Science.gov

Sample records for net energy requirements

  1. Combining ability of ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining ability describes the breeding value of parental lines to produce hybrids. The objectives of this study were to detect specific (SCA) and general combining ability (GCA) estimates for ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in some upland cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.). T...

  2. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet…

  3. Estimation of the net energy requirements for maintenance in growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G F; Liu, D W; Wang, F L; Li, D F

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy requirements for maintenance of growing and finishing pigs using regression models. Thirty-six growing (27.38 ± 2.24 kg) and 36 finishing (70.25 ± 2.61 kg) barrows were used and within each phase. Pigs received a corn-soybean meal diet fed at 6 levels of feed intake, which were calculated as 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the estimated ad libitum ME intake (2,400 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1)) of the pigs. Measurements were conducted on 6 pigs per feeding level and per stage of growth. After a 5-d adjustment period, barrows in the fasted treatment were kept in respiration chambers for 2 d to measure the fasting heat production. Barrows in the other treatments were kept individually in respiration chambers for a 5-d balance trial followed by a 2-d fasting period. Heat production (HP) in the fed state was measured and feces and urine were collected in the balance trial. The total HP increased (P < 0.01) with increasing feeding levels. Fasting HP increased (P < 0.01) as previous feeding level increased and was less (P = 0.012) in finishing pigs than growing pigs if calculated per kilogram BW(0.6) per day. When using an exponential regression analysis, ME requirements for maintenance were estimated at 973 and 921 kJ/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1) and NE requirements for maintenance were estimated at 758 and 732 kJ/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1) for growing and finishing pigs, respectively. The efficiencies of using ME for growth and for maintenance were estimated at 66 and 78.7% for growing and finishing pigs, respectively. It is concluded that exponential regression between HP and a wide range of ME intake may be used as a new method to determine the NE requirement for maintenance.

  4. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  5. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  6. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  7. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  8. Energy balance framework for Net Zero Energy buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaching a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building goal based on current definitions is flawed for two principal reasons - they only deal with energy quantities required for operations, and they do not establish a threshold, which ensures that buildings are optimized for reduced consum...

  9. Multitarget tracking with cubic energy optical neural nets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, E; Casasent, D P

    1989-02-15

    A neural net processor and its optical realization are described for a multitarget tracking application. A cubic energy function results and a new optical neural processor is required. Initial simulation data are presented.

  10. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C. S., Jr.; Day, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ehtyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  11. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  12. 7 CFR 1427.1083 - Bonding requirements for net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonding requirements for net worth. 1427.1083 Section 1427.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Warehouses for Cotton and Cotton Linters § 1427.1083 Bonding requirements for net worth. A bond furnished...

  13. Switchgrass: Production, Economics, and Net Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The critical questions for a biomass bioenergy production system are: • What are the economics? • Is energy from biomass net energy positive? • Is production system information available and verified? • Is the system sustainable? To address these questions, ten farmers in the mid-continental USA w...

  14. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass.

  15. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass. PMID:18180449

  16. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  17. Using artificial neural nets to predict building energy parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial neural nets were used as nonlinear function approximators on two data sets of building energy parameters and solar radiation data. During the modeling (training) phase, the data to be predicted were unavailable, providing a ``blind`` test of the technique. The first time series consisted of building energy ``inputs`` (such as solar radiation and temperature) for September--December 1989 and required the prediction of energy use for January--February 1990. The extrapolation was performed with only the data immediately at hand. Although results for chilled and hot-water use were acceptable, the prediction of electricity use would have benefited markedly from easily available additional information, such as working and nonworking days. The second time series required the prediction of beam solar insolation from four global directional measurements. This was an interpolation problem, and good predictions were achieved for this data set. Conjugate gradient and cascade correlation neural net programs were used.

  18. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  19. Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.

    2012-05-01

    Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  20. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that the cost of electricity generated by home

  1. Energy performance of net-zero and near net-zero energy homes in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Walter D.

    Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEHs) are homes that consume no more energy than they produce on site during the course of a year. They are well insulated and sealed, use energy efficient appliances, lighting, and mechanical equipment, are designed to maximize the benefits from day lighting, and most often use a combination of solar hot water, passive solar and photovoltaic (PV) panels to produce their on-site energy. To date, NZEHs make up a miniscule percentage of homes in the United States, and of those, few have had their actual performance measured and analyzed once built and occupied. This research focused on 19 NZEHs and near net-zero energy homes (NNZEHs) built in New England. This set of homes had varying designs, numbers of occupants, and installed technologies for energy production, space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water systems. The author worked with participating homeowners to collect construction and systems specifications, occupancy information, and twelve months of energy consumption, production and cost measurements, in order to determine whether the homes reached their respective energy performance design goals. The author found that six out of ten NZEHs achieved net-zero energy or better, while all nine of the NNZEHs achieved an energy density (kWh/ft 2/person) at least half as low as the control house, also built in New England. The median construction cost for the 19 homes was 155/ft 2 vs. 110/ft2 for the US average, their average monthly energy cost was 84% below the average for homes in New England, and their estimated CO2 emissions averaged 90% below estimated CO2 emissions from the control house. Measured energy consumption averaged 14% below predictions for the NZEHs and 38% above predictions for the NNZEHs, while generated energy was within +/- 10% of predicted for 17 out of 18 on-site PV systems. Based on these results, the author concludes that these types of homes can meet or exceed their designed energy performance (depending on

  2. NETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1993-01-01

    NETS development tool provides environment for simulation and development of neural networks - computer programs that "learn" from experience. Written in ANSI standard C, program allows user to generate C code for implementation of neural network.

