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Sample records for nested-multiplex pcr detection

  1. Nested-multiplex PCR detection of Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus directly from exanthematic clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Lima, Larissa S; Assis, Felipe L; Alves, Pedro A; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Cota, Marcela MG; Ferreira, Vanessa M; Campos, Rafael K; Mazur, Carlos; Lobato, Zélia IP; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses and public health impact. Rapid, useful and highly specific methods are required to detect and epidemiologically monitor such poxviruses. In the present paper, we describe the development of a nested-multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection of OPV and PPV species directly from exanthematic lesions, with no previous viral isolation or DNA extraction. Methods and Results The OPV/PPV nested-multiplex PCR was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published primer sets, and was applied to the detection of the target pathogens. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. Exanthematic lesion samples collected during bovine vaccinia or contagious ecthyma outbreaks were submitted to OPV/PPV nested-multiplex PCR and confirmed its applicability. Conclusion These results suggest that the presented multiplex PCR provides a highly robust and sensitive method to detect OPV and PPV directly from clinical samples. The method can be used for viral identification and monitoring, especially in areas where OPV and PPV co-circulate. PMID:19747382

  2. Nested multiplex RT-PCR for detection and differentiation of West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Schmitt, Beverly J

    2003-09-01

    A traditional nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was designed to multiplex with a previously described West Nile (WN) virus nested RT-PCR assay. Differentiation of EEE and WN was based on base pair size of the amplified product. One hundred fifty-seven mammalian and avian brain tissues were tested by EEE/WN nested multiplex RT-PCR, EEE nested RT-PCR, and WN nested RT-PCR, and results were compared with other diagnostic test results from the same animals. Serological and virus isolation testing confirmed the results of the multiplex PCR assay. When compared with cell culture virus isolation, the multiplex assay was shown to be more sensitive in detecting the presence of EEE or WN virus in brain tissues. The multiplex assay was shown to be sensitive and specific for North American EEE and WN and provided a rapid means of identifying both viruses in brain tissues. No apparent sacrifice in sensitivity was observed in the multiplex procedure compared with the individual EEE and WN nested RT-PCR assays. Data collected from an additional 485 multiplex RT-PCR tests conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 further support the validity of the procedure.

  3. Disease severity associated with presence in subgingival plaque of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythia, singly or in combination, as detected by nested multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Ready, D; D'Aiuto, F; Spratt, D A; Suvan, J; Tonetti, M S; Wilson, M

    2008-10-01

    This study used a nested multiplex PCR method to detect three periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 2 and 6 months posttreatment from 107 patients with severe, generalized periodontitis. The proportions of the patients who harbored these bacteria before periodontal treatment were as follows: Tannerella forsythia, 81%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 78%; and Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, 47%. At 2 months posttreatment there was a significant reduction in the numbers of patients harboring P. gingivalis (46%; P < 0.001) or T. forsythia (63%; P = 0.043) but not A. actinomycetemcomitans (50%) compared to pretreatment data. At 6 months posttreatment, significantly fewer patients harbored P. gingivalis (43%; P < 0.001); A. actinomycetemcomitans, (31%; P = 0.025), or T. forsythia (63%; P = 0.030). Interestingly, at baseline and at 2 months posttherapy, subjects who harbored only a single pathogen had a greater level of periodontal disease than subjects who harbored two, or all three, of these periodontal pathogens. These data suggest that a reduction in the number of species present may be associated with an increase in the severity of periodontal diseases.

  4. Comparison of nested, multiplex, qPCR; FISH; SeptiFast and blood culture methods in detection and identification of bacteria and fungi in blood of patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gosiewski, Tomasz; Flis, Agnieszka; Sroka, Agnieszka; Kędzierska, Anna; Pietrzyk, Agata; Kędzierska, Jolanta; Drwiła, Rafał; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2014-12-11

    Microbiological diagnosis of sepsis relies primarily on blood culture data. This study compares four diagnostic methods, i.e. those developed by us: nested, multiplex, qPCR (qPCR) and FISH with commercial methods: SeptiFast (Roche) (SF) and BacT/ALERT® 3D blood culture system (bioMérieux). Blood samples were derived from adult patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis, according to SIRS criteria, hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. Using qPCR, FISH, SF, and culture, microbial presence was found in 71.8%, 29.6%, 25.3%, and 36.6% of samples, respectively. It was demonstrated that qPCR was significantly more likely to detect microorganisms than the remaining methods; qPCR confirmed the results obtained with the SF kit in all cases wherein bacteria were detected with simultaneous confirmation of Gram-typing. All data collected through the FISH method were corroborated by qPCR. The qPCR and FISH methods described in this study may constitute alternatives to blood culture and to the few existing commercial molecular assays since they enable the detection of the majority of microbial species, and the qPCR method allows their identification in a higher number of samples than the SF test. FISH made it possible to show the presence of microbes in a blood sample even before its culture.

  5. Use of an Automated Nested Multiplex Respiratory Pathogen PCR Panel Postmortem in the Pediatric Forensic Setting.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tiffany; Schandl, Cynthia; Presnell, Susan Erin; Madory, James; Nolte, Frederick S; Batalis, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Respiratory pathogens have been detected in forensic investigations using multiple techniques; however, no study has examined the use of automated, nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (ANM-PCR), commonly used in living patients, in the forensic setting. This retrospective study assessed the utility of ANM-PCR in detecting respiratory pathogens in the pediatric forensic setting. Respiratory samples from 35 cases were tested for up to 20 respiratory pathogens. 51.4% of these cases yielded a positive ANM-PCR result, 20% of which were considered the cause of or contributory to death. The most commonly detected pathogens were rhinovirus/enterovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, and these were the only pathogens determined to play a significant role in cause of death. The sampled sites and postmortem intervals tested did not affect the likelihood of a positive or negative test. ANM-PCR panels are effective, affordable, and rapid ancillary tools in evaluating cause of death in the forensic pediatric population. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Comparison of nested-multiplex, Taqman & SYBR Green real-time PCR in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess in a tertiary health care institute in India

    PubMed Central

    Dinoop, K.P.; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Mandal, Jharna; Swaminathan, R.P.; Narayanan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amoebiasis is a common parasitic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica and amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. The aim of this study was to standardise real-time PCR assays (Taqman and SYBR Green) to detect E. histolytica from liver abscess pus and stool samples and compare its results with nested-multiplex PCR. Methods: Liver abscess pus specimens were subjected to DNA extraction. The extracted DNA samples were subjected to amplification by nested-multiplex PCR, Taqman (18S rRNA) and SYBR Green real-time PCR (16S-like rRNA assays to detect E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii). The amplification products were further confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done for nested-multiplex and SYBR Green real-time PCR and the area under the curve was calculated for evaluating the accuracy of the tests to dignose ALA. Results: In all, 17, 19 and 25 liver abscess samples were positive for E. histolytica by nested-multiplex PCR, SYBR Green and Taqman real-time PCR assays, respectively. Significant differences in detection of E. histolytica were noted in the real-time PCR assays evaluated (P<0.0001). The nested-multiplex PCR, SYBR Green real-time PCR and Taqman real-time PCR evaluated showed a positivity rate of 34, 38 and 50 per cent, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis (considering Taqman real-time PCR as the gold standard), it was observed that SYBR Green real-time PCR was better than conventional nested-multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of ALA. Interpretation & conclusions: Taqman real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA had the highest positivity rate evaluated in this study. Both nested multiplex and SYBR Green real-time PCR assays utilized were evaluated to give accurate results. Real-time PCR assays can be used as the gold standard in rapid and reliable diagnosis, and appropriate management of amoebiasis, replacing the

  7. A survey of malarial infection in endemic areas of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR and comparative diagnostic efficiencies of Giemsa staining, acridine orange staining, and semi-nested multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Khaminsou, Naly; Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Daduang, Jureerut; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2008-06-01

    Malaria remains one of the most important parasitic diseases in Lao PDR, especially in forested rural areas. Knowing the rate of infection using highly sensitive and specific methods, and the factors related to malarial infection, may be helpful in reducing the infection and mortality rates. We aimed to study the malarial infection rate by comparing three detection methods, i.e., Giemsa staining, acridine orange (AO) staining and semi-nested multiplex PCR. The study also included some factors related to malarial infection in the endemic areas of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR. The respective malarial infection rates by Giemsa staining, AO staining and semi-nested multiplex PCR in Houy Jang vs. Keng Thong villages were 13.1 vs. 20.8, 16.2 vs. 25.4 and 20.8 vs. 30.8%. The infection rate among children not over 10 years of age was higher than infection rate among the older ages (p=0.002, Z-test for two proportions). The higher infection rates by semi-nested multiplex PCR over Giemsa and AO staining suggest the existence of many subclinical cases with low level parasitemia, undetected by microscopic techniques. We found no mixed infections using Giemsa or AO staining, but using semi-nested multiplex PCR we found 1.2% (3/260) mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, suggesting that semi-nested multiplex PCR is suitable for detecting malarial infection from endemic areas whose cases may have low parasitemia and/or mixed infection. The factors significantly related to malarial infection from 260 questionnaires were: (1) children and young adults, (2) not having lived in the area more than 5 years, and (3) not using a mosquito net over the bed, indicating an increased risk of new residents of contracting malaria and a need to promote bed nets.

  8. Identification of root rot fungi in nursery seedlings by nested multiplex PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, R C; Bérubé, P; Gignac, M; Bourassa, M

    1996-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) subunit repeat was sequenced in 12 isolates of Cylindrocladium floridanum and 11 isolates of Cylindrocarpon destructans. Sequences were aligned and compared with ITS sequences of other fungi in GenBank. Some intraspecific variability was present within our collections of C. destructans but not in C. floridanum. Three ITS variants were identified within C. destructans, but there was no apparent association between ITS variants and host or geographic origin. Two internal primers were synthesized for the specific amplification of portions of the ITS for C. floridanum, and two primers were designed to amplify all three variants of C. destructans. The species-specific primers amplified PCR products of the expected length when tested with cultures of C, destructans and C. floridanum from white spruce, black spruce, Norway spruce, red spruce, jack pine, red pine, and black walnut from eight nurseries and three plantations in Quebec. No amplification resulted from PCR reactions on fungal DNA from 26 common contaminants of conifer roots. For amplifications directly from infected tissues, a nested primer PCR using two rounds of amplification was combined with multiplex PCR approach resulting in the amplification of two different species-specific PCR fragments in the same reaction. First, the entire ITS was amplified with one universal primer and a second primer specific to fungi; a second round of amplification was carried out with species-specific primers that amplified a 400-bp PCR product from C. destructans and a 328-bp product from C. floridanum. The species-specific fragments were amplified directly from infected roots from which one or the two fungi had been isolated. PMID:8899993

  9. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold.

    PubMed

    Layman, Clifton P; Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray(®) system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time.

  10. FIRST MOLECULAR DETECTION AND VP7 (G) GENOTYPING OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUS BY SEMI-NESTED RT-PCR FROM SEWAGE IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    MOTAYO, Babatunde Olanrewaju; ADENIJI, Adekunle Johnson; FANEYE, Adedayo Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and sewage is a major source of the virus dissemination in the environment. Our aim was to detect and genotype rotaviruses from sewages in Nigeria. One hundred and ninety sewage samples were collected between June 2014 and January 2015. The two phase concentration method using PEG 6000 and dextran was used to concentrate sewage samples following WHO protocols. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR, and VP7 genotyping by semi-nested multiplex PCR. A total of 14.2% (n = 27) samples tested positive. Monthly distribution showed that June to September had a lower rate (3.7% to 7.4%), while October to January recorded 11% to 26%. Genotype G1 predominated followed by G8, G9, G4 and lastly G2, 7.4% (n = 2) of isolates were nontypeable. This is the first report of rotavirus detection in sewages from Nigeria. Genotype G1 remains the most prevalent genotype. This observation calls for an effort by the governmental authorities to implement a molecular surveillance, both clinical and environmental, in order to provide vital information for the control and the vaccine efficacy not only in Nigeria, but globally. PMID:27828615

  11. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  12. Transgene detection by digital droplet PCR.

    PubMed

    Moser, Dirk A; Braga, Luca; Raso, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro; Simon, Perikles

    2014-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of severe diseases. Because of its abuse potential for performance enhancement in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included the term 'gene doping' in the official list of banned substances and methods in 2004. Several nested PCR or qPCR-based strategies have been proposed that aim at detecting long-term presence of transgene in blood, but these strategies are hampered by technical limitations. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) protocol for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) detection and demonstrated its applicability monitoring 6 mice injected into skeletal muscle with AAV9-IGF1 elements and 2 controls over a 33-day period. A duplex ddPCR protocol for simultaneous detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) and Erythropoietin (EPO) transgenic elements was created. A new DNA extraction procedure with target-orientated usage of restriction enzymes including on-column DNA-digestion was established. In vivo data revealed that IGF1 transgenic elements could be reliably detected for a 33-day period in DNA extracted from whole blood. In vitro data indicated feasibility of IGF1 and EPO detection by duplex ddPCR with high reliability and sensitivity. On-column DNA-digestion allowed for significantly improved target detection in downstream PCR-based approaches. As ddPCR provides absolute quantification, it ensures excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Therefore, we expect this technique to be used in diagnosing and monitoring of viral and bacterial infection, in detecting mutated DNA sequences as well as profiling for the presence of foreign genetic material in elite athletes in the future.

  13. Miniaturized detection system for handheld PCR assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, James B.; Benett, William J.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    2000-12-01

    We have developed and delivered a four chamber, battery powered, handheld instrument referred to as the HANAA which monitors the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process using a TaqMan based fluorescence assay. The detection system differs form standard configurations in two essential ways. First, the size is miniaturized, with a combined cycling and optics plug-in module for a duplex assay begin about the size of a small box of matches. Second, the detection/analysis system is designed to call a positive sample in real time.

  14. Optimized PCR-based detection of mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolny, Paige L; Bess, Dan

    2011-06-20

    The maintenance of contamination-free cell lines is essential to cell-based research. Among the biggest contaminant concerns are mycoplasma contamination. Although mycoplasma do not usually kill contaminated cells, they are difficult to detect and can cause a variety of effects on cultured cells, including altered metabolism, slowed proliferation and chromosomal aberrations. In short, mycoplasma contamination compromises the value of those cell lines in providing accurate data for life science research. The sources of mycoplasma contamination in the laboratory are very challenging to completely control. As certain mycoplasma species are found on human skin, they can be introduced through poor aseptic technique. Additionally, they can come from contaminated supplements such as fetal bovine serum, and most importantly from other contaminated cell cultures. Once mycoplasma contaminates a culture, it can quickly spread to contaminate other areas of the lab. Strict adherence to good laboratory practices such as good aseptic technique are key, and routine testing for mycoplasma is highly recommended for successful control of mycoplasma contamination. PCR-based detection of mycoplasma has become a very popular method for routine cell line maintenance. PCR-based detection methods are highly sensitive and can provide rapid results, which allows researchers to respond quickly to isolate and eliminate contamination once it is detected in comparison to the time required using microbiological techniques. The LookOut Mycoplasma PCR Detection Kit is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of only 2 genomes per μl. Taking advantage of the highly specific JumpStart Taq DNA Polymerase and a proprietary primer design, false positives are greatly reduced. The convenient 8-tube format, strips pre-coated with dNTPs, and associated primers helps increase the throughput to meet the needs of customers with larger collections of cell lines. Given the extreme sensitivity of the kit, great

  15. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M J; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp. Images PMID:8117091

  16. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  17. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  18. Comparison of Droplet Digital PCR to Real-Time PCR for Quantitative Detection of Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Ingersoll, J.; Abdul-Ali, D.; Shi, L.; Pounds, S.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) has been widely implemented for clinical viral load testing, but a lack of standardization and relatively poor precision have hindered its usefulness. Digital PCR offers highly precise, direct quantification without requiring a calibration curve. Performance characteristics of real-time PCR were compared to those of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) load testing. Tenfold serial dilutions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) CMV quantitative standards were tested, together with the AcroMetrix CMV tc panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and 50 human plasma specimens. Each method was evaluated using all three standards for quantitative linearity, lower limit of detection (LOD), and accuracy. Quantitative correlation, mean viral load, and variability were compared. Real-time PCR showed somewhat higher sensitivity than ddPCR (LODs, 3 log10 versus 4 log10 copies/ml and IU/ml for NIST and WHO standards, respectively). Both methods showed a high degree of linearity and quantitative correlation for standards (R2 ≥ 0.98 in each of 6 regression models) and clinical samples (R2 = 0.93) across their detectable ranges. For higher concentrations, ddPCR showed less variability than QRT-PCR for the WHO standards and AcroMetrix standards (P < 0.05). QRT-PCR showed less variability and greater sensitivity than did ddPCR in clinical samples. Both digital and real-time PCR provide accurate CMV load data over a wide linear dynamic range. Digital PCR may provide an opportunity to reduce the quantitative variability currently seen using real-time PCR, but methods need to be further optimized to match the sensitivity of real-time PCR. PMID:23224089

  19. Detection of Salmonella in chicken meat by insulated isothermal PCR.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Shih, Chia-Ming; Teng, Ping-Hua; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Chung, Te-Yu; Lee, Pei-Yu; Chiang, Yu-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated foods, such as poultry and fresh eggs, is known to be one of the main causes of salmonellosis. Conventional PCR methods, including real-time PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella, in general require skilled technicians and costly instruments. A recently developed novel convective PCR, insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), is carried out in polycarbonate capillary tubes. In this study, we designed TaqMan probes and PCR primers based on the yrfH gene encoding a heat shock protein for the iiPCR detection of Salmonella in chicken meat samples. The TaqMan probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein and 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. The PCR amplicon was 133 bp. A typical run of this iiPCR assay was completed within 1 h. Specific PCR products were obtained for 148 strains representing 49 serotypes of Salmonella tested. Under the same conditions, false-positive results were not obtained for 98 non-Salmonella strains tested, including strains of Enterobacteriaceae closely related to Salmonella. For chicken meat samples, with a 5-h enrichment step Salmonella at as low as 10⁰ CFU/g of poultry meat could be detected. Because the amplification signals from the probes are detectable at 520 nm, identification of the PCR products by gel electrophoresis is not required. Compared with conventional PCR, the iiPCR system requires less expertise and provides an economical, reliable, and rapid tool for result interpretation. Detection results can be obtained within 8 h, including the enrichment and DNA extraction steps.

  20. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water.

    PubMed

    Acosta Soto, Lucrecia; Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  1. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    PubMed Central

    Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks. PMID:28377928

  2. [Detection of influenza virus (RT-PCR assay and others)].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yoko

    2003-11-01

    Viral isolation is the conventional method for influenza virus diagnosis but it is less useful for immediate patient management. RT-PCR is the sensitive and rapid assay for the detection of respiratory viruses. Single step and multiplex RT-PCR is able to detect several viruses simultaneously in a single reaction. Real time PCR(TaqMan method) is able to detect the amplicon directly by release of a fluorescent reporter of the probe during the amplification reactions. This procedure can save time since it eliminates post-PCR processing steps. These RT-PCR methods should be useful for the accurate and rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection, especially severe cases such as pneumonia and encephalopathy.

  3. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10(2) copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. PCR detection of Babesia ovata from questing ticks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-04-01

    Babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle. In the present study, we analyzed tick DNA samples (n=1459) prepared from questing ticks collected from various cattle pastures in Hokkaido (Shibecha, Taiki, Otofuke, Memuro, and Shin-Hidaka districts) and Okinawa (Yonaguni Island) prefectures of Japan for B. ovata. When all the tick DNA samples were screened by a previously described B. ovata-specific apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, none of the DNA samples was positive. Therefore, we developed a PCR assay based on the protozoan beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) gene to detect B. ovata from ticks in Japan. In the specificity test, the PCR assay amplified the expected 444-bp target gene fragment from B. ovata DNA. No PCR products were amplified from DNA samples from other blood pathogens, bovine blood, or ticks. In addition, the PCR assay detected 100 fg of B. ovata-genomic DNA extracted from an in vitro culture of the parasites. Subsequently, when all the tick DNA samples were screened by this new PCR assay, 18 were positive for B. ovata. Positive samples were found only in the Yonaguni and Memuro areas. In Okinawa, where all the ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, 9.7% of the samples were PCR-positive, while a single tick (Ixodes ovatus) from Memuro was infected with B. ovata. When the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed, they formed a separate clade containing a previously described β-tubulin gene sequence from B. ovata (Miyake strain), confirming that the PCR assay had detected only B. ovata from the tick DNA samples. This is the first report that describes the PCR detection of B. ovata in ticks. The findings warrant transmission experiments to evaluate I. ovatus as a potential vector of B. ovata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. PCR assays for detection of Baylisascaris procyonis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for detection of Baylisascaris procyonis eggs and larvae in fecal, environmental, and tissue samples. We have optimized conventional and real-time PCR assays for B. procyonis using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 2 gene as the target for amplification. The lower limit of detection of the parasite genomic DNA was 10 pg in the conventional PCR and 100 fg in the real-time PCR. In both PCR assays, specific amplification of a 146 bp product was achieved with DNA extracted from a single in vitro hatched B. procyonis larva and also from canine fecal samples spiked with as few as 20 unembryonated B. procyonis eggs per gram of feces. The PCR assays were successfully used for detection of B. procyonis eggs and larvae in fecal, environmental, and tissue samples. No DNA amplification was seen when the genomic DNA of related ascarids (including B. transfuga) and a hookworm was used as template in the PCR; however, amplification was seen with the very closely related B. columnaris.

  6. PCR test for detecting Taenia solium cysticercosis in pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Chennuru; Hafeez, Mohammad; Kumar, Putcha Anand; Rayulu, Vukka Chengalva; Subramanyam, Kothapalli Venkata; Sudhakar, Krovvidi

    2012-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was employed to detect Taenia solium DNA in muscle lesions for validation of the meat inspection results of slaughtered pigs. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers, one targeted against the large subunit rRNA gene (TBR primers) and the other targeted against cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1 primers) of T. solium were used in this study. On reactivity in PCR test, the TBR primers and the Cox1 primers yielded products of 286 and 984 bp, respectively, in cysticercosis positive cases. Both the sets of primers were found to be highly specific, since they did not yield any PCR product in negative controls. A total of 225 pig carcasses were screened for cysticercosis by meat inspection, out of which 25 carcasses with visible cysts (16 viable and 9 degenerated cysts) were also confirmed to be positive for cysticercosis in PCR test. However, out of the 35 carcasses with suspected lesions on meat inspection, only two were found to be positive for cysticercosis in PCR test. The detection limits for both the primer sets were analyzed. The TBR primer set could detect up to 10 pg of cysticercus DNA, whereas the Cox1 primer set could detect only up to 1 ng. It is evident from the study that PCR test is an efficient tool for validation of meat inspection results and also to rule out ambiguity in carcass judgment of suspected cases of porcine cysticercosis.

  7. New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Herthnek, David; Bölske, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Background Johne's disease, a serious chronic form of enteritis in ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). As the organism is very slow-growing and fastidious, several PCR-based methods for detection have been developed, based mainly on the MAP-specific gene IS900. However, because this gene is similar to genes in other mycobacteria, there is a need for sensitive and reliable methods to confirm the presence of MAP. As described here, two new real-time PCR systems on the IS900 gene and one on the F57 gene were developed and carefully validated on 267 strains and 56 positive clinical faecal samples. Results Our confirmatory PCR systems on IS900 were found sensitive and specific, only yielding weak false positive reactions in one strain for each system. The PCR system on F57 did not elicit any false positives and was only slightly less sensitive than our primary IS900-system. DNA from both naturally infected and spiked faeces that tested positive with our primary system could be confirmed with all new systems, except one low-level infected sample that tested negative with the F57 system. Conclusion We recommend using the newly constructed DH3 PCR system on the F57 gene as the primary confirmatory test for PCR positives, but should it fail due to its lower sensitivity, the DH1 and DH2 PCR systems should be used. PMID:17020599

  8. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

    1999-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement.

  9. RT-PCR detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Dokić, Eleni; Grunevska, Violeta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works. The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1) 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2) 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5). ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1+2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity. Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly. In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70 masculineC, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20 masculineC for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  10. DNA extraction protocol for rapid PCR detection of pathogenic bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virtually all current assays for foodborne pathogens, including PCR assays, are conducted after lengthy cultural enrichment of the sample to increase the concentration of the target organism. This delays detection by many hours, prevents quantitation, and limits the ability to detect multiple organ...

  11. Conjunctival swab PCR to detect Leishmania spp. in cats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Pereira, Vanessa Figueredo; Benvenga, Graziella Ulbricht; Martin, Maria Fernanda Alves; Benassi, Julia Cristina; da Silva, Diogo Tiago; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the dog as a source of visceral leishmaniasis infection is known, but the role of cats as reservoir hosts for leishmaniasis is not yet fully clear. This study assessed the efficacy of conjunctival swab PCR (CS-PCR) in the detection of cats infected by Leishmania spp. The results were seven (13.5%) cats positive for Leishmania spp. in the PCR, in 52 cats tested from Pirassunuga-SP and Ilha Solteira-SP. From the city of Pirassununga - SP 28.6% (2/7) were positive and from the city of Ilha Solteira - SP 11.1% (5/45) were positive. The results showed that CS-PCR was capable of detecting cats infected by this protozoan. Conjunctival swab samples proved easier to perform in cats, which might facilitate studies on the frequency and distribution of feline leishmaniasis.

  12. Simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Felder, Eva; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Lange, Mirko; Wölfel, Roman

    2012-09-01

    Ricin and abrin are two of the most potent plant toxins known and may be easily obtained in high yield from the seeds using rather simple technology. As a result, both toxins are potent and available toxins for criminal or terrorist acts. However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more likely that crude extracts would be used by non-governmental perpetrators. Remaining plant-specific nucleic acids in these extracts allow the application of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and identification of abrin or ricin genomic material. Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the OmniMix HS bead PCR reagent mixture. Novel primers and hybridization probes were designed for detection on a SmartCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology. The assay was thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity. Evaluation of the assay sensitivity by probit analysis demonstrated a 95% probability of detection at 3 genomes per reaction for ricin DNA and 1.2 genomes per reaction for abrin DNA. The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix.

  13. Multiplex PCR to detect four different tomato-infecting pathogens.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Vásquez, Gabriela Alejandra; Bazán-Tejeda, María Luisa; Martínez-Peñafiel, Eva; Kameyama-Kawabe, Luis; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María

    2013-07-01

    This work was aimed to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect infectious agents such as Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Fusarium sp, Leveillula taurica, and begomoviruses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Specific primer sets of each pathogen were designed based on intergenic ribosomal RNA sequences for the first three, whereas for begomoviruses, primers were designed based on conserved regions. The design also considered that the length (200-800 bp) of the PCR products was resolvable by electrophoresis; thus 296, 380, 457, and 731 bp fragments for Clavibacter, Fusarium, Leveillula, and begomoviruses, respectively, were considered. PCR conditions were optimized to amplify all the products in a single tube from genomic DNA and circumvent PCR inhibitors from infected plants. Finally, when the multiplex PCR assay was tested with tomato plants infected with any of the four pathogens, specific PCR products confirmed the presence of the pathogens. Optimized PCR multiplex allowed for the accurate and simultaneous detection of Clavibacter, Fusarium, Leveillula, and begomoviruses in infected plants or seeds from tomato.

  14. Detection of alcohol-tolerant hiochi bacteria by PCR.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Shimada, M; Mukai, H; Asada, K; Kato, I; Fujino, K; Sato, T

    1994-02-01

    We report a sensitive and rapid method for detection of hiochi bacteria by PCR. This method involves the electrophoresis of amplified DNA. Nucleotide sequences of the spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes of 11 Lactobacillus strains were identified by analysis of PCR products. Five primers were designed by analysis of similarities among these sequences. A single cell of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei could be detected when purified genomic DNA was used as the template. When various cell concentrations of L. casei subsp. casei were added to 50 ml of pasteurized sake and the cells were recovered, the detection limit was about one cell. No discrete band was observed in electrophoresis after PCR when human, Escherichia coli, mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, yeast, or mold DNA was used as the template.

  15. Detection of alcohol-tolerant hiochi bacteria by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, T; Shimada, M; Mukai, H; Asada, K; Kato, I; Fujino, K; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    We report a sensitive and rapid method for detection of hiochi bacteria by PCR. This method involves the electrophoresis of amplified DNA. Nucleotide sequences of the spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes of 11 Lactobacillus strains were identified by analysis of PCR products. Five primers were designed by analysis of similarities among these sequences. A single cell of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei could be detected when purified genomic DNA was used as the template. When various cell concentrations of L. casei subsp. casei were added to 50 ml of pasteurized sake and the cells were recovered, the detection limit was about one cell. No discrete band was observed in electrophoresis after PCR when human, Escherichia coli, mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, yeast, or mold DNA was used as the template. Images PMID:7510942

  16. Ultrasensitive Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely used biomarkers for the diagnosis of many diseases. Assays based on solid-phase immobilization of antigens comprise the majority of clinical platforms for antibody detection, but can be undermined by antigen denaturation and epitope masking. These technological hurdles are especially troublesome in detecting antibodies that bind nonlinear or conformational epitopes, such as anti-insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes patients and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies associated with thyroid cancers. Radioimmunoassay remains the gold standard for these challenging antibody biomarkers, but the limited multiplexability and reliance on hazardous radioactive reagents have prevented their use outside specialized testing facilities. Here we present an ultrasensitive solution-phase method for detecting antibodies, termed antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP). Antibodies bind to and agglutinate synthetic antigen–DNA conjugates, enabling ligation of the DNA strands and subsequent quantification by qPCR. ADAP detects zepto- to attomoles of antibodies in 2 μL of sample with a dynamic range spanning 5–6 orders of magnitude. Using ADAP, we detected anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies from human patient plasma with a 1000-fold increased sensitivity over an FDA-approved radioimmunoassay. Finally, we demonstrate the multiplexability of ADAP by simultaneously detecting multiple antibodies in one experiment. ADAP’s combination of simplicity, sensitivity, broad dynamic range, multiplexability, and use of standard PCR protocols creates new opportunities for the discovery and detection of antibody biomarkers. PMID:27064772

  17. Detection of group a streptococcal pharyngitis by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen M; Marshall, Julia L; Baker, Ciara A; Manning, Jayne; Gonis, Gena; Danchin, Margaret H; Smeesters, Pierre R; Satzke, Catherine; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-07-11

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are viral in origin, culture-based identification of GAS requires 24-48 hours, and up to 15% of children are asymptomatic throat carriers of GAS. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detecting GAS pharyngitis and assess its suitability for clinical diagnosis. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from children aged 3-18 years (n = 91) and adults (n = 36) located in the Melbourne area who presented with sore throat. Six candidate PCR assays were screened using a panel of reference isolates, and two of these assays, targeting speB and spy1258, were developed into qPCR assays. The qPCR assays were compared to standard culture-based methods for their ability to detect GAS pharyngitis. GAS isolates from culture positive swabs underwent emm-typing. Clinical data were used to calculate McIsaac scores as an indicator of disease severity. Twenty-four of the 127 samples (18.9%) were culture-positive for GAS, and all were in children (26%). The speB qPCR had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with gold-standard culture, whereas the spy1258 qPCR had 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Nine different emm types were found, of which emm 89, 3, and 28 were most common. Bacterial load as measured by qPCR correlated with culture load. There were no associations between symptom severity as indicated by McIsaac scores and GAS bacterial load. The speB qPCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity and may be a useful tool for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis and research.

  18. DNA extraction protocol for rapid PCR detection of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Jeffrey D; Paoli, George C

    2013-11-01

    Twelve reagents were evaluated to develop a direct DNA extraction method suitable for PCR detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Many reagents exhibited strong PCR inhibition, requiring significant dilution of the extract with a corresponding reduction in sensitivity. Most reagents also exhibited much lower recovery of DNA from the gram-positive test organism (Listeria monocytogenes) than from the gram-negative organism (Escherichia coli O157:H7), preventing unbiased detection and quantitation of both organisms. The 5× HotSHOT+Tween reagent exhibited minimal inhibition and high extraction efficiency for both test organisms, providing a 15-min single-tube DNA-extraction protocol suitable for highly sensitive quantitative PCR assays. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Colorimetric Integrated PCR Protocol for Rapid Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kewen; Pan, Daodong; Teng, Jun; Yao, Li; Ye, Yingwang; Xue, Feng; Xia, Fan; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp) has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and integrated with the forward primer for molecular detection of Vp. This specific sequence was tested and treated as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme and could be amplified during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The products of PCR including the sequence of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme could produce the distinguished color in the presence of catalysis substrates. The optical signal of the catalysis reaction, which is in a linear relationship with the initial template of Vp, could be determined with the naked eye or measured with Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) for qualitative and quantitative detections, respectively. Based on the optical signal intensity, rapid and easy detection of Vp was successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the detection of tdh, trh, tlh and toxR virulence genes of two Vp species (Vp 33847 and Vp 17802) were all performed successfully with this developed colorimetric integrated PCR protocol, which demonstrated potential applicability for the rapid detection of other bacteria. PMID:27690041

  20. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  1. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Selvaraj, Vijayanandraj; Hajeri, Subhas; Yokomi, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative) PCR (qPCR) for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR.

  2. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hajeri, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative) PCR (qPCR) for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR. PMID:28910375

  3. Detection of Carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae by a Commercial Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Szabados, Florian; Wassill, Lars; Gatermann, Sören G.

    2012-01-01

    A commercial multiplex PCR (hyplex SuperBug ID) was tested with a collection of 132 clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains producing different carbapenemases. The sensitivity for the detection of KPC-, VIM-, NDM-, and OXA-48-encoding genes was 100%, whereas two IMP variants were missed. PMID:22785190

  4. DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

  5. PCR Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rimbara, Emiko; Sasatsu, Masanori; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen whose primary niche is the human stomach. H. pylori is etio-logically associated with gastric inflammation (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Both noninvasive (e.g., urea breath and stool antigen tests) and invasive (gastric biopsy for histology, culture, or PCR) tests are used for diagnosis. PCR detection of H. pylori has been reported using a variety of clinical samples including gastric biopsy, gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and stools as well as environmental samples. Whenever possibly, noninvasive tests are preferred over invasive tests. H. pylori are excreted in the stool. Culture from stool is variable whereas stool antigen testing is widely used. Stool consists of a complicated mixture of commensal bacteria and chemicals and often includes inhibitors of PCR. Nevertheless, simple extraction methods are available to efficiently extract DNA from human stools and nested-PCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene have proven to be highly sensitive for the detection of H. pylori. Detection of clarithromycin susceptibility/resistance is important clinically and the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for resistance can also be detected using stool. This described method can be modified for other clinical samples such as gastric juice or biopsy material. PMID:23104297

  6. Internally controlled PCR system for detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we reported the outcomes of feasibility studies of a technological approach allowing rapid detection of a wide range of bioaerosols by combining a personal bioaerosol sampler with a real-time PCR technology. The protocol was found suitable for detection of targeted microorganisms within relatively short time periods. Considering the crucial importance of the PCR procedure quality control, the current paper reports the results of the development of an internally controlled PCR system for utilization by the above technology. The suggested strategy is based on utilization of only two fluorescent dyes, which are used respectively for target and internal amplification control (IAC) DNA amplification. A bacteriophage T4 and recombinant phage fd (M13) were used in this research as target and IAC, respectively. The constructed IAC was added directly to the collection liquid of the personal bioaerosol sampler enabling quality control to be present throughout the entire sampling-analysis procedures. For performance evaluation, serial ten-fold dilutions of T4 phage were aerosolized and sampled over a 10 minutes time period. The results showed that T4 phage could be reliably detected at the concentration of around 200 PFU per litre of air over the 10 minutes sampling period. The developed PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and no cross reaction. It is concluded that the recombinant phage fd is suitable for utilization as an internal control enabling to significantly minimize false negative results for bioaerosol detection procedures.

  7. DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

  8. PCR-Based Detection of DNA Copy Number Variation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variations are important polymorphisms that can influence gene expression within and close to the rearranged region, and results in phenotypic variation. Techniques that detect abnormalities in DNA copy number are therefore useful for studying the associations between DNA aberrations and disease phenotype and for locating critical genes. PCR-based detection of copy number of target gene using TaqMan copy number assay offers a reliable method to measure copy number variation in human genome.

  9. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laboratory developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. We will focus on two FDA cleared commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG GPP and Biofire FimArray GI test. These multiplex tests can detect and identify multiple enteric pathogens in one test and provide results within hours. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens. The high negative predictive value of these multiplex tests has led to the suggestion that they be used as screening tools especially in outbreaks. Although the clinical utility and benefit of multiplex PCR test are to be further investigated, implementing these multiplex PCR tests in gastroenterology diagnostic algorithm has the potential to improve diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis. PMID:26004652

  10. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  11. Detection of glycopeptide resistance genes in enterococci by multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Puneet; Sahni, A.K.; Praharaj, A.K.; Grover, Naveen; Kumar, Mahadevan; Chaudhari, C.N.; Khajuria, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are a major cause of nosocomial infections. There are various phenotypic and genotypic methods of detection of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. This study utilizes multiplex PCR for reliable detection of various glycopeptides resistance genes in VRE. Method This study was conducted to detect and to assess the prevalence of vancomycin resistance among enterococci isolates. From October 2011 to June 2013, a total of 96 non-repetitive isolates of enterococci from various clinical samples were analyzed. VRE were identified by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all isolates for vancomycin and teicoplanin was determined by E-test. Multiplex PCR was carried out for all enterococci isolates using six sets of primers. Results Out of 96 isolates, 14 (14.6%) were found to be resistant to vancomycin by vancomycin E-test method (MIC ≥32 μg/ml). Out of these 14 isolates, 13 were also resistant to teicoplanin (MIC ≥16 μg/ml). VanA gene was detected in all the 14 isolates by Multiplex PCR. One of the PCR amplicons was sent for sequencing and the sequence received was submitted in the GenBank (GenBank accession no. KF181100). Conclusion Prevalence of VRE in this study was 14.6%. Multiplex PCR is a robust, sensitive and specific technique, which can be used for rapid detection of various glycopeptide resistance genes. Rapid identification of patients infected or colonized with VRE is essential for implementation of appropriate control measures to prevent their spread. PMID:25609863

  12. Comparison of Droplet Digital PCR and Quantitative PCR Assays for Quantitative Detection of Xanthomonas citri Subsp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Youping; Wang, Zhongkang

    2016-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel molecular biology technique providing absolute quantification of target nucleic acids without the need for an external calibrator. Despite its emerging applications in medical diagnosis, there are few reports of its use for the detection of plant pathogens. This work was designed to assess the diagnosis potential of the ddPCR for absolute quantitative detection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, a quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus bacterial canker in susceptible Citrus species. We transferred an established quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for citrus bacterial canker diagnosis directly to the ddPCR format and compared the performance of the two methods. The qPCR assay has a broader dynamic range compared to the ddPCR assay and the ddPCR assay has a significantly higher degree of sensitivity compared to the qPCR assay. The influence of PCR inhibitors can be reduced considerably in the ddPCR assay because the collection of end-point fluorescent signals and the counting of binomial events (positive or negative droplets) are associated with a Poisson algorithm. The ddPCR assay also shows lower coefficient of variation compared to the qPCR assay especially in low target concentration. The linear association of the measurements by ddPCR and qPCR assays is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.8633; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates the ddPCR methodology is a more robust approach for diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker. In summary, the results demonstrated that the ddPCR assay has the potential for the quantitative detection of X. citri subsp. citri with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from qPCR assay. Further studies are required to evaluate and validate the value of ddPCR technology in the diagnosis of plant disease and quarantine applications. PMID:27427975

  13. PCR for Detection of Shigella spp. in Mayonnaise

    PubMed Central

    Villalobo, Eduardo; Torres, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The use of PCR to amplify a specific virA gene fragment serves as a highly specific and sensitive method to detect virulent bacteria of the genus Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Amplification of a 215-bp DNA band was obtained by using isolated genomic DNA of Shigella, individual cells of Shigella dysenteriae, and mayonnaise contaminated with S. dysenteriae. Moreover, a multiplex PCR with specific (virA) and bacterium-restricted (16S ribosomal DNA) primers generated an amplification product of approximately 755 bp for all bacteria tested and an additional 215-bp product for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli. PMID:9546158

  14. PCR for detection of Shigella spp. in mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, E; Torres, A

    1998-04-01

    The use of PCR to amplify a specific virA gene fragment serves as a highly specific and sensitive method to detect virulent bacteria of the genus Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Amplification of a 215-bp DNA band was obtained by using isolated genomic DNA of Shigella, individual cells of Shigella dysenteriae, and mayonnaise contaminated with S. dysenteriae. Moreover, a multiplex PCR with specific (virA) and bacterium-restricted (16S ribosomal DNA) primers generated an amplification product of approximately 755 bp for all bacteria tested and an additional 215-bp product for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli.

  15. Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G; Harel, J; Gottschalk, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging to different bacterial species that potentially can be found in milk samples also tested negative. The PCR developed was used for direct detection of S. agalactiae in milk, using for the first time with gram-positive bacteria the nucleic acid-binding properties of diatomaceous earth. The test, which has high specificity, high sensitivity (100 cfu/mL), and can be carried out in less than 24 h, represents an innovative diagnostic tool for the detection of S. agalactiae in milk.

  16. Comparative detection of rabies RNA by NASBA, real-time PCR and conventional PCR.

    PubMed

    Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Phumesin, Patta; Supavonwong, Pornpun; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Intarut, Nirun; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2011-08-01

    Five methods for the RNA detection of rabies virus were directly compared in this study. These included conventional nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with electrochemiluminescence (NASBA-ECL) assay, reverse transcription (RT)-heminested (hn) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR using protocols as described previously. The first two methods have been routinely utilised for ante-mortem diagnosis of human rabies in Thailand and other rabies-endemic Asian and African countries. In addition, two real-time NASBA assays based on the use of a NucliSens EasyQ analyser (NASBA-Beacon-EQ) and LightCycler real-time PCR machine (NASBA-Beacon-LC) were studied in parallel. All methods target the N gene, whereas the L gene is used for RT-hnPCR. Using serial dilutions of purified RNA from rabies-infected dog brain tissue to assess sensitivity, all five methods had comparable degrees of sensitivities of detection. However, both real-time NASBA assays had slightly lower sensitivities by 10-fold than the other three assays. This finding was also true (except for TaqMan real-time RT-PCR due to a mismatch between the target and probe sequences) when laboratory-adapted (challenge virus standard-11) virus was used in the assays. Testing on previously NASBA-ECL positive clinical samples from 10 rabies patients (saliva [6] and brain [4]) and 10 rabies-infected dog brain tissues, similar results were obtained among the five methods; real-time NASBA assays yielded false-negative results on 2 saliva samples. None of the assays showed positive results on cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 10 patients without rabies encephalitis. Due to the unavailability of the NASBA-ECL assay, the results show that TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and RT-hnPCR can be useful for ante- and post-mortem diagnosis of rabies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of internal controls for PCR detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, G; Pearce, M; Leslie, D

    1998-12-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring plasmid pX02. The multiplex also incorporated an internal control (IC) to avoid false negative reactions. Internal controls consisted of plasmids containing modified PCR target sequences, corresponding to the capC and BA813 genes of B. anthracis, which were then co-amplified with the original target sequences using the same set of amplimers. The initial IC construct comprised of an internally deleted form of the genomic target sequence cloned into pUC19. A series of nested DNA fragments corresponding to the 23S rRNA sequences of Bacillus cereus were then subcloned into the point of deletion, producing a number of IC constructs with similar sequences but increasing product size on PCR amplification. Neither the presence of IC DNA template or IC PCR product size affected the specificity or non-specific cross-reactivity of the original PCR assay. The concentration of IC was critical, too much IC DNA template would out compete the genomic DNA template, thus giving a false negative result. However, when the concentration of IC was optimal assay sensitivity was not compromised.

  18. [Detection of fish DNA in ruminant feed by PCR amplification].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusama, Toyoko; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi

    2006-10-01

    The Japanese Government has prohibited the use of seafood protein, as well as mammalian protein, in ruminant feed. There is an official method to detect meat and bone meal, but no method is yet available to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed. We tried to develop a suitable method to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed, similar to the official method "PCR detection of animal-derived DNA in feed". Our previously reported primers (fishcon5 and fishcon3-1) showed low sensitivity, so we designed new primers based on a DNA sequence from yellowfin tuna mitchondrial DNA. Among the primers, FM5 and FM3 specifically detected fish DNA (sardine, yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, chub mackerel, Pacific saury, salmon, rainbow trout, Japanese anchovy, codfish and Japanese horse mackerel) from fish meat, and did not amplify DNA from animals and plants. The sensitivity for detection of the presence of fishmeal in ruminant feed was 0.01-0.001%.

  19. Detection and counting of Nitrobacter populations in soil by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Degrange, V; Bardin, R

    1995-01-01

    Although the biological conversion of nitrite to nitrate is a well-known process, studies of Nitrobacter populations are hindered by their physiological characteristics. This report describes a new method for detecting and counting Nitrobacter populations in situ with the PCR. Two primers from the 16S rRNA gene were used to generate a 397-bp fragment by amplification of Nitrobacter species DNA. No signal was detected from their phylogenetic neighbors or the common soil bacteria tested. Extraction and purification steps were optimized for minimal loss and maximal purity of soil DNA. The detection threshold and accuracy of the molecular method were determined from soil inoculated with 10, 10(2), or 10(3) Nitrobacter hamburgensis cells per g of soil. Counts were also done by the most-probable-number (MPN)-Griess and fluorescent antibody methods. PCR had a lower detection threshold (10(2) Nitrobacter cells per g of soil) than did the MPN-Griess or fluorescent antibody method. When PCR amplification was coupled with the MPN method, the counting rate reached 65 to 72% of inoculated Nitrobacter cells. Tested on nonsterile soil, this rapid procedure was proved efficient. PMID:7793930

  20. Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J H; Moore, L W; Ream, W; Manulis, S

    1995-01-01

    Two PCR primer pairs, based on the virD2 and ipt genes, detected a wide variety of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. The endonuclease domain of VirD2 protein, which cleaves transferred DNA (T-DNA) border sequences, is highly conserved; primer oligonucleotides specific for the endonuclease portion of virD2 detected all pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium tested. PCR primers corresponding to conserved sequences in ipt, the T-DNA-borne cytokinin synthesis gene, detected only Agrobacterium tumefaciens and distinguished it from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The virD2 and ipt primer pairs did not interfere with each other when included in the same PCR amplification, and this permitted simultaneous detection of both genes in a single reaction. One nonpathogenic Agrobacterium radiobacter strain contained virD2 but not ipt; we speculate that this strain arose from a pathogenic progenitor through a deletion in the T-DNA. The virD2 primer pair appears to be universal for all pathogenic Agrobacterium species; used together, the primer sets reported here should allow unambiguous identification of Ti plasmid DNA in bacteria isolated from soil and plants. PMID:7487020

  1. Novel real-time PCR detection assay for Brucella suis

    PubMed Central

    Hänsel, C.; Mertens, K.; Elschner, M. C.; Melzer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brucella suis is the causative agent of brucellosis in suidae and is differentiated into five biovars (bv). Biovars 1 and 3 possess zoonotic potential and can infect humans, whereas biovar 2 represents the main source of brucellosis in feral and domestic pigs in Europe. Both aspects, the zoonotic threat and the economic loss, emphasize the necessity to monitor feral and domestic pig populations. Available serological or PCR based methods lack sensitivity and specificity. Results Here a bioinformatics approach was used to identify a B. suis specific 17 bp repeat on chromosome II (BS1330_II0657 locus). This repeat is common for B. suis bv 1 to 4 and was used to develop a TaqMan probe assay. The average PCR efficiency was determined as 95% and the limit of detection as 12,5 fg/µl of DNA, equally to 3.7 bacterial genomes. This assay has the highest sensitivity of all previously described B. suis specific PCR assays, making it possible to detect 3-4 bacterial genomes per 1 µl of sample. The assay was tested 100% specific for B. suis and negative for other Brucella spp. and closely related non-Brucella species. Conclusions This novel qPCR assay could become a rapid, inexpensive and reliable screening method for large sample pools of B. suis 1 to 4. This method will be applicable for field samples after validation. PMID:26392898

  2. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  3. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  4. PCR detection and characterization of type-2 porcine circovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, A L; Lin, L L; Sachvie, C; Grudeski, E; Nayar, G P

    2000-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting porcine circovirus (PCV). The assay readily detected type-2 PCV (PCV-2) and type-1 PCV (PCV-1). The PCR primers were designed based on DNA sequences conserved in all reported PCV genomes. Type 1 PCV and type 2 PCV both produced 438 bp amplification products, which were easily identified and differentiated from one another by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Porcine circovirus was detected in 55% (931/1693) of randomly tested pigs with various clinical signs and lesions, most of which were difficult to differentiate from those associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The PCR products from all positive clinical samples were identified by RFLP to be only PCV-2; DNA tested by PCR was extracted directly from one or more of lung, mesenteric or mediastinal lymph nodes, and tonsil. Type 2 PCV was also detected in 6% (2/34) of DNA extracted directly from semen of randomly chosen healthy boars. Positive PCR reactions from 554 diseased pigs were characterized by RFLP and categorized into 5 different profiles (A-E), of which 82.8% were PCV-2A (456/554), 3.0% were PCV-2B (17/554), 9.9% were PCV-2C (55/554), 1.1% were PCV-2D (6/554), and 3.2% were PCV-2E (18/554). The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PCV-2A, B, C, D, and E were determined and found to have at least 95% homology compared with one another and with all other PCV-2 found in the GenBank database. All PCV-2 had less than 76% homology with PCV-1. This PCR assay will hopefully be useful to veterinary diagnostic laboratories for routine testing and surveillance of infection with PCV-2. The RFLP profiling system might be useful for preliminary characterization and identification of PCV isolates and might also benefit studies on the molecular epidemiology of PCV. Images Figure 1. PMID:10680656

  5. Multiplex PCR for Detection and Typing of Porcine Circoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ouardani, M.; Wilson, L.; Jetté, R.; Montpetit, C.; Dea, S.

