water management techniques to the farmers and implement soil erosion mitigation policies at appropriate spatial scales. Acknowledgements The RECARE project is funded by the European Commission FP7 program, ENV.2013.6.2-4 "Sustainable land care in Europe". References Blavet, D., De Noni, G., Le Bissonnais, Y., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., Asseline, J., Leprun, J. C., Arshad, M. A., Roose, E.: Effect of land use and management on the early stages of soil water erosion in French Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research, 106, 124-136, 2009. Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., Davy, P.: Soil erosion rates in Burgundian vineyards, Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, Volume Speciale 6, 169-174, 2006. Casalí, J., Giménez, R., De Santisteban, L., Alvarez-Mozos, J., Mena, J., Del Valle de Lersundi, J.: Determination of long-term erosion rates in vineyards of Navarre (Spain) using botanical benchmarks, Catena, 78, 12-19, doi:10.1016/ j.catena.2009.02.015, 2009. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S. H.: Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils, Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010, 2007. Ferrero, A., Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J.: Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard, Soil & Tillage Research, 84, 127-138, 2005. Leh, M., Bajwa, S., Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geographic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degradation & Development, 24, 409- 421, doi 10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P.: Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in southern France, Catena, 32, 209-223, 1998. Martinez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., Benites, G.: Soil and water assessment tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (NE

  12. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the soil before and during the measurement. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case to indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, or through the use of stochastic models such as the SCS Curve Number Method, or of other models using empirical or physical approaches, which have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. References Philip, J. R., 1954., An infiltration equation with physical significance: Soil Sci..,v. 77, p. 153-157. Philip, J. R., 1958. The theory of infiltration, pt. 7: Soil Sci., v. 85, no. 6, p. 333-337. Pla, I.1981. Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986. A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia). Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Pla, I. 2011. Evaluación y Modelización Hidrológica para el Diagnóstico y Prevención de "Desastres Naturales". Gestión y Ambiente 14 (3): 17-22. UN

  13. EDITORIAL: Photorefractive materials and effects for photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, V. I.; Fazio, E.; Damzen, M.

    2003-11-01

    This special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics is devoted to a mature field of nonlinear optics: photorefractive materials and effects for photonics. Photorefractivity was discovered long time ago by A Ashkin et al in 1966 and since then much work has been performed to characterize the phenomenon and to apply it. Nevertheless, research in this field remain very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. Some leading groups worldwide present their most up-to-date investigations of photorefractive materials and effects, as well as their applications in photonics. Thus, the papers in this issue report new results in three directions: photorefractive material researches, wave propagation (particularly solitons) through these nonlinear optical materials, and various applications and devices using photorefractive effects. The challenging goal of photorefractive material research is to find sensitive and fast materials for information transmission and processing. P M Johansen studies the fundamental problem of space--charge field formation in photorefractives. V Marinova et al show that light-induced properties of Ru-doped Bi12TiO20 (BTO) crystals has an extended sensitivity in the near infrared region. H A Al-Attar and O Taqatqa introduce a new photorefractive polymer composite for their interesting properties for optical data storage. R Ramos-Garcia et al perform measurements of absorption coefficient and refractive index changes in photorefractive quantum wells of GaAs. A Radoua et al characterize by two-wave mixing the photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3:Rh crystals (BCT) at 1.06 mum, and M K Balakirev et al study the photorefractive effect upon all optical poling of glass. Wave propagation and solitons are intensively studied in photorefractive crystals due to the possibility of obtaining steady-state spatial solitons, dynamic waveguiding and soliton interactions at low laser intensity. W Ramadan et al introduce a new procedure to

  14. Improving modelled impacts on the flowering of temperate fruit trees in the Iberian Peninsula of climate change projections for 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Pérez-Lopez, David; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Centeno, Ana; Dosio, Alessandro; Lopez-de-la-Franca, Noelia

    2013-04-01

    century will be used to evaluate the quality of the new data set of projections. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by project PEII10-0248-5680 from Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. References De Melo-Abreu, J. P. Barranco D. Cordeiro, A. M. Tous, J. Rogado, B. M. Villalobos, F. J. 2004. Modelling olive flowering date using chilling for dormancy release and thermal time. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 125: 117-127. Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate . Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 10.1029/2012JD017968 Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02). International Journal of Climatology 32:74-85 DOI: 10.1002/joc.2256. Pérez-López; D., Ruiz-Ramos, M., Sánchez-Sánchez. E., Centeno A., Prieto-Egido, I., and López-de-la-Franca, N., 2012. Influence of climate change on the flowering of temperate fruit trees. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-5774, EGU General Assembly 2012. Richardson, E.A. Seeley, S.D. Walker, D.R. 1974. A model for estimating the completion of rest for 'Redhaven' and 'Elberta' peach trees. HortScience, 9: 331-332. Shaltout, A.D. Unrath, C. r. 1983. Rest completion prediction model for 'Starkrimson Delicious' apples. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 957-961.