  3. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  4. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  5. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  6. Net energy of seven small-scale hydroelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, M. W.; Klopatek, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1981-07-01

    The net energy results are expressed as the ratio of energy output to energy input. Two ratios were developed. In the first (R1), the energy output, expressed as electrically, was divided by the energy subsidy; in the second (R2), the energy output, expressed as the fossil fuel equivalent of electricity, was divided by the energy input. The results indicate that the energy output from the seven plants is 8.6 to 32.9 times greater than the energy input for the R1 case, and 26.3 to 101.4 times greater than the energy input for the R2 case. On the net energy criterion, the small scale plants are better than conventional peak load hydroelectric plants and similar to conventional base load hydroelectric plants.

  7. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply with 46 CFR 108.235... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section 149.696 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  8. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply with 46 CFR 108.235... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section 149.696 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  9. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply with 46 CFR 108.235... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section 149.696 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  10. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply with 46 CFR 108.235... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section 149.696 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  11. 33 CFR 149.696 - What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... helicopter landing deck safety net? A helicopter landing deck safety net must comply with 46 CFR 108.235... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for a helicopter landing deck safety net? 149.696 Section 149.696 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  12. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential (μB). Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-critical-point models (UrQMD) will also be discussed.

  13. Net energy analysis: Powerful tool for selecting electric power options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, S.

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  14. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, S.

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  15. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  16. Predictions for net-proton and net-kaon distributions at LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Wolschin, Georg

    2010-05-01

    We investigate baryon and charge transport in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, compare with Au + Au RHIC data at √{sNN} = 0.2 TeV, and make predictions for net-proton rapidity distributions in central Pb + Pb collisions at CERN LHC energies of √{sNN} = 2.8, 3.9, and 5.5 TeV. We use the gluon saturation model and put special emphasis on the midrapidity valley | y | ⩽ 2. Net-kaon distributions are calculated and compared to BRAHMS Au + Au data at RHIC energies of √{sNN} = 0.2 TeV, and predicted for Pb + Pb at 5.5 TeV.

  17. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of spring and winter wheat: Comparison of net energy yields.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Heaven, Sonia; Salter, Andrew M; Banks, Charles J

    2016-10-14

    Anaerobic digestion of wheat was investigated under batch conditions. The article compares the potential net energy yield between a winter wheat (sown in the autumn) and a spring wheat (sown in the spring) grown in the same year and harvested at the same growth stage in the same farm. The spring wheat had a slightly higher biochemical methane potential and required lower energy inputs in cultivation, but produced a lower dry biomass yield per hectare, which resulted in winter wheat providing the best overall net energy yield. The difference was small; both varieties gave a good net energy yield. Spring sowing may also offer the opportunity for growing an additional over-winter catch crop for spring harvest, thus increasing the overall biomass yield per hectare, with both crops being potential digester feedstocks.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of spring and winter wheat: Comparison of net energy yields.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Heaven, Sonia; Salter, Andrew M; Banks, Charles J

    2016-10-14

    Anaerobic digestion of wheat was investigated under batch conditions. The article compares the potential net energy yield between a winter wheat (sown in the autumn) and a spring wheat (sown in the spring) grown in the same year and harvested at the same growth stage in the same farm. The spring wheat had a slightly higher biochemical methane potential and required lower energy inputs in cultivation, but produced a lower dry biomass yield per hectare, which resulted in winter wheat providing the best overall net energy yield. The difference was small; both varieties gave a good net energy yield. Spring sowing may also offer the opportunity for growing an additional over-winter catch crop for spring harvest, thus increasing the overall biomass yield per hectare, with both crops being potential digester feedstocks. PMID:27409161

  20. Determining production policies for crops to maximize net energy return

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, H.E.; Frisby, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this simulation study, energy consumption in production of corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa was evaluated under different levels of production constraints. A synthetic farm located in central Missouri was developed using data from previous studies. Only 150 hectares of the total cropland (350 ha) were irrigated using sprinkler irrigation. A linear programming model was used to select the crops and their respective areas. A first solution for a selected set of initial conditions resulted in partial utilization of total available cropland because of constraints reaching their upper limits. By a series of additional runs, suggested policies for full utilization of cropland and effects of policy changes on net energy return of the farm were determined. It was discovered that the initial conditions of the farm could be revised to increase the net energy return by 30 percent.

  1. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  2. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  3. Energy sources and requirements of the exercising horse.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1997-01-01

    This review outlines the energy sources available to the horse, from its diet and from its body stores, at rest and while exercising. It looks at the current ways of describing the energy potential of diets fed to horses and discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of the digestible energy and net energy systems. The more empirical net energy system for calculating the energy available for maintenance and work is compared with a more physiological partitioning system. Finally, the energy requirements for maintenance and exercise are discussed, together with how they may be practically determined and achieved through different diets.

  4. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  5. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  6. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  7. The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo

    2016-09-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr–1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr–1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.