    1999-01-01

    Sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the sequences of the open reading frames (ORFs) ORF1 and ORF2 of the prototype nonpathogenic PK-15 strain of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 1 (PCV-1). By the PCR performed with the various primer sets, genomic DNA or RNA from other bacterial or viral pathogens of the respiratory tracts of pigs could not be amplified. A positive amplification reaction could be visualized with DNA extracted from a viral suspension containing as few as 10 viral particles per ml. No DNA fragment could be amplified from lysates of continuous porcine cell lines (PT, ST, and PFT cells) known to be negative for PCV. When tested with clinical samples from pigs, the results of the single PCR method showed nearly 93% (13 of 14 samples) correlation with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Interestingly, subclinical PCV infections could be detected by single PCR with clinical samples that have been submitted from animals with irrelevant cases of respiratory and/or enteric problems. On the basis of the nucleotide sequences of PCV strains (PCV-2) recently associated with outbreaks of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) in Quebec, Canada, pig farms, other primers were designed from the PCV-1 genome, and these primers failed to amplify genomic fragments specific to the ORF1 or ORF2 genes of clinical isolates associated with PWMS but amplified DNA from the PCV-1 strain. Two rapid multiplex PCR (mPCR) methods have been developed to distinguish between both genotypes of PCV. By those two mPCR methods, (i) species-specific primer pairs were used to amplify a DNA fragment of 488 bp specific for the ORF2 genes of both genotypes, whereas a 375-bp fragment was amplified from the ORF1 gene of the PCV-1 strain only, or (ii) species-specific primer pairs were used to amplify a DNA fragment of 646 bp specific for the ORF1 genes of both genotypes, whereas a 425-bp fragment was amplified from the ORF2 gene of the PCV-1 strain

  6. Real-time PCR detection of ruminant DNA.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romero, Luis; Verkaar, Edward L C; Savelkoul, Paul H; Catsburg, Arnold; Aarts, Henk J M; Buntjer, Jaap B; Lenstra, Johannes A

    2004-03-01

    To control the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, several DNA methods have been described for the detection of the species origin of meat and bone meal. Most of these methods are based on the amplification of a mitochondrial DNA segment. We have developed a semiquantitative method based on real-time PCR for detection of ruminant DNA, targeting an 88-bp segment of the ruminant short interspersed nuclear element Bov-A2. This method is specific for ruminants and is able to detect as little as 10 fg of bovine DNA. Autoclaving decreased the amount of detectable DNA, but positive signals were observed in feeding stuff containing 10% bovine material if this had not been rendered in accordance with the regulations, i.e., heated at 134 degrees C for 3 instead of 20 min.

  7. Detection of aflatoxigenic molds in grains by PCR.

    PubMed

    Shapira, R; Paster, N; Eyal, O; Menasherov, M; Mett, A; Salomon, R

    1996-09-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic metabolites produced by several members of the Aspergillus flavus group in grains and floods. Three genes, ver-1, omt-1, and apa-2, coding for key enzymes and a regulatory factor in aflatoxin biosynthesis, respectively, have been identified, and their DNA sequences have been published. In the present study, three primer pairs, each complementing the coding portion of one of the genes, were generated. DNA extracted from mycelia of five Aspergillus species, four Penicillium species, and two Fusarium species was used as PCR template for each of the primer pairs. DNA extracted from peanut, corn, and three insect species commonly found in stored grains was also tested. Positive results (DNA amplification) were achieved only with DNA of the aflatoxigenic molds Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus in all three primer pairs. The detection limit of the PCR was determined by using the primer pairs complementing the omt-1 and ver-1 genes. Sterile corn flour was inoculated separately with six different molds, each at several spore concentrations. Positive results were obtained only after a 24-h incubation in enriched media, with extracts of corn inoculated with A. parasiticus or A. flavus, even at the lowest spore concentration applied (10(2) spores per g). No DNA spores per g). It is concluded that genes involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway may form the basis for an accurate, sensitive, and specific detection system, using PCR, for aflatoxigenic strains in grains and foods.

  8. Detection of aflatoxigenic molds in grains by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, R; Paster, N; Eyal, O; Menasherov, M; Mett, A; Salomon, R

    1996-01-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic metabolites produced by several members of the Aspergillus flavus group in grains and floods. Three genes, ver-1, omt-1, and apa-2, coding for key enzymes and a regulatory factor in aflatoxin biosynthesis, respectively, have been identified, and their DNA sequences have been published. In the present study, three primer pairs, each complementing the coding portion of one of the genes, were generated. DNA extracted from mycelia of five Aspergillus species, four Penicillium species, and two Fusarium species was used as PCR template for each of the primer pairs. DNA extracted from peanut, corn, and three insect species commonly found in stored grains was also tested. Positive results (DNA amplification) were achieved only with DNA of the aflatoxigenic molds Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus in all three primer pairs. The detection limit of the PCR was determined by using the primer pairs complementing the omt-1 and ver-1 genes. Sterile corn flour was inoculated separately with six different molds, each at several spore concentrations. Positive results were obtained only after a 24-h incubation in enriched media, with extracts of corn inoculated with A. parasiticus or A. flavus, even at the lowest spore concentration applied (10(2) spores per g). No DNA spores per g). It is concluded that genes involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway may form the basis for an accurate, sensitive, and specific detection system, using PCR, for aflatoxigenic strains in grains and foods. PMID:8795215

  9. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  10. PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi and its limitations.

    PubMed

    Levin, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    Unlike bacterial toxins that are primarily peptides and are therefore encoded by a single gene, fungal toxins such as the aflatoxins are multi-ring structures and therefore require a sequence of structural genes for their biological synthesis. There is therefore no specific PCR for any one of the four biologically produced aflatoxins. Unfortunately, the structural genes presently in use for PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi are also involved in the synthesis of other fungal toxins such as sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus nidulans and therefore lack absolute specificity for aflatoxin producing fungi (Table 1). In addition, the genomic presence of several structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis does not guarantee the production of aflatoxin by all isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The most widely used DNA target regions for discriminating Aspergillus species are those of the rDNA complex, mainly the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and the variable regions in the 5'-end of the 28S rRNA gene. Since these sequence regions are unrelated to the structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis there successful amplification can be used for species identification but do not confirm aflatoxin production. This review therefore presents the various approaches and limitations in the use of the PCR in attempting to detect aflatoxin producing fungi.

  11. Nested PCR detection of Centipeda periodontii in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, molecular genetic methodologies have provided significant additional knowledge about components of the microbiota associated with infections of endodontic origin. Following this research line, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Centipeda periodontii in primary endodontic infections using a species-specific nested PCR assay. Samples were collected from fifty teeth having carious lesions, necrotic pulps, and different forms of periradicular diseases. DNA extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers, and a second round of amplification used the first PCR products to detect a specific fragment of C. periodontii 16S rDNA. This species was detected in 3 (13%) of 23 asymptomatic cases, in 1 (14%) of 7 cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, and in 3 (15%) of 20 pus samples aspirated from acute periradicular abscesses. There was no significant association between C. periodontii and the presence of clinical symptoms. Overall, C. periodontii was detected in 14% of the cases of endodontic infections. This is probably the hitherto first study to detect C. periodontii in primary endodontic infections. The specific role played by this bacterial species in infections of endodontic origin awaits further clarification.

  12. A study on PCR for detecting infection with M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Qinxue, W; Xinyu, L; Wei, H; Tao, L; Yaoping, Y; Jinping, Z; Xiuling, C; Ganyun, Y

    1999-12-01

    So far, it has not been established a satisfactory method for early diagnosis and studying on epidemiology for leprosy, we want to develop a molecular biological method for solving this point. Based on the M. leprae gene coding groEL, 65 kD and 16S rRNA, three polymerase chain reactions were developed by using Plikaytis', Woods' and Pattyn's procedures. It was optimized that the experimental parameters for each PCR, and a comparative study on practivity among three PCRs was also conducted for practical purpose. For detecting infection with M. leprae, all of PCRs established by us were highly sensitive and specific, but for practical purpose, the Woods' PCR optimized by us ought to be chosen firstly.

  13. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR) that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG) phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR. Results A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was <6 % for repeatability and <2 % for reproducibility. The assay detection limit was 13 fg/mL, which is 1,500-times more sensitive than current clinical assays for CEA. An ILPCR assay to quantify HIV-1 p24 core protein in buffer was also developed. Conclusions The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the

  14. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450

  15. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited.

  16. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Zygomycetes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hata, D. Jane; Buckwalter, Seanne P.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Roberts, Glenn D.; Wengenack, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Zygomycete infections can be devastating in immunocompromised hosts. Difficulties in the histopathologic differentiation of this class from other filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp.) may lead to delays in diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment, thereby significantly affecting patient outcome. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect species of the zygomycete genera Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Saksenaea in culture and tissue samples. Primers and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were designed to detect a 167-bp conserved region of the multicopy zygomycete cytochrome b gene. A plasmid containing target sequence from Mucor racemosus was constructed as a positive control. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10 targets/μl, and a specificity panel consisting of other filamentous fungi, yeasts (Candida spp.), and bacteria demonstrated no cross-reactivity in the assay. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay from culture isolates were 100% (39/39) and 92% (59/64), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity determined using a limited number of fresh tissue specimens were both 100% (2/2). The sensitivity seen with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was 56% (35/62), and the specificity was 100% (19/19). The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR assay indicate that it is useful for the rapid and accurate detection of zygomycetes. PMID:18480229

  17. Detection and strain identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by nested PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Leys, E J; Griffen, A L; Strong, S J; Fuerst, P A

    1994-01-01

    By using PCR, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains were identified directly from plaque samples without the need to isolate or culture bacteria. DNA fragments were generated by a nested, two-step PCR amplification of the ribosomal spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. For the first amplification, primers homologous to sequences common to all bacterial species were used. This was followed by a second amplification with primers specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ribosomal DNA spacer region was amplified from as few as 10 bacterial cells within a total population of 10(8) cells (0.00001%), and cross-reactivity between species was not observed. DNA fragments specific for Porphyromonas gingivalis were generated from the same samples by using a P. gingivalis-specific primer, and equivalent sensitivity and specificity were observed. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 60% and P. gingivalis was detected in 79% of 52 subjects tested. Sequence analysis of the spacer region DNA fragment for A. actinomycetemcomitans gave precise strain identification, producing unique sequences for seven reference strains and identification of nine plaque-derived isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on quantitative sequence relationships was constructed. Two-step PCR amplification directly from plaque samples combined with sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA spacer region provides a sensitive assay for detection and strain identification of multiple species directly from a single plaque sample. This simplified approach provides a practical method for large-scale studies on the transmission and pathogenicity of periodontitis-associated bacteria. Images PMID:8051258

  18. PCR-based detection in a micro-fabricated platform.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Salamat, Shuaib; Morisette, Dallas; Banada, Padmapriya; Akin, Demir; Liu, Yi-Shao; Bhunia, Arun K; Ladisch, Michael; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel, on-chip system for the electrokinetic capture of bacterial cells and their identification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The system comprises a glass-silicon platform with a set of micro-channels, -chambers, and -electrodes. A platinum thin film resistor, placed in the proximity of the chambers, is used for temperature monitoring. The whole chip assembly is mounted on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and wire-bonded to it. The PCB has an embedded heater that is utilized for PCR thermal cycle and is controlled by a Lab-View program. Similar to our previous work, one set of electrodes on the chip inside the bigger chamber (0.6 microl volume) is used for diverting bacterial cells from a flowing stream into to a smaller chamber (0.4 nl volume). A second set of interdigitated electrodes (in smaller chamber) is used to actively trap and concentrate the bacterial cells using dielectrophoresis (DEP). In the presence of the DEP force, with the cells still entrapped in the micro-chamber, PCR mix is injected into the chamber. Subsequently, PCR amplification with SYBR Green detection is used for genetic identification of Listeria monocytogenes V7 cells. The increase in fluorescence is recorded with a photomultiplier tube module mounted over an epifluorescence microscope. This integrated micro-system is capable of genetic amplification and identification of as few as 60 cells of L. monocytogenes V7 in less than 90 min, in 600 nl volume collected from a sample of 10(4) cfu ml(-1). Specificity trials using various concentrations of L. monocytogenes V7, Listeria innocua F4248, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were carried out successfully using two different primer sets specific for a regulatory gene of L. monocytogenes, prfA and 16S rRNA primer specific for the Listeria spp., and no cross-reactivity was observed.

  19. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  20. PCR and Genotyping for HPV in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Pradyot; Patne, Shashikant C U; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Gulati, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To devise nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NMPCR) protocol for detection of mucosal human papilloma viruses (HPVs) and typing of HPV-16 and -18 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of carcinoma cervix (CaCx). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: NMPCR was done for simultaneous detection of HPV, targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and -18, targeting E6/E7 gene from 34 FFPE tissue blocks of CaCx and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Detection of 142 bp consensus sequence of L1 capsid gene was performed by nested PCR employing MY/GP+ primers. Sequencing of selected PCR amplicons of the later protocol obtained from control cell line DNA and 5 select samples were done for validation of the NMPCR protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Calculation of percentage from the Microsoft Excel Software. Results: Of 26 FFPE samples of CaCx, 17 (65.3%) samples were found positive for HPV by NMPCR. Amplicons of 142 bp L1 capsid gene employing MY/GP+ primers were observed in 11 (42.3%) samples of CaCx. Nearly 25% samples of CIN were positive for HPV. On sequence analysis, it was observed that the sample typed as HPV-16 by NMPCR was found to be the same on sequencing of amplicons obtained after MY/GP+ nested PCR. Conclusions: This study indicates the usefulness of our NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 from FFPE tissue samples of CaCx. The NMPCR protocol may be used to detect HPV and type common genotypes-16 and -18 in fresh tissue of cervical biopsy or scrape samples for screening of CaCx. PMID:27621560

  1. RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR): improved specificity and single nucleotide polymorphism detection using blocked cleavable primers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect the presence of nucleic acid sequences both in research and diagnostic settings. While high specificity is often achieved, biological requirements sometimes necessitate that primers are placed in suboptimal locations which lead to problems with the formation of primer dimers and/or misamplification of homologous sequences. Results Pyrococcus abyssi (P.a.) RNase H2 was used to enable PCR to be performed using blocked primers containing a single ribonucleotide residue which are activated via cleavage by the enzyme (rhPCR). Cleavage occurs 5'-to the RNA base following primer hybridization to the target DNA. The requirement of the primer to first hybridize with the target sequence to gain activity eliminates the formation of primer-dimers and greatly reduces misamplification of closely related sequences. Mismatches near the scissile linkage decrease the efficiency of cleavage by RNase H2, further increasing the specificity of the assay. When applied to the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rhPCR was found to be far more sensitive than standard allele-specific PCR. In general, the best discrimination occurs when the mismatch is placed at the RNA:DNA base pair. Conclusion rhPCR eliminates the formation of primer dimers and markedly improves the specificity of PCR with respect to off-target amplification. These advantages of the assay should find utility in challenging qPCR applications such as genotyping, high level multiplex assays and rare allele detection. PMID:21831278

  2. Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott

    2006-12-26

    Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

  3. Specific detection of viable Legionella cells by combined use of photoactivated ethidium monoazide and PCR/real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Sugiyama, Kanji; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Legionella organisms are prevalent in manmade water systems and cause legionellosis in humans. A rapid detection method for viable Legionella cells combining ethidium monoazide (EMA) and PCR/real-time PCR was assessed. EMA could specifically intercalate and cleave the genomic DNA of heat- and chlorine-treated dead Legionella cells. The EMA-PCR assay clearly showed an amplified fragment specific for Legionella DNA from viable cells, but it could not do so for DNA from dead cells. The number of EMA-treated dead Legionella cells estimated by real-time PCR exhibited a 10(4)- to 10(5)-fold decrease compared to the number of dead Legionella cells without EMA treatment. Conversely, no significant difference in the numbers of EMA-treated and untreated viable Legionella cells was detected by the real-time PCR assay. The combined assay was also confirmed to be useful for specific detection of culturable Legionella cells from water samples obtained from spas. Therefore, the combined use of EMA and PCR/real-time PCR detects viable Legionella cells rapidly and specifically and may be useful in environmental surveillance for Legionella.

  4. PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.; Alvarez, A.J.

    1996-02-29

    Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research.

  5. Detection of alternative lengthening of telomeres by telomere quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Loretta M. S.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Henson, Jeremy D.; Au, Amy Y. M.; Royds, Janice A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is one of the two known telomere length maintenance mechanisms that are essential for the unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. Existing methods for detecting ALT in tumors require substantial amounts of tumor material and are labor intensive, making it difficult to study prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT in large tumor cohorts. Here, we present a novel strategy utilizing telomere quantitative PCR to diagnose ALT. The protocol is more rapid than conventional methods and scrutinizes two distinct characteristics of ALT cells concurrently: long telomeres and the presence of C-circles (partially double-stranded circles of telomeric C-strand DNA). Requiring only 30 ng of genomic DNA, this protocol will facilitate large-scale studies of ALT in tumors and can be readily adopted by clinical laboratories. PMID:22923525

  6. Real-time PCR for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food: An alternative approach to a conventional PCR system suggested by the FOOD-PCR project.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Flekna, Gabriele; Krassnig, Martina; Wagner, Martin

    2006-09-01

    A real-time PCR assay using non-patented primers and a TaqMan probe for the detection and quantification of Salmonella spp. is presented. The assay is based on an internationally validated conventional PCR system, which was suggested as a standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the FOOD-PCR project. The assay was sensitive and specific. Consistent detection of 9.5 genome equivalents per PCR reaction was achieved, whereas samples containing an average of 0.95 genome equivalents per reaction were inconsistently positive. The assay performed equally well as a commercially available real-time PCR assay and allowed sensitive detection of Salmonella spp. in artificially contaminated food. After enrichment for 16 h in buffered peptone water (BPW) or universal pre-enrichment broth (UPB) 2.5 CFU/25 g salmon and minced meat, and 5 CFU/25 g chicken meat and 25 ml raw milk were detected. Enrichment in BPW yielded higher numbers of CFU/ml than UPB for all matrices tested. However, the productivity of UPB was sufficient, as all samples were positive with both real-time PCR methods, including those containing less than 300 CFU/ml enrichment broth (enrichment of 5 CFU/25 ml raw milk in UPB).

  7. Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

  8. Simultaneous detection of bee viruses by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Sguazza, Guillermo Hernán; Reynaldi, Francisco José; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica; Pecoraro, Marcelo Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Honey bee mortality is a serious problem that beekeepers in Argentina have had to face during the last 3 years. It is known that the consequence of the complex interactions between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic mites may result in a sudden collapse of the colony. In addition, multiple viral infections are detected frequently concomitantly in bee colonies. The aim of this study was to establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for rapid and simultaneous detection of the most prevalent bee viruses. This multiplex PCR assay will provide specific, rapid and reliable results and allow for the cost effective detection of a particular virus as well as multiple virus infections in a single reaction tube. This method could be a helpful tool in the surveillance of the most frequently found bee viruses and to study the dynamics and the interactions of the virus populations within colonies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  10. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) −1 and −2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  11. Detection of Leishmania infantum in animals and their ectoparasites by conventional PCR and real time PCR.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Rayana Carla Silva; Gonçalves, Suênia da Cunha; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Kamila Gaudêncio; da Silva, Fernando José; Silva, Rômulo Pessoa E; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena

    2013-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is primarily transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. However, there has been much speculation on the role of other arthropods in the transmission of VL. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of L. infantum in cats, dogs and their ectoparasites in a VL-endemic area in northeastern Brazil. DNA was extracted from blood samples and ectoparasites, tested by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) targeting the L. infantum kinetoplast DNA. A total of 280 blood samples (from five cats and 275 dogs) and 117 ectoparasites from dogs were collected. Animals were apparently healthy and not previously tested by serological or molecular diagnostic methods. Overall, 213 (76.1 %) animals and 51 (43.6 %) ectoparasites were positive to L. infantum, with mean parasite loads of 795.2, 31.9 and 9.1 fg in dogs, cats and ectoparasites, respectively. Concerning the positivity between dogs and their ectoparasites, 32 (15.3 %) positive dogs were parasitized by positive ectoparasites. The overall concordance between the PCR protocols used was 59.2 %, with qPCR being more efficient than cPCR; 34.1 % of all positive samples were exclusively positive by qPCR. The high number of positive animals and ectoparasites also indicates that they could serve as sentinels or indicators of the circulation of L. infantum in risk areas.

  12. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outperforms real-time PCR in the detection of environmental DNA from an invasive fish species.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki

    2015-05-05

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to investigate species distributions in aquatic ecosystems. Most of these studies use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect eDNA in water; however, PCR amplification is often inhibited by the presence of organic and inorganic matter. In droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), the sample is partitioned into thousands of nanoliter droplets, and PCR inhibition may be reduced by the detection of the end-point of PCR amplification in each droplet, independent of the amplification efficiency. In addition, real-time PCR reagents can affect PCR amplification and consequently alter detection rates. We compared the effectiveness of ddPCR and real-time PCR using two different PCR reagents for the detection of the eDNA from invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in ponds. We found that ddPCR had higher detection rates of bluegill eDNA in pond water than real-time PCR with either of the PCR reagents, especially at low DNA concentrations. Limits of DNA detection, which were tested by spiking the bluegill DNA to DNA extracts from the ponds containing natural inhibitors, found that ddPCR had higher detection rate than real-time PCR. Our results suggest that ddPCR is more resistant to the presence of PCR inhibitors in field samples than real-time PCR. Thus, ddPCR outperforms real-time PCR methods for detecting eDNA to document species distributions in natural habitats, especially in habitats with high concentrations of PCR inhibitors.

  13. Methods to determine limit of detection and limit of quantification in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Forootan, Amin; Sjöback, Robert; Björkman, Jens; Sjögreen, Björn; Linz, Lucas; Kubista, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, better known as qPCR, is the most sensitive and specific technique we have for the detection of nucleic acids. Even though it has been around for more than 30 years and is preferred in research applications, it has yet to win broad acceptance in routine practice. This requires a means to unambiguously assess the performance of specific qPCR analyses. Here we present methods to determine the limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ) as applicable to qPCR. These are based on standard statistical methods as recommended by regulatory bodies adapted to qPCR and complemented with a novel approach to estimate the precision of LoD.

  14. Detection of Leishmania infantum in 4 different dog samples by real-time PCR and ITS-1 nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Ferreira, Aline Leandra; Carregal, Virgínia Mendes; de Almeida Ferreira, Sidney; Leite, Rodrigo Souza; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is an important step of visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil, which involves the elimination of infected dogs, the main animal reservoir host of the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a sensitive real-time PCR method for Leishmania infantum detection in 4 different clinical samples of dogs, including the noninvasive conjunctival swab (CS) sample. The results of real-time PCR were compared with those obtained using internal transcribed spacer 1 nested PCR. Animals were divided into 2 groups based on the absence or presence of CVL clinical sings. The CS associated with real-time PCR, using primers addressed to kinetoplast DNA minicircles, was able to detect L. infantum infection in 96.7% of dogs without clinical signs and in 100% of the symptomatic animals, demonstrating the importance of these procedures for diagnosing CVL.

  15. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Sand, Lars

    2015-11-01

    It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected.

  16. Comparison of standard, quantitative and digital PCR in the detection of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Rachel V; Pearson, John; Frizelle, Frank A; Keenan, Jacqueline I

    2016-09-30

    Gut colonization with enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) appears to be associated with the development of colorectal cancer. However, differences in carriage rates are seen with various testing methods and sampling sites. We compared standard PCR, SYBR green and TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) in detecting the B. fragilis toxin (bft) gene from cultured ETBF, and from matched luminal and faecal stool samples from 19 colorectal cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis found that all three quantitative methods performed comparably in detecting bft from purified bacterial DNA, with the same limits of detection (<1 copy/μl). However, SYBR qPCR under-performed compared to TaqMan qPCR and dPCR in detecting bft in clinical stool samples; 13/38 samples were reported positive by SYBR, compared to 35 and 36 samples by TaqMan and dPCR, respectively. TaqMan qPCR and dPCR gave bft copy numbers that were 48-fold and 75-fold higher for the same samples than SYBR qPCR, respectively (p < 0.001). For samples that were bft-positive in both fecal and luminal stools, there was no difference in relative abundance between the sites, by any method tested. From our findings, we recommend the use of TaqMan qPCR as the preferred method to detect ETBF from clinical stool samples.

  17. Modified COLD-PCR for detection of minor microorganisms in wine samples during the fermentation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Masaki, Kazuo; Mizuno, Akihiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2014-05-01

    The detection of low-abundant microorganism is difficult when in a sample in which a specific microorganism represents an overwhelming majority using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. A modified CO-amplification at Lower Denaturation temperature PCR (mCOLD-PCR) method was developed to detect low-abundant microorganisms using a double-strand RNA probe to inhibit the amplification of the sequence of a major microorganism. Combining the mCOLD-PCR and downstream application (e.g., denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS)), low-abundant microorganisms were detected more efficiently, even when a specific microorganism represents an overwhelming majority of the sample. We demonstrated that mCOLD-PCR-DGGE enabled us to detect Schizosaccharomyces pombe in a model sample coexisting with 10,000 times as many Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When mCOLD-PCR-DGGE was applied in the microbiota analysis of a fermenting white wine, Candida sp. and Cladosporium sp., which were not detected by conventional PCR, were detected. According to the NGS analysis after mCOLD-PCR of a fermenting red wine, the detection ratio of Saccharomyces was decreased dramatically, and the detection ratios of other microorganisms and the numbers of genera detected were increased compared with the conventional PCR. Thus, the application of mCOLD-PCR will reveal comprehensive microbiota of fermented foods, beverages, and so on.

  18. Microfluidics-Based PCR for Fusion Transcript Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The microfluidic technology allows the production of network of submillimeter-size fluidic channels and reservoirs in a variety of material systems. The microfluidic-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows automated multiplexing of multiple samples and multiple assays simultaneously within a network of microfluidic channels and chambers that are co-ordinated in controlled fashion by the valves. The individual PCR reaction is performed in nanoliter volume, which allows testing on samples with limited DNA and RNA. The microfluidics devices are used in various types of PCR such as digital PCR and single molecular emulsion PCR for genotyping, gene expression, and miRNA expression. In this chapter, the use of a microfluidics-based PCR for simultaneous screening of 14 known fusion transcripts in patients with leukemia is described.

  19. Detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus group in milk by droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Porcellato, Davide; Narvhus, Judith; Skeie, Siv Borghild

    2016-08-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is one of the newest and most promising methods for the detection and quantification of molecular targets by PCR. Here, we optimized and used a new ddPCR assay for the detection and quantification of the Bacillus cereus group in milk. We also compared the ddPCR to a standard qPCR assay. The new ddPCR assay showed a similar coefficient of determination and a better limit of detection compared to the qPCR assay during quantification of the target molecules in the samples. However, the ddPCR assay has a limitation during quantification of a high number of target molecules. This new assay was then tested for the quantification of the B. cereus group in 90 milk samples obtained over three months from two different dairies and the milk was stored at different temperatures before sampling. The ddPCR assay showed good agreement with the qPCR assay for the quantification of the B. cereus group in milk, and due to its lower detection limit more samples were detected as positive. The new ddPCR assay is a promising method for the quantification of target bacteria in low concentration in milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dry-reagent-based PCR as a novel tool for the rapid detection of Clostridium spp.

    PubMed

    Seise, Barbara; Pollok, Sibyll; Seyboldt, Christian; Weber, Karina

    2013-10-01

    Improved conventional PCR techniques are required for the rapid on-site detection of human and animal diseases. In this context, a PCR method using dry-stored reagents intended for the detection of Clostridium spp. is presented. Basic PCR reagents (BSA, PCR buffer, MgCl₂ and primers), which were dried on polyolefin matrices, showed stability at ambient temperatures for up to 10 months without any loss of functionality. An outstanding advantage of our amelioration is the elimination of PCR process errors caused by the improper storage and handling of liquid reagents. Moreover, our PCR-based amplification can be performed in less than 30 min, saving time compared with conventional detection methods. Thus, dry-reagent-based PCR is implementable in a suitcase-like modular device for the rapid on-site detection of microbial pathogens such as blackleg of ruminants caused by Clostridium chauvoei.

  1. Detection and Quantification of Wallemia sebi in Aerosols by Real-Time PCR, Conventional PCR, and Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Westermark, Sven-Olof; Rasmuson-Lestander, Åsa; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2004-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a deuteromycete fungus commonly found in agricultural environments in many parts of the world and is suspected to be a causative agent of farmer's lung disease. The fungus grows slowly on commonly used culture media and is often obscured by the fast-growing fungi. Thus, its occurrence in different environments has often been underestimated. In this study, we developed two sets of PCR primers specific to W. sebi that can be applied in either conventional PCR or real-time PCR for rapid detection and quantification of the fungus in environmental samples. Both PCR systems proved to be highly specific and sensitive for W. sebi detection even in a high background of other fungal DNAs. These methods were employed to investigate the presence of W. sebi in the aerosols of a farm. The results revealed a high concentration of W. sebi spores, 107 m−3 by real-time PCR and 106 m−3 by cultivation, which indicates the prevalence of W. sebi in farms handling hay and grain and in cow barns. The methods developed in this study could serve as rapid, specific, and sensitive means of detecting W. sebi in aerosol and surface samples and could thus facilitate investigations of its distribution, ecology, clinical diagnosis, and exposure risk assessment. PMID:15574929

  2. Noncompetitive Phage Anti-Immunocomplex Real-Time PCR (PHAIA-PCR) for Sensitive Detection of Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Joo; McCoy, Mark; Gee, Shirley J.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Immuno-PCR (IPCR) is an analytical technology based on the excellent affinity and specificity of antibodies combined with the powerful signal amplification of PCR, providing superior sensitivity to classical immunoassays. Here we present a novel type of immuno PCR (IPCR) termed phage anti-immunocomplex real time PCR (PHAIA-PCR) for the detection of small molecules. Our method utilizes a phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA) technology in which a short peptide loop displayed on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage binds specifically to the antibody-analyte complex allowing the non-competitive detection of small analytes. The phagemid DNA encoding this peptide can be amplified by PCR, and thus, this method eliminates hapten functionalization or bio-conjugation of a DNA template while providing improved sensitivity. As a proof of concept, two PHAIA-PCRs were developed for the detection of 3-PBA, a major urinary metabolite of pyrethroid insecticide and for molinate, a herbicide implicated in fish kills. Our results demonstrate that phage DNA can be a versatile material for IPCR development, enabling universal amplification when the common element of the phagemid is targeted, or specific amplification when the real time PCR probe is designed to anneal the DNA encoding the peptide. Using magnetic beads for rapid separation of reactants, the PHAIA-PCRs proved to be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PHAIA and significantly faster. The assay was validated with both agricultural drain water and human urine samples showing its robustness for rapid monitoring of human exposure or environmental contamination. PMID:21141939

  3. Effects of prolonged chlorine exposures upon PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low doses of free chlorine on the detection by qPCR of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cells by qPCR in tap water was monitored. H. pylori target sequences (within suspended, intact cells at densities of 102 to 103 cells /ml) were rendered undetectable by qPCR an...

  4. Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been used for avian influenza virus (AIV) detection since the early 2000’s for routine surveillance, during outbreaks and for research. Some of the advantages of rRT-PCR are: high sensitivity, high specificity, rapid time-to-result, scalability, cost, and its inherentl...

  5. Novel primers and PCR protocols for the specific detection and quantification of Sphingobium suberifaciens in situ

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pathogen causing corky root on lettuce, Sphingobium suberifaciens, is recalcitrant to standard epidemiological methods. Primers were selected from 16S rDNA sequences useful for the specific detection and quantification of S. suberifaciens. Conventional (PCR) and quantitative (qPCR) PCR protocols...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED PCR-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION OF PHYTOPHTHORA CACTORUM IN STRAWBERRY PLANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specific and rapid plant pathogen detection methods can aid in strawberry disease management decisions. PCR-based diagnostics for Phytophthora cactorum and other strawberry pathogens are hindered by PCR inhibitors and lack of species-specific PCR primers. We developed a DNA extraction and purificati...

  7. Effects of prolonged chlorine exposures upon PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low doses of free chlorine on the detection by qPCR of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cells by qPCR in tap water was monitored. H. pylori target sequences (within suspended, intact cells at densities of 102 to 103 cells /ml) were rendered undetectable by qPCR an...

  8. Rapid detection and biovar differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in clinical specimens by PCR.

    PubMed

    Teng, L J; Ho, S W; Ho, H N; Liaw, S J; Lai, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-07-01

    On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the multiple-banded (MB) antigen genes of Ureaplasma urealyticum, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for rapid detection and biovar differentiation of U. urealyticum in a total of 100 urogenital specimens from 50 female patients. Positive PCR UM-1 amplification was found in 28 cervical swabs and 31 urine samples. Overall agreement between PCR and culture was 95%. Members of the two biovars of U. urealyticum could be distinguished by the size of the PCR UM-1 amplification products. Biovar differentiation was also demonstrated by two additional sets of PCRs: PCR UM-2 and UM-3. The PCR UM-2 was used to amplify biovar 1, while PCR UM-3 amplified biovar 2 specifically. The results indicated that use of the MB antigen gene as a target for PCR amplification could provide rapid and specific detection and biotyping of ureaplasma DNA in urogenital samples.

  9. Optimized PCR assay for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-01-01

    A rapid PCR assay for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was developed based on the nested PCR procedure described by Lo et al. (1996) and outlined as the recommended PCR diagnostic assay in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals published by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE, 2009). The optimized procedure incorporated the second step primers used in the nested WSSV PCR. By adjusting the annealing temperature and shortening the cycling times, this modified assay is substantially faster and as sensitive as the recommended OIE protocol. The modified PCR test was compared directly to the two-step nested PCR protocol and a modified nested procedure. The sensitivity of the published assay was determined by template dilutions of semi-purified WSSV virions that had been quantitated using real-time PCR for detection of WSSV. Various isolates were tested using the modified procedure, to ensure that the assay was able to detect WSSV from different geographical locations.

  10. A specific real-time PCR assay for the detection of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Vincart, Benoit; De Mendonça, Ricardo; Rottiers, Sylvianne; Vermeulen, Françoise; Struelens, Marc J; Denis, Olivier

    2007-07-01

    A novel real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of Bordetella pertussis in respiratory specimens by targeting the pertactin gene. In vitro evaluation with reference strains and quality control samples showed analytical sensitivity equivalent to and specificity superior to those of PCR assays which target the IS481 element. The pertactin-based RT-PCR assay offers better discrimination between B. pertussis and other Bordetella species than previously described assays.

  11. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks and chromosome translocations using ligation-mediated PCR and inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheetal; Shih, Shyh-Jen; Vaughan, Andrew T M

    2014-01-01

    Current techniques for examining the global creation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks are restricted in their sensitivity, and such techniques mask any site-dependent variations in breakage and repair rate or fidelity. We present here a system for analyzing the fate of documented DNA breaks, using the MLL gene as an example, through application of ligation-mediated PCR. Here, a simple asymmetric double-stranded DNA adapter molecule is ligated to experimentally induced DNA breaks and subjected to seminested PCR using adapter- and gene-specific primers. The rate of appearance and loss of specific PCR products allows detection of both the break and its repair. Using the additional technique of inverse PCR, the presence of misrepaired products (translocations) can be detected at the same site, providing information on the fidelity of the ligation reaction in intact cells. Such techniques may be adapted for the analysis of DNA breaks and rearrangements introduced into any identifiable genomic location. We have also applied parallel sequencing for the high-throughput analysis of inverse PCR products to facilitate the unbiased recording of all rearrangements located at a specific genomic location.

  12. QUANTITATIVE VS. CONVENTIONAL PCR FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ADENOVIRUSES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    PubMed Central

    STAGGEMEIER, Rodrigo; BORTOLUZZI, Marina; HECK, Tatiana Moraes da Silva; SPILKI, Fernando Rosado; ALMEIDA, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Human Adenoviruses (HAdV) are notably resistant in the environment. These agents may serve as effective indicators of fecal contamination, and may act as causative agents of a number of different diseases in human beings. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, more recently, quantitative PCR (qPCR) are widely used for detection of viral agents in environmental matrices. In the present study PCR and SYBR(r)Green qPCR assays were compared for detection of HAdV in water (55) and sediments (20) samples of spring and artesian wells, ponds and streams, collected from dairy farms. By the quantitative methodology HAdV were detected in 87.3% of the water samples and 80% of the sediments, while by the conventional PCR 47.3% and 35% were detected in water samples and sediments, respectively. PMID:26422153

  13. QUANTITATIVE VS. CONVENTIONAL PCR FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ADENOVIRUSES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES.

    PubMed

    Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Bortoluzzi, Marina; Heck, Tatiana Moraes da Silva; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2015-01-01

    Human Adenoviruses (HAdV) are notably resistant in the environment. These agents may serve as effective indicators of fecal contamination, and may act as causative agents of a number of different diseases in human beings. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, more recently, quantitative PCR (qPCR) are widely used for detection of viral agents in environmental matrices. In the present study PCR and SYBR(r)Green qPCR assays were compared for detection of HAdV in water (55) and sediments (20) samples of spring and artesian wells, ponds and streams, collected from dairy farms. By the quantitative methodology HAdV were detected in 87.3% of the water samples and 80% of the sediments, while by the conventional PCR 47.3% and 35% were detected in water samples and sediments, respectively.

  14. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  15. Application of immuno-PCR for the detection of early stage cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Hayat; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2016-04-01

    Cancer detection in premalignant stage is directly related with increase survival rate. Several biomarkers have been investigated and characterized for monitoring changes inside the cancerous cells. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the method of choice in clinical practice for detecting biomarkers in serum/urine samples. However, in certain malignancies the amount of biomarkers before reaching metastasis are too low to be detected by conventional ELISA. The seminal work of Sano et al. led to the development of highly sensitive and powerful detection method, the immuno-PCR (iPCR), which can detect very small amount of antigens/biomarkers. In spite of, several publications on iPCR sensitivity, it has not been recommended for clinical use and is limited to the scientific community only. In order to evaluate the importance of iPCR, we have made an effort to collect published studies, supporting the use of iPCR in detecting premalignant cancer.

  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of Feline immunodeficiency virus using an insulated isothermal PCR-based assay with a point-of-need PCR detection platform.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca Penrose; Kania, Stephen A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important infectious agent of cats. Clinical syndromes resulting from FIV infection include immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections, and neoplasia. In our study, a 5' long terminal repeat/gag region-based reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) was developed to amplify all known FIV strains to facilitate point-of-need FIV diagnosis. The RT-iiPCR method was applied in a point-of-need PCR detection platform--a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted RT-iiPCR results from nucleic acids within 1 hr. Limit of detection 95% of FIV RT-iiPCR was calculated to be 95 copies standard in vitro transcription RNA per reaction. Endpoint dilution studies with serial dilutions of an ATCC FIV type strain showed that the sensitivity of lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent was comparable to that of a reference nested PCR. The established reaction did not amplify any nontargeted feline pathogens, including Felid herpesvirus 1, feline coronavirus, Feline calicivirus, Feline leukemia virus, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and Chlamydophila felis. Based on analysis of 76 clinical samples (including blood and bone marrow) with the FIV RT-iiPCR, test sensitivity was 97.78% (44/45), specificity was 100.00% (31/31), and agreement was 98.65% (75/76), determined against a reference nested-PCR assay. A kappa value of 0.97 indicated excellent correlation between these 2 methods. The lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent, deployed on a user-friendly portable device, has potential utility for rapid and easy point-of-need detection of FIV in cats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Development of a novel immuno-PCR for detection of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Zhang, Jianjun; Shao, Hongxia; Wan, Zhimin; Tian, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jialiang; Pang, Mayun; Qian, Kun; Gao, Wei; Wang, Chengming; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an important pathogen for various neoplasms, including lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid neoplasms, and it causes significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Several efficient methods for the detection of ALV have been reported. However, these previously developed approaches are based on either PCR or immunoassays. Here, we used a proximity ligation technique and combined PCR with the immunoassay to develop a novel immuno-PCR (Im-PCR) approach for the detection of ALV. Our data showed that the Im-PCR had high specificity and sensitivity to ALV. The Im-PCR method selectively reacted to ALV but not to the other avian viruses tested. The limit of detection of Im-PCR could reach 0.5 TCID50. Moreover, the results of Im-PCR were in agreement with results from commercial ELISA when the clinical cloaca samples were used for ALV detection. The present results demonstrate that the novel Im-PCR method can be efficiently applied to detect ALV in a clinical setting. Our data also highlight that Im-PCR may have promising applications in the diagnosis of pathogens.

  18. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    PubMed

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  19. Specific detection of chikungunya virus using a RT-PCR/nested PCR combination.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, M; Linssen, B; Parke, M D; Kinney, R M

    2002-02-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is enzootic in many countries in Asia and throughout tropical Africa. In Asia the virus is transmitted from primates to humans almost exclusively by Aedes aegypti, while various aedine mosquito species are responsible for human infections in Africa. The clinical picture is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, rash and severe pain in the joints which may persist in a small proportion of cases. Although not listed as a haemorrhagic fever virus, illness caused by CHIK virus can be confused with diseases such as dengue or yellow fever, based on the similarity of the symptoms. Thus, laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is required to launch control measures during an epidemic. CHIK virus diagnosis based on virus isolation is very sensitive, yet requires at least a week in conjunction with virus identification using monovalent sera. We developed a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which amplifies a 427-bp fragment of the E2 gene. Specificity was confirmed by testing representative strains of all known alphavirus species. To verify further the viral origin of the amplicon and to enhance sensitivity, a nested PCR was performed subsequently. This RT-PCR/nested PCR combination was able to amplify a CHIK virus-specific 172-bp amplicon from a sample containing as few as 10 genome equivalents. This assay was successfully applied to four CHIK virus isolates from Asia and Africa as well as to a vaccine strain developed by USAMRIID. Our method can be completed in less than two working days and may serve as a sensitive alternative in CHIK virus diagnosis.

  20. Mediator probe PCR: detection of real-time PCR by label-free probes and a universal fluorogenic reporter.

    PubMed

    Wadle, Simon; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Lehnert, Michael; Faltin, Bernd; Weidmann, Manfred; Hufert, Frank; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediator probe PCR (MP PCR) is a novel detection format for real-time nucleic acid analysis. Label-free mediator probes (MP) and fluorogenic universal reporter (UR) oligonucleotides are combined to accomplish signal generation. Compared to conventional hydrolysis probe PCRs costs can thus be saved by using the same fluorogenic UR for signal generation in different assays. This tutorial provides a practical guideline to MP and UR design. MP design rules are very similar to those of hydrolysis probes. The major difference is in the replacement of the fluorophore and quencher by one UR-specific sequence tag, the mediator. Further protocols for the setup of reactions, to detect either DNA or RNA targets with clinical diagnostic target detection as models, are explained. Ready to use designs for URs are suggested and guidelines for their de novo design are provided as well, including a protocol for UR signal generation characterization.

  1. Detection of Mixed Infections with Plasmodium spp. by PCR, India, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Sri; Bharti, Praveen K.; Chandel, Himashu S.; Ahmad, Amreen; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Puspendra P.; Singh, Mrigendra P.

    2015-01-01

    In 8 malaria-endemic states in India, mixed Plasmodium spp. infections were detected by PCR in 17.4% (265/1,521) of blood samples that microscopy had shown to contain only P. falciparum. The quality of microscopy must be improved because use of PCR for detection of malaria parasites is limited in rural areas. PMID:26401635

  2. Molecular-Beacon Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gubala, Aneta J.; Proll, David F.

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed using molecular beacons for the detection of Vibrio cholerae by targeting four important virulence and regulatory genes. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay, when tested with pure culture and spiked environmental water samples, were high, surpassing those of currently published PCR assays for the detection of this organism. PMID:16957277

  3. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water sample concentrates by real-time PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PCR techniques in combination with conventional parasite concentration procedures have potential for sensitive and specific detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water. Three real-time PCR assays based on the B1 gene and a 529-bp repetitive element were compared for detection of T. gondii tachyz...

  4. Detection of Mixed Infections with Plasmodium spp. by PCR, India, 2014.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Sri; Bharti, Praveen K; Chandel, Himashu S; Ahmad, Amreen; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Puspendra P; Singh, Mrigendra P; Singh, Neeru

    2015-10-01

    In 8 malaria-endemic states in India, mixed Plasmodium spp. infections were detected by PCR in 17.4% (265/1,521) of blood samples that microscopy had shown to contain only P. falciparum. The quality of microscopy must be improved because use of PCR for detection of malaria parasites is limited in rural areas.

  5. LUX real-time PCR assay for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, Stefan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Light Upon eXtension real-time PCR (LUX real-time PCR) assay was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The primers flanking a 114 bp fragment were selected from ORF1. The optimized assay could detect 20 viral copies of pBluescript SK+ plasmid containing inserted PCV2 DNA. The dynamic range of quantitative analysis covered a 7-order interval ranging from 20 to 2 x 10(8) genome equivalents per assay with the best results in the range from 2 x 10(2) to 2 x 10(7) viral copies. The LUX real-time PCR assay had a high specificity since it detected PCV2 but not PCV1, CSFV, PRRSV or negative samples. There was good agreement between the LUX real-time PCR and the conventional PCR when lymph nodes from PCV2 infected animals were tested. A comparison of the LUX real-time PCR with the TaqMan PCR and SYBR Green PCR indicated that the amount of viral copies determined using linear calibration curve differed from assay to assay but not more than an order. LUX real-time PCR, similar to the TaqMan PCR, was more specific for generation of fluorogenic signal than SYBR Green PCR.

  6. Application of quantitative PCR for the detection of microorganisms in water.

    PubMed

    Botes, Marelize; de Kwaadsteniet, Michéle; Cloete, Thomas Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms in water due to contamination is a health risk and control thereof is a necessity. Conventional detection methods may be misleading and do not provide rapid results allowing for immediate action. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method has proven to be an effective tool to detect and quantify microorganisms in water within a few hours. Quantitative PCR assays have recently been developed for the detection of specific adeno- and polyomaviruses, bacteria and protozoa in different water sources. The technique is highly sensitive and able to detect low numbers of microorganisms. Quantitative PCR can be applied for microbial source tracking in water sources, to determine the efficiency of water and wastewater treatment plants and act as a tool for risk assessment. Different qPCR assays exist depending on whether an internal control is used or whether measurements are taken at the end of the PCR reaction (end-point qPCR) or in the exponential phase (real-time qPCR). Fluorescent probes are used in the PCR reaction to hybridise within the target sequence to generate a signal and, together with specialised systems, quantify the amount of PCR product. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) is a more sensitive technique that detects low copy number RNA and can be applied to detect, e.g. enteric viruses and viable microorganisms in water, and measure specific gene expression. There is, however, a need to standardise qPCR protocols if this technique is to be used as an analytical diagnostic tool for routine monitoring. This review focuses on the application of qPCR in the detection of microorganisms in water.

  7. [Use of nested PCR in detection of the plague pathogen].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Zykova, I E; Severin, S E

    2003-07-01

    Causative agents of plague, i.e. bacterium Yersina pestis (in the subcutaneous tissues of rodents) and their cutaneous parasites need to be isolated to enable plague prevention. A comparatively new method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens up new possibilities of determining Y. pestis just within several hours and without any cultivation. The article contains a description of the PCR-method, which makes it possible to distinguish the culture of Y. pestis from cultures of other microorganism, including speci of Yersina. The method is of the cluster-type, i.e. it is made up of subsequent PC reactions with the substrate for the second reaction being the product of the first one. The cluster nature of the method preconditions a higher sensitivity and specificity versus the ordinary PCR.

  8. Comprehensive GMO detection using real-time PCR array: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Harada, Mioko; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Noritake, Hiromichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Iizuka, Tayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time PCR array method to comprehensively detect genetically modified (GM) organisms. In the method, genomic DNA extracted from an agricultural product is analyzed using various qualitative real-time PCR assays on a 96-well PCR plate, targeting for individual GM events, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, taxon-specific DNAs, and donor organisms of the respective r-DNAs. In this article, we report the single-laboratory validation of both DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays constituting the real-time PCR array. We selected some DNA extraction methods for specified plant matrixes, i.e., maize flour, soybean flour, and ground canola seeds, then evaluated the DNA quantity, DNA fragmentation, and PCR inhibition of the resultant DNA extracts. For the component PCR assays, we evaluated the specificity and LOD. All DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays satisfied the criteria set on the basis of previous reports.