  15. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the soil before and during the measurement. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case to indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, or through the use of stochastic models such as the SCS Curve Number Method, or of other models using empirical or physical approaches, which have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. References Philip, J. R., 1954., An infiltration equation with physical significance: Soil Sci..,v. 77, p. 153-157. Philip, J. R., 1958. The theory of infiltration, pt. 7: Soil Sci., v. 85, no. 6, p. 333-337. Pla, I.1981. Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986. A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia). Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Pla, I. 2011. Evaluación y Modelización Hidrológica para el Diagnóstico y Prevención de "Desastres Naturales". Gestión y Ambiente 14 (3): 17-22. UN

  16. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    , India) Liberati, Stefano (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Lopez-Villarejo, Juan Jose (Dep. de Física Teorica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain) Louko, Jorma (University of Nottingham, UK) Lusanna, Luca (Sezione INFN di Firenze, Italy) Majumdar, Archan S (S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, India) Melis, Maurizio (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Menotti, Pietro (Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Italy) Mignemi, Salvatore (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Monni, Cristina (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Pani, Paolo (Università di Cagliari and INFN, Italy) Papazoglou, Antonios (ICG, University of Portsmouth, UK) Páramos, Jorge (Instituto de Plasmas e Fusāo Nuclear, IST, Portugal) Pavsic, Matej (Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) Perivolaropoulos, Leandros (University of Ioannina, Greece) Plionis, Manolis (Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, Greece) Pons, Josep (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Pouri, Athina (University of Athens, Greece) Radicella, Ninfa (Polytechnic of Turin, Italy) Rocha, Jorge (IST, Portugal) Russo, Jorge (ICREA, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) Sakai, Norisuke (Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Japan) Sakellariadou, Mairi (Department of Physics, King's College University of London, UK) Salisbury, Donald (Austin College, USA and MPI for the History of Science, Germany) Shnir, Yakov (National University of Ireland, Maynooth and DIAS, Ireland) Skenderis, Kostas (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands) Sotiriou, Thomas (DAMTP, Cambridge, UK) Sundermeyer, Kurt (Free University Berlin Institute for Theoretical Physics, Germany) Tartaglia, Angelo (DIFIS, Politecnico and INFN, Torino, Italy) Vagenas, Elias (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Wallden, Petros (Raman Research Institute, India) Wang, Bin (Fudan University, China) Weinfurtner, Silke (University of British Columbia, Canada) Zampeli, Mando (National Technical University of

  17. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    -152. Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2004. Hydrophobic and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fire-affected pine forest in southeastern Spain. Geoderma 118, 77-88. Neris, J., Jiménez, C., Fuentes, J., Morillas, G., Tejedor, M., 2012. Vegetation and land-use effects on soil properties and water infiltration of Andisols in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Catena 98(0), 55-62. Neris, J., Tejedor, M., Fuentes, J., Jiménez, C., 2013. Infiltration, runoff and soil loss in Andisols affected by forest fire (Canary Islands, Spain). Hydrological Processes 27(19), 2814-2824. Pausas, J.G. 2004. Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Climatic Change 63: 337-350. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Martin, D., Jordán, A., Burguet, M. 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid Earth, 4: 153-165. Poulenard, J., Podwojewski, P., Janeau, J.L., Collinet, J., 2001. Runoff and soil erosion under rainfall simulation of Andisols from the Ecuadorian Páramo: Effect of tillage and burning. Catena 45(3), 185-207. Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J.J. 2013. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J.J. 2013. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Shakesby, R.A. 2011. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: Review and future research directions. Earth Science Reviews, 105, 71-100.