  8. The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes; Bardi, Ugo

    2016-09-01

    Planning the appropriate renewable energy (RE) installation rate should balance two partially contradictory objectives: substituting fossil fuels fast enough to stave-off the worst consequences of climate change while maintaining a sufficient net energy flow to support the world’s economy. The upfront energy invested in constructing a RE infrastructure subtracts from the net energy available for societal energy needs, a fact typically neglected in energy projections. Modeling feasible energy transition pathways to provide different net energy levels we find that they are critically dependent on the fossil fuel emissions cap and phase-out profile and on the characteristic energy return on energy invested of the RE technologies. The easiest pathway requires installation of RE plants to accelerate from 0.12 TWp yr-1 in 2013 to peak between 7.3 and 11.6 TWp yr-1 in the late 2030s, for an early or a late fossil-fuel phase-out respectively in order for emissions to stay within the recommended CO2 budget.

  9. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    SciTech Connect

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  10. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  11. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    SciTech Connect

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  12. Comparative net energy ratio analysis of pellet produced from steam pretreated biomass from agricultural residues and energy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Shahrukh, Hassan; Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Kumar, Amit; Ghiasi, Bahman; Kumar, Linoj; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-04-05

    Here, a process model was developed to determine the net energy ratio (NER) for production of pellets from steam pretreated agricultural residue (AR) and energy crop (i.e. switchgrass in this case). The NER is a ratio of the net energy output to the total net energy input from non-renewable energy sources into a system. Scenarios were developed to measure the effects of temperature and level of steam pretreatment on the NER of steam pretreated AR- and switch grass-based pellets. The NER for the base case at 6 kg h-1 is 1.76 and 1.37 for steam-pretreated AR- and switchgrass-based pellets, respectively.more » The reason behind the difference is that more energy is required to dry switchgrass pellets than AR pellets. The sensitivity analysis for the model shows that the optimum temperature for steam pretreatment is 160 C with 50% pretreatment (half the feedstock is pretreated, while the rest is undergoes regular pelletization). The uncertainty results for NER for steam pretreated AR and switch grass pellets are 1.62 ± 0.10 and 1.42 ± 0.11, respectively.« less

  13. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  14. Energy requirements of development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Samuels, G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report focuses on the energy requirements of pumped irrigation and cement plants as examples of the energy operating requirements of large development projects. Based on conservative assumptions about the nearness of the water table to the surface and the efficiency of operating pumping systems, using pumped irrigation to increase by 5% the arable land area of the countries studied would require energy equivalent to 4-1/2% to 8-1/2% of 1980 energy imports or commercial energy consumption of four of the countries; Somalia and Chad would require 15% and 22% of their 1980 oil import or consumption levels - partly because of relatively large, marginally arable land areas and partly because of low energy imports (commercial consumption). The introduction of one or (at most) two moderate-sized cement plants into five West African countries and Sudan requires from 12% to 40% of those countries' 1980 national commercial energy consumption for their operation. These calculations assume high levels of maintenance and developed country standards of fuel efficient operation; therefore actual fuel requirements are likely to be higher. The countries studied have few or no domestic fuel supply options other than imports. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Main Street Net-Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, large-scale, cost-effective net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) were thought to lie decades in the future. However, ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that NZEB status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy. The vision of NZEBs is compelling. In theory, these highly energy-efficient buildings will produce, during a typical year, enough renewable energy to offset the energy they consume from the grid. The NREL NZEB definition framework classifies NZEBs according to the criteria being used to judge net-zero status and the way renewable energy is supplied to achieve that status. We use the new U.S. Department of Energy/NREL 220,000-ft{sub 2} Research Support Facilities (RSF) building to illustrate why a clear picture of NZEB definitions is important and how the framework provides a methodology for creating a cost-effective NZEB. The RSF, scheduled to open in June 2010, includes contractual commitments to deliver a Leadership in Energy Efficiency and Design (LEED) Platinum Rating, an energy use intensity of 25 kBtu/ft{sub 2} (half that of a typical LEED Platinum office building), and net-zero energy status. We will discuss the analysis method and cost tradeoffs that were performed throughout the design and build phases to meet these commitments and maintain construction costs at $259/ft{sub 2}. We will discuss ways to achieve large-scale, replicable NZEB performance. Many passive and renewable energy strategies are utilized, including full daylighting, high-performance lighting, natural ventilation through operable windows, thermal mass, transpired solar collectors, radiant heating and cooling, and workstation configurations allow for maximum daylighting.

  16. Requirements engineering of a medical information system using rule-based refinement of Petri nets

    SciTech Connect

    Ermel, C.; Padberg, J.; Ehrig, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the application of a formal technique to software engineering. In this case study we have used rule-based refinement of algebraic high-level nets for the requirements engineering of a medical information system. We outline the basic ideas of rule-based refinement and discuss how this technique is applied to the development from actual state analysis to functional essence.

  17. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  18. Net energy analysis of methanol and ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Blanco, H.; Hannon, B.

    1982-03-01

    Methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH) are industrial alcohols that can be used as liquid fuels. They may be obtained from renewable or non-renewable feedstocks. The production processes and end uses are analyzed in order to assess the potential energy savings introduced by alcohol production from renewable instead of nonrenewable feedstock. Whereas MeOH production from wood brings about energy savings, EtOH production from corn may or may not save energy depending on the end use of the alcohol. If the alcohol is used as a motor fuel, no overall energy savings are found. The economics and total labor requirements of each process are also considered.