  9. Rapid detection and ruling out of neonatal sepsis by PCR coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Delcò, Cristina; Karam, Oliver; Pfister, Riccardo; Gervaix, Alain; Renzi, Gesuele; Emonet, Stéphane; Schrenzel, Jacques; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2017-05-01

    Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and clinicians are typically required to administer empiric antibiotics while waiting for blood culture results. However, prolonged and inappropriate use of antibiotics is associated with various complications and adverse events. Better tools to rapidly rule out bacterial infections are therefore needed. We aimed to assess the negative predictive value of PCR coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) compared to conventional blood cultures in neonatal sepsis. Prospective observational study. All consecutive neonates (<28days old) with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Samples for PCR/ESI-MS analysis were collected at the same time as samples for the blood culture, before the initiation of antibiotics. Our primary objective was to evaluate the negative predictive value of PCR/ESI-MS for the detection of bacteria in the bloodstream of newborns with suspected sepsis. Our secondary objective was the evaluation of the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the PCR/ESI-MS in such a neonatal population. We analysed 114 samples over 14months. The median age and weight were 32weeks+3days and 1840g, respectively. Two patients had negative PCR/ESI-MS results, but positive blood cultures. Overall, the negative predictive value was 98% (95%CI: 92% to 100%). Based on these results, PCR/ESI-MS analysis of blood samples of neonates with suspected sepsis appears to have a very good negative predictive value when compared to blood cultures as gold standard. This novel test might allow for early reassessment of the need for antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  11. [Research progress of real-time quantitative PCR method for group A rotavirus detection].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Qing; Li, Dan-Di; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Group A rotavirus is one of the most significant etiological agents which causes acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. So far, several method which includes electron microscopy (EM), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Real-time Quantitative PCR has been established for the detection of rotavirus. Compared with other methods, Real-time quantitative PCR have advantages in specificity, sensitivity, genotyping and quantitative accuracy. This article shows a overview of the application of real-time quantitative PCR technique to detecte group A rotavirus.

  12. [Detection of wheat as an allergenic substance in food by a nested PCR method].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Makabe, Yuhki; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Sajiki, Junko; Miyamoto, Fumio

    2008-02-01

    A nested PCR method was developed for the detection of DNAs extracted from allergenic substances (here, wheat) in food. Because of DNA fragmentation, detection of wheat-specific DNA extracted from food, such as retort pouch food, is very difficult. Therefore, to improve the sensitivity of detection, a nested PCR primer pair (Wtr01NE2-5' and Wtr10NE5-3': amplicon size 97 bp) was newly designed within the region of the PCR products amplified by the official Japanese primer pair (Wtr01-5' and Wtr10-3'; amplicon size 141 bp) for wheat. Genomic DNAs of seven kinds of commercial processed foods containing wheat, wheat flour and three kinds of wheat flours pressure-heated at 100, 121 and 131 degrees C were extracted with a commercial ion-exchange type kit by modifying the Japanese official method. The nested PCR method involved two PCR procedures. First, PCR was performed by varying both the PCR reagents and cycling conditions of the Japanese official method. Second, PCR was performed using the first PCR products diluted 200-fold with TE buffer. The Japanese official method enabled detection of only four of the seven kinds of foods and three of the four kinds of flours (one sample was just a trace), while the nested PCR method detected all seven foods and all four flours. Investigation of the detectability of the four kinds of wheat flours depending on the size of the amplified fragment using five primer pairs showed that its size must be kept to less than approximately 100 bp. The nested PCR method significantly improved the sensitivity of detection of wheat-specific DNA.

  13. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    PubMed

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  14. Evaluation of various real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assays for norovirus detection.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ju Eun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Park, SungJun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2017-02-01

    Human noroviruses are widespread and contagious viruses causing nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (real-time RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard for sensitive and accurate detection for these pathogens and serves as a critical tool in outbreak prevention and control. Different surveillance teams, however, may use different assays and variability in specimen conditions may lead to disagreement in results. Furthermore, the norovirus genome is highly variable and continuously evolving. These issues necessitate the re-examination of the real-time RT-qPCR's robustness in the context of accurate detection as well as the investigation of practical strategies to enhance assay performance. Four widely referenced real-time RT-qPCR assays (Assay A-D) were simultaneously performed to evaluate characteristics such as PCR efficiency, detection limit, as well as sensitivity and specificity with RT-PCR, and to assess the most accurate method for detecting norovirus genogroups I and II. Overall, Assay D was evaluated to be the most precise and accurate assay in this study. A Zen internal quencher, which decreases nonspecific fluorescence during the PCR reaction, was added to Assay D's probe which further improved assay performance. This study compared several detection assays for noroviruses and an improvement strategy based on such comparisons provided useful characterizations of a highly optimized real-time RT-qPCR assay for norovirus detection.

  15. Specific detection of Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys by a PCR assay with an internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Bleyen, Nele; De Gussem, Koen; De Gussem, Jeroen; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2007-02-28

    Histomoniasis or blackhead is a disease of gallinaceous birds, caused by the protozoon Histomonas meleagridis. Since traditional diagnostics for the detection of this disease are complex and far less sensitive than molecular tools, a PCR would provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative. However, intestinal material and droppings, which are preferably used in epidemiological studies of histomoniasis, often contain PCR inhibitory substances. To detect these false negative results, the use of an internal amplification control is essential. Nevertheless, the recently developed PCR tests lack this internal control. Therefore, a new PCR assay with H. meleagridis specific primers was developed which does include an internal amplification control. The diagnostic value of the PCR assay was evaluated in comparison to three other conventional H. meleagridis specific PCR tests (HIS5, HM1 and HM2). None of the organ samples originating from uninfected turkeys, showed positive PCR results in any of the tests. Among the lesion-positive, inhibition-free samples, 95.4% were positive by our PCR assay, while only 50, 66.7 and 83.3% of the lesion-positive organs tested positive by the HM1, the HIS5 and the HM2 PCR respectively. In conclusion, our PCR offers the use of the internal control to detect false negative results and an increased sensitivity, and thus should be useful for routine diagnosis of H. meleagridis in poultry.

  16. [Application study of droplet digital PCR to detect maternal cell contamination in prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Geng, J; Liu, C; Zhou, X C; Ma, J; Du, L; Lu, J; Zhou, W N; Hu, T T; Lyu, L J; Yin, A H

    2017-02-25

    Objective: To develop a new method based on droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) for detection and quantification of maternal cell contamination in prenatal diagnosis. Methods: Invasive prenatal samples from 40 couples of β(IVS-Ⅱ-654)/β(N) thalassemia gene carriers who accepted prenatal diagnosis in Affiliated Women and Children's Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from October 2015 to December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Specific primers and probes were designed. The concentration gradient were 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.562 5%. There were 40 groups of prenatal diagnostic samples. Comparing DD-PCR with quantitative fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR) based on the short tandem repeats for assement of the sensitivity and accuracy of maternal cell contamination, respectively. Results: DD-PCR could quantify the maternal cell contamination as low as 1.562 5%. The result was proportional to the dilution titers. In the 40 prenatal samples, 6 cases (15%, 6/40) of maternal cell contamination were detected by DD-PCR, while the QF-PCR based on short tandem repeat showed 3 cases (7.5%, 3/40) with maternal cell contamination, DD-PCR was more accurate (P=0.002) . Conclusion: DD-PCR is a precise and sensitive method in the detection of maternal cell contamintation. It could be useful in clinical application.

  17. A reverse transcriptase PCR technique for the detection and viability assessment of Kluyveromyces marxianus in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, María Belén; Martin, Rosario; Hernández, Pablo E; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A fast and sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection of viable Kluyveromyces marxianus in yoghurt. Yeast-specific primers were used with the RT-PCR to evaluate the suitability of 18S rRNA as a target for the detection of viable yeasts in pure culture and yoghurt. The RT-PCR assay was able to detect down to 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in yoghurt samples contaminated with viable yeast cells. Application of the RT-PCR method to commercial yoghurt samples demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of low concentrations of viable yeast cells in naturally contaminated dairy products. The 18S rRNA molecule is an appropriate target for cell viability assessment because of its limited persistence after cell death and the resultant high level of sensitivity of the assay.

  18. Detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus 1 and Chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex RT-PCR/PCR.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J E; Allen, J L; Studdert, V P; Browning, G F

    2001-07-26

    A single tube, multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/PCR assay was developed for detection of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), Chlamydia psittaci and feline calicivirus (FCV) in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), incorporating a simple, rapid extraction procedure capable of extracting both DNA and RNA. The assay was found to be as sensitive in vitro as simplex assays that have previously been shown to be as sensitive as, or more sensitive than, culture for each pathogen in experimentally infected cats. Conjunctival alone or both conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from cats in 104 households with URTD. FHV1 was detected in 18 (17.3%) and C. psittaci was detected in 12 (11.5%) households. The prevalence of C. psittaci was not significantly different to that determined using a duplex PCR assay for C. psittaci and FHV1. The prevalence of FCV was affected by sample storage temperature. Of samples stored at -70 degrees C, 0/31 were positive for FCV but FCV was detected in 10/73 (13.7%) samples stored at 4 degrees C (P=0.006). Of the samples stored at 4 degrees C, 3/19 (15.8%) conjunctival swabs were positive for FCV and 6/32 (18.8%) oropharyngeal/conjunctival swabs were positive for FCV (P=0.79). The potential utility of restriction endonuclease analysis of RT-PCR products resulting from amplification of the hypervariable region of the capsid protein gene of FCV in field samples, without prior cultivation, was also examined. The assay may have considerable importance for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of feline upper respiratory tract pathogens.

  19. Comparison of three non-nested RT-PCR for the detection of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Vabret, A; Sapin, G; Lezin, B; Mosnier, A; Cohen, J; Burnouf, L; Petitjean, J; Gouarin, S; Campet, M; Freymuth, F

    2000-09-01

    The viral isolation technique (VIT) is largely used as a gold standard for the detection of influenza A and B viruses in respiratory samples. Some recent studies have pointed out that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays allow sensitive and rapid detection of influenza viruses, also providing excellent correlation with traditional methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three non-nested PCR, two PCR-hybridization assays using primers defined in M and NS genes, and one PCR which uses primers defined in NP, NS and HA genes and combines the detection of H3N2 and H1N1 hemagglutinin genes using defined primers in NP, NS and HA genes (PCR3), in comparison with an IF assay (IFA) and viral isolation technique (VIT). The study was carried out on 244 nasal samples collected mainly by practitioners of the GROG surveillance network during winter 1998-1999 for the detection of influenza A virus. Overall influenza viruses were detected more frequently by PCR techniques in 157 (64.3%), 147 (60.2%), 110 (45%) cases for PCR1, PCR2, PCR3, respectively, than by VIT or IFA, in 100 (40.9%) and 74 (30.3%) cases, respectively. Taking the positive culture samples as a reference, 100 (41.8%) samples were found to be positive for influenza A, and the sensitivity of IFA, PCR 1, PCR 2 and PCR3 techniques were 70, 100, 99, and 90%, respectively as compared with viral isolation cultures. On the other hand, as 86.5% of positive samples were positive with at least two different techniques, the sensitivity, specificity, VPP and VPN of each technique were recalculated taking into account a further criterion defining a positive sample: positivity with two techniques. We observe that techniques PCR 2 and particularly PCR 1 have very good sensitivity, respectively 98.6 and 100%, far better than the traditional techniques, IFA and culture, whilst maintaining acceptable specificity: 94.1 and 86.1%, respectively. In both cases they enable 141 (57.7%) A-positive influenza

  20. Development of an RNA extraction protocol for detection of waterborne viruses by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, N; Sobsey, M D; Cromeans, T L

    2010-10-01

    RNA extraction from environmental samples yields frequently an RNA preparation containing inhibitors of molecular reactions. Commercial RNA extraction kits commonly permit extraction of only 0.1-0.2 ml sample volume. An RNA extraction buffer (RNAX buffer) was formulated for the extraction of viral RNA from 4.0 ml using a silica column based protocol. To evaluate the RNAX buffer based protocol, we used hepatitis A virus (HAV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to monitor the RNA extraction efficiency from environmental samples. For evaluation of viral RNA recovery from water concentrates which were prepared from river and pond water by PEG concentration, serial ten fold dilutions of two waterborne viruses were added to the water concentrates for evaluation by quantitative detection. Quantitative recovery of HAV and CVB3 was determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The extracted RNA was compatible with RT-qPCR and sensitivity of detection of 0.8PFU per reaction was found with RNAX buffer and the developed protocol. This level of sensitivity was obtained using viral RNA extracted from 4.0 ml of an inoculated water sample concentrate. The RNAX buffer developed in this study could be applicable to the detection of other pathogens in water and food.

  1. Real-time PCR for detection of NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from spiked stool samples.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Ergani, Ayla; Carrër, Amélie; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-09-01

    An in-house quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using TaqMan chemistry has been developed to detect NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from bacterial isolates and directly from stool samples. The qPCR amplification of bla(NDM-1) DNA was linear over 10 log dilutions (r(2) = 0.99), and the amplification efficiency was 1.03. The qPCR detection limit was reproducibly 1 CFU, or 10 plasmid molecules, and there was no cross-reaction with DNA extracted from several multidrug-resistant bacteria harboring other β-lactam resistance genes. Feces spiked with decreasing amounts of enterobacterial isolates producing NDM-1 were spread on ChromID ESBL and on CHROMagar KPC media and were subjected to the qPCR. The limits of carbapenem-resistant bacterial detection from stools was reproducibly 1 × 10(1) to 3 × 10(1) CFU/100 mg feces with ChromID ESBL medium. The CHROMagar KPC culture medium had higher limits of detection (1 × 10(1) to 4 × 10(3) CFU/ml), especially with bacterial isolates having low carbapenem MICs. The limits of detection with the qPCR assay were reproducibly below 1 × 10(1) CFU/100 mg of feces by qPCR assay. Samples spiked with NDM-1-negative bacteria were negative by qPCR. The sensitivity and specificity of the bla(NDM-1) qPCR assay on spiked samples were 100% in both cases. Using an automated DNA extraction system (QIAcube system), the qPCR assay was reproducible. The use of qPCR is likely to shorten the time for bla(NDM-1) detection from 48 h to 4 h and will be a valuable tool for outbreak follow-up in order to rapidly isolate colonized patients and assign them to cohorts.

  2. Rapid and sensitive insulated isothermal PCR for point-of-need feline leukaemia virus detection.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dunbar, Dawn; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Fu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Graham, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), a gamma retrovirus, causes diseases of the feline haematopoietic system that are invariably fatal. Rapid and accurate testing at the point-of-need (PON) supports prevention of virus spread and management of clinical disease. This study evaluated the performance of an insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) that detects proviral DNA, and a reverse transcription (RT)-iiPCR that detects both viral RNA and proviral DNA, for FeLV detection at the PON. Methods Mycoplasma haemofelis, feline coronavirus, feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and feline immunodeficiency virus were used to test analytical specificity. In vitro transcribed RNA, artificial plasmid, FeLV strain American Type Culture Collection VR-719 and a clinical FeLV isolate were used in the analytical sensitivity assays. A retrospective study including 116 clinical plasma and serum samples that had been tested with virus isolation, real-time PCR and ELISA, and a prospective study including 150 clinical plasma and serum samples were implemented to evaluate the clinical performances of the iiPCR-based methods for FeLV detection. Results Ninety-five percent assay limit of detection was calculated to be 16 RNA and five DNA copies for the RT-iiPCR, and six DNA copies for the iiPCR. Both reactions had analytical sensitivity comparable to a reference real-time PCR (qPCR) and did not detect five non-target feline pathogens. The clinical performance of the RT-iiPCR and iiPCR had 98.82% agreement (kappa[κ] = 0.97) and 100% agreement (κ = 1.0), respectively, with the qPCR (n = 85). The agreement between an automatic nucleic extraction/RT-iiPCR system and virus isolation to detect FeLV in plasma or serum was 95.69% (κ = 0.95) and 98.67% (κ = 0.85) in a retrospective (n = 116) and a prospective (n = 150) study, respectively. Conclusions and relevance These results suggested that both RT-iiPCR and iiPCR assays can serve as reliable tools for PON FeLV detection.

  3. HIGH SENSITIVE PCR METHOD FOR DETECTION OF PATHOGENIC Leptospira spp. IN PARAFFIN-EMBEDDED TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Angel Alberto; Rodríguez, Islay; Rodríguez, Yaindrys; Govín, Anamays; Fernández, Carmen; Obregón, Ana Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a new PCR assay for the specific detection of pathogenic leptospires and its comparison with a previously reported PCR protocol. New primers were designed for PCR optimization and evaluation in artificially-infected paraffin-embedded tissues. PCR was then applied to post-mortem, paraffin-embedded samples, followed by amplicon sequencing. The PCR was more efficient than the reported protocol, allowing the amplification of expected DNA fragment from the artificially infected samples and from 44% of the post-mortem samples. The sequences of PCR amplicons from different patients showed >99% homology with pathogenic leptospires DNA sequences. The applicability of a highly sensitive and specific tool to screen histological specimens for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. would facilitate a better assessment of the prevalence and epidemiology of leptospirosis, which constitutes a health problem in many countries. PMID:25229221

  4. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  5. Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of six major bacterial pathogens of rice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Ojaghian, M R; Tao, Z; Kakar, K U; Zeng, J; Zhao, W; Duan, Y; Vera Cruz, C M; Li, B; Zhu, B; Xie, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of six important rice pathogens: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae. Specific primers were designed through a bioinformatics pipeline. Sensitivity of detection was established using both traditional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR on isolated DNA and on bacterial cells both in vitro and in simulated diseased seeds and the parameters were optimized for an mPCR assay. A total of 150 bacterial strains were tested for specificity. The mPCR assay accurately predicted the presence of pathogens among 44 symptomatic and asymptomatic rice seed, sheath and leaf samples. This study confirmed that this mPCR assay is a rapid, reliable and simple tool for the simultaneous detection of six important rice bacterial pathogens. This study is the first report of a method allowing simultaneous detection of six major rice pathogens. The ability to use crude extracts from plants without bacterial isolation or DNA extraction enhances the value of this mPCR technology for rapid detection and aetiological/epidemiological studies. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Nested PCR for ultrasensitive detection of the potato ring rot bacterium, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen, D E; Mogen, B; Davis, R E

    1997-01-01

    Oligonucleotide primers derived from sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (CMR16F1, CMR16R1, CMR16F2, and CMR16R2) and insertion element IS1121 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (CMSIF1, CMSIR1, CMSIF2, and CMISR2) were used in nested PCR to detect the potato ring rot bacterium C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Nested PCR with primer pair CMSIF1-CMSIR1 followed by primer pair CMSIF2-CMSIR2 specifically detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, while nested PCR with CMR16F1-CMR16R1 followed by CMR16F2-CMR16R2 detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the other C. michiganensis subspecies. In the latter case, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus can be differentiated from the other subspecies by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nested PCR products (16S rDNA sequences). The nested PCR assays developed in this work allow ultrasensitive detection of very low titers of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus which may be present in symptomiess potato plants or tubers and which cannot be readily detected by direct PCR (single PCR amplification). RFLP analysis of PCR products provides for an unambiguous confirmation of the identify of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. PMID:9212412

  7. Nested PCR for ultrasensitive detection of the potato ring rot bacterium, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen, D E; Mogen, B; Davis, R E

    1997-07-01

    Oligonucleotide primers derived from sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (CMR16F1, CMR16R1, CMR16F2, and CMR16R2) and insertion element IS1121 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (CMSIF1, CMSIR1, CMSIF2, and CMISR2) were used in nested PCR to detect the potato ring rot bacterium C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Nested PCR with primer pair CMSIF1-CMSIR1 followed by primer pair CMSIF2-CMSIR2 specifically detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, while nested PCR with CMR16F1-CMR16R1 followed by CMR16F2-CMR16R2 detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the other C. michiganensis subspecies. In the latter case, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus can be differentiated from the other subspecies by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nested PCR products (16S rDNA sequences). The nested PCR assays developed in this work allow ultrasensitive detection of very low titers of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus which may be present in symptomiess potato plants or tubers and which cannot be readily detected by direct PCR (single PCR amplification). RFLP analysis of PCR products provides for an unambiguous confirmation of the identify of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

  8. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in conjunctival swabs of cats by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Julia Cristina; Benvenga, Graziella U; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Pereira, Vanessa F; Keid, Lara B; Soares, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa

    2017-06-01

    Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a method that permits quantitative analysis of a large number of samples, resulting in more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible measurements of specific DNA present in the sample. This study compared real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) for detection of Leishmania spp. in blood and conjunctival swab (CS) samples of healthy cats from a non-endemic area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of all CS samples, 1.85% (2/108) were positive for Leishmania spp. by both cPCR as qPCR (kappa index = 1), indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. The DNA from the two CS-cPCR- and CS-qPCR-positive samples was further tested with a PCR test amplifying the Leishmania spp. discriminative rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1), of which one sample generated a 300-350-bp DNA fragment whose size varies according to the Leishmania species. Following sequencing, the fragment showed 100% similarity to a GenBank L. infantum sequence obtained from a cat in Italy. In conclusion, the association of qPCR and CS proved to be effective for detection of Leishmania in cats. Conjunctival swab samples were shown to be a practical and better alternative to blood samples and may be useful in the diagnosis and studies of feline leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. COLD-PCR: a new platform for highly improved mutation detection in cancer and genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2009-04-01

    PCR is widely employed as the initial DNA amplification step for genetic testing and cancer biomarker detection. However, a key limitation of PCR-based methods, including real-time PCR, is the inability to selectively amplify low levels of variant alleles in a wild-type allele background. As a result, downstream assays are limited in their ability to identify subtle genetic changes that can have a profound impact on clinical decision-making and outcome or that can serve as cancer biomarkers. We developed COLD-PCR (co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR) [Li, Wang, Mamon, Kulke, Berbeco and Makrigiorgos (2008) Nat. Med. 14, 579-584], a novel form of PCR that amplifies minority alleles selectively from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences irrespective of the mutation type or position on the sequence. Consequently, COLD-PCR amplification from genomic DNA yields PCR products containing high-prevalence variant alleles that can be detected. Since PCR constitutes a ubiquitous initial step for almost all genetic analysis, COLD-PCR provides a general platform to improve the sensitivity of essentially all DNA-variation detection technologies including Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, single molecule sequencing, mutation scanning, mutation genotyping or methylation assays. COLD-PCR combined with real-time PCR provides a new approach to boost the capabilities of existing real-time mutation detection methods. We replaced regular PCR with COLD-PCR before sequencing or real-time mutation detection assays to improve mutation detection-sensitivity by up to 100-fold and identified novel p53/Kras/EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) mutations in heterogeneous cancer samples that were missed by all existing methods. For clinically relevant micro-deletions, COLD-PCR enabled exclusive amplification and isolation of the mutants. COLD-PCR is expected to have diverse applications in the fields of biomarker identification and tracing, genomic

  10. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) as a method used for bulking process detection in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sołtysik, Dagna; Bednarek, Ilona; Loch, Tomasz; Gałka, Sabina; Sypniewski, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Bulking of activated sludge is a world-widely prevalent problem and can lead to loss of bio-oxidation, further deterioration of effluent quality, and even to a complete breakdown of the entire treatment process. Most common reasons of bulking are bacterial community changes, especially excessive growth of filamentous bacteria or excess of biopolymers on surface of non-filamentous microbes. Because of complex nature of the bulking phenomenon, the successful bulking control strategy finding is still a very important need awaiting new options and advices. The repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) fingerprinting method has been applied to distinguish bacterial community in non-bulking and bulking activated sludge. The characteristic REP-PCR fingerprinting patterns, using the Ward's clustering method, have been analyzed to determine homology/similarity relation between particular non-bulking and bulking sludge sampling. The received clustering results were in high concordance with activated sludge typing done based on physicochemical sludge analysis. The choice and application of molecular typing method in sludge analysis will depend upon the needs, skill level, and resources of the laboratory. The proposed REP-PCR method and statistical analysis of fingerprinting patterns seems to be simple, rapid, and effective methods to show differences between population in non-bulking and bulking activated sludge. It is easy to implement, and it may be useful for routinely activated sludge monitoring as well as may be helpful in early detection of bulking process.

  11. [Primers design and optimization of PCR and nested-PCR assays for the specific detection of Tritrichomonas foetus].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Paula Rogério; Da Silva, Andréa Caetano; Gambarini, Maria Lúcia; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland C

    2008-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a pathogenic protozoan that causes a venereal disease in cattle known as bovine genital tricomonosis. In spite of the efficacy to recognize the target genomic DNA, the protocols so far developed for the diagnosis of this organism by PCR promote some inespecific amplifications or they are unable to discriminate T. foetus against other species within the genus. The objective of this study was to assess and optimize PCR and nested-PCR assays for the specific diagnosis of T. foetus, using novel primers selected from the alignment of sequences of the genes 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 28S rRNA and of the internal transcribed spacers of the rDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). A pair of primers was constructed for the genus-specific amplification of a 648 bp fragment and two others to amplify T. foetus species-specific fragments of 343 and 429 bp. No cross amplification was observed against Bos taurus genomic DNA neither against the DNA of usual bovine genital pathogens. Both, single and nested-PCR assays, presented analytical sensitivity to detect at least two T. foetus organisms.

  12. Use of Multiplex PCR and PCR Restriction Enzyme Analysis for Detection and Exploration of the Variability in the Free-Living Amoeba Naegleria in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pélandakis, Michel; Pernin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed to simultaneously detect Naegleria fowleri and other Naegleria species in the environment. Multiplex PCR was also capable of identifying N. fowleri isolates with internal transcribed spacers of different sizes. In addition, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR product distinguished the main thermophilic Naegleria species from the sampling sites. PMID:11916734

  13. A PCR procedure for the detection of Giardia intestinalis cysts and Escherichia coli in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Martinez, M L; Olmos-Ortiz, L M; Barajas-Mendiola, M A; Giono Cerezo, S; Avila, E E; Cuellar-Mata, P

    2015-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a pathogen associated with foodborne outbreaks and Escherichia coli is commonly used as a marker of faecal contamination. Implementation of routine identification methods of G. intestinalis is difficult for the analysis of vegetables and the microbiological detection of E. coli requires several days. This study proposes a PCR-based assay for the detection of E. coli and G. intestinalis cysts using crude DNA isolated from artificially contaminated lettuce. The G. intestinalis and E. coli PCR assays targeted the β-giardin and uidA genes, respectively, and were 100% specific. Forty lettuces from local markets were analysed by both PCR and light microscopy and no cysts were detected, the calculated detection limit was 20 cysts per gram of lettuce; however, by PCR, E. coli was detected in eight of ten randomly selected samples of lettuce. These data highlight the need to validate procedures for routine quality assurance. These PCR-based assays can be employed as alternative methods for the detection of G. intestinalis and E. coli and have the potential to allow for the automation and simultaneous detection of protozoa and bacterial pathogens in multiple samples. Significance and impact of the study: There are few studies for Giardia intestinalis detection in food because methods for its identification are difficult for routine implementation. Here, we developed a PCR-based method as an alternative to the direct observation of cysts in lettuce by light microscopy. Additionally, Escherichia coli was detected by PCR and the sanitary quality of lettuce was evaluated using molecular and standard microbiological methods. Using PCR, the detection probability of Giardia cysts inoculated onto samples of lettuce was improved compared to light microscopy, with the advantage of easy automation. These methods may be employed to perform timely and affordable detection of foodborne pathogens. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Comparison of two DNA extractions and nested PCR, real-time PCR, a new commercial PCR assay, and bacterial culture for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Dammen, Matthew A; Weeks, Shelleen R; Epperson, William B; Singh, Shri N; Steinlicht, Gina L; Fang, Ying; Skaare, Jessica L; Larsen, Jill L; Payeur, Janet B; Nelson, Eric A

    2003-03-01

    In this study, 5 combinations of 2 DNA extractions and 3 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared with culture for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis directly from bovine feces. These combinations included a new commercial extraction technique combined with a commercial PCR/Southern blot technique, nested PCR (nPCR), or real-time PCR, and a university-developed extraction combined with nPCR or real-time PCR. Four of the 5 combinations had statistically similar sensitivities between 93% and 100% and specificity between 95% and 100%, when compared with culture results from 63 bovine fecal samples. These results indicated that using a commercial extraction with a commercial PCR/Southern blot, nPCR, or real-time PCR, or a university-developed extraction with real-time PCR would result in similar sensitivities to culture for the identification of M. paratuberculosis from bovine feces and are valid alternatives to culture.

  15. Development of a novel PCR-RFLP assay for improved detection and typing of bovine papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Chiaki; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi

    2015-06-15

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to detect and type bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) from tumors in cattle. Two degenerate primer sets targeting the BPV L1 gene, subAup/subAdw and subBup/subBdw, and one restriction enzyme RsaI were used in this assay. In silico analyses of the restriction enzyme sites in the PCR fragments of 13 BPV sequences (BPV-1 to -13) revealed that all known BPVs are differentiated by the PCR-RFLP assay. Analyses of 63 previously typed clinical samples, that included teat papillomas and both esophageal and urinary bladder cancer biopsies, show that the assay clearly differentiates between eight clinically important BPV types (BPV-1 to -6, -9, -10), and discriminates between single and multiple infections. To further assess the reliability of the PCR-RFLP method amplified fragments were sequenced. A high correlation (95%) was observed when the results of the PCR-RFLP method were compared with PCR-sequencing. Differences in typing occurred for 3 of 63 specimens; PCR-RFLP identified additional BPV types in these specimens, while the PCR-sequencing identified only one. These results indicate that the PCR-RFLP method reported here is simpler and more reliable in the detection and typing of BPVs from bovine tumor samples than PCR-sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PCR detection of Ruminococcus spp. in human and animal faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, R F; Cao, W W; Cerniglia, C E

    1997-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures for Ruminococcus spp. were developed and used for the detection of Ruminococcus spp. in human and animal faeces. The PCR specificity was established for Ruminococcus albus, R. bromii, R. obeum, R. callidus and R. flavefaciens. The PCR sensitivity ranged from 4 to 100 cells of the pure cultures, depending on the species. Ruminococcus albus, R. bromii, R. obeum and R. callidus were detected in human faeces. R. bromii, R. albus and R. obeum were also detected in animal faeces. R. flavefaciens was not detected in most of the samples tested, except for a weak positive in monkey faecal specimens. The PCR appears to be a specific and efficient method for the detection of Ruminococcus spp. in faecal specimens.

  17. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  18. Development of real-time PCR assay for differential detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis.

    PubMed

    Tizolova, Anette; Brun, Delphine; Guiso, Nicole; Guillot, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is a causative agent of whooping cough in humans, and B. bronchiseptica is causing wide variety of respiratory infections in mammals, including humans. Specific diagnostic tests are not currently available. Our first objective was to develop a real-time PCR test for the specific detection of B. bronchiseptica based on the previously described end-point PCR, targeting an intergenomic sequence of the fla gene locus, but it has not been reached. However, there is cross-reactivity between B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. Therefore, the targeted region of several clinical isolates of both species was sequenced, and alignment of the sequences allowed the development of a 2-step real-time PCR assay. The first PCR assay detected the DNA of all clinical isolates of both B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis tested. The second PCR assay detected only the DNA of B. parapertussis clinical isolates, thereby allowing discrimination between B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica.

  19. Detection of clinically relevant genotypes of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in nosocomial surveillance specimens by PCR.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, P; Rutherford, C

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluated a PCR method for the rapid detection of clinically significant genotypes of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in nosocomial surveillance specimens. Detection of the vanA and vanB genes by multiplex PCR using 657 specimens that showed presumptive growth of VRE on bile esculin azide agar containing 6 mg of vancomycin/liter was compared to the conventional method. The diagnostic values for the PCR compared to the phenotypic method were as follows: 99.8% specificity, 95.4% sensitivity, 98.8% positive predictive value, and 99.3% negative predictive value. The average cost per test for PCR is $8.26, compared to $9.45 for the phenotypic method. The average turnaround time for detecting a VRE is 48 h for PCR, compared to 96 h for the conventional method.

  20. Detection by PCR of wild-type canine parvovirus which contaminates dog vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Senda, M; Parrish, C R; Harasawa, R; Gamoh, K; Muramatsu, M; Hirayama, N; Itoh, O

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting wild-type canine parvovirus (CPV) strains which contaminate vaccines for dogs has been developed by PCR. PCR primers which distinguish vaccine strains from the most common, recent strains of wild-type CPV in many countries, including Japan and the United States, were developed. This PCR is based on the differences in nucleotide sequences which determine the two antigenic types of this virus. CPV vaccine strains derived from antigenically old-type virus prevalent in former times were not detected by PCR with differential primers. Detection sensitivity of PCR was 100- to 10,000-fold higher than that of the culture method in Crandell feline kidney cells. PMID:7699026

  1. Integrated sorting, concentration and real time PCR based detection system for sensitive detection of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Monalisha; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Himanshu; Kant, Rishi; Gupta, Ankur; Pandey, Shashank Shekhar; Mandal, Swarnasri; Ramanathan, Gurunath; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    The extremely low limit of detection (LOD) posed by global food and water safety standards necessitates the need to perform a rapid process of integrated detection with high specificity, sensitivity and repeatability. The work reported in this article shows a microchip platform which carries out an ensemble of protocols which are otherwise carried in a molecular biology laboratory to achieve the global safety standards. The various steps in the microchip include pre-concentration of specific microorganisms from samples and a highly specific real time molecular identification utilizing a q-PCR process. The microchip process utilizes a high sensitivity antibody based recognition and an electric field mediated capture enabling an overall low LOD. The whole process of counting, sorting and molecular identification is performed in less than 4 hours for highly dilute samples. PMID:24253282

  2. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martinez-Puchol, Sandra; Pons, Maria J.; Bazán, Jorge; Tinco, Carmen; del Valle, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Background The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion’s disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay. Conclusions/Significance From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion’s disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques. PMID:26959642

  3. Detection of aflatoxin-producing molds in Korean fermented foods and grains by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng-You; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Ji-Hun; Park, Seon-Ja; Kang, Sung-Jo; Nam, Baik-Sang; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2004-11-01

    An assay based on multiplex PCR was applied for the detection of potential aflatoxin-producing molds in Korean fermented foods and grains. Three genes, avfA, omtA, and ver-1, coding for key enzymes in aflatoxin biosynthesis, were used as aflatoxin-detecting target genes in multiplex PCR. DNA extracted from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium expansum, and Fusarium verticillioides was used as PCR template to test specificity of the multiplex PCR assay. Positive results were achieved only with DNA that was extracted from the aflatoxigenic molds A. flavus and A. parasiticus in all three primer pairs. This result was supported by aflatoxin detection with direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DC-ELISA). The PCR assay required just a few hours, enabling rapid and simultaneous detection of many samples at a low cost. A total of 22 Meju samples, 24 Doenjang samples, and 10 barley samples commercially obtained in Korea were analyzed. The DC-ELISA assay for aflatoxin detection gave negative results for all samples, whereas the PCR-based method gave positive results for 1 of 22 Meju samples and 2 of 10 barley samples. After incubation of the positive samples with malt extract agar, DC-ELISA also gave positive results for aflatoxin detection. All Doenjang samples were negative by multiplex PCR and DC-ELISA assay, suggesting that aflatoxin contamination and the presence of aflatoxin-producing molds in Doenjang are probably low.

  4. Type A influenza virus detection from horses by real-time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease of horses caused by the equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 subtype. EI is the most important respiratory virus infection of horses and can disrupt major equestrian events and cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Influenza H3N8 virus spreads rapidly in susceptible horses and can result in very high morbidity within 24-48 h after exposure to the virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EI is critical for implementation of prevention and control measures to avoid the spread of EIV and to reduce the economic impact of the disease. The probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays targeting various EIV genes are reported to be highly sensitive and specific compared to the Directigen Flu A(®) test and virus isolation in embryonated hens' eggs. Recently, a TaqMan(®) probe-based insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for the detection of EIV H3N8 subtype has been described. These molecular based diagnostic assays provide a fast and reliable means of EIV detection and disease surveillance.

  5. Low-cost, real-time, continuous flow PCR system for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carballo, B Leticia; McGuiness, Ian; McBeth, Christine; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Borrós, Salvador; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a portable and low cost point-of-care (POC) PCR system for quantitative detection of pathogens. Our system is based on continuous flow PCR which maintains fixed temperatures zones and pushes the PCR solution between two heated areas allowing for faster heat transfer and as a result, a faster PCR. The PCR system is built around a 46.0 mm × 30.9 mm × 0.4 mm disposable thermoplastic chip. In order to make the single-use chip economically viable, it was manufactured by hot embossing and was designed to be compatible with roll-to-roll embossing for large scale production. The prototype instrumentation surrounding the chip includes two heaters, thermal sensors, and an optical system. The optical system allows for pathogen detection via real time fluorescence measurements. FAM probes were used as fluorescent reporters of the amplicons generated during the PCR. To demonstrate the function of the chip, two infectious bacteria targets were selected: Chlamydia trachomatis and Escherichia coli O157:H7. For both bacteria, the limit of detection of the system was determined, PCR efficiencies were calculated, and different flow velocities were tested. We have demonstrated successful detection for these two bacterial pathogens highlighting the versatility and broad utility of our portable, low-cost, and rapid PCR diagnostic device.

  6. Comparative analysis of techniques for detection of quiescent Botrytis cinerea in grapes by quantitative PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical lavage specimens by a nonisotopic consensus PCR assay.

    PubMed Central

    Coutlée, F; Provencher, D; Voyer, H

    1995-01-01

    A gene amplification method that combines PCR with an enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) for quantitation of amplified DNA was developed for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Samples were amplified with consensus primers MY09 and MY11. Amplified DNA products were reacted in solution with type-specific nested RNA probes labelled with digoxigenin-11-UTP. Hybrids were captured on a microtiter plate coated with an antidigoxigenin antibody. Bound DNA-RNA hybrids were quantitated by the addition of an alkaline phosphatase-labelled monoclonal antibody directed against DNA-RNA hybrids and a fluorogenic substrate. The detection limit of PCR-EIA was six copies of HPV type 18 DNA in the original specimen. The assay was used to assess HPV infection of the uterine cervixes of 65 women referred to a colposcopy clinic. In 66 cervicovaginal lavage specimens, all 23 HPV strains detected by a standard isotopic PCR assay were also detected by the PCR-EIA (sensitivity, 100%; 95% confidence interval, 85.2 to 100%). Forty-two of the 43 samples that did not contain HPV types 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, and 45 were also negative by PCR-EIA, for a specificity of 97.7%. Low-level cross-reactivity was encountered between HPV types 18 and 45 as well as between types 33 and 58. PCR-EIA provides a convenient means of objectively measuring PCR-amplified HPV DNA from common genital HPV types. PMID:7559932

  8. Development of a nano-particle-assisted PCR assay for detection of duck tembusu virus.

    PubMed

    Wanzhe, Y; Jianuan, L; Peng, L; Jiguo, S; Ligong, C; Juxiang, L

    2016-01-01

    Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) has caused significant economic losses to the poultry industry in China since the spring of 2010. In this study, a nano-PCR assay targeting E gene of DTMUV was developed and their sensitivities and specificities were investigated. Under the optimized conditions of nano-PCR assay for detection of DTMUV, the nano-PCR assay was 10-fold more sensitive than a conventional PCR assay. The lower detection limit of the nano-PCR assay was 1·8 × 10(2)  copies μl(-1) of DTMUV RNA, as no cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. This is the first report to demonstrate the application of a nano-PCR assay for the detection of DTMUV. The sensitive, and specific nano-PCR assay developed in this study can be applied widely in clinical diagnosis and field surveillance of DTMUV-infection. A nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nano-PCR) assay was developed in this study for the rapid detection of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) with high sensitivity and specificity. This technique has potential application in both clinical diagnosis and field surveillance of DTMUV-infection. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. PCR detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in serum as a diagnostic test for congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C T; Istas, A S; Wilkerson, M K; Demmler, G J

    1995-01-01

    PCR detected cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the serum of 18 of 18 infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, 1 of 2 infants with asymptomatic congenital CMV infection, and 0 of 32 controls. Serum CMV PCR provided a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection in infants who were symptomatic at birth. PMID:8586726

  10. An integrated microfluidic system for bovine DNA purification and digital PCR detection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingchang; Mu, Ying; Xu, Yanan; Song, Qi; Yu, Bingwen; Ma, Congcong; Jin, Wei; Jin, Qinhan

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we described an integrated modularized microfluidic system that contained two distinct functional modules, one for nucleic acids (NA) extraction and the other for digital PCR (dPCR), allowing for detecting the bovine DNA in ovine tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

  12. Multiplex PCR for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric biopsies with lower inflammatory score.

    PubMed

    Fadilah, Najmiyatul; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Razlan, Hamizah; Wong, Zin Qin; Mohamed Rose, Isa; Rahman, Md Mostafizur

    2016-10-01

    No gold standard has yet been established for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was developed in this study for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of H. pylori from gastric biopsies. H. pylori infections were determined by in-house rapid urease test (iRUT), culture, histology and multiplex PCR. A total of 140 (60.9%) from 230 patients were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori were detected in 9.6% (22/230), 17% (39/230), 12.6% (29/230) and 60% (138/230) of biopsy specimens by culture, iRUT, histology and mPCR, respectively. mPCR identified H. pylori infection in 100% of biopsies with positive histology and culture. All biopsies with positive iRUT yielded positive PCR except two cases. mPCR also detected H. pylori in additional 116, 101 and 109 biopsies that were negative by culture, iRUT and histology, respectively. Positive samples by mPCR showed lower average in H. pylori density, activity and inflammation scores. The Indians showed the highest prevalence of H. pylori infection compared to the Chinese and the Malays. In addition, Chinese patients with older age were significantly infected compared to other ethnicities. PCR was able to detect the highest numbers of positive cases although the lowest average scores were recorded in the activity, inflammatory and H. pylori density.

  13. Detection of Brucella canis from inguinal lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs by PCR.

    PubMed

    Aras, Z; Uçan, U S

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and evaluate a PCR assay for the detection of Brucella canis (B. canis) in lymph node samples of naturally infected dogs. The performance of the PCR was compared with the results of bacteriological culture as reference method. Forty-eight inguinal lymph node samples were collected from 48 dogs (18 males and 30 females) that died in the city's pound in the years 2007-2008 and were examined by microbiological culture and the PCR assay. B. canis was isolated from 4 (8.3%) of 48 lymph node samples. Forty-four (91.7%) of the samples were bacteriological culture negative. B. canis DNA was directly detected from all culture positive lymph node samples (n = 4) by PCR. All of the culture negative samples were confirmed as negative by PCR. When the culture method was used as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were found to be 100%. The limit of PCR detection of B. canis DNA was 1.4 x 10(1) CFU/g at least. In conclusion, the PCR assay has been shown to have a diagnostic performance equal to bacteriological culture for detection of B. canis. By a non-hazardous protocol for laboratory workers, the assay can be performed in one day. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Active Case Detection with Pooled Real-Time PCR to Eliminate Malaria in Trat Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Sudathip, Prayuth; Satimai, Wichai; Sug-aram, Rungniran; Aruncharus, Supannee; Darakapong, Ampai; Kitchakarn, Suravadee; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted contact tracing and high-risk group screening using pooled real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to support malaria elimination in Thailand. PCR detected more Plasmodium infections than the local and expert microscopists. High-throughput pooling technique reduced costs and allowed prompt reporting of results. PMID:22556075

  15. Development of an updated PCR assay for detection of African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Atim, Stella A; Shao, Lina; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Yan; Ji, Shengwei; Meng, Xing-Yu; Li, Su; Li, Yongfeng; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl; Widén, Frederik; Liu, Lihong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current unavailability of vaccines or treatments for African swine fever (ASF), which is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), rapid and reliable detection of the virus is essential for timely implementation of emergency control measures and differentiation of ASF from other swine diseases with similar clinical presentations. Here, an improved PCR assay was developed and evaluated for sensitive and universal detection of ASFV. Primers specific for ASFV were designed based on the highly conserved region of the vp72 gene sequences of all ASFV strains available in GenBank, and the PCR assay was established and compared with two OIE-validated PCR tests. The analytic detection limit of the PCR assay was 60 DNA copies per reaction. No amplification signal was observed for several other porcine viruses. The novel PCR assay was more sensitive than two OIE-validated PCR assays when testing 14 strains of ASFV representing four genotypes (I, V, VIII and IX) from diverse geographical areas. A total of 62 clinical swine blood samples collected from Uganda were examined by the novel PCR, giving a high agreement (59/62) with a superior sensitive universal probe library-based real-time PCR. Eight out of 62 samples tested positive, and three samples with higher Ct values (39.15, 38.39 and 37.41) in the real-time PCR were negative for ASFV in the novel PCR. In contrast, one (with a Ct value of 29.75 by the real-time PCR) and two (with Ct values of 29.75 and 33.12) ASFV-positive samples were not identified by the two OIE-validated PCR assays, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the novel PCR assay is specific, sensitive, and applicable for molecular diagnosis and surveillance of ASF.

  16. Biofunctionalization of Polyoxometalates with DNA Primers, Their Use in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Electrochemical Detection of PCR Products.

    PubMed

    Debela, Ahmed M; Ortiz, Mayreli; Beni, Valerio; Thorimbert, Serge; Lesage, Denis; Cole, Richard B; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Hasenknopf, Bernold

    2015-12-01

    The bioconjugation of polyoxometalates (POMs), which are inorganic metal oxido clusters, to DNA strands to obtain functional labeled DNA primers and their potential use in electrochemical detection have been investigated. Activated monooxoacylated polyoxotungstates [SiW11 O39 {Sn(CH2 )2 CO}](8-) and [P2 W17 O61 {Sn(CH2 )2 CO}](6-) have been used to link to a 5'-NH2 terminated 21-mer DNA forward primer through amide coupling. The functionalized primer was characterized by using a battery of techniques, including electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. The functionality of the POM-labeled primers was demonstrated through hybridization with a surface-immobilized probe. Finally, the labeled primers were successfully used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were characterized by using electrophoresis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1999-03-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles.

  18. Evaluation of Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Youn; Lee, Nam Yong

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based amplification tests allow the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, a real-time PCR assay for M. tuberculosis complex, the Cobas TaqMan MTB test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), was introduced. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Cobas TaqMan MTB test system. A total of 406 specimens collected from 247 patients were simultaneously tested by conventional culture, Cobas Amplicor MTB PCR, and TaqMan MTB PCR. The cross-reactivity with other Mycobacterium species and the detection limit were also evaluated. Among 406 specimens, a total of 24 specimens (5.9%) were culture positive: 14 specimens were positive by both TaqMan and Amplicor MTB PCRs, while 5 specimens were positive by only TaqMan PCR. The remaining five specimens were negative by both PCR methods. Seven specimens with negative culture results were positive by TaqMan PCR, but five of these were negative by Amplicor MTB PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 79.1%, 98.2%, 73.1%, and 98.7% for TaqMan and 58.3%, 99.5%, 87.5%, and 97.4% for the Amplicor MTB PCR test, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with M. tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial species. The detection limit for the Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test was 4.0 copies/μl. The Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test showed higher sensitivity for detection of the M. tuberculosis complex without disturbing the specificity and NPV than the Amplicor MTB PCR test.

  19. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak.

  20. Optimisation of DNA extraction and validation of PCR assays to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Timms, Verlaine J; Mitchell, Hazel M; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate DNA extraction methods and PCR assays suitable for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bovine tissue. The majority of methods currently used to detect M. paratuberculosis have been developed using bovine samples, such as faeces, blood or tissue and, in many cases, have been based on detection from pooled samples from a herd. However most studies have not compared PCR results to culture results. In order to address this problem, four DNA extraction protocols and three PCR assays were employed to detect M. paratuberculosis in bovine tissue. Given that culture is reliable from cows, the results were then compared with the known M. paratuberculosis culture status. The following DNA extractions were included, two commercial kits, a boiling method, an in house extraction based on a published method and enrichment by sonication. The three PCR assays used included single round IS900 and f57 assays and a nested IS900 assay. In addition, another PCR assay was validated for the detection of any Mycobacterial species and a universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene assay was used to detect sample inhibition. The in-house DNA extraction was the most consistent in extracting good quality DNA compared to all other methods. The use of two PCR markers, IS900 and f57, and a universal PCR enabled the correct samples to be identified as M. paratuberculosis positive. In addition, when compared to the culture result, false-positives did not occur and PCR inhibition was readily identified. Using an in house DNA extraction coupled with the IS900 and f57 PCR markers, this study provides a reliable and simple method to detect M. paratuberculosis in both veterinary and spill over infections.

  1. Real-Time PCR: Revolutionizing Detection and Expression Analysis of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, SA; Kottapalli, KR; Rakwal, R; Oros, G; Rangappa, KS; Iwahashi, H; Masuo, Y; Agrawal, GK

    2007-01-01

    Invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology by Kary Mullis in 1984 gave birth to real-time PCR. Real-time PCRdetection and expression analysis of gene(s) in real-time — has revolutionized the 21st century biological science due to its tremendous application in quantitative genotyping, genetic variation of inter and intra organisms, early diagnosis of disease, forensic, to name a few. We comprehensively review various aspects of real-time PCR, including technological refinement and application in all scientific fields ranging from medical to environmental issues, and to plant. PMID:18645596

  2. Real-Time PCR: Revolutionizing Detection and Expression Analysis of Genes.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Sa; Kottapalli, Kr; Rakwal, R; Oros, G; Rangappa, Ks; Iwahashi, H; Masuo, Y; Agrawal, Gk

    2007-06-01

    Invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology by Kary Mullis in 1984 gave birth to real-time PCR. Real-time PCR - detection and expression analysis of gene(s) in real-time - has revolutionized the 21(st) century biological science due to its tremendous application in quantitative genotyping, genetic variation of inter and intra organisms, early diagnosis of disease, forensic, to name a few. We comprehensively review various aspects of real-time PCR, including technological refinement and application in all scientific fields ranging from medical to environmental issues, and to plant.