  18. Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely complex but rewarding task,” said Octavio Camino-Ramos, ESA SMART-1 Spacecraft Operations Manager. “The long spiralling trajectory around Earth to test solar electric propulsion (a low-thrust approach), the long exposure to radiation, the strong perturbations of the gravity fields of the Earth-Moon system and then the reaching of a lunar orbit optimised for the scientific investigations, have allowed us to gain valuable expertise in navigation techniques for low-thrust propulsion and innovative operations concepts: telemetry distribution and alerting through the internet, and a high degree of ground operations automation - a remarkable benchmark for the future,” he explained. “For ESA’s Science Programme, SMART-1 represents a great success and a very good return on investment, both from the technological and the scientific point of view,” said Professor Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “It seems that right now everyone in the world is planning on going to the Moon. Future scientific missions will greatly benefit from the technological and operational experience gained thanks to this small spacecraft, while the set of scientific data gathered by SMART-1 is already helping to update our current picture of the Moon.” Note to editors More images and further updates on the SMART-1 mission end can be found at:www.esa.int/smart-1 SMART-1, (Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology) is the first European mission to the Moon. It was launched on 27 September 2003 on board an Ariane 5 rocket, from the CSG, Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana and reached its destination in November 2004 after following a long spiralling trajectory around Earth. In this phase, the spacecraft successfully tested for the first time in space the series of advanced technologies it carried on board. The technology demonstration part of the mission was declared successfully

  19. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    deforestation Environ. Res. Lett. 4 034013 Langner A and Siegert F 2009 Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 years Glob. Change Biol. 15 48-62 Ramankutty N, Gibbs H K, Achard F, Defries R, Foley J A and Houghton R A 2007 Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation Glob. Change Biol. 13 51-66 Siegert F, Ruecker G, Hinrichs A and Hoffmann A A 2001 Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino Nature 414 437-40 Soares-Filho B S, Nepstad D C, Curran L M, Cerqueira G C, Garcia R A, Ramos C A, Voll E, Mcdonald A, Lefebvre P and Schlesinger P 2006 Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin Nature 440 520-3 World Bank 2008 State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008 (Washington, DC: World Bank)

  20. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    extraordinary system J. Phys. Chem. B 107 5914 [30] Pardo L C, Veglio N, Bermejo F J, Tamarit J Li and Cuello G J 2005 Orientational short-range-order in disordered phases of methylhalogenomethanes Phys. Rev. B 72 014206 [31] Tamarit J Ll, Pérez-Jubindo M A and de la Fuente M R 1997 Dielectric studies on orientationally disordered phases of neopentylglycol ((CH3)2C(CH2OH)2) and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (NH2C(CH2OH)3) J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9 5469 [32] Jenau M, Reuter J, WüflingerA and Tamarit J Ll 1996 Crystal and pvT data and thermodynamics if the phase transitions on 2-methyl-2-nitro-propane J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. E 92 1899 [33] Drozd-Rzoska A, Rzoska S J, Pawlus S and Tamarit J Ll 2006 Dielectric relaxation in compressed glassy and orietationally disordered mixed crystals Phys. Rev. B 56 5764 [34] Talon C, Ramos M A, Vieira S, Cuello G J, Bermejo F J, Criado A, Senent M L, Bennington S M, Fischer H E and Schober H 1998 Low-temperature specific heat and glassy dynamics of a polymorphic molecular solid Phys. Rev. B 58 745

  1. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    distances of between 300 and 3.000 km), the mission is almost over. The spacecraft perilune has now dropped below an altitude of 300 km from the lunar surface and will get a closer look at specific targets on the Moon before landing in a controlled manner on the moon surface (controlled, that is, in terms of where and when). It will then “die” there. “With a relative low speed at impact (2 km/sec or 7200 km/h), SMART-1 will create a small crater of 3 to 10m in diameter’s” says Bernard Foing, SMART-1 Project scientist, “a crater no larger than that created by a 1kg meteorite on a surface already heavily affected by natural impacts”. Mission controllers at the European Space Agency’s Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, near Frankfurt, Germany will monitor the final moments before impact step by step. Final milestones of SMART-1 flight operations In June, SMART-1 mission controllers at ESOC completed a series of complex thruster firings aimed at optimising the time and location of the spacecraft’s impact on the Moon's surface. They had to be done with the thrusters of the attitude control system since all the Xenon of the Ion engine had been consumed in 2005. The manoeuvres have shifted the time and location of impact, which would otherwise occurred in mid-August on the far side of the Moon; impact is now set to occur on the near side and current best estimates show the impact time to be around 07:41 CEST (05:41 UTC) on Sunday 3 September. "Mission controllers and flight dynamics engineers have analysed the results of the manoeuvre campaign to confirm and refine this estimate," says Octavio Camino-Ramos, SMART-1 spacecraft operations manager at ESA/ESOC. "The final adjustment manoeuvres are planned for 25th of August, which may still have a consequence on the final impact time", he added. Large ground telescopes will be involved before and during impact to make observations of the event, with several objectives: - To study the physics of the impact