  19. Net energy analysis of district solar heating with seasonal heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.; Kangas, M. T.

    1983-10-01

    A net energy analysis of district solar heating using seasonal heat storage has been performed. The use of seasonal heat storage is of great importance in northern latitudes when the solar contribution is to be increased. Different system alternatives were considered. Net energy ratios for the most favorable options were found to be between 3 and 5.

  20. Sustainability of Switchgrass for Cellulosic Ethanol: Evaluating Net Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Feedstocks Costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Sustainability concerns with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and similar energy crops have been about net energy efficiency, potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic feasibility grown ...

  1. Energy requirements in Chilean infants

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, G; Vio, F; Garcia, C; Aguirre, E; Coward, W

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants.
METHODS—The study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured at 34 (4) days. A dose of 0.2 g/kg deuterium oxide (99.8%) and 2.0 g/kg 10% 18O labelled water was given to the infants, and urine samples were collected for seven consecutive days after dosing.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) weight of the infants during the period of evaluation was 4617 (343) g and weight gain 34.0 (7.5) g/day. Daily milk intake was 728 (101) g and its metabolisable energy content 2.71 kJ/g. The energy expenditure of the infants was 1205 (312) kJ/day and energy required for growth was 607 (130) kJ/day. When combined this produced an energy requirement of 391 kJ/kg/day for these infants.
CONCLUSION—These data agree with those from other studies in the United Kingdom and the United States and suggest that adequate growth can be achieved with 19.4% less energy than recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU.

 PMID:10952706

  2. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-09-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system.

  3. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-01-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system. PMID:25049910

  4. The Nitrogen Budget of a Northern Hardwood Forest: Sources and net Primary Productivity Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Vogel, C. S.; Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits net primary productivity (NPP) in most forests. Nearly all N required for NPP comes from decomposing organic matter, and is continuously recycled within the forest. However, atmospheric N deposition may augment forest N supply, increasing NPP. To quantify internal N cycling, atmospheric N inputs, and NPP, we developed an ecosystem-scale nitrogen (N) budget for a mixed deciduous forest in northern lower Michigan, USA. Sources of N were net N-mineralization (Nmin), wet (Dw) and bulk (Db) atmospheric N deposition, and canopy retention of bulk N deposition (CRN). We also quantified the N requirement of NPP, which was measured by biometric inventory of annual leaf, above- and belowground wood, and fine root mass production. Nmin supplied 44.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (88% of total annual N supply), while inorganic Dw supplied 4.8 kg N ha-1yr-1 (9% of total). Bulk organic N deposition contributed 1.5 kg N ha-1, or 3% of the total annual N supply. The forest canopy retained 2.2 kg N ha-1 of total Db, suggesting that 4% of the annual NPP N requirement could be met through canopy N uptake, if all N retained by the canopy was assimilated. Of the 53.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 required for NPP, 61% was for fine root production, 32% was for leaf production, and 7% was for wood. Our N supply and forest NPP N requirement estimates were very close, with quantified N sources supplying 94% of the annual NPP N requirement. At our site, where Dw and organic Db provide 12% of the annual NPP N requirement, atmospheric N deposition makes a small but significant contribution to NPP. However, the minor contribution of CRN to the annual NPP N requirement indicates that N retained by the canopy has little effect on forest growth.

  5. Extrusion energy and pressure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Hanna, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Corn gluten meal samples at moisture contents of 14, 20 and 26% dry basis were extruded at barrel temperatures of 120, 145 and 170/sup 0/C with screw speeds of 100, 150 and 200 rpm. The specific energy requirements and specific operating pressure decreases as the moisture content and temperature were increased. The effect of screw speed on specific energy and pressure was inconclusive.

  6. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  7. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  8. LEAP Phase II, Net Energy Gain From Laser Fields in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.D.; Colby, E.R.; Plettner, T.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Mech. Dept.

    2005-09-27

    The current Laser Electron Acceleration Program (LEAP) seeks to modulate the energy of an electron bunch by interaction of the electrons with a copropagating pair of crossed laser beams at 800 nm. We present an optical injector design for a LEAP cell so that it can be used to give net energy gain to an electron bunch. Unique features of the design are discussed which will allow this net energy gain and which will also provide a robust signature for the LEAP interaction.

  9. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity

    PubMed Central

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N⋅ha−1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha−1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ⋅ha−1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg⋅ha−1 and 159 GJ⋅ha−1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e⋅Mg−1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

  10. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

  11. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  12. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secretary of Energy's action on...

  13. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secretary of Energy's action on...

  14. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secretary of Energy's action on...

  15. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Energy's action on...

  16. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secretary of Energy's action on...

  17. Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2008-07-21

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  18. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  19. Mimic nets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G E

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces techniques to train feedforward nets to automate ranking and classification tasks. The techniques are denoted mimic nets since the nets can always mimic self-consistent training data. The mimic nets are constructed not for any neurological analogy, but for computational ease and purposeful utility. Mimic nets are designed for problems requiring sensible extrapolation from noiseless training data, and errorless recall of the training data. Linear programming algorithms are utilized to train the net to exactly mimic the expert in all training situations, to identify efficacious features, and to assess the training data. The number of nodes and the number of connections, the structure of the mimic net, are adapted together with weights in the net. The existence of a mimic net for every consistent set of training data is demonstrated.