  3. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  5. Nanofluidic digital PCR for KRAS mutation detection and quantification in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Azuara, Daniel; Ginesta, Mireia M; Gausachs, Mireia; Rodriguez-Moranta, Francisco; Fabregat, Joan; Busquets, Juli; Pelaez, Nuria; Boadas, Jaume; Galter, Sara; Moreno, Victor; Costa, Jose; de Oca, Javier; Capellá, Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    Concomitant quantification of multiple mutant KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) alleles may provide information in addition to that provided by standard mutation-detection procedures. We assessed the feasibility of a nanofluidic digital PCR array platform to detect and quantify KRAS mutations simultaneously in clinically relevant samples. We assessed 2 groups of patients (colorectal and pancreatic disease): Group 1 consisted of 27 patients with colorectal carcinomas, 14 patients with adenomas, and 5 control individuals; group 2 consisted of 42 patients with pancreatic carcinoma, 4 with adenocarcinomas of the ampulla, and 6 with chronic pancreatitis). Digital PCR was performed with the Digital Array Chip (Fluidigm). Nanofluidic digital PCR detected mutant alleles at 0.05% to 0.1%, depending on the variant analyzed. For the colorectal disease group, conventional PCR detected 9 (64%) of 14 adenomas that were positive for KRAS mutants, whereas digital PCR increased this number to 11 (79%) of 14. Sixteen (59%) of 27 carcinomas showed KRAS mutation with conventional PCR. Two additional cases were detected with digital PCR. In 5 cases (3 adenomas, 2 carcinomas), the total number of mutant alleles changed. For the pancreatic disease group, digital PCR increased the number of positive cases from 26 to 34 (81%) and identified ≥ 2 mutant alleles in 25 cases, compared with conventional PCR, which identified multiple KRAS mutant alleles in only 12 cases. A good correlation was observed between results obtained with tumor biopsies and those obtained with pancreatic juice. Digital PCR provides a robust, quantitative measure of the proportion of KRAS mutant alleles in routinely obtained samples. It also allows a better classification of tumors, with potential clinical relevance.

  6. Rapid detection and identification of Clostridium chauvoei by PCR based on flagellin gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Uchida, I; Sekizaki, T; Sasaki, Y; Ogikubo, Y; Tamura, Y

    2001-02-26

    We developed a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that specifically detects Clostridium chauvoei. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 516-bp fragment of the structural flagellin gene. The specificity of the PCR was investigated by analyzing 59 strains of clostridia, and seven strain of other genera. A 516-bp fragment could be amplified from all the C. chauvoei strains tested, and no amplification was observed by using DNAs from the other strains tested, including Clostridium septicum. Similarly, this PCR-based method specifically detected C. chauvoei DNA sequences in samples of muscle and exudate of obtained from mice within 12h of inoculation. In tests using samples of muscle or liver, the limit of detection was about 200 organisms per reaction. These results suggest that the one-step PCR system may be useful for direct detection and identification of C. chauvoei in clinical specimens.

  7. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    PubMed

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks.

  8. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA SPECIES IN WATER USING FLOW CYTOMETRY COUPLED WITH TAQMAN PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the incidence of human fungal infection increases, the ability to detect and identify pathogenic fungi in potential environmental reservoirs becomes increasingly important for disease control. PCR based assays are widely used for diagnostic purposes, but may be inadequate for...

  9. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses.

  10. Detection and quantification of beef and pork materials in meat products by duplex droplet digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yicun; He, Yuping; Lv, Rong; Chen, Hongchao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Meat products often consist of meat from multiple animal species, and inaccurate food product adulteration and mislabeling can negatively affect consumers. Therefore, a cost-effective and reliable method for identification and quantification of animal species in meat products is required. In this study, we developed a duplex droplet digital PCR (dddPCR) detection and quantification system to simultaneously identify and quantify the source of meat in samples containing a mixture of beef (Bos taurus) and pork (Sus scrofa) in a single digital PCR reaction tube. Mixed meat samples of known composition were used to test the accuracy and applicability of this method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this detection and quantification system were also identified. We conclude that our dddPCR detection and quantification system is suitable for quality control and routine analyses of meat products. PMID:28771608

  11. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA SPECIES IN WATER USING FLOW CYTOMETRY COUPLED WITH TAQMAN PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the incidence of human fungal infection increases, the ability to detect and identify pathogenic fungi in potential environmental reservoirs becomes increasingly important for disease control. PCR based assays are widely used for diagnostic purposes, but may be inadequate for...

  12. Detection of pathogenic leptospires in urine from naturally infected cattle by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Koury, Matilde Cota

    2008-11-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers from the LipL32 sequence of Leptospira spp. was used to detect shedding of pathogenic leptospires in urine from naturally infected cattle. Amplicons (497bp) were obtained from 21 pathogenic reference serovars belonging to four species (L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai, L. kirschneri). DNA was amplified from 26/30 urine samples taken from cattle with suspected leptospirosis and from leptospires cultivated from 10 of these samples. The limit of detection of DNA in the clinical samples was 200pg and the nested PCR detected all pathogenic reference serovars of Leptospira spp. tested. No PCR products were amplified using DNA from other common bacterial species from the bovine urogenital tract or urine, or from the non-pathogenic L. biflexa Andamana serovar. The nested PCR exhibited high specificity and sensitivity for detection of pathogenic serovars in urine from cattle.

  13. Detection and quantification of Aspergillus ochraceus in green coffee by PCR.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Bannier, M; Vogel, R F; Niessen, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and quantify DNA of the ochratoxinogenic fungus Aspergillus ochraceus in green coffee and to compare the results with the ochratoxin A content of naturally contaminated samples. A DNA extraction protocol based on a combination of ultrasonification and a commercial kit was tested for the recovery of fungal DNA. PCR and real-time PCR protocols were established for the detection of A. ochraceus. Sensitivity of the PCR was checked by the addition of inoculated green coffee and pure fungal DNA to uncontaminated green coffee samples. The A. ochraceus DNA content of 30 naturally contaminated green coffee samples was determined and compared with the ochratoxin A concentrations. Aspergillus ochraceus can be rapidly and specifically detected in green coffee by PCR. A positive correlation between the ochratoxin A content and the DNA quantity was established. This work offers a quick alternative to the conventional mycological detection and quantification of A. ochraceus in green coffee.

  14. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products. PMID:27721691

  15. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products.

  16. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-08-25

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Thermal factors influencing detection of Vibrio vulnificus using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shishan; Levin, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Five thermal factors, including initial denaturation temperature, cycling denaturation temperature, annealing temperature, extension temperature and the temperature at which the intensity of the fluorescent signal is read, were evaluated for their effects on the detection of Vibrio vulnificus via real-time PCR. Fluorescent signal detection after extension was set between the Tm value of the primer-dimers (79 degrees C) and that of the PCR target amplicons (84 degrees C). This effectively eliminated the overestimation of the yield of PCR amplicons due to the presence of primer-dimers which otherwise led to erroneously lower Ct values (1.91+/-0.22 cycles lower). The annealing and extension steps were combined to convert a three-step PCR to a two-step PCR. This consisted of initial denaturation at 95 degrees C for 3 min, cycling denaturation at 94 degrees C for 15 s and a combined annealing and extension step at 60 degrees C for 5 s in each PCR cycle. One genomic target per real-time PCR reaction was detected with the simplified two-step PCR.

  18. High Throughput Multiplex PCR and Probe-based Detection with Luminex Beads for Seven Intestinal Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Mami; Verweij, Jaco J.; Noor, Zannatun; Sobuz, Shihab U.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for intestinal parasites are increasingly being used on fecal DNA samples for enhanced specificity and sensitivity of detection. Comparison of these tests against microscopy and copro-antigen detection has been favorable, and substitution of PCR-based assays for the ova and parasite stool examination is a foreseeable goal for the near future. One challenge is the diverse list of protozoan and helminth parasites. Several existing real-time PCR assays for the major intestinal parasites—Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides stercoralis—were adapted into a high throughput protocol. The assay involves two multiplex PCR reactions, one with specific primers for the protozoa and one with specific primers for the helminths, after which PCR products are hybridized to beads linked to internal oligonucleotide probes and detected on a Luminex platform. When compared with the parent multiplex real-time PCR assays, this multiplex PCR-bead assay afforded between 83% and 100% sensitivity and specificity on a total of 319 clinical specimens. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR-bead protocol provides a sensitive diagnostic screen for a large panel of intestinal parasites. PMID:21292910

  19. Evaluation of a quantitative plasma PCR plate assay for detecting cytomegalovirus infection in marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Gallez-Hawkins, G M; Tegtmeier, B R; ter Veer, A; Niland, J C; Forman, S J; Zaia, J A

    1997-01-01

    A plasma PCR test, using a nonradioactive PCR plate assay, was evaluated for detection of human cytomegalovirus reactivation. This assay was compared to Southern blotting and found to perform well. As a noncompetitive method of quantitation, it was similar to a competitive method for detecting the number of genome copies per milliliter of plasma in marrow transplant recipients. This is a technically simplified assay with potential for adaptation to automation. PMID:9041438

  20. Detection of Leptospira DNA in Patients with Aseptic Meningitis by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Eliete C.; Billerbeck, Ana E. C.; Lando, Valéria S.; Camargo, Eide D.; Souza, Candida C.; Yasuda, Paulo H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of cerebrospinal fluid from 103 patients with aseptic meningitis were tested by PCR for detection of leptospires, and the results were compared with those of the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M (ELISA-IgM). Of these samples, 39.80% were positive by PCR and 8.74 and 3.88% were positive by MAT and ELISA-IgM, respectively. PMID:9574730

  1. Salmonella detection from chicken rinsate with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and RT-PCR validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optical detection of bacteria has been approached in recent years as a bacteria detection method that can counter time restraints of traditional plating or the high reoccurring cost of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The goal of optical detection is to identify bacteria with spectral s...

  2. Rapid detection of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes using a commercial real-time PCR system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid Salmonella detection is needed to help prevent the distribution of contaminated food products. Using traditional culture methods, Salmonella detection can take up to 3-5 days. Using an improved protocol and a commercial real-time PCR system, we have shortened the detection time to under 24 h...

  3. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex PCR for Rapid Detection of Multi Drug Resistant Gram Negative Infections.

    PubMed

    Chavada, Ruchir; Maley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Community and healthcare associated infections caused by multi-drug resistant gram negative organisms (MDR GN) represent a worldwide threat. Nucleic Acid Detection tests are becoming more common for their detection; however they can be expensive requiring specialised equipment and local expertise. This study was done to evaluate the utility of a commercial multiplex tandem (MT) PCR for detection of MDR GN. The study was done on stored laboratory MDR GN isolates from sterile and non-sterile specimens (n=126, out of stored 567 organisms). Laboratory validation of the MT PCR was done to evaluate sensitivity, specificity and agreement with the current phenotypic methods used in the laboratory. Amplicon sequencing was also done on selected isolates for assessing performance characteristics. Workflow and cost implications of the MT PCR were evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the MT PCR were calculated to be 95% and 96.7% respectively. Agreement with the phenotypic methods was 80%. Major lack of agreement was seen in detection of AmpC beta lactamase in enterobacteriaceae and carbapenemase in non-fermenters. Agreement of the MT PCR with another multiplex PCR was found to be 87%. Amplicon sequencing confirmed the genotype detected by MT PCR in 94.2 % of cases tested. Time to result was faster for the MT PCR but cost per test was higher. This study shows that with carefully chosen targets for detection of resistance genes in MDR GN, rapid and efficient identification is possible. MT PCR was sensitive and specific and likely more accurate than phenotypic methods.

  4. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex PCR for Rapid Detection of Multi Drug Resistant Gram Negative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chavada, Ruchir; Maley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Community and healthcare associated infections caused by multi-drug resistant gram negative organisms (MDR GN) represent a worldwide threat. Nucleic Acid Detection tests are becoming more common for their detection; however they can be expensive requiring specialised equipment and local expertise. This study was done to evaluate the utility of a commercial multiplex tandem (MT) PCR for detection of MDR GN. Methods: The study was done on stored laboratory MDR GN isolates from sterile and non-sterile specimens (n=126, out of stored 567 organisms). Laboratory validation of the MT PCR was done to evaluate sensitivity, specificity and agreement with the current phenotypic methods used in the laboratory. Amplicon sequencing was also done on selected isolates for assessing performance characteristics. Workflow and cost implications of the MT PCR were evaluated. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the MT PCR were calculated to be 95% and 96.7% respectively. Agreement with the phenotypic methods was 80%. Major lack of agreement was seen in detection of AmpC beta lactamase in enterobacteriaceae and carbapenemase in non-fermenters. Agreement of the MT PCR with another multiplex PCR was found to be 87%. Amplicon sequencing confirmed the genotype detected by MT PCR in 94.2 % of cases tested. Time to result was faster for the MT PCR but cost per test was higher. Conclusion: This study shows that with carefully chosen targets for detection of resistance genes in MDR GN, rapid and efficient identification is possible. MT PCR was sensitive and specific and likely more accurate than phenotypic methods. PMID:26464612

  5. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  6. On-chip quantitative detection of pathogen genes by autonomous microfluidic PCR platform.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hiroaki; Saito, Masato; Shibuya, Shogo; Tsuji, Koji; Miyagawa, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Keiichiro; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2015-12-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genetic testing has become a routine part of clinical diagnoses and food testing. In these fields, rapid, easy-to-use, and cost-efficient PCR chips are expected to be appeared for providing such testing on-site. In this study, a new autonomous disposable plastic microfluidic PCR chip was created, and was utilized for quantitative detection of pathogenic microorganisms. To control the capillary flow of the following solution in the PCR microchannel, a driving microchannel was newly designed behind the PCR microchannel. This allowed the effective PCR by simply dropping the PCR solution onto the inlet without any external pumps. In order to achieve disposability, injection-molded cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) of a cost-competitive plastic was used for the PCR chip. We discovered that coating the microchannel walls with non-ionic surfactant produced a suitable hydrophilic surface for driving the capillary flow through the 1250-mm long microchannel. As a result, quantitative real-time PCR with the lowest initial concentration of human, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and pathogenic E. coli O157 genomic DNA of 4, 0.0019, 0.031 pg/μl, respectively, was successfully achieved in less than 18 min. Our results indicate that the platform presented in this study provided a rapid, easy-to-use, and low-cost real-time PCR system that could be potentially used for on-site gene testing.

  7. PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and environmental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, G; Fenicia, L; Caldiani, C; Aureli, P

    1996-01-01

    A PCR was developed and applied for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in 18 avian and environmental samples collected during an outbreak of avian botulism, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional methodologies based on the mouse bioassay. PCR and mouse bioassay results compared well (100%) after the enrichment of samples, but PCR results directly indicated the presence of this microorganism in six samples, while only one of these contained the type C botulinal neurotoxin before enrichment. The PCR assay was sensitive (limit of detection between 15 and 15 x 10(3) spores per PCR), specific (no amplification products were obtained with other clostridia), and rapid, since sonicated and heated samples provided enough template for amplification without any DNA purification. Eleven isolates of C. botulinum type C were recovered from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), grey herons (Ardea cinerea), and mud during investigation of this outbreak. PMID:8815101

  8. Molecular detection of Puccinia horiana in Chrysanthemum x morifolium through conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Hossein; Baeyen, Steve; Maes, Martine; Höfte, Monica; Heungens, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    Puccinia horiana Henn. is a quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum x morifolium cultivars grown for cut flower or potted plant production (florist's chrysanthemum) in several regions of the world. Highly specific primer pairs were identified for conventional, nested, and real-time PCR detection of P. horiana based on the specific and sensitive PCR amplification of selected regions in the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Using these different PCR versions, 10 pg, 10 fg, and 5 fg genomic DNA could be detected, respectively. When using cloned target DNA as template, the detection limits were 5000, 50, and 5 target copies, respectively. These detection limits were not affected by a background of chrysanthemum plant DNA. The DNA extraction method was optimized to maximize the recoverability of the pathogen from infected plant tissue. A CTAB extraction protocol or a selection of commercial DNA extraction methods allowed the use of 10 ng total (plant+pathogen) DNA without interference of PCR inhibitors. Due to the specificity of the primers, SYBR Green I technology enabled reliable real time PCR signal detection. However, an efficient TaqMan probe is available. The lowest proportion of infected plant material that could still be detected when mixed with healthy plant material was 0.001%. The real-time PCR assay could detect as few as eight pure P. horiana basidiospores, demonstrating the potential of the technique for aerial detection of the pathogen. The amount of P. horiana DNA in plant tissue was determined at various time points after basidiospore inoculation. Using the real-time PCR protocol, it was possible to detect the pathogen immediately after the inoculation period, even though the accumulation of pathogen DNA was most pronounced near the end of the latent period. The detection system proved to be accurate and sensitive and could help not only in pathogen diagnosis but

  9. Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, KaShonda; Cosman, Angela; Belgrader, Phillip; Chapman, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Health care-associated infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contribute to significant hospitalization costs. We report here a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay, which is a next-generation emulsion-based endpoint PCR assay for high-precision MRSA analysis. Reference cultures of MRSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and confounders were included as controls. Copan swabs were used to sample cultures and collect specimens for analysis from patients at a large teaching hospital. Swab extraction and cell lysis were accomplished using magnetic-driven agitation of silica beads. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) (Roche Light Cycler 480) and ddPCR (Bio-Rad QX100 droplet digital PCR system) assays were used to detect genes for the staphylococcal protein SA0140 (SA) and the methicillin resistance (mecA) gene employing standard TaqMan chemistries. Both qPCR and ddPCR assays correctly identified culture controls for MRSA (76), MSSA (12), and confounder organisms (36) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Analysis of the clinical samples (211 negative and 186 positive) collected during a study of MRSA nasal carriage allowed direct comparison of the qPCR and ddPCR assays to the Cepheid MRSA GeneXpert assay. A total of 397 clinical samples were examined in this study. Cepheid MRSA GeneXpert values were used to define negative and positive samples. Both the qPCR and ddPCR assays were in good agreement with the reference assay. The sensitivities for the qPCR and ddPCR assays were 96.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.1 to 98.5%) and 96.8% (95% CI, 93.1 to 98.5%), respectively. Both the qPCR and ddPCR assays had specificities of 91.9% (95% CI, 87.5 to 94.9%) for qPCR and 91.0% (95% CI, 86.4 to 94.2%) for ddPCR technology. PMID:23596244

  10. Real-Time PCR Improves Helicobacter pylori Detection in Patients with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Casalots, Alex; Sanfeliu, Esther; Boix, Loreto; García-Iglesias, Pilar; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Bella-Cueto, Maria Rosa; Gallach, Marta; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran; Calvet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Histological and rapid urease tests to detect H. pylori in biopsy specimens obtained during peptic ulcer bleeding episodes (PUB) often produce false-negative results. We aimed to examine whether immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR can improve the sensitivity of these biopsies. Patients and Methods We selected 52 histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens obtained during PUB episodes. Additional tests showed 10 were true negatives and 42 were false negatives. We also selected 17 histology-positive biopsy specimens obtained during PUB to use as controls. We performed immunohistochemistry staining and real-time PCR for 16S rRNA, ureA, and 23S rRNA for H. pylori genes on all specimens. Results All controls were positive for H. pylori on all PCR assays and immunohistochemical staining. Regarding the 52 initially negative biopsies, all PCR tests were significantly more sensitive than immunohistochemical staining (p<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 80% for 16S rRNA PCR, 43% and 90% for ureA PCR, 41% and 80% for 23S rRNA PCR, and 7% and 100% for immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Combined analysis of PCR assays for two genes were significantly more sensitive than ureA or 23S rRNA PCR tests alone (p<0.05) and marginally better than 16S rRNA PCR alone. The best combination was 16S rRNA+ureA, with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusions Real-time PCR improves the detection of H. pylori infection in histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy samples obtained during PUB episodes. The low reported prevalence of H. pylori in PUB may be due to the failure of conventional tests to detect infection. PMID:21625499

  11. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  12. [Study on detection of Salmonella in poultry samples by real-time PCR with Taqman probes].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Wang, Xiaoying; Guo, Yunchang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Yu, Dongmin; Yang, Dajin

    2014-08-01

    To develop a RT-PCR method for a rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella in poultry samples. The RT-PCR method was established and its specificity was testified on the basis of invA gene. Serial 10-fold diluted pure suspension culture of CMCC 50041 was detected by RT-PCR, the standard curve was constructed and the amplification efficiency was calculated. Artificially contaminated experiment was done, six artificially-inoculated samples containing final concentration of Salmonella CMCC 50041 (1, 10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5) and 10(6) CFU per 25 g poultry samples) were prepared respectively. All the samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 18 h and the DNA was extracted for RT-PCR detection, meanwhile by PCR detection and the traditional method. The sensitiveness and specificity were compared among the three methods. At the same time, 16 samples of retail whole poultry were collected from markets and detected by the above three methods as well, and thereby to further compare the positive detection among the three methods. The established RT-PCR method was specific for the detection of Salmonella. The sensitivity was 5.2×10(3) CFU/ml for pure Salmonella culture without enrichment. Correlation coefficients of standard curves constructed using the Ct versus log value of concentration of Salmonella showed good linearity over a 8-log dynamic range (5.2×10(3)-5.2×10(10) CFU/ml), with the R(2) at 0.999. RT-PCR detection limit for artificially contaminated samples after enriching for 12 h was 1 CFU/25 g sample, which was the same with the limit of PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the limit of traditional method. Standard curve of sample after enrichment for 12 h was established. Seven of 16 samples were detected positive by RT-PCR, which were also tested positive by PCR, while only five samples were positive by traditional method. The positive ones were quantitatively analyzed using standard curve of sample and determined the initial Salmonella numbers of CFU

  13. Detection of Salmonella spp. using a generic and differential FRET-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilei; Wei, Lanjing; Kelly, Patrick; Freeman, Mark; Jaegerson, Kirsten; Gong, Jiansen; Xu, Bu; Pan, Zhiming; Xu, Chuanling; Wang, Chengming

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate the detection of Salmonella and to be able to rapidly and conveniently determine the species/subspecies present, we developed and tested a generic and differential FRET-PCR targeting their tetrathionate reductase response regulator gene. The differential pan-Salmonella FRET-PCR we developed successfully detected seven plasmids that contained partial sequences of S. bongori and the six S. enterica subspecies. The detection limit varied from ~5 copies of target gene/per PCR reaction for S. enterica enterica to ~200 for S. bongori. Melting curve analysis demonstrated a T m of ~68 °C for S. enterica enterica, ~62.5 °C for S. enterica houtenae and S. enterica diarizonae, ~57 °C for S. enterica indica, and ~54 °C for S. bongori, S. enterica salamae and S. enterica arizonae. The differential pan-Salmonella FRET-PCR also detected and determined the subspecies of 4 reference strains and 47 Salmonella isolated from clinically ill birds or pigs. Finally, we found it could directly detect and differentiate Salmonella in feline (5/50 positive; 10%; one S. enterica salamae and 4 S. enterica enterica) and canine feces (15/114 positive; 13.2%; all S. enterica enterica). The differential pan-Salmonella FRET-PCR failed to react with 96 non-Salmonella bacterial strains. Our experiments show the differential pan-Salmonella FRET-PCR we developed is a rapid, sensitive and specific method to detect and differentiate Salmonella.

  14. Detection of microalgal resting cysts in European coastal sediments using a PCR-based assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Antonella; Battocchi, Cecilia; Garcés, Esther; Anglès, Silvia; Cucchiari, Emellina; Totti, Cecilia; Kremp, Anke; Satta, Cecilia; Grazia Giacobbe, Maria; Bravo, Isabel; Bastianini, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    A PCR-based assay was developed and applied to sediment and sediment trap samples for the detection of different cysts belonging to dinoflagellates and raphidophytes in European coastal areas. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the ITS-5.8S and LSU ribosomal gene sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR assay were assessed using genomic DNA from clonal cultures, plasmid copy number of cloned target sequences, as well as from sediment samples. Qualitative PCR determinations of different cysts in sediment and sediment trap samples were compared to taxonomic examinations by light microscopy. This molecular methodology permitted a fast and specific detection of target cysts in sediment samples. We also detected dinoflagellate and raphidophyte cysts at concentrations not detectable by microscopic methods or that are difficult to identify. The results given by molecular and microscopic methods were comparable. However, higher values of positive detection for target cysts were obtained by PCR than with microscopy. Some taxa were detected in 100% of the samples using PCR, while others were only found in 10% of the samples. The data obtained in this study showed that the PCR-based method is a valid tool for cyst identification in marine sediments.

  15. PCR detection of African horse sickness virus serogroup based on genome segment three sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2009-07-01

    A nested reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for rapid detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) in cell culture and tissue samples, was developed and evaluated. Using an outer pair of primers (P1 and P2), selected from genome segment three of AHSV serotype 6 (AHSV-6), the RT-PCR-based assay resulted in amplification of a 890 base pair (bp) primary PCR product. RNAs from the nine vaccine strains of AHSV, and a number of AHSV field isolates including the Central African isolates of AHSV-9 and AHSV-6, propagated in cell cultures, were detected by this assay. A second pair of nested primers (P3 and P4) was used to produce a 240-bp PCR product. The RT-PCR described below detected as little as 0.1 fg of AHSV RNA, which is equivalent to six viral particles. The nested amplification confirmed the integrity of the primary PCR product and increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay by at least 1000-fold. Application of this RT-PCR assay to clinical samples resulted in direct detection of AHSV dsRNA from blood and a variety of tissue samples collected from equines infected experimentally and naturally. The specificity studies indicated that the primary or the nested PCR products were not amplified from, closely related orbiviruses including, bluetongue virus (BTV) prototypes serotypes 1, 2, 4, 10, 16 and 17; epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV) prototypes serotypes 1 and 2; EHDV-318, Sudanese isolates of palyam serogroup of orbiviruses; total nucleic acid extracts from uninfected Vero cells; or unfractionated blood from horses and donkeys that were AHSV-seronegative and virus isolation negative. The RT-PCR provides a valuable tool for study of the epidemiology of AHSV and can be recommended for rapid diagnosis during an outbreak of the disease among susceptible equines.

  16. Detection of large expansions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 using triplet primed PCR

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Susmita; Zhang, Amy; Dlouhy, Stephen; Bai, Shaochun

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the DMPK gene. Methodology for genetic testing of DM1 is currently not optimal, in particular for the early-onset patients in pediatric populations where large expanded (CTG)n alleles are usually common. Individuals who are homozygous for a normal allele and individuals who are heterozygous for one normal and one large expanded allele are indistinguishable by conventional PCR, as both generate a single product of the normal allele. Thus, reflex Southern blot has often been needed to distinguish these cases. With the aim to decrease the need for reflex Southern blot tests, a novel, single-tube CTG repeat primed PCR technology was designed to distinguish the true homozygous patients from the individuals whose large alleles are missed by conventional PCR. The method utilizes two gene-specific primers that flank the triplet repeat region and a third primer set complementary to the repeated region to detect the large alleles. Compared to traditional PCR, this novel Triplet-repeat Primed PCR can detect the presence of large expanded alleles with demonstrating a ladder pattern. Using this single-step protocol, 45 specimens were tested. The alleles with sizes~í~85 repeats were determined by the gene specific primers. 13 abnormal alleles, which were missed by conventional PCR, were successfully detected by the Triplet-repeat Primed PCR. All the abnormal alleles were confirmed and measured by Southern Blot analysis. In summary, optimized Triplet-Primed PCR (TP-PCR) can accurately detect the presence of the large expanded alleles. With the ability to distinguish the true homozygous patients from the false negative homozygous individuals, the application of the optimized TP-PCR can significantly reduce the need of Southern Blot tests. PMID:24795756

  17. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of six swine DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Chen, Guang-Da; Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhao-Cai; Chang, Ching-Dong; Wang, Chi-Young; Tong, De-Wen; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. The multiplex PCR consisted with two-step procedure which included reverse transcription of RNA virus and multiplex PCR of viral cDNA and DNA. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive detecting at least 450pg of viral genomic DNA or RNA from a mixture of six viruses in a reaction. The assay was also highly specific in detecting one or more of the same viruses in various combinations in specimens. Thirty clinical samples and aborted fetuses collected from 4- to 12-week-old piglets were detected among 39 samples tested by both uniplex and multiplex PCR, showing highly identification. Because of the sensitivity and specificity, the multiplex PCR is a useful approach for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of DNA and RNA viruses in swine.

  18. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, S; Kokotovic, B; Skall, H F; Lorenzen, N; Dalsgaard, I

    2017-02-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously developed real-time PCR assay targeting the plasmid encoded aopP gene of A. salmonicida was, in parallel with culturing, used for the examination of five organs of 40 fish from Danish freshwater and seawater farms. Real-time PCR showed overall a higher frequency of positives than culturing (65% of positive fish by real-time PCR compared to 30% by a culture approach). Also, no real-time PCR-negative samples were found positive by culturing. A. salmonicida was detected by real-time PCR, though not by culturing, in freshwater fish showing no signs of furunculosis, indicating possible presence of carrier fish. In seawater fish examined after an outbreak and antibiotics treatment, real-time PCR showed the presence of the bacterium in all examined organs (1-482 genomic units mg(-1) ). With a limit of detection of 40 target copies (1-2 genomic units) per reaction, a high reproducibility and an excellent efficiency, the present real-time PCR assay provides a sensitive tool for the detection of A. salmonicida. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) as an alternative method for detection of bulking in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sołtysik, Dagna A; Bednarek, Ilona A; Loch, Tomasz M; Gałka, Sabina E; Sypniewski, Daniel J; Machnik, Grzegorz M; Błaszczyk, Daria K

    2010-01-01

    Bulking of activated sludge is a world-wide problem which negatively affects wastewater treatment efficiency. The most common reasons of bulking are bacterial community changes, especially excessive growth of filamentous bacteria (filamentous bulking) or excess of biopolymers on the surface of non-filamentous microbes (non-filamentous or Zoogleal bulking). Because of the complex nature of the bulking phenomenon finding a successful bulking control strategy remains a very important issue that awaits new options and advices. The REP-PCR fingerprinting method has been applied to distinguish a bacterial community in non-bulking and bulking activated sludge. The characteristic REP-PCR fingerprinting patterns were compared with each other in terms of the presence or absence of bands and in terms of measured integrated optical density (IOD) of the bands. The obtained fingerprinting patterns, using Ward's clustering method, have been analyzed to determine homology/similarity relations between specific non-bulking and bulking sludge sampling. The received clustering results were in high concordance with activated sludge typing which generally is done based on physicochemical sludge analysis. The proposed REP-PCR method and statistical analysis of fingerprinting patterns seems to be a simple, rapid and effective method revealing differences between populations in non-bulking and bulking activated sludge. It may be useful for routine activated sludge monitoring and may be helpful in the early detection of the bulking process.

  20. Evaluation of PCR methods for detection of Brucella strains from culture and tissues.

    PubMed

    Çiftci, Alper; İça, Tuba; Savaşan, Serap; Sareyyüpoğlu, Barış; Akan, Mehmet; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2017-04-01

    The genus Brucella causes significant economic losses due to infertility, abortion, stillbirth or weak calves, and neonatal mortality in livestock. Brucellosis is still a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. The study was aimed to optimize and evaluate PCR assays used for the diagnosis of Brucella infections. For this aim, several primers and PCR protocols were performed and compared with Brucella cultures and biological material inoculated with Brucella. In PCR assays, genus- or species-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from 16S rRNA sequences (F4/R2, Ba148/928, IS711, BruP6-P7) and OMPs (JPF/JPR, 31ter/sd) of Brucella were used. All primers except for BruP6-P7 detected the DNA from reference Brucella strains and field isolates. In spiked blood, milk, and semen samples, F4-R2 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. In spiked serum and fetal stomach content, Ba148/928 primer-oriented PCR assays detected minimal numbers of Brucella. Field samples collected from sheep and cattle were examined by bacteriological methods and optimized PCR assays. Overall, sensitivity of PCR assays was found superior to conventional bacteriological isolation. Brucella DNA was detected in 35.1, 1.1, 24.8, 5.0, and 8.0% of aborted fetus, blood, milk, semen, and serum samples by PCR assays, respectively. In conclusion, PCR assay in optimized conditions was found to be valuable in sensitive and specific detection of Brucella infections of animals.

  1. A droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to detect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in bulk trap samples

    PubMed Central

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Timm, Alicia E.; Farris, Roxanne E.; Perera, Omaththage P.; Gilligan, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    Moths in the genus Helicoverpa are some of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Two species, H. armigera (Hübner) and H. zea (Boddie), cause the majority of damage to crops and millions of dollars are spent annually on control of these pests. The recent introduction of H. armigera into the New World has prompted extensive survey efforts for this species in the United States. Surveys are conducted using bucket traps baited with H. armigera pheromone, and, because the same pheromone compounds attract both species, these traps often capture large numbers of the native H. zea. Adult H. armigera and H. zea are very similar and can only be separated morphologically by minor differences in the genitalia. Thus, a time consuming genitalic dissection by a trained specialist is necessary to reliably identify either species, and every specimen must be dissected. Several molecular methods are available for differentiating and identifying H. armigera and H. zea, including two recently developed rapid protocols using real-time PCR. However, none of the published methods are capable of screening specimens in large batches. Here we detail a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay that is capable of detecting a single H. armigera in a background of up to 999 H. zea. The assay has been tested using bulk extractions of 1,000 legs from actual trap samples and is effective even when using poor quality samples. This study provides an efficient, rapid, reproducible, and scalable method for processing H. armigera survey trap samples in the U.S. and demonstrates the potential for applying ddPCR technology to screen and diagnose invasive species. PMID:28562660

  2. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Xing, Na; Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.

  3. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. PMID:26544710

  4. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2017-08-29

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interlaboratory study of DNA extraction from multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for individual kernel detection system of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Makiyma, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Teshima, Reiko; Nakashima, Akie; Ogawa, Asako; Yamagishi, Toru; Futo, Satoshi; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the labeling of grains, feed, and foodstuff is mandatory if the genetically modified (GM) organism content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. We previously developed an individual kernel detection system consisting of grinding individual kernels, DNA extraction from the individually ground kernels, GM detection using multiplex real-time PCR, and GM event detection using multiplex qualitative PCR to analyze the precise commingling level and varieties of GM maize in real sample grains. We performed the interlaboratory study of the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR detection, and multiplex qualitative PCR detection to evaluate its applicability, practicality, and ruggedness for the individual kernel detection system of GM maize. DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR were evaluated by five laboratories in Japan, and all results from these laboratories were consistent with the expected results in terms of the commingling level and event analysis. Thus, the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for the individual kernel detection system is applicable and practicable in a laboratory to regulate the commingling level of GM maize grain for GM samples, including stacked GM maize.

  6. DNA Sequence Signatures for Rapid Detection of Six Target Bacterial Pathogens Using PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Kenjiro; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Li, Bingjie; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Using Streptococcus pyogenes as a model, we previously established a stepwise computational workflow to effectively identify species-specific DNA signatures that could be used as PCR primer sets to detect target bacteria with high specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we extended the workflow for the rapid development of PCR assays targeting Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani, and Staphylococcus aureus, which are of safety concern for human tissue intended for transplantation. Twenty-one primer sets that had sensitivity of detecting 5–50 fg DNA from target bacteria with high specificity were selected. These selected primer sets can be used in a PCR array for detecting target bacteria with high sensitivity and specificity. The workflow could be widely applicable for the rapid development of PCR-based assays for a wide range of target bacteria, including those of biothreat agents. PMID:26279626

  7. [Development of a multiplex PCR-suspension array for simultaneous detection of five bioterrorism bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai-yan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Heng-chuan; Yang, Yu; Hu, Kong-xin; Sun, Xiao-hong

    2009-03-01

    To develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method of gene suspension array technique to simultaneously detect five bioterrorism bacteria: Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp. and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Highly validated specific primers were used to amplify diagnostic regions unique to each pathogen. Biotin labelled PCR products were hybridized to corresponding probes coupling on the unique sets of fluorescent beads. The hybridized beads were processed through the Bio-plex, which identified the presence of PCR products. Multiplex PCR-suspension array can detect five bioterrorism bacteria correctly with high specificity and high sensitivity, the results suggest the utility of suspension array system for high-throughput screening of bioterrorism samples. A multiplex PCR-suspension array for rapid detection of five bioterrorism bacteria was established.

  8. An indirect ELISA and a PCR technique for the detection of Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) mislabeling.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel A; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-06-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was applied for the detection of Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) mislabelling in the fish market. An indirect ELISA (microtiter-plate format) using two monoclonal antibodies (3D12 and 1A4) was assayed and multiplex PCR performed using species-specific primers of the 5S rDNA gene for the rapid authentication of grouper. A total of 70 commercial fish fillet samples, collected from local markets and supermarkets, labelled as grouper were analysed: 12 of the 70 samples were confirmed to be Grouper. The PCR technique permitted the detection of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) in the commercial fillet samples, which was not possible using ELISA. The results suggest that both ELISA and PCR are specific and reliable tools for the detection of Grouper mislabelling/adulteration and the accurate implementation of traceability for successful regulatory food controls.

  9. Miniature real time PCR on chip with multi-channel fiber optical fluorescence detection module.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Q; Xu, B; Li, D

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a miniature real time PCR system consisting of a disposable reactor chip, a miniature thermal cycler, and a multi-channel fiber optical fluorescence excitation/detection module. The disposable PCR chip is fabricated by using soft photolithography by PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) and glass. The miniature thermal cycler has a thin film heater for heating and a fan for rapid cooling. The fiber optical detection module consists of laser, filter cube, photo-detector and 1x4 fiber optical switch. It is capable of four-well real time PCR analysis. Real-time PCR detection of E. coli stx1 has been demonstrated successfully with this system.

  10. [Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food by multiplex PCR].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Shao, Yanchun

    2008-07-01

    To establish a multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food. Staphylococcus aureus was enriched by 7.5% NaCl broth while Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were enriched by GN medium . The primers were designed according to the gene nuc of Staphylococcus aureus, the gene ipaH of Shigella spp. and the gene invA of Salmonella spp. The target genes of these pathogens in food were amplified by multiplex PCR, which reaction conditions were optimized specifically. The multiplex PCR method established in this experment was of high specificity, which detection limit was 1 cfu/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. when the milk samples contaminated with these pathogens. The multiplex PCR method, which was rapid, convenient, and with high sensitivity, could be suitable for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. in food, and could have a great prospect.

  11. Immuno-PCR: Very sensitive antigen detection by means of specific antibody-DNA conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, T.; Smith, C.L.; Cantor, C.R. )

    1992-10-02

    An antigen detection system, termed immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR), was developed in which a specific DNA molecule is used as the marker. A streptavidin-protein A chimera that possesses tight and specific binding affinity both for biotin and immunoglobulin G was used to attach a biotinylated DNA specifically to antigen-monoclonal antibody complexes that had been immobilized on microtiter plate wells. Then, a segment of the attached DNA was amplified by PCR. Analysis of the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis after staining with ethidium bromide allowed as few as 580 antigen molecules to be readily and reproducibly detected. Direct comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of a chimera-alkaline phosphatase conjugate demonstrates that enhancement in detection sensitivity was obtained with the use of immuno-PCR. Given the enormous amplification capability and specificity of PCR, this immuno-PCR technology has a sensitivity greater than any existing antigen detection system and, in principle, could be applied to the detection of single antigen molecules.

  12. Development of Duplex PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Typical and Atypical Melissococcus plutonius strains

    PubMed Central

    ARAI, Rie; MIYOSHI-AKIYAMA, Tohru; OKUMURA, Kayo; MORINAGA, Yuiko; WU, Meihua; SUGIMURA, Yuya; YOSHIYAMA, Mikio; OKURA, Masatoshi; KIRIKAE, Teruo; TAKAMATSU, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Melissococcus plutonius is the causative agent of an important honeybee disease, European foulbrood (EFB). In addition to M. plutonius strains with typical characteristics (typical M. plutonius), we recently reported the presence of atypical M. plutonius, which are phenotypically and genetically distinguished from typical M. plutonius. Because typical and atypical M. plutonius may have different pathogenic mechanisms, differentiation of these two types is very important for diagnosis and more effective control of EFB. In this study, therefore, a duplex PCR assay was developed to detect and differentiate typical and atypical M. plutonius rapidly and easily. On the basis of the results of comparative genomic analyses, we selected Na+/H+ antiporter gene and Fur family transcriptional regulator gene as targets for detection of typical and atypical strains, respectively, by PCR. Under optimized conditions, the duplex PCR system using the designed primers successfully detected and differentiated all typical and atypical M. plutonius strain/isolates tested, while no product was generated from any other bacterial strains/isolates used in this study, including those isolated from healthy honeybee larval guts. Detection limits of the PCR were 50 copies of chromosome/reaction for both types, and it could detect typical and atypical M. plutonius directly from diseased honeybee larvae. Moreover, the duplex PCR diagnosed mixed infections with both M. plutonius types more precisely than standard culture methods. These results indicate that the duplex PCR assay developed in this study is extremely useful for precise diagnosis and epidemiological study of EFB. PMID:24334815

  13. Aptamer-based detection of adenosine triphosphate via qPCR.

    PubMed

    Modh, Harshvardhan; Witt, Martin; Urmann, Katharina; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Segal, Ester; Scheper, Thomas; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    Sensitive and specific detection and quantification of small molecules often remain challenging. We developed a novel magnetic bead-based aptamer-assisted real-time PCR (Apta-qPCR) assay to provide a versatile platform for quantification of small molecules. The assay has been realized for the detection of ATP as a model system. The assay relies on a combination of qPCR with the target-induced dissociation (TID) of ATP aptamer from an oligonucleotide, complementary to the ATP binding site of the aptamer. The complementary oligonucleotide was immobilized on deoxythymidine (dT)-modified magnetic beads (dT-beads) and hybridized with the aptamer. The presence of ATP resulted in dissociation of the aptamer from the dT-beads and the dissociated aptamer was quantified using qPCR. The Apta-qPCR assay was able to detect 17nM ATP with a broad dynamic range from 50nM to 5mM. The assay is label-free, and real-time PCR-based detection of aptamer facilitates high sensitivity. The presented method is highly versatile and can be applied to various aptamer-target pairs to allow detection of a broad range of target analytes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three viruses in pear plants by a multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingyu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xiaofang; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Huihui; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Ni

    2014-02-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of the three viruses. Three primer pairs were used to amplify their fragments of 247bp, 358bp and 500bp, respectively. The primer pair for ASPV was designed in this work, while the primer pairs for ACLSV and ASGV were from previous reports. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay for the three viruses were comparable to that of each uniplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for the detection of three viruses in leaves of pear and apple plants, but was unreliable in the detection of ASGV in dormant barks. In conclusion, this mRT-PCR provides a useful tool for the routine and rapid detection and the differentiation of three pear viruses.

  15. Development of duplex PCR assay for detection and differentiation of typical and atypical Melissococcus plutonius strains.

    PubMed

    Arai, Rie; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Okumura, Kayo; Morinaga, Yuiko; Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Okura, Masatoshi; Kirikae, Teruo; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    Melissococcus plutonius is the causative agent of an important honeybee disease, European foulbrood (EFB). In addition to M. plutonius strains with typical characteristics (typical M. plutonius), we recently reported the presence of atypical M. plutonius, which are phenotypically and genetically distinguished from typical M. plutonius. Because typical and atypical M. plutonius may have different pathogenic mechanisms, differentiation of these two types is very important for diagnosis and more effective control of EFB. In this study, therefore, a duplex PCR assay was developed to detect and differentiate typical and atypical M. plutonius rapidly and easily. On the basis of the results of comparative genomic analyses, we selected Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene and Fur family transcriptional regulator gene as targets for detection of typical and atypical strains, respectively, by PCR. Under optimized conditions, the duplex PCR system using the designed primers successfully detected and differentiated all typical and atypical M. plutonius strain/isolates tested, while no product was generated from any other bacterial strains/isolates used in this study, including those isolated from healthy honeybee larval guts. Detection limits of the PCR were 50 copies of chromosome/reaction for both types, and it could detect typical and atypical M. plutonius directly from diseased honeybee larvae. Moreover, the duplex PCR diagnosed mixed infections with both M. plutonius types more precisely than standard culture methods. These results indicate that the duplex PCR assay developed in this study is extremely useful for precise diagnosis and epidemiological study of EFB.

  16. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bovine and bubaline tissues through nested-PCR.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristina P; Osório, Ana Luiza A R; Jorge, Klaudia S G; Ramos, Carlos A N; Souza Filho, Antonio F; Vidal, Carlos E S; Vargas, Agueda P C; Roxo, Eliana; Rocha, Adalgiza S; Suffys, Philip N; Fonseca, Antônio A; Silva, Marcio R; Barbosa Neto, José D; Cerqueira, Valíria D; Araújo, Flábio R

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.

  17. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bovine and bubaline tissues through nested-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Cristina P.; Osório, Ana Luiza A.R.; Jorge, Klaudia S.G.; Ramos, Carlos A.N.; Souza Filho, Antonio F.; Vidal, Carlos E.S.; Vargas, Agueda P.C.; Roxo, Eliana; Rocha, Adalgiza S.; Suffys, Philip N.; Fonseca, Antônio A.; Silva, Marcio R.; Barbosa Neto, José D.; Cerqueira, Valíria D.; Araújo, Flábio R.

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis. PMID:25242951

  18. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Real-time PCR for the detection of precise transgene copy number in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Gadaleta, Agata; Giancaspro, Angelica; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Blanco, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Recent results obtained in various crops indicate that real-time PCR could be a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transgene locus structures. The determination of transgenic locus number through real-time PCR overcomes the problems linked to phenotypic segregation analysis (i.e. lack of detectable expression even when the transgenes are present) and can analyse hundreds of samples in a day, making it an efficient method for estimating gene copy number. Despite these advantages, many authors speak of "estimating" copy number by real-time PCR, and this is because the detection of a precise number of transgene depends on how well real-time PCR performs.This study was conducted to determine transgene copy number in transgenic wheat lines and to investigate potential variability in sensitivity and resolution of real-time chemistry by TaqMan probes. We have applied real-time PCR to a set of four transgenic durum wheat lines previously obtained. A total of 24 experiments (three experiments for two genes in each transgenic line) were conducted and standard curves were obtained from serial dilutions of the plasmids containing the genes of interest. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.95 to 0.97. By using TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR we were able to detect 1 to 41 copies of transgenes per haploid genome in the DNA of homozygous T4 transformants. Although a slight variability was observed among PCR experiments, in our study we found real-time PCR to be a fast, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of transgene copy number in durum wheat, and a useful adjunct to Southern blot and FISH analyses to detect the presence of transgenic DNA in plant material.

  20. [Detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis by IC-RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Xiang, Jin-Le; Fan, Jin-Ling; Li, Xin; Luo, Lei

    2013-07-01

    To establish a rapid, sensitive and efficient detection method for tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and provide technical support of TMV detection of Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis. The virus-free plantlets could be produced on a large scale to ameliorate breed degeneration caused by viral disease. Specific primers were designed based on the conserved region of coat protein(CP) gene of TMV. Immunocapture RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) was employed to detect TMV and the sequence of the products was detected. The expected nucleotide acid fragments were amplified by IC-RT-PCR. The homology of nucleotide acid sequence and amino acid sequence were 95.29% and 96.7% between the PCR products and the CP gene of TMV (accession number AY555269). The method was established for the detection of TMV in R. glutinosa f. hueichingensis by IC-RT-PCR. This detection combined molecular biology technology with immunology, was convenient for a quick, sensitive and simple detection of TMV.

  1. Duplex PCR for detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples.

    PubMed

    Senachai, Pachara; Chomvarin, Chariya; Wongboot, Warawan; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella and Shigella spp are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. A sensitive, specific and rapid method is essential for detection of these pathogens. In this study, a duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples and compared with the traditional culture method. Enrichment broths for Salmonella spp recovery were also compared. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp from pure culture was 10(3) CFU/ml (40 CFU/PCR reaction), and that of sterile cockle samples spiked with these two pathogens was 1 CFU/10 g of cockle tissue after 9 hours enrichment [3 hours in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by 6 hours in Rappaport Vasiliadis (RV) broth or tetrathionate (TT) broth for Salmonella spp and 6 hours enrichment in Shigella broth (SB) for Shigella spp]. There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between enrichment in RV and TT broths. Salmonella spp detected in cockles in Khon Kaen, Thailand by duplex PCR and culture method was 17% and 13%, respectively but Shigella spp was not detected. The duplex PCR technique developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples was highly sensitive, specific and rapid and could serve as a suitable method for food safety assessment.

  2. Detection of SEA-type α-thalassemia in embryo biopsies by digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ta-Hsien; Hsu, Ya-Chiung; Chang, Chia Lin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate and efficient pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on the analysis of single or oligo-cells is needed for timely identification of embryos that are affected by deleterious genetic traits in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the backbone of modern genetic diagnoses, and a spectrum of PCR-based techniques have been used to detect various thalassemia mutations in prenatal diagnosis (PND) and PGD. Among thalassemias, SEA-type α-thalassemia is the most common variety found in Asia, and can lead to Bart's hydrops fetalis and serious maternal complications. To formulate an efficient digital PCR for clinical diagnosis of SEA-type α-thalassemia in cultured embryos, we conducted a pilot study to detect the α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles in blastomere biopsies with a highly sensitive microfluidics-based digital PCR method. Genomic DNA from embryo biopsy samples were extracted, and crude DNA extracts were first amplified by a conventional PCR procedure followed by a nested PCR reaction with primers and probes that are designed for digital PCR amplification. Analysis of microfluidics-based PCR reactions showed that robust signals for normal α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles, together with an internal control gene, can be routinely generated using crude embryo biopsies after a 10(6)-fold dilution of primary PCR products. The SEA-type deletion in cultured embryos can be sensitively diagnosed with the digital PCR procedure in clinics. The adoption of this robust PGD method could prevent the implantation of IVF embryos that are destined to develop Bart's hydrops fetalis in a timely manner. The results also help inform future development of a standard digital PCR procedure for cost-effective PGD of α-thalassemia in a standard IVF clinic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Real-time PCR assay to detect smallpox virus.