  2. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101 8251-3 [13] Merson J 2000 Bio-prospecting or bio-piracy: intellectual property rights and biodiversity in a colonial and postcolonial context Osiris 15 282-96 [14] Soejarto D D 1996 Biodiversity prospecting and benefit-sharing: perspectives from the field J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 1-15 [15] Foley J A et al 2007 Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin Front. Ecol. Environ. 5 25-32 [16] King S R, Carlson T J and Moran K 1996 Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights: creating reciprocity and maintaining relationships J. Ethnopharmacol. 51 45-57 [17] Witzig R and Ascencios M 1999 The road to indigenous extinction: case study of resource exportation, disease importation, and human rights violations against the Urarina in the Peruvian Amazon Health Hum. Rights 4 60-81 [18] Fundacion Proyungas 2007 Bitácora de las Yungas: Bosques Nublados (Tucuman: Fundacion de las Yungas) [19] US Government 2003 Conserving Biodiversity in the Amazon Basin: Context and Opportunities for USAID (Washington, DC: USAID) [20] Montenegro R A and Stephens C 2006 Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean Lancet 367 1859-69 [21] Stephens C, Nettleton C and Bristow F (ed) 2003 Utz' Wach'il: Health and Well-Being Among Indigenous Peoples (London: Health Unlimited and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) (http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/sehr/indigenous/docs/utzpamphlet.pdf) [22] Brown A et al 2007 Finca San Andres—Un Espacio de Cambios Ambientales y Sociales en el Alto Bermejo (Ediciones del Subtropico: Yerba Buena) [23] Ramos A and Junqueira R 2010 The contribution of indigenous people to forest conservation and recovery Everything is Connected: Climate and Biodiversity in a Fragile World ed C Foley (London: DEFRA) (http://sd.defra.gov.uk/2010/11/everything

  3. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    .: Condens. Matter 22 104112 [52] Härtel A, Blaak R and Löwen H 2010 Towing, breathing, splitting, and overtaking in driven colloidal liquid crystals Phys. Rev. E 81 051703 [53] Archer A J and Rauscher M 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 9325 [54] Archer A J and Evans R 2004 J. Chem. Phys. 121 4246 [55] Ramos J A P, Granato E, Achim C V, Ying S C, Elder K R and Ala-Nissila T 2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 031109 [56] Hubert J, Cheng M and Emmerich H 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 464108 [57] Plapp M 2010 Philos. Mag. submitted [58] Pusztai T, Tegze G, Tóth G I, Környei L, Bansel G, Fan Z and Gránásy L 2008 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 404205 [59] Tegze G, Bansel G, Tóth G I, Pusztai T, Fan Z and Gránásy L 2009 J. Comput. Phys. 228 1612 [60] Gross N A, Ignatiev M and Chakraborty B 2000 Phys. Rev. E 62 6116 [61] Marconi V M B and Tarazona P 2000 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12 A413 [62] Toner J, Tu Y and Ramaswamy S 2005 Ann. Phys. 318 170 [63] Lauga E and Powers T R 2009 Rep. Prog. Phys. 72 096601 [64] Wensink H H and Löwen H 2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 031409 [65] Prieler R, Hubert J, Li D, Verleye B, Haberkern R and Emmerich H 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 464110 [66] van Teeffelen S, Backofen R, Voigt A and Löwen H 2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 051404 [67] Rex M, Wensink H H and Löwen H 2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 021403 [68] Dhont J K G 1996 An Introduction to Dynamics of Colloids (Amsterdam: Elsevier) [69] Rex M and Löwen H 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 148302 [70] Elder K R, Grant M, Provatas N and Kosterlitz J M 2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 021604 [71] Chen L Q 2002 Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 32 113 [72] Boettinger W J, Warren J A, Beckermann C and Karma A 2002 Annu. Rev. Mat. Res. 32 163 [73] Gránásy L, Pusztai T and Warren J A 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 R1205 [74] Singer-Loginova I and Singer H M 2008 Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 106501 [75] Goldenfeld N, Athreya B P and Dantzig J A 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 020601 [76] Yeon D-H, Huang Z-F, Elder K R and Thornton K 2010 Phil. Mag. 90 237 [77] Elder K R