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent of its net capital for 12 months after commencing business as a broker or dealer). Alternative... than 7 business days old; (C) Exclude credit balances in accounts representing amounts payable for... business days; and (D) Deduct from net worth in computing net capital 1 percent of the contract value...

  1. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  2. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies

  3. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  4. Evaluation of dairy cattle manure as a supplement to improve net energy gain in fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated fermentative biohydrogen production from sucrose supplemented with dairy cattle manure at different sucrose:manure ratios. Hydrogen yields found in this study (2.9-5.3M hydrogen/M sucrose) at ambient temperature are higher than literature results obtained at mesophilic temperatures. This study demonstrated that dairy cattle manure could serve as a buffering agent to maintain recommended pH levels; as a nutrient source to provide the required nutrients for hydrogen production; as a seed to produce hydrogen from sucrose; and as a co-substrate to improve the hydrogen yield. Based on an analysis of the net energy gain, it is concluded that positive net energy gains can be realized with non-thermal pretreatment and/or by combining dark fermentation with anaerobic digestion or microbial fuel cells to extract additional energy from the aqueous products of dark fermentation.

  5. Army Net Zero: Energy Roadmap and Program Summary, Fiscal Year 2013 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Army (Army) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through improved energy efficiency and optimized renewable energy strategies at nine installations across the Army's portfolio. Referred to as Net Zero Energy Installations (NZEIs), these projects demonstrate and validate energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies with approaches that can be replicated across DOD and other Federal agencies, setting the stage for broad market adoption. This report summarizes the results of the energy project roadmaps developed by NREL, shows the progress each installation could make in achieving Net Zero Energy by 2020, and presents lessons learned and unique challenges from each installation.

  6. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  7. Current Energy Requirements in the Copper Producing Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Charles H.; Wadsworth, Milton E.

    1981-06-01

    An analysis of energy usage in the production of refined cathode copper was made from mining ore to cathode copper. In mining copper ore the greatest energy consumers are ore hauling and blasting. Another important factor is the "recovery efficiency" of the metallurgical processes used to extract the copper. The mining and mineral concentrating energies are directly proportional to the "recovery efficiency," with a typical mining operation requiring about 20 million Btu/ton of cathode copper produced. Mineral concentrating was also found to be a large energy consumer, requiring about 43 million Btu/ton of cathode copper. Some possibilities for energy savings in the mineral processing area include use of autogenous grinding and computer control for optimizing grinding operations, improved classifier efficiency, and optimizing the entire concentrator plant performance by interrelating all plant operations. In acid plants, optimization of input SO2 concentration can make the plant a net producer rather than a net user of energy. The conventional smelting process utilizes very little of the energy from the combustion of sulfides in the charge. Several of the newer copper pyrometallurgical processes which utilize more of the combustion energy of the sulfides as heat show a significant improvement over conventional smelting. Generally, increased use of oxygen decreases Level 1 energies but proportionately increases Level 2 energies. Hydrometallurgical processes are, in general, more energy intensive than smelting processes, mainly because of the inability to utilize the heat of reaction of the sulfides. Electrowinning used in most hydrometallurgy processes is also energy intensive, and research in these areas could produce significant energy savings. Combination pyrometallurgical processes are generally less energy intensive than entirely hydrometallurgical processes. Significant improvements may be made in energy use in hydrometallurgical processes by more effective

  8. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler , Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; ,, Hirohisa Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-05-26

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive / demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon / CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  9. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  10. Net Energy Payback and CO{sub 2} Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    White, Scott W.

    2006-12-15

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO{sub 2} analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO{sub 2} analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data.A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data.The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO{sub 2} emissions, in tonnes of CO{sub 2} per GW{sub e}h, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively.

  11. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  12. Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

  13. Advancing Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the research the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting to achieve net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs). It also includes key definitions of NZEBs and inforamtion about an NZEB database that captures information about projects around the world.

  14. GreenCraft Builders 2009 TimberCreek Net Zero Energy House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-24

    This case study describes strategy for achieving zero net energy by lowering building consumption through a high efficiency enclosure and mechanical as much as possible and using photovoltaic installation to generate the remaining amount of energy needed to operate the building over the course of a year.

  15. Net electron energy gain from interaction with a chirped “plane-wave” laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2012-07-01

    According to the Lawson-Woodward theorem, an electron cannot gain any energy from interaction with an ideal plane-wave laser pulse. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that chirping the frequency of the pulse distorts it in a sensitive way and leads to net energy gain by an electron submitted to it.

  16. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  17. Net irrigation requirements for maize (Zea mays L.) in Bocono-Masparro interfluvium area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias Ramirez, Asdrubal Jesus; Moreno Pizani, Maria Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the largest consumers of fresh water. In situations where water resources are limited, the irrigation for crops has led to water use conflicts because of human, hydroelectric and industrial demands. Thus, achieving precise information about water availability and water needs of crops becomes safety factors to guarantee sustainable development of irrigated crops in the future. In Bocono-Masparro interfluvium area located within Barinas and Portuguesa states in Venezuela, there has been a significant increase in intensive farming with maize (Zea mays L.) which made essential to determine the availability of irrigation water to meet the crop requirement and improve the management based on planning designs. Due to the lack of irrigation requirements data for the study area, a methodology was developed to estimate the net irrigation requirements (NIR). Therefore, the available information of this region related to climate, soil and irrigation was used to estimate NIR for maize through CROPWAT 8.0 model. There were established different crop-climate-soil combinations that allowed estimating NIR. It was found that NIR did not exceed the value of 125 mm/month in all of the combinations. Based on these results, a NIR spatial distribution map was obtained through the use of ArcView 3.2 ®. The results showed that the highest NIR were located in the northeast sector of the study area which was associated to the influence of the Weather Station named San Hipolito. Additionally, the estimated availability of groundwater was found to be higher than the surface water, and both combined exceeded the demands of the study area. The model CROPWAT 8.0 provided necessary information for irrigation planning in large scale. A NIR map developed through the proposed methodology represents a useful tool to integrate water balance factors.