    PubMed

    Sofi Ibrahim, M; Kulesh, David A; Saleh, Sharron S; Damon, Inger K; Esposito, Joseph J; Schmaljohn, Alan L; Jahrling, Peter B

    2003-08-01

    We developed a highly sensitive and specific assay for the rapid detection of smallpox virus DNA on both the Smart Cycler and LightCycler platforms. The assay is based on TaqMan chemistry with the orthopoxvirus hemagglutinin gene used as the target sequence. With genomic DNA purified from variola virus Bangladesh 1975, the limit of detection was estimated to be approximately 25 copies on both machines. The assay was evaluated in a blinded study with 322 coded samples that included genomic DNA from 48 different isolates of variola virus; 25 different strains and isolates of camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia, gerbilpox, herpes, monkeypox, myxoma, rabbitpox, raccoonpox, skunkpox, vaccinia, and varicella-zoster viruses; and two rickettsial species at concentrations mostly ranging from 100 fg/ microl to 1 ng/ microl. Contained within those 322 samples were variola virus DNA, obtained from purified viral preparations, at concentrations of 1 fg/ microl to 1 ng/ microl. On the Smart Cycler platform, 2 samples with false-positive results were detected among the 116 samples not containing variola virus tested; i.e., the overall specificity of the assay was 98.3%. On the LightCycler platform, five samples with false-positive results were detected (overall specificity, 95.7%). Of the 206 samples that contained variola virus DNA ranging in concentrations from 100 fg/ microl to 1 ng/ microl, 8 samples were considered negative on the Smart Cycler platform and 1 sample was considered negative on the LightCycler platform. Thus, the clinical sensitivities were 96.1% for the Smart Cycler instrument and 99.5% for the LightCycler instrument. The vast majority of these samples were derived from virus-infected cell cultures and variola virus-infected tissues; thus, the DNA material contained both viral DNA and cellular DNA. Of the 43 samples that contained purified variola virus DNA ranging in concentration from 1 fg/ microl to 1 ng/ microl, the assay correctly detected the virus in all 43

  4. Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Smallpox Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sofi Ibrahim, M.; Kulesh, David A.; Saleh, Sharron S.; Damon, Inger K.; Esposito, Joseph J.; Schmaljohn, Alan L.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive and specific assay for the rapid detection of smallpox virus DNA on both the Smart Cycler and LightCycler platforms. The assay is based on TaqMan chemistry with the orthopoxvirus hemagglutinin gene used as the target sequence. With genomic DNA purified from variola virus Bangladesh 1975, the limit of detection was estimated to be approximately 25 copies on both machines. The assay was evaluated in a blinded study with 322 coded samples that included genomic DNA from 48 different isolates of variola virus; 25 different strains and isolates of camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia, gerbilpox, herpes, monkeypox, myxoma, rabbitpox, raccoonpox, skunkpox, vaccinia, and varicella-zoster viruses; and two rickettsial species at concentrations mostly ranging from 100 fg/μl to 1 ng/μl. Contained within those 322 samples were variola virus DNA, obtained from purified viral preparations, at concentrations of 1 fg/μl to 1 ng/μl. On the Smart Cycler platform, 2 samples with false-positive results were detected among the 116 samples not containing variola virus tested; i.e., the overall specificity of the assay was 98.3%. On the LightCycler platform, five samples with false-positive results were detected (overall specificity, 95.7%). Of the 206 samples that contained variola virus DNA ranging in concentrations from 100 fg/μl to 1 ng/μl, 8 samples were considered negative on the Smart Cycler platform and 1 sample was considered negative on the LightCycler platform. Thus, the clinical sensitivities were 96.1% for the Smart Cycler instrument and 99.5% for the LightCycler instrument. The vast majority of these samples were derived from virus-infected cell cultures and variola virus-infected tissues; thus, the DNA material contained both viral DNA and cellular DNA. Of the 43 samples that contained purified variola virus DNA ranging in concentration from 1 fg/μl to 1 ng/μl, the assay correctly detected the virus in all 43 samples on both the Smart Cycler

  5. Evaluation of culture, ELISA and PCR assays for the detection of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, N

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated seafood. In this study, 215 seafood samples comprising fish, shrimp, crab, clam, mussel, oyster, squid, cuttlefish and octopus from fish market of Cochin (India), were compared by culture, ELISA and PCR methods. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) method was followed for culture assay, and Salmonella Tek, a commercial sandwich ELISA kit, was used for ELISA assay. Salmonella-specific PCR assay was developed for 284 bp Salmonella-specific invA gene amplicon. PCR assay exhibited 31.6% seafood positive for Salmonella followed by ELISA (23.7%) and culture method (21.3%). There was fair to excellent agreement between culture, ELISA and PCR assays (kappa coefficient values ranging from 0.385 to 1.0) for different seafood samples. The investigation revealed the greater concordance between culture and ELISA methods for seafood. Among the three methods, PCR assay was most sensitive. Lower detection rate with culture and ELISA assays could be attributed to greater sensitivity of the PCR method in the detection of Salmonella in seafood. We propose the incorporation of dual tests based on different principle and procedure for the routine analysis of Salmonella in seafood.

  6. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen's extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease.

  7. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by PCR Detection of Specific DNA in Human Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddassani, H; Mirhendi, H; Hosseini, M; Rokni, MB; Mowlavi, Gh; Kia, Eb

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is mostly an asymptomatic infection and diagnosis of latent infections is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study was conducted to set up a PCR-based method for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by detection of copro-DNA in stool samples. Methods A total of 782 fresh stool samples were collected and examined by agar plate culture. Among those sixteen stool samples, which confirmed to be infected with S. stercoralis were examined as positive control to set up each single and nested PCR, using two primer sets designing to amplify partial ribosomal DNA of S. stercoralis genome. Since, single PCR method yielded higher efficacy in detecting positive samples, in the second step, 30 stool samples, which found negative for S. stercoralis by agar plate culture of single stool sample, were examined by single PCR. Data analysis was performed using McNemar's χ2 test, with consideration of a P-value of <0.05 as indication of significant difference. Results In amplification of DNA extracted from stool samples, single PCR detected S. stercoralis DNA target in all 16 positive samples, while nested PCR amplified DNA in only 75% of samples. In the second step, single PCR amplified S. stercoralis extracted DNA in 5 out of 30 samples which were negative by coproculture. Conclusion Single PCR method amplifying a short (100bp) target represented more efficacies for detection of S. stercoralis in faecal examination compared to agar plate culture and nested PCR, which amplified longer target. PMID:22347284

  9. Duplex PCR Methods for the Molecular Detection of Escherichia fergusonii Isolates from Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Karen; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Vaillancourt, Rolland; Malouin, François; Topp, Edward; Delaquis, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia fergusonii is an emerging pathogen that has been isolated from a wide range of infections in animals and humans. Primers targeting specific genes, including yliE (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein of the cellulose synthase and regulator of cellulose synthase island), EFER_1569 (encoding a hypothetical protein, putative transcriptional activator for multiple antibiotic resistance), and EFER_3126 (encoding a putative triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A [CoA]), were designed for the detection of E. fergusonii by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Primers were screened by in silico PCR against 489 bacterial genomic sequences and by both PCR methods on 55 reference and field strains. Both methods were specific and sensitive for E. fergusonii, showing amplification only for this bacterium. Conventional PCR required a minimum bacterial concentration of approximately 102 CFU/ml, while real-time PCR required a minimum of 0.3 pg of DNA for consistent detection. Standard curves showed an efficiency of 98.5%, with an R2 value of 0.99 for the real-time PCR assay. Cecal and cloacal contents from 580 chickens were sampled from broiler farms located in the Fraser Valley (British Columbia, Canada). Presumptive E. fergusonii isolates were recovered by enrichment and plating on differential and selective media. Of 301 total presumptive isolates, 140 (46.5%) were identified as E. fergusonii by biochemical profiling with the API 20E system and 268 (89.0%) using PCR methods. E. fergusonii detection directly from cecal and cloacal samples without preenrichment was achieved with both PCR methods. Hence, the PCR methods developed in this work significantly improve the detection of E. fergusonii. PMID:24441160

  10. Duplex PCR methods for the molecular detection of Escherichia fergusonii isolates from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Vaillancourt, Rolland; Malouin, François; Topp, Edward; Delaquis, Pascal; Diarra, Moussa S

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia fergusonii is an emerging pathogen that has been isolated from a wide range of infections in animals and humans. Primers targeting specific genes, including yliE (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein of the cellulose synthase and regulator of cellulose synthase island), EFER_1569 (encoding a hypothetical protein, putative transcriptional activator for multiple antibiotic resistance), and EFER_3126 (encoding a putative triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A [CoA]), were designed for the detection of E. fergusonii by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Primers were screened by in silico PCR against 489 bacterial genomic sequences and by both PCR methods on 55 reference and field strains. Both methods were specific and sensitive for E. fergusonii, showing amplification only for this bacterium. Conventional PCR required a minimum bacterial concentration of approximately 10(2) CFU/ml, while real-time PCR required a minimum of 0.3 pg of DNA for consistent detection. Standard curves showed an efficiency of 98.5%, with an R(2) value of 0.99 for the real-time PCR assay. Cecal and cloacal contents from 580 chickens were sampled from broiler farms located in the Fraser Valley (British Columbia, Canada). Presumptive E. fergusonii isolates were recovered by enrichment and plating on differential and selective media. Of 301 total presumptive isolates, 140 (46.5%) were identified as E. fergusonii by biochemical profiling with the API 20E system and 268 (89.0%) using PCR methods. E. fergusonii detection directly from cecal and cloacal samples without preenrichment was achieved with both PCR methods. Hence, the PCR methods developed in this work significantly improve the detection of E. fergusonii.

  11. Significance of "Not Detected but Amplified" Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or "Not Detected but Amplified" (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT ) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation.

  12. Significance of “Not Detected but Amplified” Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hwang, Sang Mee; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or “Not Detected but Amplified” (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation. PMID:28097135

  13. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in chickens by multiplex real-time PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect and differentiate the three most commonly found and harmful species of Campylobacter in a single PCR reaction. The qPCR primers and TaqMan probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences of hipO, cdtA, and pepT genes which are s...

  14. Detection of Legionella species in environmental water by the quantitative PCR method in combination with ethidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Takama, Tomoko; Yoshizaki, Miwa; Agata, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    We detected Legionella species in 111 bath water samples and 95 cooling tower water samples by using a combination of conventional plate culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR combined with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-qPCR) methods. In the case of bath water samples, Legionella spp. were detected in 30 samples by plate culture, in 85 samples by qPCR, and in 49 samples by EMA-qPCR. Of 81 samples determined to be Legionella-negative by plate culture, 56 and 23 samples were positive by qPCR and EMA-qPCR, respectively. Therefore, EMA treatment decreased the number of Legionella-positive bath water samples detected by qPCR. In contrast, EMA treatment had no effect on cooling tower water samples. We therefore expect that EMA-qPCR is a useful method for the rapid detection of viable Legionella spp. from bath water samples.

  15. Development of TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) for sensitive and specific on-site pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Lin, Ching-Ko; Teng, Ping-Hua; Su, Chen; Jeng, Chien-Chung; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), established on the basis of Ralyeigh-Bénard convection, is a rapid and low-cost platform for nucleic acid amplification. However, the method used for signal detection, namely gel electrophoresis, has limited the application of iiPCR. In this study, TaqMan probe-based iiPCR system was developed to obviate the need of post-amplification processing. This system includes an optical detection module, which was designed and integrated into the iiPCR device to detect fluorescent signals generated by the probe. TaqMan probe-iiPCR assays targeting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious myonecrosis virus were developed for preliminary evaluation of this system. Significant elevation of fluorescent signals was detected consistently among positive iiPCR reactions in both assays, correlating with amplicon detection by gel electrophoresis analysis. After condition optimization, a threshold value of S/N (fluorescent intensity(after)/fluorescent intensity(before)) for positive reactions was defined for WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR on the basis of 20 blank reactions. WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR generated positive S/Ns from as low as 10(1) copies of standard DNA and lightly infected Litopenaeus vannamei. Compared with an OIE-certified nested PCR, WSSV TaqMan probe-iiPCR showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.67% in 120 WSSV-free or lightly infected shrimp samples. Generating positive signals specifically and sensitively, TaqMan probe-iiPCR system has a potential as a low-cost and rapid on-site diagnostics method.

  16. Improved PCR Methods for Detection of African Rabies and Rabies-Related Lyssaviruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Coertse, Jessica; Weyer, Jacqueline; Nel, Louis H.; Markotter, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Eleven different lyssavirus species, four of which occur on the African continent, are presently recognized. These viruses cause rabies, the burden of which is highest in the developing world, where routine laboratory diagnosis is often not available. From an epidemiological and control perspective, it is necessary that diagnostic methods detect the diversity of lyssaviruses present in different regions of the world. A published and widely used heminested reverse transcription-PCR (hnRT-PCR) was evaluated for its ability to detect a panel of diverse African lyssaviruses. Due to the limitations experienced for this assay, an alternative hnRT-PCR was developed. The new assay was found to be accurate and sensitive in the detection of African lyssavirus RNA in a variety of clinical specimens. The assay was further adapted to a real-time PCR platform to allow rapid, one-step, quantitative, and single-probe detection, and an internal control for the verification of sample preparation was included. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 10 RNA copies per reaction, with inter- and intra-assay variability below 4%. Subsequently, in demonstrating utility, both assays were successfully applied to antemortem rabies diagnosis in humans. We believe that the quantitative real-time PCR assay could find application as a routine confirmatory test for rabies diagnosis in the future and that it will serve as a valuable research tool in the biology of African lyssaviruses. Alternatively, the hnRT-PCR assay can be used in laboratories that do not have access to expensive real-time PCR equipment for sensitive diagnosis of lyssaviruses. PMID:20810772

  17. Development of a novel detection system for microbes from bovine diarrhea by real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    TSUCHIAKA, Shinobu; MASUDA, Tsuneyuki; SUGIMURA, Satoshi; KOBAYASHI, Suguru; KOMATSU, Natsumi; NAGAI, Makoto; OMATSU, Tsutomu; FURUYA, Tetsuya; OBA, Mami; KATAYAMA, Yukie; KANDA, Shuhei; YOKOYAMA, Tadashi; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea in cattle is one of the most economically costly disorders, decreasing milk production and weight gain. In the present study, we established a novel simultaneous detection system using TaqMan real-time PCR designed as a system for detection of microbes from bovine diarrhea using real-time PCR (referred to as Dembo-PCR). Dembo-PCR simultaneously detects a total of 19 diarrhea-causing pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Specific primer–probe sets were newly designed for 7 pathogens and were synthesized on the basis of previous reports for 12 pathogens. Assays were optimized to react under the same reaction conditions. The PCR efficiency and correlation coefficient (R2) of standard curves for each assay were more than 80% and 0.9766, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity of Dembo-PCR in fecal sample analysis was measured with feces spiked with target pathogens or synthesized DNA that included specific nucleotide target regions. The resulting limits of detection (LOD) for virus-spiked samples, bacteria and DNA fragments were 0.16–1.6 TCID50 (PFU/reaction), 1.3–13 CFU/reaction and 10–100 copies/reaction, respectively. All reactions showed high sensitivity in pathogen detection. A total of 8 fecal samples, collected from 6 diarrheic cattle, 1 diarrheic calf and 1 healthy cow, were tested using Dembo-PCR to validate the assay’s clinical performance. The results revealed that bovine coronavirus had infected all diarrheic adult cattle and that bovine torovirus had infected the diarrheic calf. These results suggest that Dembo-PCR may be a powerful tool for diagnosing infectious agents in cattle diarrhea. PMID:26616156

  18. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Development of a thermostabilized, one-step, nested, tetraplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification and differentiation of Entamoeba species, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from stool samples.

    PubMed

    Foo, Phiaw Chong; Chan, Yean Yean; See Too, Wei Cun; Tan, Zi Ning; Wong, Weng Kin; Lalitha, Pattabhiraman; Lim, Boon Huat

    2012-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the only Entamoeba species that causes amoebiasis in humans. Approximately 50 million people are infected, with 100, 000 deaths annually in endemic countries. Molecular diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica is important to differentiate it from the morphologically identical Entamoeba dispar to avoid unnecessary medication. Conventional molecular diagnostic tests require trained personnel, cold-chain transportation and/or are storage-dependent, which make them user-unfriendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, one-step, nested, tetraplex PCR assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba species in cold-chain-free and ready-to-use form. The PCR test was designed based on the Entamoeba small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, which detects the presence of any Entamoeba species, and simultaneously can be used to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. In addition, a pair of primers was designed to serve as an internal amplification control to help identify inhibitors in the samples. All PCR reagents together with the designed primers were thermostabilized by lyophilization and were stable at 24 °C for at least 6 months. The limit of detection of the tetraplex PCR was found to be 39 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba histolytica and 78 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba dispar, and the specificity was 100 %. In conclusion, this cold-chain-free, thermostabilized, one-step, nested, multiplex PCR assay was found to be efficacious in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from other non-pathogenic Entamoeba species.

  20. Utility of multiplex PCR in detecting the causative pathogens for pediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Yoshihiro; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2011-08-17

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a life-threatening complication, and the primary cause of FN is considered to be microbial infection. Therefore, prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial. Clinicians usually prescribe antimicrobial therapy on the basis of presumptive and empirical data. This is because the causative pathogen for FN in blood culture (BC) analysis is detected several days after sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has been used for detecting the causative bacteria of infections. Here, we examined whether multiplex PCR is useful for detecting the causative pathogens for FN patients. We extracted DNA from the patients' whole blood and performed multiplex PCR. In total, 128 samples of 40 patients clinically diagnosed with FN were used in this study. Multiplex PCR analysis revealed the causative pathogen in 3 patients with FN; the DNA fragments amplified were those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 cases and Psedomonas putida in 1 case. These patients could be started on appropriate antimicrobial therapy a few hours after sampling. However, the DNA fragment of the causative pathogen could not be amplified by PCR in 2 patients, although BC analysis did detect the causative bacteria. Thus, we conclude that multiplex PCR is serviceable in case of FN because of its rapidness. However, BC is also indispensable to treating FN owing to its high sensitivity.

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by Air Sampling with a Nested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the first successful detection of airborne Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae under experimental and field conditions with a new nested PCR assay. Air was sampled with polyethersulfone membranes (pore size, 0.2 μm) mounted in filter holders. Filters were processed by dissolution and direct extraction of DNA for PCR analysis. For the PCR, two nested pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed by using an M. hyopneumoniae-specific DNA sequence of a repeated gene segment. A nested PCR assay was developed and used to analyze samples collected in eight pig houses where respiratory problems had been common. Air was also sampled from a mycoplasma-free herd. The nested PCR was highly specific and 104 times as sensitive as a one-step PCR. Under field conditions, the sampling system was able to detect airborne M. hyopneumoniae on 80% of farms where acute respiratory disease was present. No airborne M. hyopneumoniae was detected on infected farms without acute cases. The chance of successful detection was increased if air was sampled at several locations within a room and at a lower air humidity. PMID:9464391

  2. High sensitive method detection of plant RNA viruses by electrochemiluminescence reverse transcription PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ya-bing; Xing, Da; Zhu, De-bin; Zhou, Xiao-ming

    2007-05-01

    It is well known that plant and animal viruses had widely spread the whole of world, and made a big loss in farming and husbandry. It is necessary that a highly efficient and accurate virus's detection method was developed. This research combines reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique with electrochemiluminescence method, to detect plant RNA viruses for the first time. Biotin-probe hybridizes with PCR product to specific select the target for detection, thus can avoid pseudo-positive result. TBR-probe hybridizes with PCR product to emit light for ECL detection. Specific nucleic acid sequences (20bp) were added to 5' terminal all of the primers, which can improve the chance of hybridization between TBR-probe and PCR product. At the same time, one of the PCR product chain can hybridize two Ru-probes, the ECL signal is intensified. The method was used to detect Odntoglossum ringspot virus ORSV, Sugarcane mosaic virus ScMV, Sorghum mosaic virus SrMV, and Maize dwarf mosaic virus MDMV, the experiment results show that this method could reliably identity virus infected plant samples. In a word, this method has higher sensitivity and lower cost than others. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity.

  3. Detection of Brucella species in the milk of infected cattle, sheep, goats and camels by PCR.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Mahmoud E R; Amin, A S

    2002-05-01

    One hundred and three milk samples were collected from 52 cows, 21 ewes, 18 goats and 12 camels. The animals tested positive to at least one of the following: (1) standard tube agglutination test (SAT); (2) Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT); (3) milk ring test (MRT). All milk samples were examined by culture and single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detection of Brucella species. The PCR assay amplified Brucella-DNA from 29 bovine milk samples, 10 from sheep, 13 from goats and one from a camel. The direct culture method detected Brucella organisms from 24 samples of cows' milk, 12 from sheep, 10 from goats and failed to detect any Brucella organisms from camels' milk. PCR detected up to 100 colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus per millilitre of milk in 100% of diluted milk samples, and 1000 CFU of B. melitensis from 70% of milk samples. Although the overall sensitivity of the PCR was higher than the culture method, it should be possible to increase the sensitivity to detect lower numbers of Brucella organisms in field samples. The speed and sensitivity of the PCR assay suggest that this technique could be useful for detection of Brucella organisms in bovine milk, as well as in sheep, goat, and camels milk.

  4. Comparison of four multiplex PCR assays for the detection of viral pathogens in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Trevor P; Werno, Anja M; Barratt, Kevin; Mahagamasekera, Patalee; Murdoch, David R; Jennings, Lance C

    2013-08-01

    Multiplex PCR has become the test of choice for the detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. However, there are few direct comparisons of different PCR assays. This study compares 4 different multiplex PCR assays for the recovery of common respiratory viruses. We tested 213 respiratory specimens using four different multiplex PCR assays: the xTAG respiratory viral panel fast (Abbott Molecular Laboratories), Fast-track Respiratory Pathogen assay (Fast-track Diagnostics), Easyplex respiratory pathogen 12 kit (Ausdiagnostics), and an in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. The performance of the four assays was very similar, with 93-100% agreement for all comparisons. Other issues, such as through-put, technical requirements and cost, are likely to be as important for making a decision about which of these assays to use given their comparative performance.

  5. Dielectrophoresis chips improve PCR detection of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in apple juice.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Jaramillo, Maria; Huttener, Mario; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Samitier, Josep; Torrents, Eduard; Juárez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of cells present in real samples is challenging. We show in this work that an interdigitated DEP chip can be used to trap and wash a population of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii that contaminates a sample of apple juice. By previously calibrating the chip, the yeast population loaded is efficiently trapped, washed, and recovered in a small-volume fraction that, in turn, can be used for efficient PCR detection of this yeast. DEP washing of yeast cells gets rid of PCR inhibitors present in apple juice and facilitates PCR analysis. This and previous works on the use of DEP chips to improve PCR analysis show that a potential use of DEP is to be used as a treatment of real samples prior to PCR. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Rapid nested-PCR for tyrosinase gene detection on chip.

    PubMed

    Sciancalepore, Anna Giovanna; Polini, Alessandro; Mele, Elisa; Girardo, Salvatore; Cingolani, Roberto; Pisignano, Dario

    2011-01-15

    The availability of non-invasive, fast and sensitive technologies for detection of circulating cancer cells is still a critical need of clinical oncology, particularly for diagnosis of aggressive and highly metastatic tumors, like malignant melanoma. Here we present the first nested polymerase chain reaction process carried out by a microfabricated, hybrid plastic-glass microfluidic chip on the tyrosinase gene, a predictive marker for melanoma diagnosis. The device is a hybrid system consisting of a glass microchannel embedded in an elastomeric matrix, and operating in flow-oscillating modality on a droplet of biological sample. The convection heat transfer and the temperature distribution inside the carrier fluid in the device are investigated. The oil responds to temperature changes with a characteristic time around 53 s, and exhibits three different thermal gradients along the capillary, with temperature variations below 4°C in correspondence of heater electrodes. The sample heating/cooling rates in the chip are as high as 16°C/s, allowing rapid processes. The nested polymerase chain reaction process is performed in less than 50 min, namely more than four times faster than in a standard thermocycler. The rapidity of the analysis method, combined with the simple and low-cost fabrication, reduced sample evaporation, and flexibility of the overall microfluidic platform, make it promising for the detection of events of tumor spreading.

  7. Detection of pork adulteration by highly-specific PCR assay of mitochondrial D-loop.

    PubMed

    Karabasanavar, Nagappa S; Singh, S P; Kumar, Deepak; Shebannavar, Sunil N

    2014-02-15

    We describe a highly specific PCR assay for the authentic identification of pork. Accurate detection of tissues derived from pig (Sus scrofa) was accomplished by using newly designed primers targeting porcine mitochondrial displacement (D-loop) region that yielded an unique amplicon of 712 base pairs (bp). Possibility of cross-amplification was precluded by testing as many as 24 animal species (mammals, birds, rodent and fish). Suitability of PCR assay was confirmed in raw (n = 20), cooked (60, 80 and 100 °C), autoclaved (121 °C) and micro-oven processed pork. Sensitivity of detection of pork in other species meat using unique pig-specific PCR was established to be at 0.1%; limit of detection (LOD) of pig DNA was 10 pg (pico grams). The technique can be used for the authentication of raw, processed and adulterated pork and products under the circumstances of food adulteration related disputes or forensic detection of origin of pig species.

  8. Multiplex PCR method to detect Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Mami; Verweij, Jaco J.; Sethabutr, Orntipa; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Garcia, Lynne; Maro, Athanasia; Kumburu, Happiness; Gratz, Jean; Kibiki, Gibson; Houpt, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia are eukaryotic enteropathogens that are difficult to detect in stool samples because they require special stains and microscopy. We developed a multiplex PCR reaction with 4 primer sets to amplify Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cystoisospora belli, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Detection of the amplicon is through specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. Sensitivity of the assay was evaluated using Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores and revealed detection of 101 spores spiked into stool. No cross reactivity was observed. We evaluated the assay on diarrheal specimens from Thailand, Tanzania, Indonesia, and the Netherlands that had been previously tested by microscopy and the assay yielded 87–100% sensitivity and 88–100% specificity. Microscopy negative/PCR positive samples had lower Luminex values suggesting they were true but lower burden infections. In summary this is a convenient single PCR reaction that can detect Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia without the need for cumbersome microscopic analysis. PMID:21982218

  9. PCR-based detection of arboviral RNA from mosquitoes homogenized in detergent.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, M H; Streit, T; Mitchell, C J; McLaughlin, G L; Novak, R J

    1994-07-01

    An improved method for the extraction of viral RNAs was developed to facilitate the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection of mosquitoes infected with Western equine encephalitis virus or La Crosse virus. The solubilization method, which uses only EDTA and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by dilution of sample, allows accurate viral detection through the use of random hexamers for the RT followed by specific primers for the PCR. Identities of the reaction products were confirmed either by sequencing or restriction endonuclease digestion. Previous methods for the extraction of RNA for the coupled RT-PCR depended on combinations of guanidinium isothiocyanate, acid phenol, detergents and multiple centrifugations. Ideally, routine detection of viral RNAs for diagnostic purposes should bypass many of the above steps, while still providing a sensitive assay. Our level of detection is 1 infected mosquito in a group of 100.

  10. Multiplex SYBR® green-real time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and differentiation of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats.

    PubMed

    Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Pilger, Diogo André; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

    2014-01-01

    A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species.

  11. [Detection and subgrouping of respiratory syncytial virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hajime; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Mizumura, Ayano; Kitahashi, Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    The TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay we developed uses specific probes to identify respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to distinguish RSV subgroups A (RSV-A) and B (RSV-B). We selected conserved regions of the F gene as assay targets and designed new primers and TaqMan MGB probes to detect RSV-A and B. RSV-A and B control plasmids confirmed real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) reactivity whose efficiency was 2.5 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(7) copies/tube. The assay detection limit was 10 to 10(2) times higher than that of the conventional RT-PCR assay and was equal to the nested PCR assay. No cross-reactions occurred against other respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, metapneumovirus, measles virus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus, echovirus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, and rhinovirus. Of 154 clinical specimens derived from subjects with acute respiratory infection and tested by using both real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR, 40 were RSV-positive in both assays. Of these, 25 were identified as RSV-A and 15 as RSV-B by both assays. There was 100% concordance in RSV subgroup identification between real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. These results indicate that our real-time RT-PCR assay can be used for rapid detection, quantitative analysis and subgrouping of RSV-A and RSV-B.

  12. Signal Amplification by Glyco-qPCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carbohydrates: Applications in Glycobiology**

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Masuko, Sayaka; Ly, Mellisa; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Tiny amounts of carbohydrates (ca. 1 zmol) can be detected quantitatively by a real-time method based on the conjugation of carbohydrates with DNA markers (see picture). The proposed method (glyco-qPCR) provides uniform, ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrates, which can be applied to glycobiology, as well as carbohydrate-based drug discovery. PMID:23073897

  13. Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

  14. Targeted sequencing with enrichment PCR: a novel diagnostic method for the detection of EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suki; Kim, Baek Gil; Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Shim, Hyo Sup; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important mediator of tumor cell survival and proliferation. The detection of EGFR mutations can predict prognoses and indicate when treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be used. As such, the development of highly sensitive methods for detecting EGFR mutations is important. Targeted next-generation sequencing is an effective method for diagnosing mutations. We compared the abilities of enrichment PCR followed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDP), UDP alone, and PNA-mediated RT-PCR clamping to detect low-frequency EGFR mutations in tumor cell lines and tissue samples. Using enrichment PCR-UDP, we were able to detect the E19del and L858R mutations at minimum frequencies of 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively, in the PC-9 and H197 tumor cell lines. We also confirmed the sensitivity of detecting the E19del mutation by performing a titration analysis in FFPE tumor samples. The lowest mutation frequency detected was 0.0692% in tissue samples. EGFR mutations with frequencies as low as 0.01% were detected using enrichment PCR-UDP, suggesting that this method is a valuable tool for detecting rare mutations, especially in scarce tissue samples or those with small quantities of DNA. PMID:25915533

  15. Development of one-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhang; Haiming, Tan; Xiaoyao, Cai; Weifeng, Yuan; Hong, Jia; Hongfei, Zhu

    2017-01-10

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) with primers targeting the 16S rRNA, Rv3873 and a 12.7-kb fragment in the genomes of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was designed for the differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG and non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM). The specificity of this assay was 100%, and the detection limit was 15 pg of genomic DNA. Of the 206 blinded clinical samples, the detection rate of M. bovis infection by m-PCR was lower than that of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay; however, the false-positive rate by the tuberculin skin test and false-negative samples in the IFN-γ release assay were reduced. Our findings indicated that our m-PCR method is a useful tool for complementation to differentiate M. bovis from M. tuberculosis and NTM species.

  16. Improvement of a PCR method for the detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos; Lightner, Donald V

    2008-06-19

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is considered to be one of the most important bacterial diseases affecting penaeid shrimp culture and is caused by an unclassified Gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracellular Alphaproteobacterium. Due to the enteric nature of the bacteria, PCR is the one non-lethal method available for detection of the pathogen. Over a decade ago, a PCR protocol was developed for detection of NHP, which over the subsequent years was shown to occasionally generate false positive reactions. The University of Arizona Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory has developed a set of primers and PCR cycling parameters that have been tested on a variety of DNA templates, using 2 types of PCR reagent systems, which eliminated the generation of false positive amplicons.

  17. A cost effective real-time PCR for the detection of adenovirus from viral swabs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Compared to traditional testing strategies, nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time PCR offer many advantages for the detection of human adenoviruses. However, commercial assays are expensive and cost prohibitive for many clinical laboratories. To overcome fiscal challenges, a cost effective strategy was developed using a combination of homogenization and heat treatment with an “in-house” real-time PCR. In 196 swabs submitted for adenovirus detection, this crude extraction method showed performance characteristics equivalent to viral DNA obtained from a commercial nucleic acid extraction. In addition, the in-house real-time PCR outperformed traditional testing strategies using virus culture, with sensitivities of 100% and 69.2%, respectively. Overall, the combination of homogenization and heat treatment with a sensitive in-house real-time PCR provides accurate results at a cost comparable to viral culture. PMID:23758993

  18. Targeted PCR for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, David N; Fiedler, Tina L; Thomas, Katherine K; Oakley, Brian B; Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2007-10-01

    Several novel bacterial species have been detected in subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by using broad-range PCR assays, but this approach is insensitive for detecting minority species. We developed a series of taxon-directed 16S rRNA gene PCR assays for more sensitive detection of key vaginal bacteria. We sought to determine the prevalence of each species in the vagina, its association with BV, and the utility of PCR for the microbiological diagnosis of BV. Targeted PCR assays were developed for 17 vaginal bacterial species and applied to 264 vaginal-fluid samples from 81 subjects with and 183 subjects without BV. The results were compared to those of two widely accepted methods for diagnosing BV, the use of clinical findings (Amsel criteria) and the interpretation of vaginal-fluid Gram stains (Nugent criteria). Leptotrichia/Sneathia, Atopobium vaginae, an Eggerthella-like bacterium, Megasphaera species, and three novel bacteria in the order Clostridiales are among the bacterial species significantly associated with BV. PCR detection of either a Megasphaera species or one of the Clostridiales bacteria yielded a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 89% for diagnosis of BV compared to the Amsel clinical criteria and a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 93.7% compared to the Nugent criteria (Gram stain). PCR detection of one or more fastidious bacterial species is a more reliable indicator of BV than detection of bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, previously linked to BV, highlighting the potential of PCR for the diagnosis of BV.

  19. Targeted PCR for Detection of Vaginal Bacteria Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, David N.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Oakley, Brian B.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2007-01-01

    Several novel bacterial species have been detected in subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by using broad-range PCR assays, but this approach is insensitive for detecting minority species. We developed a series of taxon-directed 16S rRNA gene PCR assays for more sensitive detection of key vaginal bacteria. We sought to determine the prevalence of each species in the vagina, its association with BV, and the utility of PCR for the microbiological diagnosis of BV. Targeted PCR assays were developed for 17 vaginal bacterial species and applied to 264 vaginal-fluid samples from 81 subjects with and 183 subjects without BV. The results were compared to those of two widely accepted methods for diagnosing BV, the use of clinical findings (Amsel criteria) and the interpretation of vaginal-fluid Gram stains (Nugent criteria). Leptotrichia/Sneathia, Atopobium vaginae, an Eggerthella-like bacterium, Megasphaera species, and three novel bacteria in the order Clostridiales are among the bacterial species significantly associated with BV. PCR detection of either a Megasphaera species or one of the Clostridiales bacteria yielded a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 89% for diagnosis of BV compared to the Amsel clinical criteria and a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 93.7% compared to the Nugent criteria (Gram stain). PCR detection of one or more fastidious bacterial species is a more reliable indicator of BV than detection of bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, previously linked to BV, highlighting the potential of PCR for the diagnosis of BV. PMID:17687006

  20. Taqman real-time PCR assays for rapid detection of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Nilo; De Oliveira Solla Sobral, Fabiana; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; da Silveira, Proença Vinicius; de Carli, Silvia; Casanova, Yara Silva; Celmer, Álvaro José; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates are currently differentiated from nonpathogenic strains by classical PCR of virulence genes. This study improves the detection of the five main virulence genes used for APEC detection with the development of duplex and single Taqman real-time PCR to these targets. Primers and probes targeted to ompT, hlyF, iroN, iutA, and iss genes were designed and used in the implementation of single (iss) and duplex (hlyF/ompT and iroN/iutA) Taqman PCR assays. All five virulence genes of E coli strains were successfully detected by classical and Taqman real-time (single and duplex) PCR. A panel of 111 E coli isolates, obtained from avian samples collected in different Brazilian regions between 2010 and 2011, were further tested by both assays. Complete agreement was observed in the detection of four genes, ompT, hlyF, iron, iutA, but not for iss. This issue was addressed by combining the forward primer of the classical PCR to the new iss reverse primer and probe, resulting in complete agreement for all five genes. In total, 61 (55%) Brazilian E. coli isolates were detected as APEC, and the remaining 50 (45%) as avian fecal E. coli (AFEC). In conclusion, classical and Taqman real-time PCR presented exactly the same analytical performance for the differentiation of APEC and AFEC isolates. The developed real-time Taqman PCR assays could be used for the detection and differentiation of APEC isolates.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Species-Specific PCR for Detection of Nine Acinetobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue Min; Choi, Ji Ae; Choi, In Sun; Kook, Joong Ki; Chang, Young-Hyo; Park, Geon; Jang, Sook Jin; Kang, Seong Ho; Moon, Dae Soo

    2016-05-01

    Molecular methods have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of Acinetobacter species identification in clinical settings. The goal of this study is to develop species-specific PCR assays based on differences in the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) to detect nine commonly isolated Acinetobacter species including Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter ursingii, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter schindleri. The sensitivity and specificity of these nine assays were measured using genomic DNA templates from 55 reference strains and from 474 Acinetobacter clinical isolates. The sensitivity of A. baumannii-specific PCR assay was 98.9%, and the sensitivity of species-specific PCR assays for all other species was 100%. The specificities of A. lwoffii- and A. schindleri-specific PCR were 97.8 and 98.9%, respectively. The specificity of species-specific PCR for all other tested Acinetobacter species was 100%. The lower limit of detection for the nine species-specific PCR assays developed in this study was 20 or 200 pg of genomic DNA from type strains of each species. The Acinetobacter species-specific PCR assay would be useful to determine the correct species among suggested candidate Acinetobacter species when conventional methods including MALDI-TOF MS identify Acinetobacter only to the genus level. The species-specific assay can be used to screen large numbers of clinical and environmental samples obtained for epidemiologic study of Acinetobacter for the presence of target species.

  2. A Thermostabilized, One-Step PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Khazani, Nur Amalina; Noor, Nik Zuraina Nik Mohd; Yean Yean, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two common pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections. The identification of these pathogens using conventional molecular diagnostic tests requires trained personnel, cold-chain transportation, and storage-dependance, which does not render them user-friendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, cold-chain-free, one-step multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the php gene of K. pneumoniae (202 bp) and p6 gene of H. influenzae (582 bp). In addition, the specific primer to amplify glm gene of Helicobacter pylori (105 bp) was included as an internal amplification control. Subsequently, the designed primers and all PCR reagents were thermostabilized by lyophilization. The stability of the thermostabilized PCR was evaluated using the Q10 method. The sensitivity and specificity of performances for thermostabilized PCR were evaluated using 127 clinical isolates and were found to be 100% sensitive and specific. The thermostabilized PCR mix was found to be stable for 30 days and the Q10 accelerated stability was found to be 3.02 months. A cold-chain-free, PCR assay for easy, rapid, and simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae was successfully developed in this study. PMID:28386286

  3. Development of a PCR Assay for the Detection of Spironucleus muris

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Glenn A; Livingston, Robert S; Riley, Lela K; Livingston, Beth A; Franklin, Craig L

    2013-01-01

    Spironucleus muris is a protozoan that can colonize the intestinal tract of many rodent species. Although its effects on animal health and research are debated, S. muris is often included on exclusion lists for rodent facilities. Common diagnostic tests for S. muris are insensitive and typically are performed at postmortem examination. We sought to develop a PCR-based diagnostic test with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for use on fecal samples from live rodents. We designed and optimized a PCR assay that targeted the 16S-like rRNA gene of S. muris. The assay was highly specific, given that samples from mice contaminated with S. muris were PCR positive, whereas samples from mice contaminated with other protozoa were negative. The assay also was highly sensitive, detecting as few as 5 template copies per microliter diluent. All mice positive for S. muris on postmortem exams also were positive by fecal PCR. Moreover, S. muris was detected by PCR in mice negative by postmortem examination but from colonies known to be contaminated as well as in rats and hamsters. To assess protozoal loads in mice of differing ages, the PCR assay was adapted to a quantitative format. Fecal loads of S. muris were highest in 4-wk-old mice and declined with age. The PCR assay developed promises to be a highly specific antemortem diagnostic assay with higher sensitivity than that of existing postmortem tests. PMID:23562099

  4. Optimization of Quantitative Detection of Cytomegalovirus DNA in Plasma by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Boeckh, Michael; Huang, MeeiLi; Ferrenberg, James; Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Stensland, Laurence; Garrett Nichols, W.; Corey, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma is less sensitive than the antigenemia assay for CMV surveillance in blood. In 1,983 blood samples, plasma PCR assays with three different primer sets (UL125 alone, UL126 alone, and UL55/UL123-exon 4) were compared to the pp65 antigenemia assay and blood cultures. Plasma PCR detected CMV more frequently in blood specimens than either the antigenemia assay or cultures, but of the three PCR assays, the double-primer assay (UL55/UL123-exon 4) performed best with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values compared to antigenemia: 122 of 151 antigenemia-positive samples were detected (sensitivity, 80.1%), and there were 122 samples that were PCR positive-antigenemia negative (specificity, 93%). Samples with discrepant results had a low viral load (median, 0.5 cells per slide; 1,150 copies per ml) and were often obtained from patients receiving antiviral therapy. CMV could be detected by other methods in 15 of 29 antigenemia positive-PCR negative samples compared to 121 of 122 PCR positive-antigenemia negative samples (P < 0.001). On a per-subject basis, 21 of 25 patients (antigenemia positive-PCR negative) and all 57 (PCR positive-antigenemia negative) could be confirmed at different time points during follow-up. The higher sensitivity of the double-primer assay resulted in earlier detection compared to antigenemia in a time-to-event analysis of 42 CMV-seropositive stem cell transplant recipients, and two of three patients with CMV disease who were antigenemia negative were detected by plasma PCR prior to the onset of disease. Interassay variability was low, and the dynamic range was >5 log10. Automated DNA extraction resulted in high reproducibility, accurate CMV quantitation (R = 0.87, P < 0.001), improved sensitivity, and increased speed of sample processing. Thus, primer optimization and improved DNA extraction techniques resulted in a plasma-based PCR assay that is

  5. [Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in pork samples by real-time PCR with Taqman probe].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Wang, Xiaoying; Guo, Yunchang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Yu, Dongmin; Yang, Dajin

    2014-03-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for detection Listeria monocytogenes in pork samples. Listeria monocytogenes specific primers and Taqman probe were chosen on the basis of hlyA gene. Real-time PCR method was developed and its specificity was proved. Serial 10-fold diluted pure suspension culture of CMCC 540004 were detected by real-time PCR, and standard curve was constructed. Artificially contaminated experiment was done, six artificially-inoculated samples containing final concentration of Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 540004 (1.3 x 10(0), 1.3 x 10(1), 1.3 x 10(2), 1.3 x 10(3), 1.3 x 10(4), 1.3 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) CFU per 25 g pork samples) were preparated respectively, meanwhile one sample without inoculation was as control of background value. All the samples were incubated in LB1 enrichment for 24 h and then take 0.1 ml culture solutions to 10 ml LB2 enrichment for 18 - 24 h. All the samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 46 h, and detected Listeria monocytogenes bacteria by PCR, respectively. Twenty-four samples of retail pork were collected from markets in Beijing and detected by the above three methods. Real-time PCR method established was specific for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes. The sensitivity was 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/ml for pure culture without enrichment. Real-time PCR detection limit for artificially contaminated samples after enriching for 24 h was 1.3 CFU/ 25 g, which is the same with the limit of PCR and traditional method after enrichment for 46 h. Standard curve of sample after enrichment for 24 h was established. The positive rate out of total 24 samples was 70.83% (17/24) by real-time PCR, which is the same with the result of PCR and traditional method. The positive ones were quantitative analyzed using standard curve of sample and determined the initial Listeria monocytogenes numbers of CFU/25 g. CONCLUSION; The established real-time PCR technology was simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, which was suitable to

  6. Early PCR detection of tyramine-producing bacteria during cheese production.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María; Belén Flórez, Ana; Linares, Daniel M; Mayo, Baltasar; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2006-08-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are toxic substances that appear in foods and beverages. Tyramine is the most abundant BA in cheeses. A PCR method was developed to detect the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria during cheese manufacture and ripening. Six different batches of a farmhouse blue cheese were analysed by PCR. Tyramine concentrations were also determined by HPLC. The PCR method was able to anticipate tyramine accumulation in the cheeses; the presence of tyramine-producing microorganisms in the early stages of manufacture correlated well with a high concentration of BA in mature cheese samples.

  7. Development and validation of two SYBR green PCR assays and a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Linares, Luciano H; Ortega, Emanuel E; Lirón, Juan P; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as food-borne pathogens. We developed and validated two SYBR green PCR (SYBR-PCR) and a real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) to detect stx1 and stx2 genes in meat samples, and compared these techniques in ground beef samples from retail stores. One set of primers and one hydrolysis probe were designed for each stx gene. For RT-PCR, an internal amplification control (IAC) was used. All PCR intra-laboratory validations were performed using pure strains and artificially contaminated ground beef samples. A total of 50 STEC and 30 non-STEC strains were used. Naturally contaminated ground beef samples (n=103) were obtained from retail stores and screened with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR, and stx-positive samples were processed for STEC isolation. In the intra-laboratory validation, each PCR obtained a 1×10(2) CFU mL(-1) limit of detection and 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. The same results were obtained when different laboratory analysts in alternate days performed the assay. The level of agreement obtained with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR was kappa=0.758 and 0.801 (P<0.001) for stx1 and stx2 gene detection, respectively. Two PCR strategies were developed and validated, and excellent performance with artificially contaminated ground beef samples was obtained. However, the efforts made to isolate STEC from retail store samples were not enough. Only 11 STEC strains were isolated from 35 stx-positive ground beef samples identically detected by all PCRs. The combination of molecular approaches based on the identification of a virulence genotypic profile of STEC must be considered to improve isolation.

  8. Analytical validation of a reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) for quantitative detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jia, Peng; Purcell, Maureen; Pan, Guang; Wang, Jinjin; Kan, Shifu; Liu, Yin; Zheng, Xiaocong; SHi, Xiujie; He, Junqiang; Yu, Li; Hua, Qunyi; Lu, Tikang; Lan, Wensheng; Winton, James; Jin, Ningyi; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important pathogen of salmonid fishes. A validated universal reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that can quantify levels of IHNV in fish tissues has been previously reported. In the present study, we adapted the published set of IHNV primers and probe for use in a reverse-transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay for quantification of the virus in fish tissue samples. The RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR assays detected 13 phylogenetically diverse IHNV strains, but neither assay produced detectable amplification when RNA from other fish viruses was used. The RT-ddPCR assay had a limit of detection (LOD) equating to 2.2 plaque forming units (PFU)/μl while the LOD for the RT-qPCR was 0.2 PFU/μl. Good agreement (69.4–100%) between assays was observed when used to detect IHNV RNA in cell culture supernatant and tissues from IHNV infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Estimates of RNA copy number produced by the two assays were significantly correlated but the RT-qPCR consistently produced higher estimates than the RT-ddPCR. The analytical properties of the N gene RT-ddPCR test indicated that this method may be useful to assess IHNV RNA copy number for research and diagnostic purposes. Future work is needed to establish the within and between laboratory diagnostic performance of the RT-ddPCR assay.

  9. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Kuppuswamy N; Drgon, Tomas

    2017-07-15

    The methods currently used for detecting Salmonella in environmental samples require 2 days to produce results and have limited sensitivity. Here, we describe the development and validation of a real-time PCR Salmonella screening method that produces results in 18 to 24 h. Primers and probes specific to the gene invA, group D, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis organisms were designed and evaluated for inclusivity and exclusivity using a panel of 329 Salmonella isolates representing 126 serovars and 22 non-Salmonella organisms. The invA- and group D-specific sets identified all the isolates accurately. The PCR method had 100% inclusivity and detected 1 to 2 copies of Salmonella DNA per reaction. Primers specific for Salmonella-differentiating fragment 1 (Sdf-1) in conjunction with the group D set had 100% inclusivity for 32 S Enteritidis isolates and 100% exclusivity for the 297 non-Enteritidis Salmonella isolates. Single-laboratory validation performed on 1,741 environmental samples demonstrated that the PCR method detected 55% more positives than the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system (VIDAS) method. The PCR results correlated well with the culture results, and the method did not report any false-negative results. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis documented excellent agreement between the results from the culture and PCR methods (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% confidence interval of 0.76 to 1.0) confirming the validity of the PCR method.IMPORTANCE This validated PCR method detects 55% more positives for Salmonella in half the time required for the reference method, VIDAS. The validated PCR method will help to strengthen public health efforts through rapid screening of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples.