  18. Far-from-equilibrium processes without net thermal exchange via energy sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Jose M. G.; Rubi, J. Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Many important processes at the microscale require far-from-equilibrium conditions to occur, as in the functioning of mesoscopic bioreactors, nanoscopic rotors, and nanoscale mass conveyors. Achieving such conditions, however, is typically based on energy inputs that strongly affect the thermal properties of the environment and the controllability of the system itself. Here, we present a general class of far-from-equilibrium processes that suppress the net thermal exchange with the environment by maintaining the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution intact. This new phenomenon, referred to as ghost equilibrium, results from the statistical cancellation of superheated and subcooled nonequilibrated degrees of freedom that are autonomously generated through a microscale energy sorting process. We provide general conditions to observe this phenomenon and study its implications for manipulating energy at the microscale. The results are applied explicitly to two mechanistically different cases, an ensemble of rotational dipoles and a gas of trapped particles, which encompass a great variety of common situations involving both rotational and translational degrees of freedom.

  19. PNC Financial Services - Net-Zero Energy Bank Branch

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    PNC has opened a zero-energy building that is 57% more efficient than ASHRAE 90.1-2004. Exterior features include shading to control glare from sunlight and photovoltaic solar panels to produce as much electricity as the building consumes annually.

  20. 12 CFR 702.106 - Standard calculation of risk-based net worth requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.106 Standard calculation of...) Allowance. Negative one hundred percent (−100%) of the balance of the Allowance for Loan and Lease...

  1. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-01

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  2. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  3. A Novel Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor as a Potential Net Energy Producer for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shi, Bing-Jing; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system. PMID:23689529

  4. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  5. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of dynamical net charge fluctuations.

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of IIlinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV, and p+p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub +-,dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are nonzero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes — Cottle Zero Net Energy Home, San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder took home the Grand Winner prize in the Custom Builder category in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for its high performance building science approach. The builder used insulated concrete form blocks to create the insulated crawlspace foundation for its first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, the first net zero energy new home certified in the state of California.

  7. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  8. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  9. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  10. On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations to Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper illustrates the challenges of integrating rigorous daylight and electric lighting simulation data with whole-building energy models, and defends the need for such integration to achieve aggressive energy savings. Through a case study example, we examine the ways daylighting -- and daylighting simulation -- drove the design of a large net-zero energy project. We give a detailed review of the daylighting and electric lighting design process for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility (RSF), a 220,000 ft2 net-zero energy project the author worked on as a daylighting consultant. A review of the issues involved in simulating and validating the daylighting performance of the RSF will be detailed, including daylighting simulation, electric lighting control response, and integration of Radiance simulation data into the building energy model. Daylighting was a key strategy in reaching the contractual energy use goals for the RSF project; the building's program, layout, orientation and interior/furniture design were all influenced by the daylighting design, and simulation was critical in ensuring these many design components worked together in an integrated fashion, and would perform as required to meet a very aggressive energy performance goal, as expressed in a target energy use intensity.

  11. Energy requirements for tillage and planting

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, L.E.; Spencer, A.D.; Floyd, V.G.; Brixius, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Energy requirements for a number of residue-preparation, tillage, planting, and weed-control processes have been measured. The energy-savings potential of substituting one process for another may be determined from the results. An energy budget points out opportunities for energy savings within the tractor-implement system. 3 refs.

  12. Net energy and greenhouse gas emission evaluation of biodiesel derived from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Batan, Liaw; Quinn, Jason; Willson, Bryan; Bradley, Thomas

    2010-10-15

    Biofuels derived from microalgae have the potential to replace petroleum fuel and first-generation biofuel, but the efficacy with which sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the microalgae-to-biofuel process. This study proposes a detailed, industrial-scale engineering model for the species Nannochloropsis using a photobioreactor architecture. This process level model is integrated with a lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas emission analysis compatible with the methods and boundaries of the Argonne National Laboratory GREET model, thereby ensuring comparability to preexisting fuel-cycle assessments. Results are used to evaluate the net energy ratio (NER) and net greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) of microalgae biodiesel in comparison to petroleum diesel and soybean-based biodiesel with a boundary equivalent to "well-to-pump". The resulting NER of the microalgae biodiesel process is 0.93 MJ of energy consumed per MJ of energy produced. In terms of net GHGs, microalgae-based biofuels avoids 75 g of CO(2)-equivalent emissions per MJ of energy produced. The scalability of the consumables and products of the proposed microalgae-to-biofuels processes are assessed in the context of 150 billion liters (40 billion gallons) of annual production.

  13. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  14. Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  15. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  16. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  17. Final Technical Report for the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Fazeli, Sandy

    2014-09-30

    The Commercial Buildings Consortium (CBC) was established in 2009, under the chairmanship of the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), as a supporting organization to the Commercial Buildings Initiative (CBI). The CBI was created by Congress through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and launched by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 with the goal to “develop and disseminate technologies, practices, and policies for establishment of zero net energy commercial buildings.”. The impact of the CBC since 2009 has been multifold, resulting in increased collaboration, increased innovation, and increased demonstration and deployment. During the project performance period of 2009-2014, the CBC provided an organizational framework for sustained public-private collaboration among more than 600 commercial building professionals, researchers and educators, utilities, and government agencies at federal, state, and local level. The CBC’s research has identified emerging technologies, market strategies, and innovative public and corporate policies to help advance CBI’s zero-net-energy. Finally, the CBC worked in close partnership with DOE’s commercial building teams and the Better Buildings Alliances to identify opportunities for proving out and deploying energy-saving technologies and practices.

  18. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  19. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    EPA Science Inventory

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  20. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today. PMID:21749111

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  2. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores. PMID:11208938

  3. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  4. Decision Support for Water Planning: the ZeroNet Water-Energy Initiative.

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P. M.; Weintraub, Laura H. Z.; Ewers, Mary E.; Riggs, T. L.; Wilson, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and severe drought are impacting water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry...), particularly in arid regions. New generation decision support tools, incorporating recent advances in informatics and geographic information systems (GIS), are essential for responsible water planning at the basin scale. The ZeroNet water-energy initiative is developing a decision support system (DSS) for the San Juan River Basin, with a focus on drought planning and economic analysis. The ZeroNet DSS provides a computing environment (cyberinfrastructure) with three major components: Watershed Tools, a Quick Scenario Tool, and a Knowledge Base. The Watershed Tools, based in the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF), provides capabilities (1) to model surface flows, both the natural and controlled, as well as water withdrawals, via an engineering module, and (2) to analyze and visualize results via a stakeholder module. A new ZeroNet module for WARMF enables iterative modeling and production of 'what if' scenario libraries to examine consequences of changes in climate, landuse, and water allocation. The Quick Scenario Tool uses system dynamics modeling for rapid analysis and visualization for a variety of uses, including drought planning, economic analysis, evaluation of management alternatives, and risk assessment. The Knowledge Base serves simultaneously as the 'faithful scribe' to organize and archive data in easily accessible digital libraries, and as the 'universal translator' to share data from diverse sources and for diverse uses. All of the decision tools depend upon GIS capabilities for data/model integration, map-based analysis, and advanced visualization. The ZeroNet DSS offers stakeholders an effective means to address complex water problems.

  5. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinne, A.; Morrison, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Photovoltaics is subject of an extensive technology assessment in terms of its net energy potential as an alternate energy source. Reduction of quartzite pebbles, refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building are evaluated for energy expenditure compared to direct, indirect, and overhead energies.

  6. Energy requirements for tillage-planting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.R.; Parsons, s.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel saved by omitting field operations or changing to operations with lower power requirements is easily understood and can be measured directly or estimated from research data. However, several other energy consuming inputs may be altered by changing tillage practices: the type and amount of pesticides required, the form and amount of fertilizer applied; and the particular equipment used. these other energy components are frequently overlooked because they are not easily defined and not highly visible at the arm level. They may, however, tip the energy balance in favor of one tillage-planting system over another when comparing the total energy burden on society. this paper attempts to put these various energy components into perspective as they relate to the selection of a tillage-planting system for corn and soybean production. 15 refs.

  7. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  8. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Van Geet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-04-01

    This abbreviated report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project.

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly basis and, in lieu of the 1 percent reduction of certain... Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any required... value of margin securities borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR...

  11. 24 CFR 906.31 - Requirements applicable to net proceeds resulting from sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... all costs of the sale for purposes relating to low-income housing and in accordance with its PHA plan... these proceeds for low-income housing purposes. (c) Transfer of unsold unit to PHA. In a situation where... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements applicable to...

  12. 24 CFR 906.31 - Requirements applicable to net proceeds resulting from sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... all costs of the sale for purposes relating to low-income housing and in accordance with its PHA plan... these proceeds for low-income housing purposes. (c) Transfer of unsold unit to PHA. In a situation where... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements applicable to...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  16. Laccaria bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 is required for Hartig net development in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Navarro-RóDenas, Alfonso; Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-11-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal associations is crucial for growth of many forest trees. However, the signals that are exchanged between the fungus and the host plant during the colonization process are still poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the relationship between expression patterns of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 and the development of ectomycorrhizal structures in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings. The peak expression of LbAQP1 was 700-fold higher in the hyphae within the root than in the free-living mycelium after 24 h of direct interaction with the roots. Moreover, in LbAQP1 knock-down strains, a non-mycorrhizal phenotype was developed without the Hartig net and the expression of the mycorrhizal effector protein MiSSP7 quickly declined after an initial peak on day 5 of interaction of the fungal hyphae with the roots. The increase in the expression of LbAQP1 required a direct contact of the fungus with the root and it modulated the expression of MiSSP7. We have also determined that LbAQP1 facilitated NO, H2 O2 and CO2 transport when heterologously expressed in yeast. The report demonstrates that the L. bicolor aquaporin LbAQP1 acts as a molecular signalling channel, which is fundamental for the development of Hartig net in root tips of P. tremuloides.