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms by Quantitative PCR ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Amy; King, Dawn; Donohue, Maura; Mistry, Jatin; Covert, Terry; Pfaller, Stacy

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis has a role in Crohn's disease. The organism may be acquired but is difficult to culture from the environment. We describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in drinking water and the results of its application to drinking water and faucet biofilm samples collected in the United States. PMID:20817803

  11. Intrapartum detection of Group B streptococci colonization by rapid PCR-test on labor ward.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin; Henle, Ariane; Droz, Sara; Kind, Andre B; Rohner, Susanne; Baumann, Marc; Surbek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) may lead to early onset neonatal sepsis with severe morbidity and mortality of newborns. Intrapartum detection of GBS is needed. The objective was to compare a PCR-based test performed in the laboratory versus labor ward. 300 patients were included prospectively. In phase I, swabs were analyzed by selective culture and rapid PCR in the laboratory. In phase II, swabs were analyzed accordingly, but the PCR test was conducted in labor ward. Test performances were analyzed and compared. In phase I the rapid PCR test had a sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 95.9%. The GBS colonization rate was 18.67%. Overall 8.5% of the PCR results were invalid. In phase II the PCR test showed a sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 95.65%. The GBS colonization rate was 23.3%. Overall 23.5% of swabs tested with PCR were invalid. Initiation of specific, short 2-hour training for operating personnel in the labor ward reduced the invalid test rate to 13.4%. The rapid PCR-based test yields adequate results to identify GBS colonization when performed in labor ward. In order to reduce the number of invalid tests a short training period is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accuracy of universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bacterial meningitis among suspected patients.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, Ali Reza; Nejatizadeh, Abdolazim; Mohammadian, Maryam; Rahmati, Mohammad Bagher; Namardizadeh, Vahideh

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are life-threatening diseases caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of bacterial meningitis among patients who were referred to Koodakan Hospital in Bandar Abbas because they were suspected of having the disease. This study was conducted in 2013 on the patients who were admitted to Bandar Abbas' Koodakan Hospital because they were suspected of having meningitis. A questionnaire, including demographic data, was completed for each patient. Universal PCR, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and gram staining and cultures were done for all the patients. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Among the 100 patients studied 59 (59%) were male and 41 (41%) were female. No patient in our study had a positive smear and culture for meningitis. Among the patients with negative smears and cultures six (6%) had positive universal PCR, and 94 (94%) had negative universal PCR. Based on these results, PCR had 95% specificity and 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of meningitis. In 30 patients (30%), the biochemical analysis of CSF were in favor of meningitis. Among the 30 patients, six patients (20%) had positive universal PCR and 24 patients (80%) had negative universal PCR. Based on our results, the universal PCR test is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in children. We recommend using it in combination with other tests, such as CSF analysis, for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

  13. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect gastroenteric pathogens in the feces of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Tolentino-Ruiz, R; Montoya-Varela, D; García-Espitia, M; Salas-Benito, M; Gutiérrez-Escolano, A; Gómez-García, C; Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Salas-Benito, J; De Nova-Ocampo, M

    2012-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide; the etiology of AGE includes viruses, bacteria, and parasites. A multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously identify human Astrovirus (HAstV), Calicivirus (HuCVs), Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) in stool samples is described. A total of 103 samples were individually analyzed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and RT-PCR/PCR. HAstV and HuCVs were detected in four out of 103 samples (3.8 %) by RT-PCR, but ELISAs found only one sample as positive for HuCVs (2.5 %). E. histolytica was identified in two out of 19 samples (10.5 %) and EIEC in 13 out of 20 samples (70 %) by PCR, and all PCR products were sequenced to verify their identities. Our multiplex PCR results demonstrate the simultaneous amplification of different pathogens such as HAstV, EIEC, and E. histolytica in the same reaction, though the HuCVs signal was weak in every replicate. Regardless, this multiplex PCR protocol represents a novel tool for the identification of distinct pathogens and may provide support for the diagnosis of AGE in children.

  14. Detection and monitoring of virus infections by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Watzinger, F; Ebner, K; Lion, T

    2006-01-01

    The employment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for virus detection and quantification offers the advantages of high sensitivity and reproducibility, combined with an extremely broad dynamic range. A number of qualitative and quantitative PCR virus assays have been described, but commercial PCR kits are available for quantitative analysis of a limited number of clinically important viruses only. In addition to permitting the assessment of viral load at a given time point, quantitative PCR tests offer the possibility of determining the dynamics of virus proliferation, monitoring of the response to treatment and, in viruses displaying persistence in defined cell types, distinction between latent and active infection. Moreover, from a technical point of view, the employment of sequential quantitative PCR assays in virus monitoring helps identifying false positive results caused by inadvertent contamination of samples with traces of viral nucleic acids or PCR products. In this review, we provide a survey of the current state-of-the-art in the application of the real-time PCR technology to virus analysis. Advantages and limitations of the RQ-PCR methodology, and quality control issues related to standardization and validation of diagnostic assays are discussed.

  15. An Automated Fluorescent PCR Method for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Renlin; Yee, Arlene; Wu, Kai Yuan; Wang, Chang-Ning; Read, Susan; De Grandis, Stephanie A.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluorescence-based PCR system (a model AG-9600 AmpliSensor analyzer) was investigated to determine whether it could detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The AmpliSensor PCR assay involves amplification-mediated disruption of a fluorogenic DNA signal duplex (AmpliSensor) that is homologous to conserved target sequences in a 323-bp amplified fragment of Shiga toxin genes stx1, stx2, and stxe. Using the Amplisensor assay, we detected 113 strains of STEC belonging to 50 different serotypes, while 18 strains of non-Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli and 68 strains of other bacteria were not detected. The detection limits of the assay were less than 1 to 5 CFU per PCR mixture when pure cultures of five reference strains were used and 3 CFU per 25 g of food when spiked ground beef samples that were preenriched overnight were used. The performance of the assay was also evaluated by using 53 naturally contaminated meat samples and 48 raw milk samples. Thirty-two STEC-positive samples that were confirmed to be positive by the culture assay were found to be positive when the AmpliSensor assay was used. Nine samples that were found to be positive when the PCR assay was used were culture negative. The system described here is an automated PCR-based system that can be used for detection of all serotypes of STEC in food or clinical samples. PMID:9797267

  16. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-09-08

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 10⁴ CFU/mL.

  17. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K.; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 104 CFU/mL. PMID:26371000

  18. Application of multiplex PCR for Rapid and sensitive detection of human papillomaviruses in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zandnia, Fateme; Doosti, Abbas; Mokhtari-Farsani, Abbas; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Movafagh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Reffering to an increase in cervical cancer in the recent years, rapid, sensitive and economical detection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as causative agents of cervical cancer is important. The traditional methods for the detection of HPVs in cervical cancer, such as pap smear, suffer from limitation and PCR has a potential to overcome the limitaitons. The purpose of present research work was to identify the five important strains of HPV (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45) simultaneously by Multiplex PCR application. Study was done on 100 cervical lesions of women. DNA was extracted from specimens by a genomic DNA purification kit. A 5-plex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of major HPV. Five pair of new primers was designed for detection of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 by Multiplex PCR. Among the 100 evaluated samples, 82 were found positive to HPVs. In the meantime the highest rate of infection was for HPV 16. Also 30 of HPV positive samples had infections with two or more HPV types. Multiplex PCR assay used in present study can provide a rapid, sensitive and economical method for detection of viral infections and is applicable to small volumes of vaginal samples.

  19. Comparison of dermatophyte PCR kit with conventional methods for detection of dermatophytes in skin specimens.

    PubMed

    Kondori, Nahid; Tehrani, Parisa Afshari; Strömbeck, Louise; Faergemann, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis is usually based on direct microscopic examination and culturing of clinical specimens. A commercial polymerase chain reaction kit (Dermatophyte PCR) has had favorable results when used for detection of dermatophytes and identification of Trichophyton rubrum in nail specimens. This study investigated the efficacy of the Dermatophyte PCR kit for detecting dermatophytosis in 191 hair or skin specimens from patients with suspected dermatophytosis. PCR was positive for 37 % of samples, whereas 31 and 39 % of the specimens were positive by culturing and direct microscopy, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for PCR analysis were 83, 84, 71, and 91 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR test was higher in specimens obtained from skin (88 %) than in those obtained from hair (58 %), while the specificity remained almost the same (84 and 86 % for skin and hair, respectively). Our results show that the Dermatophyte PCR kit is a promising diagnostic tool for detection of dermatophytosis in skin samples, providing clinicians with a rapid diagnosis.

  20. Organic Substances Interfere with Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR-Based Virus Detection in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based virus detection from water samples is occasionally hampered by organic substances that are coconcentrated during virus concentration procedures. To characterize these organic substances, samples containing commercially available humic acid, which is known to inhibit RT-PCR, and river water samples were subjected to adsorption-elution-based virus concentration using an electronegative membrane. In this study, the samples before, during, and after the concentration were analyzed in terms of organic properties and virus detection efficiencies. Two out of the three humic acid solutions resulted in RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR) inhibition that caused >3-log10-unit underestimation of spiked poliovirus. Over 60% of the organics contained in the two solutions were recovered in the concentrate, while over 60% of the organics in the uninhibited solution were lost during the concentration process. River water concentrates also caused inhibition of RT-qPCR. Organic concentrations in the river water samples increased by 2.3 to 3.9 times after the virus concentration procedure. The inhibitory samples contained organic fractions in the 10- to 100-kDa size range, which are suspected to be RT-PCR inhibitors. According to excitation-emission matrices, humic acid-like and protein-like fractions were also recovered from river water concentrates, but these fractions did not seem to affect virus detection. Our findings reveal that detailed organic analyses are effective in characterizing inhibitory substances. PMID:25527552

  1. Quantitative detection of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in cookies: ELISA versus real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Platteau, Céline; De Loose, Marc; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Taverniers, Isabel

    2011-11-09

    Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) are used widely in the food industry, especially in confectionery, where they are used raw, roasted, or in a processed formulation (e.g., praline paste and hazelnut oil). Hazelnuts contain multiple allergenic proteins, which can induce an allergic reaction associated with symptoms ranging from mild irritation to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. To date, immunochemical (e.g., ELISA or dipstick) and PCR-based analyses are the only methods available that can be applied as routine tests. The aim of this study is to make a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of ELISA and real-time PCR in detecting and correctly quantifying hazelnut in food model systems. To this end, the performances of two commercial ELISAs were compared to those of two commercial and one in-house-developed real-time PCR assays. The results showed that although ELISA seemed to be more sensitive compared to real-time PCR, both detection techniques suffered from matrix effects and lacked robustness with regard to food processing. As these impacts were highly variable among the different evaluated assays (both ELISA and real-time PCR), no firm conclusion can be made as to which technique is suited best to detect hazelnut in (processed) food products. In this regard, the current lack of appropriate DNA calibrators to quantify an allergenic ingredient by means of real-time PCR is highlighted.

  2. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis detection in cow's milk in Argentina by immunomagnetic separation-PCR.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Fernández, Bárbara; Morsella, Claudia; Mendez, Laura; Jar, Ana María; Paolicchi, Fernando Alberto; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize a diagnosis procedure to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) DNA in raw cow milk samples under field conditions. A procedure that combines both immunomagnetic separation and IS900-PCR detection (IMS-IS1 PCR) was employed on milk samples from 265 lactating Holstein cows from Map infected and uninfected herds in Argentina. IMS-IS1 PCR results were analyzed and compared with those obtained from milk and fecal culture and serum ELISA. The extent of agreement between both tests was determined by the Kappa test. IMS-IS1 PCR showed a detection limit of 10(1) CFU of Map/mL of milk, when 50:50 mix of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used to coat magnetic beads. All of the 118 samples from the Map uninfected herds were negative for the set of the tests. In Map infected herds, 80 out of 147 cows tested positive by milk IMS-IS1 PCR (55%), of which 2 (1.4%) were also positive by milk culture, 15 (10%) by fecal culture, and 20 (14%) by serum ELISA. Kappa statistics (95% CI) showed a slight agreement between the different tests (<0.20), and the proportions of agreement were ≤0.55. The IMS-IS1 PCR method detected Map in milk of the cows that were not positive in other techniques. This is the first report dealing with the application of IMS-IS1 PCR in the detection of Map in raw milk samples under field conditions in Argentina.

  3. PCR based detection of mycobacteria in paraffin wax embedded material routinely processed for morphological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Frevel, T; Schäfer, K L; Tötsch, M; Böcker, W; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of mycobacterial infections has increased during the past five years. A prompt diagnosis is indispensable for initiating appropriate treatment. Because culturing of mycobacteria takes three to six weeks and sensitivity of microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli is low, amplification methods provide promising possibilities. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been shown to be useful for confirming a mycobacterial infection, especially in cases with unexpected histological findings or lack of suitable material for culturing. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of PCR based techniques in the detection of mycobacterial infections in uncultured routine histological specimens as an alternative to surgical pathology. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty nine formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded samples from 141 patients with clinical or histological suspicion of a mycobacterial infection were investigated using three different PCR assays and Southern blotting. PCR results were compared with histology and culture and the patients' clinical findings. RESULTS: When using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity for the detection of mycobacteria of the tuberculosis complex was 90%, specificity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 81%, and the negative predictive value was 96%. The sensitivity for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria was 100% and specificity was 78%, the positive predictive value was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. The patients' clinical findings supported the PCR positive results, indicating a mycobacterial infection in 11 of 18 initially culture negative cases and in 21 of 35 PCR positive cases without culture results. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that PCR based techniques are sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for the detection of mycobacteria in routinely processed paraffin wax embedded and formalin fixed histological samples. PMID:10748878

  4. A new trilocus sequence-based multiplex-PCR to detect major Acinetobacter baumannii clones.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natacha; Picão, Renata Cristina; Cerqueira-Alves, Morgana; Uehara, Aline; Barbosa, Lívia Carvalho; Riley, Lee W; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-08-01

    A collection of 163 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates detected in a large Brazilian hospital, was potentially related with the dissemination of four clonal complexes (CC): 113/79, 103/15, 109/1 and 110/25, defined by University of Oxford/Institut Pasteur multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. The urge of a simple multiplex-PCR scheme to specify these clones has motivated the present study. The established trilocus sequence-based typing (3LST, for ompA, csuE and blaOXA-51-like genes) multiplex-PCR rapidly identifies international clones I (CC109/1), II (CC118/2) and III (CC187/3). Thus, the system detects only one (CC109/1) out of four main CC in Brazil. We aimed to develop an alternative multiplex-PCR scheme to detect these clones, known to be present additionally in Africa, Asia, Europe, USA and South America. MLST, performed in the present study to complement typing our whole collection of isolates, confirmed that all isolates belonged to the same four CC detected previously. When typed by 3LST-based multiplex-PCR, only 12% of the 163 isolates were classified into groups. By comparative sequence analysis of ompA, csuE and blaOXA-51-like genes, a set of eight primers was designed for an alternative multiplex-PCR to distinguish the five CC 113/79, 103/15, 109/1, 110/25 and 118/2. Study isolates and one CC118/2 isolate were blind-tested with the new alternative PCR scheme; all were correctly clustered in groups of the corresponding CC. The new multiplex-PCR, with the advantage of fitting in a single reaction, detects five leading A. baumannii clones and could help preventing the spread in healthcare settings.

  5. Evaluation of the Broad-Range PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) System and Virus Microarrays for Virus Detection

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro, Lanyn P.; Galvin, Teresa A.; Ma, Hailun; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Williams, Dhanya K.; Glasner, Dustin R.; Khan, Arifa S.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced nucleic acid-based technologies are powerful research tools for novel virus discovery but need to be standardized for broader applications such as virus detection in biological products and clinical samples. We have used well-characterized retrovirus stocks to evaluate the limit of detection (LOD) for broad-range PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS or PLEX-ID), RT-PCR assays, and virus microarrays. The results indicated that in the absence of background cellular nucleic acids, PLEX-ID and RT-PCR had a similar LOD for xenotropic murine retrovirus-related virus (XMRV; 3.12 particles per µL) whereas sensitivity of virus detection was 10-fold greater using virus microarrays. When virus was spiked into a background of cellular nucleic acids, the LOD using PLEX-ID remained the same, whereas virus detection by RT-PCR was 10-fold less sensitive, and no virus could be detected by microarrays. Expected endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences were detected in cell lines tested and known species-specific viral sequences were detected in bovine serum and porcine trypsin. A follow-up strategy was developed using PCR amplification, nucleotide sequencing, and bioinformatics to demonstrate that an RD114-like retrovirus sequence that was detected by PLEX-ID in canine cell lines (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Cf2Th canine thymus) was due to defective, endogenous gammaretrovirus-related sequences. PMID:24777034

  6. Competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) is a sensitive, specific and fast method for BRAF V600 mutation detection in Melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Raffaela; Pasculli, Barbara; Coco, Michelina; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Rendina, Michelina; Valori, Vanna Maria; Graziano, Paolo; Maiello, Evaristo; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BRAF codon 600 mutation testing of melanoma patients is mandatory for the choice of the most appropriate therapy in the clinical setting. Competitive allele specific TaqMan PCR (Cast-PCR) technology allows not only the selective amplification of minor alleles, but it also blocks the amplification of non-mutant allele. We genotyped codon 600 of the BRAF gene in 54 patients’ samples by Cast-PCR and bidirectional direct sequence analysis. All the mutations detected by sequencing were also identified by Cast-PCR. In addition, Cast-PCR assay detected four samples carrying mutations and was able to clearly identify two mutations of uncertain interpretation by Sanger sequencing. The limit of detection of Cast-PCR was evaluated by constructing dilution curves of BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutated clinical samples mixed with a not-mutated specimens. Both mutations could be detected until a 1:100 mutated/not mutated ratio. Cloning and sequencing of the clones was used to confirm mutations on representative discrepant cases. Cast PCR performances were not affected by intratumour heterogeneity, and less affected by melanin content. Our results indicate that Cast-PCR is a reliable diagnostic tool for the identification of melanoma patients as eligible to be treated with TKIs and might be implemented in the clinical setting as elective screening method. PMID:26690267

  7. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically accessible desiccant will likely

  8. Detection of Food Allergens by Taqman Real-Time PCR Methodology.

    PubMed

    García, Aina; Madrid, Raquel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) has shown to be a very effective technology for the detection of food allergens. The protocol described herein consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the plant ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region, using species-specific primers and hydrolysis probes (Taqman) dual labeled with a reporter fluorophore at the 5' end (6-carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a quencher fluorophore at the 3' end (Blackberry, BBQ). The species-specific real-time PCR systems (primers/probe) described in this work allowed the detection of different nuts (peanut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, cashew, macadamia, walnut and pecan), common allergens present in commercial food products, with a detection limit of 0.1 mg/kg.

  9. Detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 DNA by PCR in bivalve molluscs: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Batista, Frederico M; Arzul, Isabelle; Pepin, Jean-François; Ruano, Francisco; Friedman, Carolyn S; Boudry, Pierre; Renault, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    Herpes-like viral infections have been reported in different bivalve mollusc species throughout the world. High mortalities among hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of different bivalve species have been associated often with such infections. The diagnosis of herpes-like viruses in bivalve molluscs has been performed traditionally by light and transmission electron microscopy. The genome sequencing of one of these viruses, oyster herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), allowed the development of DNA-based diagnostic techniques. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for the detection of OsHV-1 DNA in bivalve molluscs at different development stages. In addition, the PCR used for detection of OsHV-1 has also allowed the amplification of DNA from an OsHV-1 variant. The literature on DNA extraction methods, primers, PCR strategies, and confirmatory procedures used for the detection and identification of herpesviruses that infect bivalve molluscs are reviewed.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: a diagnostic approach to detect acute schistosomiasis infection in a murine model by PCR.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Nidia; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Lopez Aban, Julio; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Gárate, Teresa; Muro, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Schistosomiasis represents an increasing problem in non-endemic areas, due to the growing number of immigrants and to tourists contracting this disease in "off-the-beaten-track" tourism. Acute schistosomiasis is not diagnosed early due to the lack of diagnostic tools that are sufficiently sensitive enough to detect the parasite during the first weeks of infection. We have developed a diagnostic approach based on the detection of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine, comparing the performance of this new approach with the two currently used schistosomiasis diagnostic tools (Kato-Katz and ELISA) and the PCR in stool samples. This comparison was done in a Schistosoma mansoni murine experimental model, which permits follow up of the parasite from the acute to the chronic stage of infection. Our results suggest that this new PCR-based approach could be useful for the detection of acute schistosomiasis in easy-to-handle clinical samples such the urine.

  11. Specific PCR detection of tiger, leopard, and lion ingredients from test samples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Xu, Junyi; Liu, Ran; Yu, Ke; Wang, Changwen

    2011-01-01

    A PCR method was developed for specific detection of tiger, leopard, and lion DNA from test specimens for inspection and quarantine or for law-enforced animal protection. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of tiger, leopard, and lion and used in the PCR testing. To mimic the effect of food processing on the sensitivity of the test, the tiger muscle and bovine bonemeal powder samples were treated at 133 degrees C for 30 min. At this processing condition, the method was sensitive enough to detect as low as 0.05% of tiger-derived ingredients from the mixed bonemeal powders. The data demonstrate that our PCR method is convenient and economic, with high sensitivity and repeatability, and can be used to detect and identify tiger, leopard, and lion ingredients from various test samples.

  12. Rapid detection of Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood by PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Uzunovic, A; Breuil, C

    1999-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple method was developed to detect the sapstain fungi Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood. By using microwave heating for DNA extraction and PCR with internal transcribed spacer-derived-specific primers, detection was feasible within 4 h, even with DNA obtained from a single synnema. This method can easily be extended for the detection of other wood-inhabiting fungi.

  13. Influence of temperature, medium, and storage duration on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen, Laura; Wolffs, Petra F G; van Tiel, Frank H; Dukers, Nicole; Herngreen, Selma B; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2013-03-01

    We validated the use of stored samples for Chlamydia trachomatis research. C. trachomatis DNA was detected by real-time PCR in clinical (urine and self-taken vaginal swabs) and spiked samples using six different media, five different time points (up to 2 years), and four different temperature conditions. C. trachomatis was detected in all 423 samples, and no clinically relevant degradation impact was detected.

  14. A single-tube multiplex PCR for rapid detection in feces of 10 viruses causing diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Khamrin, Pattara; Okame, Makiko; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nantachit, Nattika; Nishimura, Shuichi; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    A novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 10 viruses in a single tube. The assay was targeted to detect group A and C rotaviruses, adenovirus, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, sapovirus, astrovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, and enterovirus. A total of 235 stool samples were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Kyoto, Japan, from 2008 to 2009, then tested by this novel multiplex PCR and compared with a multiplex PCR described previously, which used 3 primer sets. The novel multiplex PCR could detect the targeted viruses in 111 of the 235 (47.2%) stool samples. Of these, 9 out of 10 types of viruses were identified, including group A rotavirus, norovirus GII, enterovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus, group C rotavirus, astrovirus, and norovirus GI. In contrast, the multiplex PCR that used 3 sets of primers could detect the targeted viruses in 109 of the 235 (46.4%) stool samples. Among these, 8 types of viruses were identified, including group A rotavirus, norovirus GII, enterovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus, group C rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus. The results suggested that the new multiplex PCR is useful as a rapid and cost effective diagnostic tool for the detection of major pathogenic viruses causing diarrhea.

  15. A point-of-care PCR test for HIV-1 detection in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Sujit R; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Sur, Kunal; Kelso, David M

    2013-04-15

    A low-cost, fully integrated sample-to-answer, quantitative PCR (qPCR) system that can be used for detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA in infants at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings has been developed and tested. The system is based on a novel DNA extraction method, which uses a glass fiber membrane, a disposable assay card that includes on-board reagent storage, provisions for thermal cycling and fluorescence detection, and a battery-operated portable analyzer. The system is capable of automated PCR mix assembly using a novel reagent delivery system and performing qPCR. HIV-1 and internal control targets are detected using two spectrally separated fluorophores, FAM and Quasar 670. In this report, a proof-of-concept of the platform is demonstrated. Initial results with whole blood demonstrate that the test is capable of detecting HIV-1 in blood samples containing greater than 5000 copies of HIV-1. In resource-limited settings, a point-of-care HIV-1 qPCR test would greatly increase the number of test results that reach the infants caregivers, allowing them to pursue anti-retroviral therapy.

  16. MRPrimerV: a database of PCR primers for RNA virus detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; An, KyuHyeon; Kim, Doyun; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Many infectious diseases are caused by viral infections, and in particular by RNA viruses such as MERS, Ebola and Zika. To understand viral disease, detection and identification of these viruses are essential. Although PCR is widely used for rapid virus identification due to its low cost and high sensitivity and specificity, very few online database resources have compiled PCR primers for RNA viruses. To effectively detect viruses, the MRPrimerV database (http://MRPrimerV.com) contains 152 380 247 PCR primer pairs for detection of 1818 viruses, covering 7144 coding sequences (CDSs), representing 100% of the RNA viruses in the most up-to-date NCBI RefSeq database. Due to rigorous similarity testing against all human and viral sequences, every primer in MRPrimerV is highly target-specific. Because MRPrimerV ranks CDSs by the penalty scores of their best primer, users need only use the first primer pair for a single-phase PCR or the first two primer pairs for two-phase PCR. Moreover, MRPrimerV provides the list of genome neighbors that can be detected using each primer pair, covering 22 192 variants of 532 RefSeq RNA viruses. We believe that the public availability of MRPrimerV will facilitate viral metagenomics studies aimed at evaluating the variability of viruses, as well as other scientific tasks. PMID:27899620

  17. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D.; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P.; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F.; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306

  18. [Detection of human enteroviruses with real-time PCR assay using TaqMan fluorescent probe].

    PubMed

    Leś, Katarzyna; Przybylski, Maciej; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Infections with human enteroviruses are common worldwide and cause a wide range of signs and symptoms. Nowadays in current diagnostics procedures older virological methods, such virus isolation in a cell cultures and seroneutralisation assay, are replaced with molecular biology tests. The aim of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection of human adenoviruses. DNA isolated from MK2 cell line infected with nineteen different enterovirus strains was used for development of a qualitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeting a conserved region of the 5'UTR region and a specific TaqMan probe. The analytical sensitivity of real-time PCR assay was tested using serial dilutions of Coxackie A9 cDNA in range between 10 degrees and 10(-8). For comparison typical end-point detected RT-PCR for enterovirus detection with the same cDNA dilutions was made. The sensitivity of novel method was about ten thousand-fold higher than older one. The conclusion is that real-time PCR is very advisable in diagnostics of diseases caused with enteroviruses. The high level of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and rapidity provided by this assay are favorable for the use in the detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens, especially from neuroinfections.

  19. High throughput PCR detection of Xylella fastidiosa directly from almond tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianchi; Livingston, Sam; Groves, Russell; Civerolo, Edwin L

    2008-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD), is currently re-emerging as a serious concern in California. Efficient pathogen detection is critical for ALSD epidemiological studies, particularly when a large sample size is involved. We here report a PCR procedure to detect X. fastidiosa directly from infected almond tissue without the laborious DNA extraction. Plant samples were prepared by freeze-drying and pulverized. Appropriate dilutions of the pulverized freeze-dried tissue (PFT) were determined to minimize the effect of enzyme inhibitors from plant tissue and retain PCR detection of X. fastdiosa cells at a single digit number level. This PFT-PCR procedure was evaluated by comparing to the in vitro cultivation method using 102 symptomatic samples and resulted in a predictive value of 90.8%. PFT-PCR was further applied to monitor the seasonal occurrence of X. fastidiosa from four selected almond trees in two orchards in 2005. The results matched with those of the cultivation method at 92.3%. Considering the simplicity and reliability, we conclude that PFT-PCR is a valuable option for high throughput rapid detection of X. fastidiosa.

  20. Detection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maas, L; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W; de Groot, C J; Bouter, S; Plötz, F B; van Ewijk, B E

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study. Paediatric patients (0-18 years) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected of having enteroparasitic disease were included. A questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and the chosen treatment was completed at the start of the study and after 6 weeks. Of 163 paediatric patients (mean age, 7.8 years), 114 (70%) had a PCR-positive faecal sample. D. fragilis was detected most frequently, in 101 patients, followed by Blastocystis in 49. In faecal samples of 47 patients, more than one protozoan was detected, mainly the combination of D. fragilis and Blastocystis. Reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), nausea (30%), and altered bowel habits (28%). Eighty-nine of the PCR-positive patients were treated with antibiotics. A significant reduction in abdominal pain was observed both in treated and in untreated patients. This study demonstrated that multiplex real-time PCR detects a high percentage of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, interpretation and determination of the clinical relevance of a positive PCR result in this population are still difficult. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Development of a PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Luque, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Andrade, María J; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus species growing in foodstuffs. Because aflatoxins have important health effects, the detection of early contamination of foods by aflatoxigenic molds should be useful. In the present work, a reliable conventional PCR method for detecting aflatoxigenic molds of various species was developed. Fifty-six aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains commonly reported in foodstuffs were tested. Aflatoxin production was first confirmed by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis or/and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the conserved regions of the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, six primer pairs were designed. With only the designed primer pair AFF1-AFR3, the expected PCR product (381 bp) was obtained in all of the tested aflatoxigenic strains of various species and genera. Amplification products were not obtained with this primer pair for any of the nonaflatoxigenic reference molds. However, an amplicon of 453 bp was obtained for all aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic mold reference strains with a PCR protocol based on the constitutive fungal β-tubulin gene, which was used as a positive fungal control. The PCR protocol based on omt-1 detected as little as 15 pg of DNA from aflatoxigenic molds and 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g in contaminated food samples. This PCR protocol should be used as a routine technique to detect aflatoxigenic molds in foods.

  2. Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Hye; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand) and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens.

  3. Comparison of PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry with 16S rRNA PCR and Amplicon Sequencing for Detection of Bacteria in Excised Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Bart; Herijgers, Paul; Beuselinck, Kurt; Peetermans, Willy E.; Herregods, Marie-Christin

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the causative pathogen of infective endocarditis (IE) is crucial for adequate management and therapy. A broad-range PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI-MS) technique was compared with broad-spectrum 16S rRNA PCR and amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) for the detection of bacterial pathogens in 40 heart valves obtained from 34 definite infective endocarditis patients according to the modified Duke criteria and six nonendocarditis patients. Concordance between the two molecular techniques was 98% for being positive or negative, 97% for concordant identification up to the genus level, and 77% for concordant identification up to the species level. Sensitivity for detecting the causative pathogen (up to the genus level) in excised heart valves was 88% for 16S rRNA PCR and 85% for PCR-ESI-MS; the specificity was 83% for both methods. The two molecular techniques were significantly more sensitive than valve culture (18%) and accurately identified bacteria in excised heart valves. In eight patients with culture-negative IE, the following results were obtained: concordant detection of Coxiella burnetii (n = 2), Streptococcus gallolyticus (n = 1), Propionibacterium acnes (n = 1), and viridans group streptococci (n = 1) by both molecular tests, detection of P. acnes by PCR-ESI-MS whereas the 16S rRNA PCR was negative (n = 1), and a false-negative result by both molecular techniques (n = 2). In one case of IE caused by viridans streptococci, PCR-ESI-MS was positive for Enterococcus spp. The advantages of PCR-ESI-MS compared to 16S rRNA PCR are its automated workflow and shorter turnaround times. PMID:27629895

  4. Comparison of the conventional multiplex RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay for the detection of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar L; Anand, Siddharth P; Tikhe, Shamal A; Walimbe, Atul M; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2016-01-01

    Detection of respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive, specific and cost effective, having huge potential for patient management. In this study, the performance of an in-house developed conventional multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) and Luminex xTAG(®) RVP fast assay (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) for the detection of respiratory viruses was compared. A total 310 respiratory clinical specimens predominantly from pediatric patients, referred for diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 from August 2009 to March 2011 were tested to determine performance characteristic of the three methods. A total 193 (62.2%) samples were detected positive for one or more viruses by mRT-PCR, 175 (56.4%) samples by real time monoplex RT-PCR, and 138 (44.5%) samples by xTAG(®) RVP fast assay. The overall sensitivity of mRT-PCR was 96.9% (95% CI: 93.5, 98.8), rtRT-PCR 87.9% (95% CI: 82.5, 92.1) and xTAG(®) RVP fast was 68.3% (95% CI: 61.4, 74.6). Rhinovirus was detected most commonly followed by respiratory syncytial virus group B and influenza A/H1N1pdm09. The monoplex real time RT-PCR and in-house developed mRT-PCR are more sensitive, specific and cost effective than the xTAG(®) RVP fast assay.

  5. Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Hye; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand) and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens. PMID:25774107

  6. Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Patel, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0. 5 μL of the extracts were combined with 15 μL of each of the two master mixes. Assays were performed on the LightCycler 480 II system. Culture was performed using routine methods. Results.  M. hominis PCR detected 38/42 M. hominis culture-positive specimens, as well as 2 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 99.2%). Ureaplasma PCR detected 139/144 Ureaplasma culture-positive specimens, as well as 9 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 96.5%; specificity, 93.6%). Of the specimens that tested positive for Ureaplasma species, U. urealyticum alone was detected in 33, U. parvum alone in 109, and both in 6. Conclusion. The described PCR assays are rapid alternatives to culture for detection of M. hominis and Ureaplasma species, and, unlike culture, the Ureaplasma assay easily distinguishes U. urealyticum from parvum. PMID:26904723

  7. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of five tobacco viruses in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Cheng, Julong; Huang, Ting; Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Tobacco viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Potato virus Y (PVY) and Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) are major viruses infecting tobacco and can cause serious crop losses. A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect simultaneously and differentiate all five viruses. The system used specific primer sets for each virus producing five distinct fragments 237, 273, 347, 456 and 547 bp, representing TMV, CMV subgroup I, TEV, PVY(O) and TVBMV, respectively. These primers were used for detection of the different viruses by single PCR and multiplex PCR and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. The protocol was used to detect viruses from different parts of China. The simultaneous and sensitive detection of different viruses using the multiplex PCR is more efficient and economical than other conventional methods for tobacco virus detection. This multiplex PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the detection and identification of major tobacco viruses, and will be useful for epidemiological studies.

  8. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kamphee, Hatairat; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Wiriyachaiporn, Natpapas; Kanchanatavee, Airin; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-01-01

    Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF) immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance), while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance). The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT) Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT) within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible) and MT (drug resistant) Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD) being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection.

  9. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from clinical specimens by cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Toyotome, Takahito; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    We developed new cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR assays for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum that were designed to detect the gene encoding N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), which we previously identified as an H. capsulatum antigen reacting with sera from patients with histoplasmosis. Both assays specifically detected the DNAs of all H. capsulatum strains but not those of other fungi or human DNA. The limited of detection (LOD) of the real-time PCR assay was 10 DNA copies when using 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid DNA and 50 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA. The nested real-time PCR improved the LOD to 5 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA, which represents a 10-fold higher than that observed with the real-time PCR assay. To assess the ability of the two assays to diagnose histoplasmosis, we analyzed a small number of clinical specimens collected from five patients with histoplasmosis, such as sera (n = 4), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 4), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n = 1). Although clinical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was insufficiently sensitive (33%), the nested real-time PCR assay increased the clinical sensitivity (77%), suggesting it has a potential to be a useful method for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in clinical specimens.

  10. PCR experion automated electrophoresis system to detect Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    PubMed

    Delibato, Elisabetta; Gattuso, Antonietta; Minucci, Angelo; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Toti, Laura; Castagnola, Massimo; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gianfranceschi, Monica Virginia

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is frequently found as a contaminant in raw and ready-to-eat foods. The ability of L. monocytogenes to multiply at refrigeration temperatures and to grow in a wide range of pH values is of particular concern for food safety. According to the European Union regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, L. monocytogenes must be absent in some categories of ready-to-eat foods. The standard microbiological method for L. monocytogenes detection in foods (ISO 11290-1: 1996 (ISO, International Organization for Standardization)) is cost and time consuming. Developments of rapid, cost-effective and automated diagnostic methods to detect food-borne pathogens in foods continue to be a major concern for the industry and public health. The aim of this study was the development of a rapid, sensitive and specific molecular detection method for L. monocytogenes. To this purpose, we have applied a capillary electrophoresis method to a PCR protocol (PCR-EES (EES, experion automated electrophoresis system)) for detecting L. monocytogenes in food. In particular, a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system (experion automated electrophoresis system, Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) was used for the rapid and automatic analysis of the amplicons. Fifty naturally contaminated samples were analysed with this method and the results were compared with those obtained with ISO method. Moreover, the microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system was compared with classical gel electrophoresis (PCR-CGE). The results showed that after 24 h of culture enrichment, the PCR-EES showed a relative accuracy of 100% with ISO, while using PCR-CGE decreased it down to 96%. After 48 h of enrichment, both PCR-EES and PCR-CGE showed an accuracy of 100% with ISO.

  11. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  12. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs. PMID:28125696

  13. [Detection of Cryptospordium spp. in environmental water samples by FTA-PCR].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Qian; He, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Shou-Fu

    2011-02-01

    To establish a FTA-polymeras chain reaction (FTA-PCR) method in detection of Cryptospordium spp. in different sources of water. The semi automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Cryptospordium oocysts in environmental water samples was performed firstly, and then genomic DNA of Cryptospordium oocysts was extracted by FTA filters disk. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the DNA fragment of the 18 S rRNA gene from C. parvum. Plate DNA was amplified with primers in PCR. The control DNA samples from Toxoplasma gondii,Sarcocystis suihominis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Clonorchis sinensis were amplified simultaneously. All PCR products were detected by agar electrophoresis dyed with ethidium bromide. The 446 bp fragment of DNA was detected in all samples of C. parvum, C. andersoni, and C. baileyi, while it was not detected in control groups in laboratory. No positive samples were found from 10 samples collected from tape water in 5 districts of Shanghai City by FTA-PCR. Nine positive samples were detected totally from 70 different environmental water samples, there were 0 out of 15 samples from the source of tape water, 2 out of 25 from the Huangpu River, 5 out of 15 from rivers around the animal farmers, 1 out of 9 from output water of contaminating water treatment factory, 1 out of 6 from the out gate of living contaminating water. The 446 bp fragment was detected from all the amplified positive water samples. FTA-PCR is an efficient method for gene detection of Cryptospordium oocysts, which could be used in detection of environmental water samples. The contamination degree of Cryptospordium oocysts in the river water around animal farms is high.

  14. PCR Assay To Detect Bacillus anthracis Spores in Heat-Treated Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fasanella, A.; Losito, S.; Adone, R.; Ciuchini, F.; Trotta, T.; Altamura, S. A.; Chiocco, D.; Ippolito, G.

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in anthrax is due to its potential use in bioterrorism and as a biowarfare agent against civilian populations. The development of rapid and sensitive techniques to detect anthrax spores in suspicious specimens is the most important aim for public health. With a view to preventing exposure of laboratory workers to viable Bacillus anthracis spores, this study evaluated the suitability of PCR assays for detecting anthrax spores previously inactivated at 121°C for 45 min. The results indicate that heat treatment ensures the complete inactivation of B. anthracis spores without significantly affecting the efficiency of PCR assays. PMID:12574311

  15. High-throughput pooling and real-time PCR-based strategy for malaria detection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Trottman, Paul A; Griffin, Jennifer B; Landis, Sarah H; Kitsa, Paluku; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Meshnick, Steven R

    2010-02-01

    Molecular assays can provide critical information for malaria diagnosis, speciation, and drug resistance, but their cost and resource requirements limit their application to clinical malaria studies. This study describes the application of a resource-conserving testing algorithm employing sample pooling for real-time PCR assays for malaria in a cohort of 182 pregnant women in Kinshasa. A total of 1,268 peripheral blood samples were collected during the study. Using a real-time PCR assay that detects all Plasmodium species, microscopy-positive samples were amplified individually; the microscopy-negative samples were amplified after pooling the genomic DNA (gDNA) of four samples prior to testing. Of 176 microscopy-positive samples, 74 were positive by the real-time PCR assay; the 1,092 microscopy-negative samples were initially amplified in 293 pools, and subsequently, 35 samples were real-time PCR positive (3%). With the real-time PCR result as the referent standard, microscopy was 67.9% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.3% to 76.5%) and 91.2% specific (95% CI, 89.4% to 92.8%) for malaria. In total, we detected 109 parasitemias by real-time PCR and, by pooling samples, obviated over 50% of reactions and halved the cost of testing. Our study highlights both substantial discordance between malaria diagnostics and the utility and parsimony of employing a sample pooling strategy for molecular diagnostics in clinical and epidemiologic malaria studies.

  16. Detection of Bacillus cereus group bacteria from cardboard and paper with real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Priha, Outi; Hallamaa, Katri; Saarela, Maria; Raaska, Laura

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a PCR-based rapid method to detect Bacillus cereus group cells from paper and cardboard. Primers targeting the 16S rDNA and real-time PCR with SYBR green I detection were used in order to be able to also quantify the target. Both autoclaved cardboard samples spiked with B. cereus vegetative cells or spores and naturally contaminated paper and cardboard samples were studied. Results were compared with culturing verified by commercial (API) tests. Several different methods were tested for DNA isolation from the paper and cardboard samples. Two commercial kits intended for soils, the UltraClean soil DNA kit and the FastDNA spin kit for soil, gave the most reproducible results. In spiked samples, the average yield was 50% of added vegetative cells, but spore yield was only about 10%. PCR results from adding vegetative cells correlated with added colony-forming unit (cfu) values ( r=0.93, P <0.001) in the range 100-10,000 cfu g(-1). Three out of nine studied paper and cardboard samples contained B. cereus group bacteria, based both on culturing and real-time PCR. The numbers were 10(2)-10(3) bacteria g(-1); and PCR gave somewhat higher results than culturing. Thus, real-time PCR can be used as a rapid semi-quantitative method to screen paper and cardboard samples for contamination with B. cereus group bacteria.

  17. Development of PCR method for detecting Kudoa iwatai (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Do, Jeung-Wan; Nam, U-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes. All of the wild fish did not produce amplicons nor did harbor visible Kudoa cysts (0/70). Three of the cultured fish were PCR-positive and also harbored visible Kudoa cysts (3/248, 1.2%). The sequences of amplicons (574 bp) were 100% identical with those of the K. iwatai already registered in Genbank. When the visceral organs of these three fish were examined, visible cysts were not found, but one stomach sample was found to be PCR-positive. There was no difference in the prevalence of infection estimated by PCR assay and the presence of visible Kudoa cysts in our samples. This is thought to be because the development of K. iwatai is already completed and only mature Kudoa cysts existed in our samples.

  18. An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method for the detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin

    2006-09-01

    An electrochemiluminescence non-PCR method has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops. Genomic DNA of GMOs was digested with two restriction endonucleases (FOK I and BsrD I), and hybridized with three Ru(bpy) 3 2+ (TBR)-labeled and one biotinylated probes. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL non-PCR method will provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  19. Detection of C. botulinum types in honey by mPCR.

    PubMed

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Terzi, Göknur; Çadirci, Özgür; Alişarli, Mustafa; Kevenk, Onur; Uyanik, Tolga

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in honey samples using conventional methods and multiplex PCR (mPCR). A total number of 150 honey samples were randomly collected from apiaries, retail shops, weekly open bazaars, and supermarkets in Samsun, Turkey. Of 150 honey samples, 4 (2.6%) were positive for the botulinum neurotoxin gene by mPCR analysis. A total of 4 C. botulinum isolates were obtained from the mPCR positive samples, of which 3 were type A and 1 was type B. No samples were positive regarding the type E and type F neurotoxin genes. This is the first report of type A and type B spores of C. botulinum being detected and isolated in Turkey. This study revealed that some honey samples may present a potential hazard for food borne and infant botulism.

  20. Goose Hemorrhagic polyomavirus detection in geese using real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Leon, Olivier; Corrand, Léni; Bich, Tran Ngoc; Le Minor, Odile; Lemaire, Mylène; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the viral agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a lethal disease of goslings. Although death is the most common outcome, geese that recover from HNEG are persistently infected. Here, we present the development of real-time SYBR Green real-time PCR targeted to GHPV and its use to assess the prevalence of GHPV infection in French geese flocks. When compared with classical end-point PCR, real-time PCR revealed a much better sensitivity and equivalent specificity. Real-time PCR could, therefore, be considered a gold standard for the detection of GHPV. Results of field investigations evidenced a very high prevalence of GHPV infections in French geese, largely associated with healthy carriage.

  1. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Getchell, Rodman G; McClure, Carol A; Garver, Kyle A

    2011-09-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  2. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  3. Optimization of PMA-PCR Protocol for Viability Detection of Pathogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelson, Brian J.; Lee, Christine M.; Ponce, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This presented study demonstrates the need that PMA-PCR can be used to capture the loss of viability of a sample that is much more specific and time-efficient than alternative methods. This protocol is particularly useful in scenarios in which sterilization treatments may inactivate organisms but not degrade their DNA. The use of a PCR-based method of pathogen detection without first inactivating the DNA of nonviable cells will potentially lead to false positives. The loss of culturability, by heat-killing, did not prevent amplified PCR products, which supports the use of PMA to prevent amplification and differentiate between viable and dead cells. PMA was shown to inhibit the amplification of DNA by PCR in vegetative cells that had been heat-killed.

  4. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

  5. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction.

  6. Detecting and genotyping Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-07-05

    Rapid detection and characterization of food borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. As an alternative to conventional technologies, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid microarrays for detecting and genotyping E. coli O157:H7. The array was composed of oligonucleotide probes (25-30 mer) complementary to four virulence loci (intimin, Shiga-like toxins I and II, and hemolysin A). Target DNA was amplified from whole cells or from purified DNA via single or multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were hybridized to the array without further modification or purification. The array was 32-fold more sensitive than gel electrophoresis and capable of detecting amplification products from < 1 cell equivalent of genomic DNA (1 fg). Immunomagnetic capture, PCR and a microarray were subsequently used to detect 55 CFUs ml-1 (E. coli O157:H7) from chicken rinsate without the aid of pre-enrichment. Four isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and one isolate of O91:H2, for which genotypic data were available, were unambiguously genotyped with this array. Glass based microarrays are relatively simple to construct and provide a rapid and sensitive means to detect multiplexed PCR products and the system is amenable to automation.

  7. Systematic application of multiplex PCR enhances the detection of bacteria, parasites, and viruses in stool samples.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Gary N; Anderson, Trevor P; Stevens, Mary; Adams, Jacqui; Coleman, Robyn; Mahagamasekera, Patalee; Young, Sheryl; Henderson, Tom; Hofmann, Maria; Jennings, Lance C; Murdoch, David R

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether systematic testing of faecal samples with a broad range multiplex PCR increases the diagnostic yield in patients with diarrhoea compared with conventional methods and a clinician initiated testing strategy. 1758 faecal samples from 1516 patients with diarrhoea submitted to two diagnostic laboratories were tested for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by Fast-Track Diagnostics multiplex real-time PCR kits and conventional diagnostic tests. Multiplex PCR detected pathogens in 530 samples (30%): adenovirus (51, 3%), astrovirus (95, 5%), norovirus (172, 10%), rotavirus (3, 0.2%), Campylobacter jejuni/coli (85, 5%), Salmonella spp. (22, 1%), Clostridium difficile (72, 4%), entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli (21, 1%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3, 0.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (1, 0.1%), and Giardia lamblia (59, 3%). In contrast, conventional testing detected a pathogen in 324 (18%) samples. Using a systematic approach to the diagnosis of gastroenteritis improved diagnostic yield. This enhanced detection with PCR was achieved by a combination of improved detection of individual pathogens and detection of pathogens not requested or unable to be tested by conventional tests. This approach also allowed earlier identification for most pathogens and created a workflow which is likely to adapt well for many diagnostic laboratories. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Triplex reverse transcription-PCR for detecting viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in water samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kanoktippornchai, Boonnapa; Chomvarin, Chariya; Engchanil, Chulapan; Wongboot, Warawan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract. Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 in aquatic environment is difficult to achieve using the culture method. For direct detection of viable toxigenic V. cholerae in aquatic environment, we developed a triplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, targeting genes for the outer membrane protein (ompW), cholera toxin A (ctxA) and toxin-coregulated pilli (tcpA) and compared the assay with the culture method. After enrichment of the bacteria-containing filters in alkaline peptone water for 6 hours, the sensitivity of triplex RT-PCR for detecting V. cholerae was 7 cfu/ml. Of the 80 environmental water samples collected from various regions in Northeast Thailand, triplex RT-PCR detected 15 toxigenic and 20 non-toxigenic V. cholerae, whereas the culture method detected only 3 toxigenic V. cholerae--containing water samples. These results show that this triplex RT-PCR method could be used as an alternative tool for rapid and sensitive identification of viable toxigenic V cholerae in environmental water samples.

  9. Detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 in eels and oysters by PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S S; Melanson, D M; Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D

    1996-04-01

    DNA extraction procedures and PCR conditions to detect Vibrio vulnificus cells naturally occurring in oysters were developed. In addition, PCR amplification of V. vulnificus from oysters seeded with biotype 1 cells was demonstrated. By the methods described, V. vulnificus cells on a medium (colistin-polymyxin B-cellobiose agar) selective for this pathogen were detectable in oysters harvested in January and March, containing no culturable cells (< 67 CFU/g), as well as in oysters harvested in May and June, containing culturable cells. It was possible to complete DNA extraction, PCR, and gel electrophoresis within 10 h by using the protocol described for oysters. V. vulnificus biotype 2 cells were also detected in eel tissues that had been infected with this strain and subsequently preserved in formalin. The protocol used for detection of V. vulnificus cells in eels required less than 5 h to complete. Optimum MgCl2 concentrations for the PCR of V. vulnificus from oysters and eels were different, although the same primer pair was used for both. This is the first report on the detection of cells of V. vulnificus naturally present in shellfish and represents a potentially powerful method for monitoring this important human and eel pathogen.

  10. Early detection of Trichinella spiralis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected mice by using PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lin; Ren, Hua Nan; Shi, Ya Li; Hu, Chen Xi; Song, Yan Yan; Duan, Jiang Yang; Zhang, Hui Ping; Du, Xin Rui; Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Trichinella spiralis DNA in mouse feces during the early stages of infection using PCR. The target gene fragment, a 1.6kb repetitive sequence of T. spiralis genome, was amplified by PCR from feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae at 3-24h post infection (hpi) and 2-28dpi. The sensitivity of PCR was 0.016 larvae in feces. The primers used were highly specific for T. spiralis. No cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other intestinal helminths. T. spiralis DNA was detected in 100% (12/12) of feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae as early as 3hpi, with the peak detection lasting to 12-24hpi, and then fluctuating before declining gradually. By 28dpi, the detection rate of T. spiralis DNA in feces of the two groups of infected mice decreased to 8.33% and 25%, respectively. PCR detection of T. spiralis DNA in feces is simple and specific; it might be useful for the early diagnosis of Trichinella infection.

  11. PCR detection of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria involved in canned food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Prevost, S; Andre, S; Remize, F

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic bacteria that form highly heat-resistant spores constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of low-acid canned food. A PCR assay was developed in order to rapidly trace these bacteria. Three PCR primer pairs were designed from rRNA gene sequences. These primers were evaluated for the specificity and the sensitivity of detection. Two primer pairs allowed detection at the species level of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautrophica. The other pair allowed group-specific detection of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanerobium and Caldanaerobacter. After a single enrichment step, these PCR assays allowed the detection of 28 thermophiles from 34 cans of spoiled low-acid food. In addition, 13 ingredients were screened for the presence of these bacteria. This PCR assay serves as a detection method for strains able to spoil low-acid canned food treated at 55°C. It will lead to better reactivity in the canning industry. Raw materials and ingredients might be qualified not only for quantitative spore contamination, but also for qualitative contamination by highly heat-resistant spores.

  12. Detecting and Genotyping Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J. ); Chandler, Darrell P.

    2000-12-01

    Rapid detection and characterization of food borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. As an alternative to conventional technologies, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid microarrays for detecting and genotyping E. coli O157:H7. The array was composed of oligonucleotide probes (25-30 mer) complementary to four virulence loci (intimin, Shiga-like toxins I and II, and hemolysin A). Target DNA was amplified from whole cells or from purified DNA via single or multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were hybridized to the array without further modification or purification. The array was 32-fold more sensitive than gel electrophoresis and capable of detecting amplification products from < 1 cell equivalent of genomic DNA (1 fg). Immunomagnetic capture, PCR and a microarray were subsequently used to detect 55 CFU ml-1 (E. coli O157:H7) from chicken rinsate without the aid of pre-enrichment. Four isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and one isolate of O91:H2, for which genotypic data were available, were unambiguously genotyped with this array. Glass based microarrays are relatively simple to construct and provide a rapid and sensitive means to detect multiplexed PCR products and the system is amenable to automation.

  13. Development of Multiplexed Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Detecting Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meei-Li; Nguy, Long; Ferrenberg, James; Boeckh, Michael; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) have been associated with a wide variety of human disease and are increasingly recognized as viral pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early detection of AdV DNA in plasma and sterile fluids has been shown to be useful for identifying patients at risk for invasive AdV disease. Due to the large number of existing Adv types, few real-time quantitative AdV PCR assays published effectively cover all AdV types. We designed a series of AdV PCR primers and probes and empirically multiplexed them into two separate real-time PCR assays to quantitatively detect all 49 serotypes of human AdV (Types 1-49) available from ATCC. We then subsequently multiplexed all the primers and probes into one reaction. The sensitivity of these assays was determined to be less than 10 copies per reaction (500 copies/ml plasma). In a retrospective evaluation we detected all 84 clinical AdV isolates isolated in cell culture from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) between 1981 and 1987. Prospective analysis of 46 consecutive clinical samples submitted for adenovirus testing showed greater sensitivity and equal specificity of the AdV PCR than viral culture. This real time PCR assay allows rapid, sensitive and specific quantification of all currently defined adenoviruses into either two or one multiplex assay for clinical samples. PMID:18707838

  14. Detection of cytomegalovirus using PCR in serum from renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R; Harris, A; Frankton, A; Irving, W

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in serum and leucocytes of renal transplant recipients and compare this assay with CMV culture and serodiagnosis. METHODS--Monthly specimens were obtained from 12 patients starting immediately before transplant. CMV infection was monitored by IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, virus culture and PCR on serum and leucocytes. RESULTS--Two of four IgG positive patients had reactivation of CMV disease confirmed by culture, three of eight seronegative patients had a primary infection, one confirmed by serology and two by culture. PCR was positive earlier than conventional methods in three cases and concurrently in two. No positive PCR reactions occurred in the seven patients who remained negative by culture and serology. CONCLUSIONS--CMV DNA is detectable in serum; serum may be positive before virus is detectable by buffy coat culture; and PCR may be useful as an early indication of potential CMV disease in renal transplant recipients. PMID:7665705

  15. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Dustin K.; Rao, Brianna M.; McLain, Jean E.; Watts, George S.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections. PMID:26601245

  17. Detection of Brettanomyces spp. in red wines using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Schirone, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-09-01

    The question if the "Brett character" is a favorable wine attribute is one of the most controversial issues and it is currently addressed by many researches. Actually, the presence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera in wine during barrel aging is often associated to detrimental organoleptic characteristics depending on the release of volatile phenols (for example, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol); for that reason the possibility to rapidly detect the yeast at the early stage of wine production could allow preventive actions to reduce wine spoilage. In this work, 25 and 5 samples from conventional and organic vineyards, respectively, all suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces/Dekkera spp., were analyzed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. In particular, a DNA extraction protocol and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to directly detect and quantify B. bruxellensis were optimized. Results showed that B. bruxellensis was present in 22 of 30 samples, ranging from 10 to 10(4) CFU/mL, lower values being found in organic wines (10 to 10(2) CFU/mL). Overall, qPCR was proved to be a useful and valuable wine control system, since 12 samples were recorded as positive for yeast presence when analyzed by qPCR and negative in case of plate count analyses. Brettanomyces cells were detected using a qPCR method, optimized in this study, which allows to obtain results quickly. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Detection of yellow fever virus: a comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assay.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hi-Gung; Nitsche, Andreas; Teichmann, Anette; Biel, Stefan S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2003-06-30

    Yellow fever virus quantitation is performed routinely by cultivation of virus containing samples using susceptible cells. Counting of the resulting plaques provides a marker for the number of infectious particles present in the sample. This assay usually takes up to 5 days before results are obtained and must be carried out under L2 or L3 laboratory conditions, depending on the yellow fever virus strain used. For clinical diagnosis of yellow fever virus infections the cell culture-based approach takes too long and is of limited practical relevance. Recently, due to its considerable sensitivity, PCR has become a promising method for virus detection. However, whilst PCR can detect virus-specific nucleic acids, it does not allow conclusions to be drawn regarding the infectious potential of the virus detected. Nonetheless, for diagnostic purposes, a rapid, specific and sensitive virus PCR is preferable. Therefore, two independent yellow fever virus-specific real-time PCR assays were established and compared the viral RNA loads to the results of a traditional plaque assay. The estimated ratio of yellow fever virus genomes to infectious particles was between 1000:1 and 5000:1; both approaches displayed a comparable precision of <45%. A significant correlation between genome number as determined by real-time PCR and the corresponding number of plaques in paired samples was found with a Pearson coefficient of correlation of r=0.88 (P<0.0001).

  19. Detection of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in shellfish by using multiplex PCR and DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Gitika; Call, Douglas R; Krug, Melissa J; Bej, Asim K

    2004-12-01

    This study describes the development of a gene-specific DNA microarray coupled with multiplex PCR for the comprehensive detection of pathogenic vibrios that are natural inhabitants of warm coastal waters and shellfish. Multiplex PCR with vvh and viuB for Vibrio vulnificus, with ompU, toxR, tcpI, and hlyA for V. cholerae, and with tlh, tdh, trh, and open reading frame 8 for V. parahaemolyticus helped to ensure that total and pathogenic strains, including subtypes of the three Vibrio spp., could be detected and discriminated. For DNA microarrays, oligonucleotide probes for these targeted genes were deposited onto epoxysilane-derivatized, 12-well, Teflon-masked slides by using a MicroGrid II arrayer. Amplified PCR products were hybridized to arrays at 50 degrees C and detected by using tyramide signal amplification with Alexa Fluor 546 fluorescent dye. Slides were imaged by using an arrayWoRx scanner. The detection sensitivity for pure cultures without enrichment was 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml, and the specificity was 100%. However, 5 h of sample enrichment followed by DNA extraction with Instagene matrix and multiplex PCR with microarray hybridization resulted in the detection of 1 CFU in 1 g of oyster tissue homogenate. Thus, enrichment of the bacterial pathogens permitted higher sensitivity in compliance with the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference guideline. Application of the DNA microarray methodology to natural oysters revealed the presence of V. vulnificus (100%) and V. parahaemolyticus (83%). However, V. cholerae was not detected in natural oysters. An assay involving a combination of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray hybridization would help to ensure rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic vibrios in shellfish, thereby improving the microbiological safety of shellfish for consumers.

  20. Comparison of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR and viral culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus in subgingival samples.

    PubMed

    Botero, J E; Vidal, C; Contreras, A; Parra, B

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, and shell vial for the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in subgingival samples in periodontitis patients. A group of 44 patients and 24 individuals without periodontitis were included in the study. A full periodontal examination was conducted in each subject. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected by pocket lavage and used for viral culture (shell vial). Additional subgingival samples were obtained with paper points and used for molecular analysis. Nested PCR and real-time PCR were used to detect and quantify HCMV. Student's t-test and chi-squared test were used to compare groups. The sensitivity and specificity for the tests were calculated on 2 x 2 tables considering the nested PCR as the gold standard. The detection of HCMV was greater using nested PCR than with either real-time PCR or shell vial (P < 0.0001). However, the frequency detection of both molecular techniques was higher than in viral culture (P < 0.0001). Only one case of chronic periodontitis was positive by viral culture. Agreement between nested PCR and real-time PCR was observed 47.7% and 4.1% of the time in the periodontitis and control groups, respectively. The sensitivity of real-time PCR was 60%, compared with 2.8% for the shell vial technique. In conclusion, this study confirmed that active HCMV infection occurs in human periodontitis; however, its frequency seems to be low. In contrast, latent periodontal HCMV infection seems to be a more frequent event.

  1. Serial Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection, Species Discrimination, and Quantification of Leishmania spp. in Human Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Gautam, Shalini; Sundar, Shyam; Kang, Mitchell; Kurtz, Melissa A.; Haque, Rashidul; Schriefer, Albert; Talhari, Sinésio; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Leishmania species cause a variety of human disease syndromes. Methods for diagnosis and species differentiation are insensitive and many require invasive sampling. Although quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods are reported for leishmania detection, no systematic method to quantify parasites and determine the species in clinical specimens is established. We developed a serial qPCR strategy to identify and rapidly differentiate Leishmania species and quantify parasites in clinical or environmental specimens. SYBR green qPCR is mainly employed, with corresponding TaqMan assays for validation. The screening primers recognize kinetoplast minicircle DNA of all Leishmania species. Species identification employs further qPCR set(s) individualized for geographic regions, combining species-discriminating probes with melt curve analysis. The assay was sufficient to detect Leishmania parasites, make species determinations, and quantify Leishmania spp. in sera, cutaneous biopsy specimens, or cultured isolates from subjects from Bangladesh or Brazil with different forms of leishmaniasis. The multicopy kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) probes were the most sensitive and useful for quantification based on promastigote standard curves. To test their validity for quantification, kDNA copy numbers were compared between Leishmania species, isolates, and life stages using qPCR. Maxicircle and minicircle copy numbers differed up to 6-fold between Leishmania species, but the differences were smaller between strains of the same species. Amastigote and promastigote leishmania life stages retained similar numbers of kDNA maxi- or minicircles. Thus, serial qPCR is useful for leishmania detection and species determination and for absolute quantification when compared to a standard curve from the same Leishmania species. PMID:22042830

  2. Development of amperometric magnetogenosensors coupled to asymmetric PCR for the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, María; García, José L; García, Ernesto; García, Pedro; Pingarrón, José M

    2011-03-01

    A disposable magnetogenosensor for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae is reported. The developed procedure involves the use of streptavidin-modified magnetic beads, a specific biotinylated capture probe that hybridizes with a specific region of lytA, the gene encoding the pneumococcal major autolysin, and appropriate primers for asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Capture probes and amplicons specific for S. pneumoniae were selected by a careful analysis of all lytA alleles available. The selected primers amplify a 235-bp fragment of pneumococcal lytA. A detection limit (LOD) of 5.1 nM was obtained for a 20-mer synthetic target DNA without any amplification protocol, while the LOD for the asymmetric PCR amplicon was 1.1 nM. A RSD value of 6.9% was obtained for measurements carried out with seven different genosensors for 1.1-nM aPCR product. The strict specificity of the designed primers was demonstrated by aPCR amplification of genomic DNA prepared from different bacteria, including some closely related streptococci. Direct asymmetric PCR (daPCR), using cells directly from broth cultures of S. pneumoniae, showed that daPCR products could be prepared with as few as 2 colony-forming units (CFU). Furthermore, this methodology did not show any cross-reaction with closely related streptococci such as Streptococcus mitis (or Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae) even when present in the culture at concentrations up to 10(5) times higher than that of S. pneumoniae. Preliminary data for rapid detection of pneumococcus directly in clinical samples has shown that it is possible to discriminate between non-inoculated blood and urine samples and samples inoculated with only 10(3) CFU mL(-1)  S. pneumoniae.

  3. Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by microscopic examination and 48 by nested PCR. The percentage of gerbils infected with L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica was 3.2%, 1.1% and 27.4%, respectively. In 15.8% of the rodents, we found mixed natural infections by L. major and L. turanica, 1.1% by L. major and L. gerbilli, and 2.1% by the three species. We concluded that this method is simple and reliable for detecting and identifying Leishmania species circulating in rodent populations. PMID:20566364

  4. Real-time PCR detection of aldoxime dehydratase genes in nitrile-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dooley-Cullinane, Tríona Marie; O'Reilly, Catherine; Coffey, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Aldoxime dehydratase catalyses the conversion of aldoximes to their corresponding nitriles. Utilization of the aldoxime-nitrile metabolising enzyme pathway can facilitate the move towards a greener chemistry. In this work, a real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of aldoxime dehydratase genes in aldoxime/nitrile metabolising microorganisms which have been purified from environmental sources. A conventional PCR assay was also designed allowing gene confirmation via sequencing. Aldoxime dehydratase genes were identified in 30 microorganisms across 11 genera including some not previously shown to harbour the gene. The assay displayed a limit of detection of 1 pg/μL DNA or 7 CFU/reaction. This real-time PCR assay should prove valuable in the high-throughput screening of micro-organisms for novel aldoxime dehydratase genes towards pharmaceutical and industrial applications.

  5. Survey for Toxoplasma gondii by PCR detection in meat for human consumption in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernandez, Erika N; Acosta, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The overall risk for toxoplasmosis in meat produced in Colombia is unknown. We analyzed by PCR assay meat samples for human consumption in two types of plants in Colombia: 120 samples from class I plants (60 samples from chicken, 30 from swine and 30 from beef) and 60 from class II plants (30 samples from beef and 30 from swine). Presence of Toxoplasma DNA was established by targeted B1 nested PCR assay. We detected 79 (43%) samples that were positive by B1 nested PCR (33 from chicken, 22 from beef, and 24 from pork). No differences were found by region or species. Eleven positive samples were confirmed by sequencing of the B1 repeated region. Some polymorphisms were detected without relation with clonal groups nor meat species. Food animals are highly exposed to Toxoplasma in Colombia. Detailed studies are needed to establish the reasons for differences in Toxoplasma prevalence between farms, regarding practices of animal food production.

  6. A robust method for detecting single-nucleotide changes as polymorphic markers by PCR.

    PubMed

    Michaels, S D; Amasino, R M

    1998-05-01

    Numerous techniques in plant molecular genetic analysis, such as mapping and positional cloning techniques, rely on the availability of molecular markers that can differentiate between alleles at a particular locus. PCR-based cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) markers have been widely used as a means of rapidly and reliably detecting a single-base change that creates a unique restriction site in one of a pair of alleles. However, the majority of single-nucleotide changes do not create such sites and thus cannot be used to create CAPS markers. In this paper, a modification of the CAPS technique that allows detection of most single-nucleotide changes by utilizing mismatched PCR primers is described. The mismatches in the PCR primers, in combination with the single-nucleotide change, create a unique restriction site in one of the alleles.

  7. A PCR Detection Method for Rapid Identification of Melissococcus pluton in Honeybee Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Govan, V. A.; Brözel, V.; Allsopp, M. H.; Davison, S.

    1998-01-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae. PMID:9572987

  8. Reactive and undifferentiated arthritis in North Africa: use of PCR for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, J G; Sibilia, J; Bas, S; Gaston, H; Granfors, K; Vischer, T L; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N; Ladjouze-Rezig, A; Sellami, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Schumacher, H R; Dougados, M

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the possible role of Chlamydia in patients with reactive or unclassified arthritis in North Africa. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to survey this population. In addition, we compared the results in three different laboratories for PCR analyses for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in synovial fluid (SF) and tissue (ST) from these North African patients with reactive arthritis (ReA), undifferentiated arthritis (UA), and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Eight ReA (six posturethritic, two postenteritic), 23 UA, 13 OA, and 12 RA patients were studied in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Serum, SF, and ST were obtained from each patient. Ct-PCR was performed in the three different laboratories and compared to Ct-serology [microimmunofluorescence (MIF) and anti-hsp60 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)] performed in one laboratory. The rate of Ct-PCR positivity in SF/ST was low: none out of the eight ReA and three out of 23 UA patients. In the controls, Ct DNA was detected in two OA SF and in one RA SF. There was no concordance for Ct-PCR positivity between the three laboratories. MIF suggested previous Ct infection (IgG-positive) in two out of five posturethritic ReA, none out of one postenteritic ReA, one out of 17 UA, and nine out of 21 RA/OA patients tested. No MIF-positive patient was PCR-positive from SF or ST. However, anti-hsp60 IgG was detected in all four out of four patients positive by PCR and in 11 out of 44 PCR-negative patients (p = 0.002). In this multinational comparative study, the rate of Ct-PCR-positive synovial specimens in North African ReA/UA patients was low. Concordance among the three PCR testing laboratories was poor indicating the need for test standardization. All Ct-PCR-positive patients were found positive by anti-hsp60 IgG serology.

  9. From synthetic DNA to PCR product: detection of fungal infections using SERS.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Samuel; Thompson, David; Sirimuthu, Narayana; McNay, Graeme; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan

    2016-06-23

    We report the use of silver hydroxylamine nanoparticles functionalised with single stranded monothiolated DNA for the detection of fungal infections. The four different species of fungi that were targeted were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Aspergillus fumigatus. Rational design of synthetic targets and probes was carried out by carefully analysing the 2-D folding of the DNA and then by global alignment of the sequences to ensure specificity. The effects of varying the concentrations of the DNA and dye surrounding the nanoparticles on the resultant surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal were also investigated to ensure compatibility of the probes in a multiplexed environment. Using principal components analysis (PCA) it was possible to detect the individual presence of each target and group them accordingly. The move to detect the C. krusei single stranded PCR product (ssPCR) was significant to demonstrate that the methodology could be employed for the detection and diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFDs) within a clinical setting. Initially the PCR product was subjected to an alkali shock method in order to separate the strands ready for detection using the nanoparticle probes system. This time 18 base probes were employed to enhance hybridisation efficiency and dextran sulfate was found to have a vital role in ensuring that detection of the C. krusei target was achieved. This demonstrated the use of DNA functionalised silver nanoparticle for the detection of clinically relevant DNA relating to a specific fungal infection and offers significant promise for future diagnostic applications.

  10. Development of a quantitative PCR for detection of Lactobacillus plantarum starters during wine malolactic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gyu-Sung; Krauss, Sabrina; Huch, Melanie; Du Toit, Maret; Franz, Charles M A P

    2011-12-01

    A quantitative, real-time PCR method was developed to enumerate Lactobacillus plantarum IWBT B 188 during the malolactic fermentation (MLF) in Grauburgunder wine. The qRT-PCR was strain-specific, as it was based on primers targeting a plasmid DNA sequence, or it was L. plantarum-specific, as it targeted a chromosomally located plantaricin gene sequence. Two 50 l wine fermentations were prepared. One was inoculated with 15 g/hl Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by L. plantarum IWBT B 188 at 3.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml, whereas the other was not inoculated (control). Viable cell counts were performed for up to 25 days on MRS agar, and the same cells were enumerated by qRT-PCR with both the plasmid or chromosomally encoded gene primers. The L. plantarum strain survived under the harsh conditions in the wine fermentation at levels above 10(5)/ml for approx. 10 days, after which cell numbers decreased to levels of 10(3) CFU/ml at day 25, and to below the detection limit after day 25. In the control, no lactic acid bacteria could be detected throughout the fermentation, with the exception of two sampling points where ca. 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml was detected. The minimum detection level for quantitative PCR in this study was 1 × 10(2) to 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml. The qRT-PCR results determined generally overestimated the plate count results by about 1 log unit, probably as a result of the presence of DNA from dead cells. Overall, qRT-PCR appeared to be well suited for specifically enumerating Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures in the MLF in wine.

  11. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Xanthomonas campestris from brassicas.

    PubMed

    Berg, T; Tesoriero, L; Hailstones, D L

    2006-06-01

    To develop a sensitive real-time PCR-based protocol for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pathovars from Brassica seed. A 5' nuclease real-time PCR assay was developed to screen Brassica spp. seed for the presence of X. campestris pathovars that cause black rot. The assay amplifies a 78-bp segment of the X. campestris hrpF gene and a 100-bp segment of the Brassica spp. 18S-25S internal transcribed spacer region. The Brassica spp. target provides an internal control for the amplification process to prevent false negatives that may arise from inhibitors that are often present in extracts from plant material. Whilst the primers were compatible with SYBR Green I assays, the use of fluorescently labelled probes in a 5' nuclease assay afforded greatest sensitivity and specificity. Seed batches carrying one artificially infected seed among 10,000 were readily detected using the assay. The multiplex real-time PCR assay permitted the rapid detection of pathogenic strains of X. campestris from bacterial colonies, Brassica seed and plants. Strains of X. campestris pathogenic to brassicas were readily detected from seed via a multiplex 5' nuclease real-time PCR assay. The real-time assay offers an improvement in sensitivity and a reduced turn-around time over the conventional multiplex PCR. Real-time PCR can be used to rapidly screen Brassica spp. seed batches for the presence of X. campestris pathovars. This assay provides a means for growers and the seed industry to be aware of the black rot status of their planting material, so that they may more effectively employ disease control measures or seed disinfection.

  12. High dynamic range detection of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by direct quantitative PCR of the infected cells.

    PubMed

    Eszik, Ildikó; Lantos, Ildikó; Önder, Kamil; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Burián, Katalin; Endrész, Valéria; Virok, Dezső P

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria developing in an intracytoplasmic niche, the inclusion. Chlamydia growth measurement by inclusion counting is a key task in the development of novel antichlamydial antibiotics and in vaccine studies. Most of the current counting methods rely on the immunofluorescent staining of the inclusions and either manual or automatic microscopy detection and enumeration. The manual method is highly labor intensive, while the automatic methods are either medium-throughput or require automatic microscopy. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for growth related chlamydial DNA detection; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, the requirement of purification of DNA or RNA from the infected cells. This limitation makes this approach unfeasible for high-throughput screenings. To overcome this, we developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA directly from the infected HeLa cells. With our method we were able to detect the bacterial growth in a 4 log scale (multiplicity of infection (MOI): 64 to 0.0039), with high correlation between the biological and technical replicates. As a further proof of the method, we applied the direct qPCR for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. The measured MICs of moxifloxacin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and compound PCC00213 were 0.031 μg/ml, 0.031 μg/ml, 0.0039 μg/ml and 6.2 μg/ml respectively, identical or close to the already published MIC values. Our direct qPCR method for chlamydial growth and antibiotic MIC determination is less time-consuming, more objective and more sensitive than the currently applied manual or automatic fluorescent microscopy- based methods.

  13. Performance of PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays for mycoplasma detection.

    PubMed

    Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Talíria Silva; Ferreira, Nívea; Balthazar, Nathália; Monteiro, Antônio M; Borojevic, Radovan; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Contaminated eukaryotic cell cultures are frequently responsible for unreliable results. Regulatory entities request that cell cultures must be mycoplasma-free. Mycoplasma contamination remains a significant problem for cell cultures and may have an impact on biological analysis since they affect many cell parameters. The gold standard microbiological assay for mycoplasma detection involves laborious and time-consuming protocols. PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays have been considered for routine cell culture screening in research laboratories since they are fast, easy and sensitive. Thus, the aim of this work is to compare the performance of two popular commercial assays, PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays, by assessing the level of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures from Rio de Janeiro Cell Bank (RJCB) and also from customers' laboratories. The results obtained by both performed assays were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we evaluated the limit of detection of the PCR kit under our laboratory conditions and the storage effects on mycoplasma detection in frozen cell culture supernatants. The performance of both assays for mycoplasma detection was not significantly different and they showed very good agreement. The Bioluminescent assay for mycoplasma detection was slightly more dependable than PCR-based due to the lack of inconclusive results produced by the first technique, especially considering the ability to detect mycoplasma contamination in frozen cell culture supernatants. However, cell lines should be precultured for four days or more without antibiotics to obtain safe results. On the other hand, a false negative result was obtained by using this biochemical approach. The implementation of fast and reliable mycoplasma testing methods is an important technical and regulatory issue and PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays may be good candidates. However, validation studies are needed.

  14. DNA extraction methods for panbacterial and panfungal PCR detection in intraocular fluids.

    PubMed

    Mazoteras, Paloma; Bispo, Paulo José Martins; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P

    2015-07-01

    Three different methods of DNA extraction from intraocular fluids were compared with subsequent detection for bacterial and fungal DNA by universal PCR amplification. Three DNA extraction methods, from aqueous and vitreous humors, were evaluated to compare their relative efficiency. Bacterial (Gram positive and negative) and fungal strains were used in this study: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans. The quality, quantification, and detection limit for DNA extraction and PCR amplification were analyzed. Validation procedures for 13 aqueous humor and 14 vitreous samples, from 20 patients with clinically suspected endophthalmitis were carried out. The column-based extraction method was the most time-effective, achieving DNA detection limits ≥10(2) and 10(3 )CFU/100 µL for bacteria and fungi, respectively. PCR amplification detected 100 fg, 1 pg and 10 pg of genomic DNA of E. coli, S. epidermidis and C. albicans respectively. PCR detected 90.0% of the causative agents from 27 intraocular samples collected from 20 patients with clinically suspected endophthalmitis, while standard microbiological techniques could detect only 60.0%. The most frequently found organisms were Streptococcus spp. in 38.9% (n = 7) of patients and Staphylococcus spp. found in 22.2% (n = 4). The column-based extraction method for very small inocula in small volume samples (50-100 µL) of aqueous and/or vitreous humors allowed PCR amplification in all samples with sufficient quality for subsequent sequencing and identification of the microorganism in the majority of them.

  15. Detection and differentiation of coccidian oocysts by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Laura F; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid and reliable detection and identification of coccidian oocysts are essential for animal health and foodborne disease outbreak investigations. Traditional microscopy and morphological techniques can identify large and unique oocysts, but they are often subjective and require parasitological expertise. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay using melting curve analysis (MCA) to detect, differentiate, and identify DNA from coccidian species of animal health, zoonotic, and food safety concern. A universal coccidia primer cocktail was designed and employed to amplify DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and several species of Eimeria, Sarcocystis, and Isospora using qPCR with SYBR Green detection. MCA was performed following amplification, and melting temperatures (T(m)) were determined for each species based on multiple replicates. A standard curve was constructed from DNA of serial dilutions of T. gondii oocysts to estimate assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay consistently detected DNA from as few as 10 T. gondii oocysts. T(m) data analysis showed that C. cayetanensis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, T. gondii, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria acervulina, Isospora suis, and Sarcocystis cruzi could each be identified by unique melting curves and could be differentiated based on T(m). DNA of coccidian oocysts in fecal, food, or clinical diagnostic samples could be sensitively detected, reliably differentiated, and identified using qPCR with MCA. This assay may also be used to detect other life-cycle stages of coccidia in tissues, fluids, and other matrices. MCA studies on multiple isolates of each species will further validate the assay and support its application as a routine parasitology screening tool.

  16. Detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen by Real-time PCR method with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ju; Cai, Qin; Guan, Xiao; Chen, Qin

    2015-05-01

    Specific primer sets were designed based on the DNA sequence of Ara h 1, one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens, and a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was designed by compound primer technology. By choosing 314 copies/PCR as the IAC dosage, a Real-time PCR method with IAC was established for detecting peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA. The method showed high specificity with a detection limit of 0.005% peanut. A series of commercial food products with/without peanut components were tested. Among these products, the peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA could be detected in 12 products labelled containing peanut ingredients, in two without a declaration of peanut and one labelled that was produced in a facility that produced peanut-containing foods. This indicates that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of peanut ingredients in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PCR-specific detection of recently described Lotmaria passim (Trypanosomatidae) in Chilean apiaries.

    PubMed

    Arismendi, Nolberto; Bruna, Alex; Zapata, Nelson; Vargas, Marisol

    2016-02-01

    The recently described trypanosome Lotmaria passim is currently considered the most predominant trypanosomatid in honey bees worldwide and could be a factor in honey bee declines. For a specific and quick detection of this pathogen, we developed primers based on the SSU rRNA and gGAPDH genes for the detection of L. passim in Chilean honey beehives. PCR products amplified and sequenced for these primers shared 99-100% identity with other sequences of L. passim. The designed primers were specific and we were able to detect a high prevalence (40-90%) of L. passim in bee hives distributed throughout Chile. Our described PCR-based method offers a feasible and specific detection of L. passim in any honey bee samples.

  18. Development of a real-time PCR for Bartonella spp. detection, a current emerging microorganism.

    PubMed

    Parra, Elena; Segura, Ferran; Tijero, Jessica; Pons, Imma; Nogueras, Maria-Mercedes

    2017-04-01

    A real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green was optimized to detect those Bartonella that are most frequently described as pathogens. The assay was genus-specific. Sequencing allowed to distinguish species. Assay sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of genomic DNA. Dynamic range was 100 ng-100 fg and sensitivity was 50 copies/reaction.

  19. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  20. A new methodology for rapid detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus based on multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Anastasios; Saxami, Georgia; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Galanis, Alex

    2011-02-01

    In this study we present a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid and efficient detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The accuracy of our method was confirmed by the successful identification of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in commercial yoghurts and food supplements and it may be readily applied to the food industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of human papillomavirus detection and genotyping with four different prime sets by PCR-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu Pin; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Bao Li; Li, Yuan; Xia, Xiao Yu; Zhang, Rui Fen; Xiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    To assess and compare the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) detection efficiency and the potential clinical utility of PCR sequencing-based technology. Four HPV consensus primer sets (GP5+/6+, MGP, MY09/11, and PGMY09/11) were used in order to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV types for HPV infection in 325 cervical samples and the PCR products were sequenced afterwards for the HPV genotyping. The HPV-positive rate was 75.4%, of which 35.5% harbored more than one HPV genotype. A total of 36 different genotypes was found, with HPV 16 (24.1%) being the most prevalent, followed by HPV 58 (13.3%) and HPV 52 (9.6%). There were substantial to almost perfect agreements between different primer sets regarding HPV detection efficiency, with the kappa value varying from 0.751 to 0.925, MGP, and PGMY09/11 were the most effective in detecting multiple infections (P < 0.001). With each of the primer sets, a board range of HPV types could be identified, though there were several differences for a few genotypes. The substantial agreement between PCR-sequencing and HC2 for the detection of high-risk HPV (kappa=0.761) indicated that PCR-sequencing is also suitable for routine HPV screening. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detection of three lines of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jae Kyun; Lee, Theresa; Jung, Soon-Il; Kim, Tae-San; Park, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi

    2004-06-02

    Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been developed for the detection of genetically modified (GM) potatoes. The combination of specific primers for amplification of the promoter region of Cry3A gene, potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and potato virus Y coat protein gene allows to identify each line of NewLeaf, NewLeaf Y, and NewLeaf Plus GM potatoes. Multiplex PCR method was also established for the simple and rapid detection of the three lines of GM potato in a mixture sample. For further quantitative detection, the realtime PCR method has been developed. This method features the use of a standard plasmid as a reference molecule. Standard plasmid contains both a specific region of the transgene Cry3A and an endogenous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene of the potato. The test samples containing 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% GM potatoes were quantified by this method. At the 3.0% level of each line of GM potato, the relative standard deviations ranged from 6.0 to 19.6%. This result shows that the above PCR methods are applicable to detect GM potatoes quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  3. Preclinical Assessment of a Fully Automated Multiplex PCR Panel for Detection of Central Nervous System Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Slechta, E. S.; Killpack, J. A.; Heyrend, C.; Lunt, T.; Daly, J. A; Hemmert, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a multiplexed PCR panel for the detection of 16 bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid. Panel results were compared to routine testing, and discrepancies were resolved by additional nucleic acid amplification tests or sequencing. Overall, the positive and negative agreements across methods were 92.9% and 91.9%, respectively. PMID:26719436

  4. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  5. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  6. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  7. PCR-Based Detection of the Causal Agent of Watermark Disease in Willows (Salix spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, L.; Steenackers, M.; Swings, J.

    1998-01-01

    The watermark disease, caused by Brenneria salicis (formerly Erwinia salicis), is of significant concern wherever tree-forming willows are grown or occur naturally. The movement of infected, asymptomatic cuttings is a major cause of pathogen dispersal. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic procedure is necessary for the safe movement of willow planting material. We derived primers from the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of B. salicis for the development of a PCR to detect this pathogen. One set of primers, Es1a-Es4b, directed the amplification of a 553-bp fragment from B. salicis genomic DNA as well as B. salicis cells. PCR products were not observed when genomic DNA was tested for 27 strains of other, related plant-associated bacteria. Genomic fingerprinting by amplification fragment length polymorphism of B. salicis strains, originating from four different countries, and related Brenneria, Pectobacterium, and Erwinia strains revealed a very high similarity among the B. salicis genomes, indicating that the spread of the pathogen is mainly due to the transportation of infected cuttings. The PCR had to be preceded by a DNA extraction in order to detect the pathogen in the vascular fluid of willows. The minimum number of cells that could be detected from vascular fluid was 20 CFU/ml. The PCR assays proved to be very sensitive and reliable in detecting B. salicis in willow plant material. PMID:9758827

  8. PCR-Based detection of the causal agent of watermark disease in willows (Salix spp.)

    PubMed

    Hauben; Steenackers; Swings

    1998-10-01

    The watermark disease, caused by Brenneria salicis (formerly Erwinia salicis), is of significant concern wherever tree-forming willows are grown or occur naturally. The movement of infected, asymptomatic cuttings is a major cause of pathogen dispersal. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic procedure is necessary for the safe movement of willow planting material. We derived primers from the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of B. salicis for the development of a PCR to detect this pathogen. One set of primers, Es1a-Es4b, directed the amplification of a 553-bp fragment from B. salicis genomic DNA as well as B. salicis cells. PCR products were not observed when genomic DNA was tested for 27 strains of other, related plant-associated bacteria. Genomic fingerprinting by amplification fragment length polymorphism of B. salicis strains, originating from four different countries, and related Brenneria, Pectobacterium, and Erwinia strains revealed a very high similarity among the B. salicis genomes, indicating that the spread of the pathogen is mainly due to the transportation of infected cuttings. The PCR had to be preceded by a DNA extraction in order to detect the pathogen in the vascular fluid of willows. The minimum number of cells that could be detected from vascular fluid was 20 CFU/ml. The PCR assays proved to be very sensitive and reliable in detecting B. salicis in willow plant material.

  9. Real-time PCR assay for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Erika; Perkátai, Katalin; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Farkas, Agnes; Kucsera, István

    2012-12-01

    Simple real-time PCR assay with one set of primer and probe for rapid, sensitive qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica has been used. Consensus sequences were used to amplify a species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were used for detection in a LightCycler platform (Roche). The anchor probe sequence was designed to be a perfect match for the 16S rRNA gene of Entamoeba species, while the acceptor probe sequence was designed for Entamoeba histolytica, which allowed differentiation. The performed characteristics of the real-time PCR assay were compared with ELISA antigen and microscopical detection from 77 samples of individuals with suspected clinical diagnosis of imported E. histolytica infection. Stool and liver abscess pus samples were examined with analytical sensitivity of 5 parasites per PCR reaction. The melting curve means Tms (standard deviation) in clinical isolates were 54°C. The real-time assay was 100% sensitive and specific for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, compared with conventional ELISA or microscopy. This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis is rapid, and specific for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica. The suitability for routine use of this assay in clinical diagnostic laboratories is discussed.

  10. Detecting the Presence of Nora Virus in "Drosophila" Utilizing Single Fly RT-PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Bethany; Ericson, Brad; Carlson, Darby J.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    A single fly RT-PCR protocol has recently been developed to detect the presence of the persistent, horizontally transmitted Nora virus in "Drosophila." Wild-caught flies from Ohio were tested for the presence of the virus, with nearly one-fifth testing positive. The investigation presented can serve as an ideal project for biology…

  11. Protein-based open sandwich immuno-PCR for sensitive detection of small biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sharif; Dong, Jinhua; Hara, Yuko; Morizane, Yoshihito; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Open sandwich (OS) immunoassay utilizes antigen-dependent stabilization of an antibody variable region to quantify various antigens, enabling noncompetitive detection of small molecules with a broad working range. For further improvement of its sensitivity, OS Immuno-PCR was attempted with recombinant fusion proteins. The maltose binding protein-fused heavy chain variable region (MBP-V(H)) of an antibody that recognizes the C-terminal fragment of human osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP), a biomarker for bone-related diseases, was immobilized onto microplate wells, and the antigen together with streptavidin (SA)-fused light chain variable region of the same antibody (SA-V(L)) was added and incubated. The amount of immobilized SA-V(L) was quantified by tethered biotinylated DNA, which was used to estimate the amount of antigen by realtime PCR. When BGP C-terminal peptide was detected, the limit of detection was 100 fg/mL, which was superior than that of our previously reported phage-based OS Immuno-PCR. The developed OS Immuno-PCR system will be useful for the detection of small molecule biomarkers for disease prevention.

  12. Single-Reaction Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Detection of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Davila, Maria Jose Vargas; Tellez, Yolanda; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus infections can be similar. To improve virus detection, streamline molecular workflow, and decrease test costs, we developed and evaluated a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR for these viruses. PMID:27184629

  13. Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henríquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristián

    1998-01-01

    The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids. PMID:9687475

  14. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  15. International Collaborative Study To Compare Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assays for Detection and Genotyping of Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Vinjé, Jan; Vennema, Harry; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Hoehne, Marina; Schreier, Eckart; Richards, Alison; Green, Jon; Brown, David; Beard, Suzanne S.; Monroe, Stephan S.; de Bruin, Erwin; Svensson, Lennart; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2003-01-01

    To allow more rapid and internationally standardized assessment of the spread of noroviruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses [NLVs]) as important food-borne pathogens, harmonization of methods for their detection is needed. Diagnosis of NLVs in clinical diagnostic laboratories is usually performed by reverse transciptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In the present study, the performance of five different RT-PCR assays for the detection of NLVs was evaluated in an international collaborative study by five laboratories in five countries with a coded panel of 91 fecal specimens. The assays were tested for their sensitivity, detection limit, and ease of standardization. In total, NLVs could be detected by at least one RT-PCR assay in 69 (84%) of the samples that originally tested positive. Sensitivity ranged from 52 to 73% overall and from 54 to 100% and 58 to 85% for genogroup I and II viruses, respectively. In all, 64% of the false-negative results were obtained with a set of diluted stools (n = 20) that may have lost quality upon storage. Sensitivity was improved when these samples were excluded from analysis. No one single assay stood out as the best, although the p1 assay demonstrated the most satisfactory overall performance. To promote comparability of data, this assay will be recommended for newly starting groups in future collaborative studies. PMID:12682125

  16. Towards Q-PCR of pathogenic bacteria with improved electrochemical double-tagged genosensing detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A very sensitive assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria based on electrochemical genosensing has been designed. The assay was performed by the PCR specific amplification of the eaeA gene, related with the pathogenic activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The efficiency and selectivity o...

  17. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  18. Immune Tissue Print and Immune Capture-PCR for Diagnosis and Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fang; Paul, Cristina; Brlansky, Ron; Hartung, John S.

    2017-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CaLas), associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is a non culturable member of the α-proteobacteria. In this study serologically based methods for the detection of CaLas were developed. An anti-outer membrane protein A (OmpA) polyclonal antibody previously produced (in our laboratory) was highly effective for the detection of CaLas from citrus tissues in a simple tissue printing format. The antibody was also used to capture bacteria from periwinkle extracts. About 80% of all field samples analyzed tested positive with both immune tissue printing and qPCR; whereas 95% were positive with at least one of these two methods. When asymptomatic citrus tissues were tested, the tissue printing method gave a higher rate of detection (83%) than the qPCR method (64%). This is consistent with a lower concentration of CaLas DNA, but a higher proportion of viable cells, in the asymptomatic tissues. The immune tissue printing method also highlights the detail of the spatial distribution of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ in diseased citrus tissues. Both the immune capture PCR and immune tissue printing methods offer the advantages of low cost, high throughput, ease of scaling for multiple samples and simplicity over current PCR-based methods for the detection of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’. PMID:28418002

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FLUORESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER (FRET) PCR TO DETECT ARCOBACTER SPECIES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A real-time PCR targeting the gyrase A subunit gene outside the quinolone resistance-determining region has been developed to detect Arcobacter species. The species identification was made by probe hybridization and melting curve analysis, using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer technology...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FLUORESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER PCR TO DETECT ARCOBACTER SPECIES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A real-time PCR targeting the gyrase A subunit gene outside the quinolone resistance-determining region has been developed to detect Arcobacter species. The species identification was made by probe hybridization and melting curve analysis, using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer technology. D...

  1. Real Time PCR to detect hazelnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Iniesto, Elisa; Jiménez, Ana; Prieto, Nuria; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Burbano, Carmen; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Linacero, Rosario

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative RT-PCR method, employing novel primer sets designed on Cor a 9, Cor a 11 and Cor a 13 allergen-coding sequences has been setup and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity and applicability have been compared. The effect of processing on detectability of these hazelnut targets in complex food matrices was also studied. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was the best for hazelnut. RT-PCR using primers for Cor a 9, 11 and 13 allowed a specific and accurate amplification of these sequences. The limit of detection was 1 ppm of raw hazelnut. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples. Thermal treatments (roasting and autoclaving) reduced yield and amplificability of hazelnut DNA, however, high-hydrostatic pressure did not affect. Compared with an ELISA assay, this RT-PCR showed higher sensitivity to detected hazelnut traces in commercial foodstuffs. The RT-PCR method described is the most sensitive of those reported for the detection of hazelnut traces in processed foods.

  2. Development of duplex real-time PCR for detection of two DNA respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Dina, Julia; Nguyen, Emilie; Gouarin, Stephanie; Petitjean, Joelle; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Nimal, Delphine; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François; Vabret, Astrid

    2009-12-01

    A method was developed for the detection and quantitation of HAdV (human adenovirus) and HBoV (human bocavirus) based on a duplex real-time PCR, the AB PCR, using a Smartcycler instrument. A control real-time PCR was carried out on albumin DNA to standardise the non-homogenous respiratory samples. No cross-reactivity was observed with viruses or bacteria that could be found in the respiratory tract. The diagnosis rate using the AB PCR on clinical samples was 10.7%: 3.4% for HBoV detection, 6.9% for HAdV detection and 0.3% double detection HBoV-HAdV. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the HAdV- and HBoV-infected patients were evaluated. In the HAdV-positive group and the HBoV-positive group the samples were classified according to the severity of the disease. The HAdV viral load did not appear to be linked to the severity of the disease. Conversely, the difference between the two HBoV groups, severe and non-severe, was significant statistically when the comparison was based on the viral load (P=0.006) or after adjustment of the viral load to the number of cells in the samples (P=0.02).

  3. Generic RT-PCR tests for detection and identification of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hassani-Mehraban, A; Westenberg, M; Verhoeven, J T J; van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Kormelink, R; Roenhorst, J W

    2016-07-01

    A set of tests for generic detection and identification of tospoviruses has been developed. Based on a multiple sequence alignment of the nucleocapsid gene and its 5' upstream untranslated region sequence from 28 different species, primers were designed for RT-PCR detection of tospoviruses from all recognized clades, i.e. the American, Asian and Eurasian clades, and from the small group of distinct and floating species. Pilot experiments on isolates from twenty different species showed that the designed primer sets successfully detected all species by RT-PCR, as confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplicons. In a final optimized design, the primers were applied in a setting of five RT-PCR tests. Seven different tospoviruses were successfully identified from diagnostic samples and in addition a non-described tospovirus species from alstroemeria plants. The results demonstrate that the newly developed generic RT-PCR tests provide a relevant tool for broad detection and identification of tospoviruses in plant quarantine and diagnostic laboratories.

  4. Comparative evaluation of a laboratory developed real-time PCR assay and the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit for quantitative detection of human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Cheng, Andrew K W; Fung, Ami M Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-08-01

    HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised patients is common and may be associated with serious morbidity and mortality; therefore, early detection and initiation of therapy might be of benefit. Real-time PCR assays allow for early identification of HHV-6 reactivation to assist in providing a timely response. Thus, we compared the performance of an in-house developed HHV-6 quantitative PCR assay with a commercially available kit, the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the in-house developed HHV-6 qPCR assay were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay was compared with the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit, using 72 clinical specimens and 17 proficiency testing samples. Linear regression analysis of the quantitative results showed a dynamic range from 2 to 10 log10 copies/ml and a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.999 for the in-house assay. A dilution series demonstrated a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.7 log10 and 2 log10 copies/ml, respectively. The precision of the assay was highly reproducible among runs with coefficients of variance (CV) ranging from 0.27% to 4.37%. A comparison of 27 matched samples showed an excellent correlation between the quantitative viral loads measured by the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay and the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit (R(2)=0.926; P<0.0001), with an average bias of -0.24 log10 copies/ml. The in-house developed HHV-6 qPCR method is a sensitive and reliable assay with lower cost for the detection and quantification of HHV-6 DNA when compared to the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Aspirate Samples and of the PCR Gene Targets lytA and Spn9802 for Quantitative PCR for Rapid Detection of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Björn; Abdeldaim, Guma; Olcén, Per; Holmberg, Hans; Mölling, Paula

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NpA) samples and the PCR gene targets lytA and Spn9802 in quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for rapid detection of pneumococcal etiology in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Seventy-eight adult patients hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP had both good-quality sputum and NpA specimens collected at admission. These samples were subjected to lytA qPCR and Spn9802 qPCR assays with analytical times of <3 h. Thirty-two patients had CAP with a pneumococcal etiology, according to conventional diagnostic criteria. The following qPCR positivity rates were noted in CAP cases with and without pneumococcal etiology: 96% and 15% (sputum lytA assay), 96% and 17% (sputum Spn9802 assay), 81% and 11% (NpA lytA assay), and 81% and 20% (NpA Spn9802 assay), respectively. The mean lytA and Spn9802 DNA levels were significantly higher in qPCR-positive sputum samples from cases with pneumococcal etiology than in qPCR-positive sputum samples from CAP cases without pneumococcal etiology or qPCR-positive NpA samples from cases with pneumococcal etiology (P < 0.02 for all comparisons). For detection of pneumococcal etiology, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that sputum specimens were superior to NpA specimens as the sample type (P < 0.02 for both gene targets) and lytA tended to be superior to Spn9802 as the gene target. The best-performing test, the sputum lytA qPCR assay, showed high sensitivity (94%) and specificity (96%) with a cutoff value of 105 DNA copies/ml. In CAP patients with good sputum production, this test has great potential to be used for the rapid detection of pneumococcal etiology and to target penicillin therapy. PMID:24153121

  6. Development of PCR Assays for Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in Urine Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Kahaliah; Secor, Evan W.; Jones, Laurie A.; Igietseme, Joseph U.; Sautter, Robert L.; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Fajman, Nancy N.; Girardet, Rebecca G.; Black, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infections are usually asymptomatic or can result in nonspecific clinical symptoms, which makes laboratory-based detection of this protozoan parasite essential for diagnosis and treatment. We report the development of a battery of highly sensitive and specific PCR assays for detection of T. vaginalis in urine, a noninvasive specimen, and development of a protocol for differentiating among Trichomonas species that commonly infect humans. PMID:23390274

  7. Specificity of PCR and serological assays in the detection of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin subtypes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Jinneman, Karen; Scheutz, Flemming; Monday, Steven R

    2011-09-01

    Specificity analysis for stx or Stx subtypes in Escherichia coli showed that the PCR assays we tested did not detect stx(1d) and stx(2f), and some also missed stx(2b) and stx(2g). Most of the serological assays examined did not detect Stx2c, Stx2e, Stx2f, and Stx2g, and some strain-to-strain variation in reactivity was observed for Stx2b.

  8. Novel multitarget real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of Bordetella species in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Tatti, Kathleen M; Sparks, Kansas N; Boney, Kathryn O; Tondella, Maria Lucia

    2011-12-01

    A novel multitarget real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the rapid identification of Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii was developed using multicopy insertion sequences (ISs) in combination with the pertussis toxin subunit S1 (ptxS1) singleplex assay. The RT-PCR targets for the multiplex assay include IS481, commonly found in B. pertussis and B. holmesii; IS1001 of B. parapertussis; and the IS1001-like sequence of B. holmesii. Overall, 402 Bordetella species and 66 non-Bordetella species isolates were tested in the multitarget assay. Cross-reactivity was found only with 5 B. bronchiseptica isolates, which were positive with IS1001 of B. parapertussis. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the multiplex assay was similar to the LLOD of each target in an individual assay format, which was approximately 1 genomic equivalent per reaction for all targets. A total of 197 human clinical specimens obtained during cough-illness outbreak investigations were used to evaluate the multitarget RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay results from 87 clinical specimens were compared to the individual RT-PCR assay and culture results. The multitarget assay is useful as a diagnostic tool to confirm B. pertussis infections and to rapidly identify other Bordetella species. In conclusion, the use of this multitarget RT-PCR approach increases specificity, while it decreases the amount of time, reagents, and specimen necessary for RT-PCRs used for accurate diagnosis of pertussis-like illness.

  9. Comparison of culture and qPCR methods in detection of mycobacteria from drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Noora H J; Rintala, Helena; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Torvinen, Eila

    2013-04-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are common bacteria in man-made water systems and may cause infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis via exposure to water. We compared a generally used cultivation method and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to detect mycobacteria in 3 types of drinking waters: surface water, ozone-treated surface water, and groundwater. There was a correlation between the numbers of mycobacteria obtained by cultivation and qPCR methods, but the ratio of the counts obtained by the 2 methods varied among the types of water. The qPCR counts in the drinking waters produced from surface or groundwater were 5 to 34 times higher than culturable counts. In ozone-treated surface waters, both methods gave similar counts. The ozone-treated drinking waters had the highest concentration of assimilable organic carbon, which may explain the good culturability. In warm tap waters, qPCR gave 43 times higher counts than cultivation, but both qPCR counts and culturable counts were lower than those in the drinking waters collected from the same sites. The TaqMan qPCR method is a rapid and sensitive tool for total quantitation of mycobacteria in different types of clean waters. The raw water source and treatments affect both culturability and total numbers of mycobacteria in drinking waters.

  10. Single-Step qPCR and dPCR Detection of Diverse CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing Events in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Falabella, Micol; Sun, Linqing; Barr, Justin; Pena, Andressa Z; Kershaw, Erin E; Gingras, Sebastien; Goncharova, Elena A; Kaufman, Brett A

    2017-08-31

    CRISPR-Cas9 based technology is currently the most flexible means to create targeted mutations by recombination or indel mutations by non-homologous end joining. During mouse transgenesis, recombinant and indel alleles are often pursued simultaneously. Multiple alleles can be formed in each animal to create significant genetic complexity that complicates the CRISPR-Cas9 approach and analysis. Currently, there are no rapid methods to measure the extent of on-site editing with broad mutation sensitivity. In this study, we demonstrate the allelic diversity arising from targeted CRISPR-editing in founder mice. Using this DNA sample collection, we validated specific, quantitative, and digital PCR methods (qPCR and dPCR, respectively) for measuring the frequency of on-target editing in founder mice. We found that locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes combined with an internal reference probe (Drop-Off Assay) provide accurate measurements of editing rates. The Drop-Off LNA Assay also detected on-target CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in blastocysts with a sensitivity comparable to PCR-clone sequencing. Lastly, we demonstrate that the allele-specific LNA probes used in qPCR competitor assays can accurately detect recombinant mutations in founder mice. In summary, we show that LNA-based qPCR and dPCR assays provide a rapid method for quantifying the extent of on-target genome editing in vivo, testing RNA guides, and detecting recombinant mutations. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  11. Application of a spotting sample preparation technique for the detection of pathogens in woody plants by RT-PCR and real-time PCR (TaqMan).

    PubMed

    Osman, Fatima; Rowhani, Adib

    2006-05-01

    An extraction technique for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of plant pathogens including viruses, bacteria and phytoplasma is described. The total nucleic acid of these plant pathogens was obtained by direct spotting of crude sap derived from infected leaf, petiole or cambial tissue onto two different types of membranes, positively charged Hybond N(+) Nylon and FTA membranes, and processed for use in PCR. Thirteen different plant viruses, Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of Pierce's disease) and phytoplasmas were included in the experiment. A thermal treatment (95 degrees C for 10 min) of the Hybond N(+) Nylon discs in a buffered solution improved the detection, but for FTA membrane discs the thermal treatment was not required and the discs were directly placed in the PCR reaction cocktail. Specific amplification of genomic or ribosomal RNA fragments of these pathogens was obtained by one-step RT-PCR except for X. fastidiosa in which a fragment of the genomic DNA was used for amplification. The same sample preparation methods also worked well for real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan). The sample preparation techniques reported here could be used to store samples for future PCR test or for long distance shipment to a detection laboratory.

  12. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system.

  13. Detection of Kluyveromyces marxianus and other spoilage yeasts in yoghurt using a PCR-culture technique.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, María Belén; Martín, Rosario; Sanz, Amanda; Hernández, Pablo E; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2005-11-15

    A combined PCR-culture technique was developed for the detection of viable yeasts in yoghurt samples. Yoghurt samples were inoculated with either viable or heat-inactivated Kluyveromyces marxianus cells, and analyzed before and after incubation for 24 h at 25 degrees C under agitation. DNA was extracted from the samples and amplified using yeast-specific primers targeted at the gene coding for the 18S rRNA. A 251-bp fragment was amplified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction from the yoghurt samples containing initial yeasts counts of 10 cfu g(-1) or higher, whereas no PCR product was generated from control uninoculated yoghurt samples. Comparison of PCR results obtained before and after the incubation step was used to assess yeast viability. Viability was also confirmed by plating on Sabouraud-Dextrose-Chloramphenicol Agar. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained using PCR-culture and plate count methods for the analysis of commercial yoghurt samples, demonstrated that the PCR-culture technique developed in this work can be very useful for the rapid detection of viable spoilage yeasts in dairy industries.

  14. RT-PCR for Detecting ALK Translocations in Cytology Samples from Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Seike, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Chiba, Mika; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Takahashi, Akiko; Takeuchi, Susumu; Minegishi, Yuji; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations using cytology samples from lung cancer patients. We analyzed ALK translocations by RT-PCR in cytology samples from lung cancer patients diagnosed at the Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2013 and 2015. Immunochemistry (IHC) and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were also performed on available tissue samples. A total of 155 cytology samples were analyzed in our study. We obtained 115 (68%) samples from bronchial lavage. We were able to determine 153 (99%) results by RT-PCR with 4 (3%) positive samples. The four samples positive by RT-PCR were also positive by IHC and FISH performed on the tissue samples collected simultaneously. RT-PCR is a suitable method for detecting ALK translocations using cytology samples from patients with primary lung cancer, especially when tissue samples are not available. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of bioterror agents in air samples using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fykse, E M; Langseth, B; Olsen, J S; Skogan, G; Blatny, J M

    2008-08-01

    To use real-time PCR for the detection of bacterial bioterror agents in a liquid air sample containing potential airborne interferences, including bacteria, without the need for DNA extraction. Bacteria in air were isolated after passive sedimentation onto R2A agar plates and characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Real-time PCR was used to identify different bacterial bioterror agents in an artificial air sample consisting of a liquid air sample and a mixture of miscellaneous airborne bacteria showing different colony morphology on R2A agar plates. No time-consuming DNA extraction was performed. Specifically designed fluorescent hybridization probes were used for identification. Fourteen different bacterial genera were classified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected bacterial colonies showing growth on R2A agar plates. Real-time PCR amplification of all the bacterial bioterror agents was successfully obtained in the artificial air sample containing commonly found airborne bacteria and other potential airborne PCR interferences. Bacterial bioterror agents can be detected within 1 h in a liquid air sample containing a variety of commonly found airborne bacteria using real-time PCR. Airborne viable bacteria at Kjeller (Norway) were classified to the genera level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  16. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species

    PubMed Central

    Deubelbeiss, A.; Zahno, M.-L.; Zanoni, M.; Bruegger, D.; Zanoni, R.

    2014-01-01

    The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV). Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used. PMID:26464934

  17. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Zia, M.; Mirhendi, H.; Toghyani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. PMID:27175148

  18. Legionella detection by culture and qPCR: Comparing apples and oranges.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Taylor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Legionella spp. are the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease and an opportunistic pathogen of significant public health concern. Identification and quantification from environmental sources is crucial for identifying outbreak origins and providing sufficient information for risk assessment and disease prevention. Currently there are a range of methods for Legionella spp. quantification from environmental sources, but the two most widely used and accepted are culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This paper provides a review of these two methods and outlines their advantages and limitations. Studies from the last 10 years which have concurrently used culture and qPCR to quantify Legionella spp. from environmental sources have been compiled. 26/28 studies detected Legionella at a higher rate using qPCR compared to culture, whilst only one study detected equivalent levels of Legionella spp. using both qPCR and culture. Aggregating the environmental samples from all 28 studies, 2856/3967 (72%) tested positive for the presence of Legionella spp. using qPCR and 1331/3967 (34%) using culture. The lack of correlation between methods highlights the need to develop an acceptable standardized method for quantification that is sufficient for risk assessment and management of this human pathogen.

  19. Rapid and sensitive detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in oyster samples by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Pepin, J F; Riou, A; Renault, T

    2008-05-01

    Herpes and herpes-like virus infections have been reported in various marine mollusc species associated with high mortality rates. Following the characterisation and genome sequencing of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), specific diagnostic tools have been developed based on conventional PCR techniques or in situ hybridisation. We have now developed a real-time PCR assay for rapid, sensitive and quantitative detection of OsHV-1, and compared it with a conventional PCR technique described previously. The new assay utilised SYBR((R)) Green chemistry with specific primers C(9)/C(10) targeting the C region. The melt curve analysis of OsHV-1 DNA or DNA extracted from infected material showed only one melting temperature peak (75.75+/-0.1 degrees C). The assay had a detection limit of 4 copies/microL of viral genomic DNA and a dynamic range of 5 logs. Using infected oyster samples as template, the assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than single PCR method using C(2)/C(6) primers. The assay was applied successfully for rapid diagnosis (100 min) and quantitation of OsHV-1 in different developmental stages of Crassostrea gigas. Although it already exists a competitive PCR method to quantify OsHV-1 DNA, quantitative data that will emerge in future using the new sensitive and reliable assay will illuminate aspects of pathogenesis, in particular the viral loads in asymptomatic oysters and the kinetics of infection in specific target tissues.

  20. Prognostic Value of RT-PCR Tyrosinase Detection in Peripheral Blood of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Esmeralda; Prados, José; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Boulaiz, Houria; Martínez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Caba, Octavio; Serrano, Salvio; Aránega, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) prognosis has been related to tumour thickness and clinical stage and metastasis risk has been associated with presence of tumour cells in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between presence of tyrosinase in peripheral blood of MM patients and their clinical prognosis. Blood samples from 58 MM patients (stage I–IV) were analysed, using RT-PCR assay to detect tyrosinase mRNA. The results showed that positive RT-PCR assay for tyrosinase were significantly associated with clinical status and tumour thickness. After a median follow-up of 24 months, RT-PCR results were found to be significant correlated with recurrence (p < 0.05) and clinical stage III (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of stage III tumours to determine the prognostic value of tyrosinase presence in peripheral blood showed an overall 24-month survival rate of 70% in the RT-PCR negative group versus 10% in the positive group (p < 0.02). These results suggest that detection of circulating melanoma cells may be especially relevant in stage III patients, in whom RT-PCR positivity defines a subpopulation at high risk of recurrence. PMID:16788251

  1. Real-time PCR for rapidly detecting aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Takakazu; Suzuki, Hisako; Maeda, Toshinari; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2013-05-01

    We developed a detection method that uses quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the TaqMan system to easily and rapidly assess the population of aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge prior to conducting a biodegradability test on a chemical compound. A primer and probe set for qPCR was designed by a multiple alignment of conserved amino acid sequences encoding the large (α) subunit of aniline dioxygenase. PCR amplification tests showed that the designed primer and probe set targeted aniline-degrading strains such as Acidovorax sp., Gordonia sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Pseudomonas putida, thereby suggesting that the developed method can detect a wide variety of aniline-degrading bacteria. There was a strong correlation between the relative copy number of the α-aniline dioxygenase gene in activated sludge obtained with the developed qPCR method and the number of aniline-degrading bacteria measured by the Most Probable Number method, which is the conventional method, and a good correlation with the lag time of the BOD curve for aniline degradation produced by the biodegradability test in activated sludge samples collected from eight different wastewater treatment plants in Japan. The developed method will be valuable for the rapid and accurate evaluation of the activity of inocula prior to conducting a ready biodegradability test.

  2. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Zia, M; Mirhendi, H; Toghyani, M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species.

  3. Continuous flow real-time PCR device using multi-channel fluorescence excitation and detection.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Andrew C; Ray, Tathagata; Lintecum, Kelly; Youngbull, Cody

    2014-02-07

    High throughput automation is greatly enhanced using techniques that employ conveyor belt strategies with un-interrupted streams of flow. We have developed a 'conveyor belt' analog for high throughput real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) using droplet emulsion technology. We developed a low power, portable device that employs LED and fiber optic fluorescence excitation in conjunction with a continuous flow thermal cycler to achieve multi-channel fluorescence detection for real-time fluorescence measurements. Continuously streaming fluid plugs or droplets pass through tubing wrapped around a two-temperature zone thermal block with each wrap of tubing fluorescently coupled to a 64-channel multi-anode PMT. This work demonstrates real-time qPCR of 0.1-10 μL droplets or fluid plugs over a range of 7 orders of magnitude concentration from 1 × 10(1) to 1 × 10(7). The real-time qPCR analysis allows dynamic range quantification as high as 1 × 10(7) copies per 10 μL reaction, with PCR efficiencies within the range of 90-110% based on serial dilution assays and a limit of detection of 10 copies per rxn. The combined functionality of continuous flow, low power thermal cycling, high throughput sample processing, and real-time qPCR improves the rates at which biological or environmental samples can be continuously sampled and analyzed.

  4. Optimization of a multiplex PCR assay for detecting transgenic soybean components in feed products.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Yang, Yalin; Guan, Qingfeng; Ao, Changjin; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-11-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple components of genetically modified (GM) soybean. It uses two sets of primers (I, lectin1/35S/CP4; II, lectin2/35S/CP4) specific for a soybean reference gene, the 35S promoter, and an event-specific gene. Amplified fragments of 118, 414, 195, and 320 bp were easily detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and were positively confirmed by sequencing. Primer set concentrations and annealing temperatures in the m-PCR were optimized. The optimized m-PCR conditions were obtained for primer set I at a ratio of 1:2:3 and a 59.2 °C annealing temperature and set II at the same ratio and 58.6 °C, 60.3 °C, and 61.2 °C annealing temperatures. The sensitivities of the two m-PCR primer sets (I and II) were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that this m-PCR assay provides rapid, reliable, and effective identification of multiple components of GM soybean in feed.

  5. Viability-qPCR for detecting Legionella: Comparison of two assays based on different amplicon lengths.

    PubMed

    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M

    2015-08-01

    Two different real-time quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) assays were applied for quantification of Legionella spp. by targeting a long amplicon (approx 400 bp) of 16S rRNA gene and a short amplicon (approx. 100 bp) of 5S rRNA gene. Purified DNA extracts from pure cultures of Legionella spp. and from environmental water samples were quantified. Application of the two assays to quantify Legionella in artificially contaminated water achieved that both assays were able to detect Legionella over a linear range of 10 to 10(5) cells ml(-1). A statistical analysis of the standard curves showed that both assays were linear with a good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.99) between the Ct and the copy number. Amplification with the reference assay was the most effective for detecting low copy numbers (1 bacterium per PCR mixture). Using selective quantification of viable Legionella by the PMA-qPCR method we obtained a greater inhibition of the amplification of the 400-bp 16S gene fragment (Δlog(10) = 3.74 ± 0.39 log(10) GU ml(-1)). A complete inhibition of the PCR signal was obtained when heat-killed cells in a concentration below 1 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) were pretreated with PMA. Analysing short amplicon sizes led to only 2.08 log reductions in the Legionella dead-cell signal. When we tested environmental water samples, the two qPCR assays were in good agreement according to the kappa index (0.741). Applying qPCR combined with PMA treatment, we also obtained a good agreement (kappa index 0.615). The comparison of quantitative results shows that both assays yielded the same quantification sensitivity (mean log = 4.59 vs mean log = 4.31).

  6. Detection of MET Gene Copy Number in Cancer Samples Using the Droplet Digital PCR Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanni; Tang, En-Tzu; Du, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analysis of MET gene copy number (CN) has been considered to be a potential biomarker to predict the response to MET-targeted therapies in various cancers. However, the current standard methods to determine MET CN are SNP 6.0 in the genomic DNA of cancer cell lines and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in tumor models, respectively, which are costly and require advanced technical skills and result in relatively subjective judgments. Therefore, we employed a novel method, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), to determine the MET gene copy number with high accuracy and precision. Methods The genomic DNA of cancer cell lines or tumor models were tested and compared with the MET gene CN and MET/CEN-7 ratio determined by SNP 6.0 and FISH, respectively. Results In cell lines, the linear association of the MET CN detected by ddPCR and SNP 6.0 is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.867). In tumor models, the MET CN detected by ddPCR was significantly different between the MET gene amplification and non-amplification groups according to FISH (mean: 15.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.044). Given that MET gene amplification is defined as MET CN >5.5 by ddPCR, the concordance rate between ddPCR and FISH was 98.0%, and Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.498–1.000; P <0.001). Conclusions The results demonstrated that the ddPCR method has the potential to quantify the MET gene copy number with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from SNP 6.0 and FISH in cancer cell lines and tumor samples, respectively. PMID:26765781

  7. Real-time RT-PCR for the detection and quantitative analysis of equine rhinitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, M; Maxwell, G; Lyons, P; Arkins, S; Cullinane, A

    2010-03-01

    Equine rhinitis viruses (ERV) cause respiratory disease and loss of performance in horses. It has been suggested that the economic significance of these viruses may have been underestimated due to insensitive methods of detection. To develop a sensitive, rapid, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay suitable for the routine diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the A and B variants of ERV. TaqMan primer probe sets for ERAV and ERBV were designed from conserved regions of the 5' UTR of the ERV genome. Over 400 samples from both clinically affected and asymptomatic horses were employed for validation of the assays. ERAV samples positive by rRT-PCR were verified by virus isolation and ERBV positive samples were verified by rRT-PCR using a different set of primers. The detection limit of the rRT-PCR for both viruses was 10-100 genome copies. Of 250 archival nasal swabs submitted for diagnostic testing over a 7 year period, 29 were ERAV positive and 3 were ERBV positive with an average incidence rate per year of 10 and 1.5%, respectively. There was evidence of co-circulation of ERAV and ERBV with equine influenza virus (EIV). Of 100 post race urine samples tested, 29 were ERAV positive by rRT-PCR. Partial sequencing of 2 ERBV positive samples demonstrated that one was 100% identical to ERBV1 from a 270 bp sequence and the other was more closely related to ERBV2 than ERBV1 (95% compared to 90% nucleotide identity in 178 bp). The rRT-PCR assays described here are specific and more sensitive than virus isolation. They have good reproducibility and are suitable for the routine diagnosis of ERAV and ERBV. These assays should be useful for investigating the temporal association between clinical signs and rhinitis virus shedding.

  8. Optimization and Evaluation of a PCR Assay for Detecting Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Priya; Calderón, Maritza M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe, Monica L.; Cok, Jaime; Ticona, Eduardo; Chavez, Victor; Jimenez, Juan A.; Chang, Maria C.; Lopez, Martín J.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common life-threatening opportunistic infection. We used experimental murine T. gondii infection to optimize the PCR for diagnostic use, define its sensitivity, and characterize the time course and tissue distribution of experimental toxoplasmosis. PCR conditions were adjusted until the assay reliably detected quantities of DNA derived from less than a single parasite. Forty-two mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with T. gondii tachyzoites and sacrificed from 6 to 72 h later. Examination of tissues with PCR and histology revealed progression of infection from blood to lung, heart, liver, and brain, with PCR consistently detecting parasites earlier than microscopy and with no false-positive results. We then evaluated the diagnostic value of this PCR assay in human patients. We studied cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 12 patients with AIDS and confirmed toxoplasmic encephalitis (defined as positive mouse inoculation and/or all of the Centers for Disease Control clinical diagnostic criteria), 12 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis who had neither CDC diagnostic criteria nor positive mouse inoculation, 26 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with other opportunistic infections and no signs of cerebral toxoplasmosis, and 18 immunocompetent patients with neurocysticercosis. Eleven of the 12 patients with confirmed toxoplasmosis had positive PCR results in either blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples (6 of 9 blood samples and 8 of 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples). All samples from control patients were negative. This study demonstrates the high sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in a resource-poor setting. PMID:12454142

  9. Real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Mar; Luque, M Isabel; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-08-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most toxic mycotoxins. Early detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing species is crucial to improve food safety. In the present work, two protocols of real-time PCR (qPCR) based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed, and their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Primers and probes were designed from the o-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Fifty-three mold strains representing aflatoxin producers and non-producers of different species, usually reported in food products, were used as references. All strains were tested for aflatoxins production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the proposed qPCR method was demonstrated by the strong linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the omt-1 gene copy number and Ct values for the different aflatoxin producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocols to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 4 to 1 log cfu/g per reaction for all qPCR assays in the different food matrices (peanuts, spices and dry-fermented sausages). The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g for SYBR Green and TaqMan assays. No significant effect was observed due to the different equipment, operator, and qPCR methodology used in the tests of repeatability and reproducibility for different foods. The proposed methods quantified with high efficiency the fungal load in foods. These qPCR protocols are proposed for use to quantify aflatoxin-producing molds in food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of two PCR strategies for the detection of bovine papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A R; Batista, M V A; Pontes, N E; Santos, E U D; Coutinho, L C A; Castro, R S; Balbino, V Q; Freitas, A C

    2013-09-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a diverse group of double-stranded DNA oncogenic viruses, which have been detected in epithelial lesions and body fluids. Most studies of BPV infection rely on a single method for DNA detection; however the use of any single method or technique may underestimate the true prevalence of this virus. The purpose of this study was to compare two PCR strategies for the detection of BPV in skin lesions and fluids: these involve the use of BPV type-specific and consensus primers. Seventy-two cutaneous lesions, 57 blood samples and 59 semen samples were collected. PCR was used with the FAP consensus primers and BPV type-specific primers (for BPVs 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10), along with sequencing assays, to detect the BPV types. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out by means of the maximum likelihood method. It was found that both FAP and BPV type-specific primer sets could amplify BPV types of DNA in skin lesions, blood and semen samples. However, the BPV type-specific primers were more sensitive than the consensus primers and were able to detect co-infection of BPV in the samples. The consensus primers amplified five BPV types and were more suitable for detecting new putative BPV types. Thus, account should be taken of both PCR primer systems to identify co-infection, the presence of novel viruses, and avoid false-negative results.

  11. Rapid detection of α-thalassaemia variants using droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, T-Y; Lai, M-I; Ramachandran, V; Tan, J A M A; Teh, L-K; Othman, R; Hussein, N H; George, E

    2016-08-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is a highly prevalent disease globally and is a well-known public health problem in Malaysia. The deletional forms of the mutation are the most common forms found in alpha thalassaemia. The three most common deletional alpha thalassaemia found in this region include --(SEA) deletion, -α(3.7) rightward and -α(4.2) leftward deletions. The prevalence rate of triplication alpha cases such as ααα(anti3.7) and ααα(anti4.2) is not known in Malaysia although it plays a role in exacerbating the clinical phenotypes in beta thalassaemia carriers. Recently, there have been more reported cases of rare alpha thalassaemia mutations due to the advancement of molecular techniques involved in thalassaemia detections. Therefore, it is essential to develop a new method which allows the detection of different alpha thalassaemia mutations including the rare ones simultaneously and accurately. The purpose of this study was to design an assay for the detection of triplications, common and rare deletional alpha thalassaemia using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). This is a quantitative detection method to measure the changes of copy number which can detect deletions, duplications and triplications of the alpha globin gene simultaneously. In conclusion, ddPCR is an alternative method for rapid detection of alpha thalassaemia variants in Malaysia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Protocol: a highly sensitive RT-PCR method for detection and quantification of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wu, Rongmei; Wood, Marion; Walton, Eric F; Hellens, Roger P

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs with a critical role in development and environmental responses. Efficient and reliable detection of miRNAs is an essential step towards understanding their roles in specific cells and tissues. However, gel-based assays currently used to detect miRNAs are very limited in terms of throughput, sensitivity and specificity. Here we provide protocols for detection and quantification of miRNAs by RT-PCR. We describe an end-point and real-time looped RT-PCR procedure and demonstrate detection of miRNAs from as little as 20 pg of plant tissue total RNA and from total RNA isolated from as little as 0.1 μl of phloem sap. In addition, we have developed an alternative real-time PCR assay that can further improve specificity when detecting low abundant miRNAs. Using this assay, we have demonstrated that miRNAs are differentially expressed in the phloem sap and the surrounding vascular tissue. This method enables fast, sensitive and specific miRNA expression profiling and is suitable for facilitation of high-throughput detection and quantification of miRNA expression. PMID:17931426

  13. Development of an immunoFET biosensor for the detection of biotinylated PCR product.

    PubMed

    Muangsuwan, Wannaporn; Promptmas, Chamras; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Bunjongpru, Win; Srisuwan, Awirut; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Yasawong, Montri

    2016-10-01

    ImmunoFET (IMFET) biosensor is a simple platform for the detection of biotinylated products of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Construction of the IMFET biosensor started with adsorption of 1.5 mg/mL of protein A (PA) onto the insulated gate surface of ISFET for 90 min. Next, the immobilized 1/500 dilution of anti-biotin antibody was adsorbed onto the PA layer for 60 min. The IMFET biosensor was subsequently ready for detection of the biotinylated amplicon. The IMFET biosensor showed highly specific binding to the biotinylated PCR product of the phaE gene of Haloquadratum walsbyi DSM 16854. The phaE gene is a biomarker of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producers that contain PHA synthase class III. The lowest amount of DNA template of H. walsbyi DSM 16854 that the IMFET biosensor could detect was 125 fg. The IMFET biosensor has a lower amount of detection compared with a DNA lateral flow biosensor from our previous study. The degree of linearity of the biosensor signal was influenced by the concentration of the biotinylated amplicon. The IMFET biosensor also has a short response time (approximately 30 times) to detect the phaE amplicon compared to an agarose gel electrophoresis. The IMFET biosensor is a promising tool for the detection of the biotinylated PCR product, and it can be integrated into a micro total analysis system (μTAS).

  14. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-08-16

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%.

  15. Multiplex qPCR for Detection and Absolute Quantification of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kamau, Edwin; Alemayehu, Saba; Feghali, Karla C.; Saunders, David; Ockenhouse, Christian F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe development of an absolute multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for detection of Plasmodium spp., P. falciparum and P. vivax targets in order to produce an assay amenable to high throughput but with reduced costs. Important qPCR experimental details and information that is critical to performance and reliability of assay results were investigated. Inhibition studies were performed to test and compare co-purification of PCR inhibitors in samples extracted from whole blood using either the manual or automated methods. To establish the most optimal qPCR reaction volume, volume titration of the reaction master mix was performed starting at 10 µl to 1 µl reaction master mix with 1 µl of template DNA in each reaction. As the reaction volume decreased, qPCR assays became more efficient with 1 µl reaction master mix being the most efficient. For more accurate quantification of parasites in a sample, we developed plasmid DNAs for all the three assay targets for absolute quantification. All of absolute qPCR assays performed with efficiency of more than 94%, R2 values greater than 0.99 and the STDEV of each replicate was <0.167. Linear regression plots generated from absolute qPCR assays were used to estimate the corresponding parasite density from relative qPCR in terms of parasite/µl. One copy of plasmid DNA was established to be equivalent to 0.1 parasite/µl for Plasmodium spp. assay, 0.281 parasites for P. falciparum assay and 0.127 parasite/µl for P. vivax assay. This study demonstrates for the first time use of plasmid DNA in absolute quantification of malaria parasite. The use of plasmid DNA standard in quantification of malaria parasite will be critical as efforts are underway to harmonize molecular assays used in diagnosis of malaria. PMID:24009663

  16. Detection of mRNA by reverse transcription PCR as an indicator of viability in Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Antonio Chimento; Santa Olga Cacciola; Matteo Garbelotto

    2008-01-01

    Real-Time PCR technologies offer increasing opportunities to detect and study phytopathogenic fungi. They combine the sensitivity of conventional PCR with the generation of a specific fluorescent signal providing both real-time analysis of the reaction kinetics and quantification of specific DNA targets. Before the development of Real-Time PCR and...

  17. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    van Elden, L J; Nijhuis, M; Schipper, P; Schuurman, R; van Loon, A M

    2001-01-01

    Since influenza viruses can cause severe illness, timely diagnosis is important for an adequate intervention. The available rapid detection methods either lack sensitivity or require complex laboratory manipulation. This study describes a rapid, sensitive detection method that can be easily applied to routine diagnosis. This method simultaneously detects influenza viruses A and B in specimens of patients with respiratory infections using a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay. Primers and probes were selected from highly conserved regions of the matrix protein gene of influenza virus A and the hemagglutinin gene segment of influenza virus B. The applicability of this multiplex PCR was evaluated with 27 influenza virus A and 9 influenza virus B reference strains and isolates. In addition, the specificity of the assay was assessed using eight reference strains of other respiratory viruses (parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, respiratory syncytial virus Long strain, rhinoviruses 1A and 14, and coronaviruses OC43 and 229E) and 30 combined nose and throat swabs from asymptomatic subjects. Electron microscopy-counted stocks of influenza viruses A and B were used to develop a quantitative PCR format. Thirteen copies of viral RNA were detected for influenza virus A, and 11 copies were detected for influenza virus B, equaling 0.02 and 0.006 50% tissue culture infective doses, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the multiplex TaqMan-based PCR was determined by testing 98 clinical samples. This real-time PCR technique was found to be more sensitive than the combination of conventional viral culturing and shell vial culturing.

  18. Detection of Francisella tularensis within infected mouse tissues by using a hand-held PCR thermocycler.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Peter A; Bell, Ryan; Dang, Jessica L; McClanahan, Rebecca; David, John C; Burgess, Robert J; Thompson, Joseph; Collins, Lisa; Hadfield, Ted

    2003-02-01

    The diagnosis of human cases of tularemia often relies upon the demonstration of an antibody response to Francisella tularensis or the direct culturing of the bacteria from the patient. Antibody response is not detectable until 2 weeks or more after infection, and culturing requires special media and suspicion of tularemia. In addition, handling live Francisella poses a risk to laboratory personnel due to the highly infectious nature of this pathogen. In an effort to develop a rapid diagnostic assay for tularemia, we investigated the use of TaqMan 5' hydrolysis fluorogenic PCR to detect the organism in tissues of infected mice. Mice were infected to produce respiratory tularemia. The fopA and tul4 genes of F. tularensis were amplified from infected spleen, lung, liver, and kidney tissues sampled over a 5-day period. The samples were analyzed using the laboratory-based Applied Biosystems International 7900 and the Smiths Detection-Edgewood BioSeeq, a hand-held portable fluorescence thermocycler designed for use in the field. A comparison of culturing and PCR for detection of bacteria in infected tissues shows that culturing was more sensitive than PCR. However, the results for culture take 72 h, whereas PCR results were available within 4 h. PCR was able to detect infection in all the tissues tested. Lung tissue showed the earliest response at 2 days when tested with the ABI 7900 and in 3 days when tested with the BioSeeq. The results were in agreement between the ABI 7900 and the BioSeeq when presented with the same sample. Template preparation may account for the loss of sensitivity compared to culturing techniques. The hand-held BioSeeq thermocycler shows promise as an expedient means of forward diagnosis of infection in the field.

  19. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 by ethidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Li, Y; Mustapha, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a novel method that combines ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) staining with real-time PCR for the detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. EMA can penetrate dead cells and bind to intracellular DNA, preventing its amplification via PCR. Samples were stained with EMA for 5 min, iced for 1 min and exposed to bright visible light for 10 min prior to DNA extraction, to allow EMA binding of the DNA from dead cells. DNA was then extracted and amplified by TaqMan real-time PCR to detect only viable E. coli O157:H7 cells. The primers and TaqMan probe used in this study target the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7. An internal amplification control (IAC), consisting of 0.25 pg of plasmid pUC19, was added in each reaction to prevent the occurrence of false-negative results. Results showed a reproducible application of this technique to detect viable cells in both broth culture and ground beef. EMA, at a final concentration of 10 microg ml(-1), was demonstrated to effectively bind DNA from 10(8) CFU ml(-1) dead cells, and the optimized method could detect as low as 10(4) CFU g(-1) of viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef without interference from 10(8) CFU g(-1) of dead cells. EMA real-time PCR with IAC can effectively separate dead cells from viable E. coli O157:H7 and prevent amplification of DNA in the dead cells. The EMA real-time PCR has the potential to be a highly sensitive quantitative detection technique to assess the contamination of viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef and other meat or food products.

  20. Clinical Validation of Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, M. Jordan; Mair, Raydel; Trujillo-Lopez, Elizabeth; du Plessis, Mignon; Wolter, Nicole; Baughman, Andrew L.; Hatcher, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Lott, Lisa; von Gottberg, Anne; Sacchi, Claudio; McDonald, J. Matthew; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causes of meningitis and other infections, and rapid, sensitive, and specific laboratory assays are critical for effective public health interventions. Singleplex real-time PCR assays have been developed to detect N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA and serogroup-specific genes in the cap locus for N. meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W135, X, and Y. However, the assay sensitivity for serogroups B, W135, and Y is low. We aimed to improve assay sensitivity and develop multiplex assays to reduce time and cost. New singleplex real-time PCR assays for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF showed 100% specificity for detecting N. meningitidis species, with high sensitivity (serogroup B synD, 99% [75/76]; W135 synG, 97% [38/39]; and Y synF, 100% [66/66]). The lower limits of detection (LLD) were 9, 43, and 10 copies/reaction for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF assays, respectively, a significant improvement compared to results for the previous singleplex assays. We developed three multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of (i) N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA (NHS assay); (ii) N. meningitidis serogroups A, W135, and X (AWX assay); and (iii) N. meningitidis serogroups B, C, and Y (BCY assay). Each multiplex assay was 100% specific for detecting its target organisms or serogroups, and the LLD was similar to that for the singleplex assay. Pairwise comparison of real-time PCR between multiplex and singleplex assays showed that cycle threshold values of the multiplex assay were similar to those for the singleplex assay. There were no substantial differences in sensitivity and specificity between these multiplex and singleplex real-time PCR assays. PMID:22170919

  1. Efficiency of MY09/11 consensus PCR in the detection of multiple HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Şahiner, Fatih; Kubar, Ayhan; Gümral, Ramazan; Ardıç, Medine; Yiğit, Nuri; Şener, Kenan; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has become an important component of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of MY09/11 consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of multiple HPV infections. For this purpose, MY09/11 PCR was compared to an original TaqMan-based type-specific real-time PCR assay, which can detect 20 different HPV types. Of the 654 samples, 34.1% (223/654) were HPV DNA positive according to at least one method. The relative sensitivities of MY09/11 PCR and type-specific PCR were 80.7% (180/223) and 97.8% (218/223), respectively. In all, 352 different HPV isolates (66 low-risk and 286 high-risk or probable high-risk types) were identified in 218 samples, but 5 samples, which were positive by consensus PCR only, could not be genotyped. The distribution of the 286 high-risk or probable high-risk HPVs were as follows: 24.5% HPV-16, 8.4% HPV-52, 7.7% HPV-51, 6.3% HPV-39, 6.3% HPV-82, 5.6% HPV-35, 5.6% HPV-58, 5.6% HPV-66, 5.2% HPV-18, 5.2% HPV-68, and 19.6% the other 8 types. A single HPV type was detected in 57.3% (125/218) of the genotyped samples, and multiple HPV types were found in the remaining 42.7% (93/218). The false-negative rates of MY09/11 PCR were found to be 17.4% in single infections, 23.3% in multiple infections, and 34.6% in multiple infections that contained 3 or more HPV types, with the condition that the low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11 be considered as a monotype. These data suggest that broad-range PCR assays may lead to significant data loss and that type-specific PCR assays can provide accurate and reliable results during cervical cancer screening.

  2. [Development of an IMS-qPCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in water].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan-Shan; Wu, Shao-Qiang; Luo, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Min; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Bao-Hua; He, Hong-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    To develop a detection method for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples, which combined immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with Taqman real-time PCR (qPCR). Conditions of separation and enrichment of IMS method by using specific streptavidin magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies Cp23 directed against C. parvum oocysts were optimized. Special primers of PCR and Taqman probes were designed referring to the 18S rDNA gene of C. parvum (GenBank Accession No. AB513881.1). The conserved genes were amplified from genomic DNA of C.parvum, and then cloned into Peasy-T1 vector. Tenfold dilutions of positive plasmids (10(4)-10(8) copy/microl) were used to construct a standard curves by Taqman qPCR. The specificity of the assay was determined using genomic DNA of C. baileyi, Toxoplasma gondii, C. canis and Escherichia coli. The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated by analyzing 10-fold serially dilutions of plasmids ranging from 10(0) to 10(8) copy/microl. Both IMS-qPCR assay and indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) were applied to detect 50 water samples collected from the dairy cattle farms in Hebei. The optimal incubation concentration and time of antibody Cp23 were 20 ng/ml and 30 min, respectively, and the catching time was 30 min, the recovery rate was more than 95%. PCR product was 272 bp, and identified by restriction enzyme digestion and nucleotide sequencing. There was a good linear relationship between the standard plasmids and Ct value (correlation r2 = 0.996 1) of the Taqman qPCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with C. baileyi, T. gondii, C. canis and E. coli. The sensitivity of C. parvum-specific assay was 10 copy/microl. Compared with IFA as golden standard method, the specificity and sensitivity of IMS-qPCR for 50 water samples was 100%(18/18) and 93.8% (30/32), respectively. The IMS-qPCR assay can be used to specifically detect C. parvum oocysts in water samples.

  3. Automated high multiplex qPCR platform for simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets.

    PubMed

    Hlousek, Louis; Voronov, Sergey; Diankov, Vesselin; Leblang, Amy B; Wells, Patrick J; Ford, Donna M; Nolling, Jork; Hart, Kyle W; Espinoza, Patricio A; Bristol, Michael R; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Slepnev, Vladimir I; Kong, Lilly I; Lee, Ming-Chou

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) using real-time detection of amplification is limited to a small number of targets within a single reaction. The ICEPlex system, using our scalable target analysis routine (STAR) technology, was developed to provide an automated, high multiplexing PCR solution. ICEPlex combines PCR thermal cycling with dynamic, sequential amplicon separation by capillary electrophoresis and two-color quantitative detection in a single integrated system. In contrast to probe-based qPCR, ICEPlex directly measures amplicon accumulation through incorporation of labeled primers. Three orders of magnitude of optical detection range and at least 7 logs of detectable target concentration range are demonstrated. The system can separate more than 50 amplicons per color channel, ranging from 100 to 500 bases, providing broad multiplexing capabilities for a wide spectrum of nucleic acid amplification applications. ICEPlex can be used for analysis of viral DNA or RNA targets, detection of genetic variants, and for reverse-transcriptase PCR gene expression panels.

  4. Widespread Occurrence of Pneumocystis carinii in Commercial Rat Colonies Detected Using Targeted PCR and Oral Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Icenhour, Crystal R.; Rebholz, Sandra L.; Collins, Margaret S.; Cushion, Melanie T.

    2001-01-01

    The genus Pneumocystis contains a family of fungal organisms that infect a wide variety of mammalian species. Although it is a cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts, recent evidence suggests that these organisms colonize nonimmunosuppressed hosts. Detection of cryptic colonization with Pneumocystis becomes important in animal studies when infection-free animals are necessary. Provocation by chronic immunosuppression, histology, and serology has been widely used to detect the presence of Pneumocystis in rat colonies, requiring lengthy time periods and/or postmortem tissue. We conducted a study to evaluate the use of PCR amplification of oral swabs for the antemortem detection of Pneumocystis in 12 rat groups from three commercial vendors. Sera were collected upon arrival, and the oral cavity was swabbed for PCR analysis. Ten of these groups of rats were then housed in pairs under barrier and immunosuppressed to provoke Pneumocystis growth. Once moribund, the rats were sacrificed, and the lungs were collected to evaluate the presence of Pneumocystis by PCR and microscopic enumeration. DNA was extracted from oral swabs and lung homogenates, and PCR was performed using primers targeting a region within the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Upon receipt, 64% of rats were positive for P. carinii f. sp. carinii-specific antibodies, while P. carinii f. sp. carinii DNA was amplified from 98% of oral swabs. Postmortem PCR analysis of individual lungs revealed P. carinii f. sp. carinii DNA in all rat lungs, illustrating widespread occurrence of Pneumocystis in commercial rat colonies. Thus, oral swab/PCR is a rapid, nonlethal, and sensitive method for the assessment of Pneumocystis exposure. PMID:11574552

  5. Evaluation of urine for Leishmania infantum DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-E-Silva, Rômulo; Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Lays Adrianne; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Suênia; de Goes, Tayná Correia; Silva de Morais, Rayana Carla; Lopes de Melo, Fábio; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena

    2016-12-01

    The availability of some sorts of biological samples which require noninvasive collection methods has led to an even greater interest in applying molecular biology on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis, since these samples increase the safety and comfort of both patients and health professionals. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the suitability of the urine as a specimen for Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequent to the reproducibility analysis, the detection limit of the qPCR assay was set at 5fg (~0.025 parasites) per μL of urine. From the comparative analysis performed with a set of diagnostic criteria (serological and molecular reference tests), concordance value of 96.08% was obtained (VL-suspected and HIV/AIDS patients, n=51) (P>0.05). Kappa coefficient (95% CI) indicated a good agreement between the test and the set of diagnostic criteria (k=0.778±0.151). The detection of Leishmania DNA in urine by qPCR was possible in untreated individuals, and in those with or without suggestive renal impairment. Fast depletion of the parasite's DNA in urine after treatment (from one dose of meglumine antimoniate) was suggested by negative qPCR results, thus indicating it as a potential alternative specimen to follow up the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. Even when evaluated in a clinically heterogeneous set of patients, the urine showed good prospect as sample for VL diagnosis by qPCR, also indicating a good negative predictive value for untreated suspected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. APPLICATION OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) AND PCR BASED RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM FOR DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM DERMATOLOGICAL SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    Bagyalakshmi, R; Senthilvelan, B; Therese, K L; Murugusundram, S; Madhavan, H N

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop and optimize polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of fungi for rapid detection and identification of dermatophytes. Materials and Methods: Two PCR-RFLP methods targeting 18S rDNA and ITS regions of fungi were optimized using standard and laboratory isolates of dermatophytes and other fungi. Sixty-eight dermatological clinical specimens (nail clippings (56), material obtained from blisters (8), hair root (2), scraping from scaly plaque of foot (1) and skin scraping (1) collected by the dermatologist were subjected to both the optimized PCR-RFLP and conventional mycological (smear and culture) methods. Results: PCRs targeting 18S rDNA and the ITS region were sensitive to detect 10 picograms and 1 femtogram of T. rubrum DNA, respectively. PCR targeting 18S rDNA was specific for dermatophytes and subsequent RFLP identified them to species level. PCR-RFLP targeting the ITS region differentiated dermatophytes from other fungi with identification to species level. Among the 68 clinical specimens tested, both PCR-RFLP methods revealed the presence of dermatophytes in 27 cases (39.7%), whereas culture revealed the same only in 2 cases (7.40%), increasing the clinical sensitivity by 32.3%. Among 20 smear positive specimens, both PCR-RFLP methods detected dermatophytes in 12 (17.6%). Both the methods detected the presence of dermatophytes in 13 (19.11%) smear and culture negative specimens, increasing the clinical sensitivity by 36.1%. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP methods targeting 18S rDNA and the ITS regions of fungi were specific and highly sensitive for detection and speciation of dermatophytes. PMID:19967012

  7. Group-specific PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR methods for detection and tentative discrimination of strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacteria of the class Clostridia.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Riikka; Koivula, Teija; Haikara, Auli

    2008-07-15

    The strictly anaerobic brewery contaminants of the genera Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus in the class Clostridia constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of unpasteurised, packaged beers. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate group-specific PCR methods to detect and differentiate these bacteria in beer. A group-specific primer pair targeting a 342-bp variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was designed and evaluated in end-point PCR with gel electrophoresis and in real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye. Significant cross-reactions with DNAs from any of the forty-two brewery-related, non-target microbes or from real brewery samples were not detected in either PCR system. The group-specific end-point and real-time PCR products could be differentiated according to species/genus and spoilage potential using restriction fragment length polymorphism (KpnI, XmnI, BssHII, ScaI) and melting point curve analysis, respectively. In combination with a rapid DNA extraction method, the PCR reactions detected ca 10(0)-10(3) CFU per 25 ml of beer depending on the strain and on the PCR system. The end-point and real-time PCR analysis took 6-7 h and 2-3 h, respectively. Pre-PCR enrichment of beer samples for 1-3 days ensured the detection of even a single cultivable cell. The PCR and cultivation results of real brewery samples were mostly congruent but the PCR methods were occasionally more sensitive. The PCR methods developed allow the detection of all the nine beer-spoilage Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus species in a single reaction and their differentiation below group level and reduce the analysis time for testing of their presence in beer samples by 1-2 days. The methods can be applied for brewery routine quality control and for studying occurrence, diversity and numbers of the strictly anaerobic beer spoilers in the brewing process.

  8. Development and comparison of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Dichelobacter nodosus with culturing and conventional PCR: harmonisation between three laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovine footrot is a contagious disease with worldwide occurrence in sheep. The main causative agent is the fastidious bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus. In Scandinavia, footrot was first diagnosed in Sweden in 2004 and later also in Norway and Denmark. Clinical examination of sheep feet is fundamental to diagnosis of footrot, but D. nodosus should also be detected to confirm the diagnosis. PCR-based detection using conventional PCR has been used at our institutes, but the method was laborious and there was a need for a faster, easier-to-interpret method. The aim of this study was to develop a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for detection of D. nodosus and to compare its performance with culturing and conventional PCR. Methods A D. nodosus-specific TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed. The inclusivity and exclusivity (specificity) of the assay was tested using 55 bacterial and two fungal strains. To evaluate the sensitivity and harmonisation of results between different laboratories, aliquots of a single DNA preparation were analysed at three Scandinavian laboratories. The developed real-time PCR assay was compared to culturing by analysing 126 samples, and to a conventional PCR method by analysing 224 samples. A selection of PCR-products was cloned and sequenced in order to verify that they had been identified correctly. Results The developed assay had a detection limit of 3.9 fg of D. nodosus genomic DNA. This result was obtained at all three laboratories and corresponds to approximately three copies of the D. nodosus genome per reaction. The assay showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity for the strains tested. The real-time PCR assay found 54.8% more positive samples than by culturing and 8% more than conventional PCR. Conclusions The developed real-time PCR assay has good specificity and sensitivity for detection of D. nodosus, and the results are easy to interpret. The method is less time-consuming than either

  9. Detection by real time PCR of walnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Linacero, Rosario; Ballesteros, Isabel; Sanchiz, Africa; Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Martinez, Yolanda; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Rovira, Mercè; Burbano, Carmen; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays.

  10. Detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by a mycoplasma group-specific PCR.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Johansson, K E; Galama, J M; Kissing, J; Bölske, G; van der Logt, J T; Melchers, W J

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of a 16S rRNA-based mycoplasma group-specific PCR for the detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures was investigated. A total of 104 cell cultures were tested by using microbiological culture, DNA fluorochrome staining, DNA-rRNA hybridization, and PCR techniques. A comparison of the results obtained with these techniques revealed agreement for 95 cell cultures. Discrepant results, which were interpreted as false negative or false positive on the basis of a comparison with the results obtained with other methods, were observed with nine cell cultures. The microbiological culture technique produced false-negative results for four cell cultures. The hybridization technique produced false-negative results for two cell cultures, and for one of these cell cultures the DNA staining technique also produced a false-negative result. The PCR may have produced false-positive results for one cell culture. Ambiguous results were obtained with the remaining two cell cultures. Furthermore, the presence of contaminating bacteria interfered with the interpretation of the DNA staining results for 16 cell cultures. For the same reason the hybridization signals of nine cell cultures could not be interpreted. Our results demonstrate the drawbacks of each of the detection methods and the suitability of the PCR for the detection of mycoplasmas in cell cultures. PMID:7509584

  11. Development and use of an internal standard for oyster herpesvirus 1 detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Arzul, I; Lipart, C

    2004-10-01

    Oyster samples were examined using a competitive PCR method in order to detect and quantify oyster herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA. Quantitation of viral DNA by competitive PCR assay was based on co-amplification of OsHV-1 DNA and a competitor where a known amount of competitor DNA was present in the same reaction mixture. The competitor was engineered so that it differs in length (deletion of 76 base pairs) from the viral DNA. The assay allowed the detection of 1 fg of viral DNA among 0.5 mg of oyster tissues. The method was used to demonstrate the absence of PCR inhibitors in oyster spat ground tissues. PCR inhibition was observed in adult oyster samples when the same tissue preparation procedure was used. On the contrary, classical phenol/chloroform DNA extraction from adult oyster tissues allowed co-amplification of the internal standard competitor and the viral DNA. The method was successfully used to demonstrate the presence of viral DNA in asymptomatic adult oysters. Quantitation of OsHV-1 DNA in infected spat and asymptomatic adult oysters was also carried out. Viral DNA (1.5-325 pg) were detectable in 0.5 mg of oyster tissues in adults. The amounts of viral DNA in infected oyster spat varied from 750 pg to 35 ng per 0.5 mg of ground tissues.

  12. Comparison of PCR-based detection of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on single and multicopy genes

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Segun I; Awobode, Henrietta O; Monday, Gamaliel C; Kendjo, Eric; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen F

    2007-01-01

    PCR-based assays are the most sensitive and specific methods to detect malaria parasites. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of three PCR-based assays that do not only differ in their sequence target, but also in the number of copies of their target region, for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in 401 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area in Nigeria. Compared to a composite reference generated from results of all the 3 PCR assays, the stevor gene amplification had a sensitivity of 100% (Kappa = 1; 95% CI = 1.000–1.000), 83% (Kappa = 0.718; 95% CI = 0.648–0.788) by SSUrRNA gene PCR and 71% (Kappa = 0.552; 95% CI = 0.478–0.627) by the msa-2 gene amplification. Results from this study indicate that the stevor gene amplification is the most sensitive technique for the