  17. Energy Gain. Teacher's Guide and Student Guide. Net Energy Unit. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Richard J.

    This module focuses on gains and losses of energy as society processes resources for energy production. It particularly focuses on the end point of energy conversion and addresses decisions which society must make concerning benefits and costs of various energy production methods and generating facilities. One class period is needed to implement…

  18. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  19. The Net Energy Budget at the Surface Interface of the "Cold Tongue" Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Pinker, Rachel; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    The southern tropical Pacific region also known as the "cold tongue" region is of great interest in terms of understanding the atmosphere-ocean coupling, and the observed strong seasonal cycle in sea surface temperature. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of air-sea interaction through the analysis of the net heat budget over the "cold tongue" region. Such analysis requires high quality heat budget estimates which are impacted by the complex and extensive low-level stratocumulus clouds in this region. The accuracy at which current satellite and numerical model methods can estimate this net heat budget is of interest. In this paper, the heat budget at the ocean-atmosphere interface in a region bound by 0o S - 30o S, 110o W - 70o W has been derived using satellite observations and compared to in situ measurements and to predictions from numerical models. The approach is based on multi-satellite sensors, buoy observations and numerical analyses. The fluxes are generated at daily and monthly time scales for a 10 year period (2002-2012) at a nominal 10 resolution (some parameters are available at higher resolution). Once the metrics on the accuracy of the satellite estimates are known, they can serve as "ground truth" for evaluating numerical models.

  20. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  1. Energy requirements, protein-energy metabolism and balance, and carbohydrates in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Denne, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Energy is necessary for all vital functions of the body at molecular, cellular, organ, and systemic levels. Preterm infants have minimum energy requirements for basal metabolism and growth, but also have requirements for unique physiology and metabolism that influence energy expenditure. These include body size, postnatal age, physical activity, dietary intake, environmental temperatures, energy losses in the stool and urine, and clinical conditions and diseases, as well as changes in body composition. Both energy and protein are necessary to produce normal rates of growth. Carbohydrates (primarily glucose) are principle sources of energy for the brain and heart until lipid oxidation develops over several days to weeks after birth. A higher protein/energy ratio is necessary in most preterm infants to approximate normal intrauterine growth rates. Lean tissue is predominantly produced during early gestation, which continues through to term. During later gestation, fat accretion in adipose tissue adds increasingly large caloric requirements to the lean tissue growth. Once protein intake is sufficient to promote net lean body accretion, additional energy primarily produces more body fat, which increases almost linearly at energy intakes >80-90 kcal/kg/day in normal, healthy preterm infants. Rapid gains in adiposity have the potential to produce later life obesity, an increasingly recognized risk of excessive energy intake. In addition to fundamental requirements for glucose, protein, and fat, a variety of non-glucose carbohydrates found in human milk may have important roles in promoting growth and development, as well as production of a gut microbiome that could protect against necrotizing enterocolitis.

  2. 78 FR 29200 - In the Matter of Griffin Mining, Inc., Power Sports Factory, Inc., Star Energy Corp., TransNet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Griffin Mining, Inc., Power Sports Factory, Inc., Star Energy Corp., TransNet... concerning the securities of Star Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  3. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  4. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  5. Adaptations of hepatic amino acid uptake and net utilisation contributes to nitrogen economy or waste in lambs fed nitrogen- or energy-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Kraft, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Durand, D; Rémond, D; Jardé, T; Bequette, B; Savary-Auzeloux, I

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effect of relative changes in dietary nitrogen (N) and energy supply and the subsequent variations in net portal appearance (NPA) of nitrogenous and energy nutrients on the net amino acid (AA) uptake by the liver and net N supply to the peripheral tissues. Six lambs were catheterised across the splanchnic tissues and received, in a replicated Latin square, one of three dietary treatments. The diets were formulated to either match the requirements of N and energy (C), or supply only 0.8 of the N requirement (LN) or 0.8 of the energy requirement (LE). Net fluxes of AA and urea-N were measured across the portal-drained viscera, and estimation of arterial hepatic flow allowed the estimation of hepatic fluxes. Catheters were implanted into the portal and hepatic veins as well as in the abdominal aorta for the measurement of AA fluxes. Animals fed the LN diet showed more efficient N retention (0.59 of digested N) than did the C and LE diet (0.50 and 0.33, respectively; P < 0.001). The NPA of total AA-N for the LN diet was only 0.60 of the value measured for the control (C) diet (P < 0.01). Despite this, the total estimated AA-N net splanchnic fluxes were not significantly different across the three diets (3.3, 1.9 and 2.6 g total AA-N/day for C, LN and LE, respectively, P = 0.52). Thus, different metabolic regulations must have taken place across the liver between the three experimental diets. A combination of decreased net uptake of total AA-N by the liver of animals in the LN diet (0.61 of the C diet; P = 0.002) and reduced urinary urea-N production (0.52 of the C diet; P = 0.001) spared AA from catabolism in the LN diet relative to the other two diets. For the LE diet, the urinary urea-N output was 1.3 times the value of the C diet (P = 0.01). This may relate to an increased catabolism of AA by the muscle and/or, to a lesser extent, to an increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis in the liver. These effects may explain the reduced whole body

  6. Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts. The company has been developing strategies for cost-effective super-insulated homes in the New England market since 2006. After years of using various construction techniques, it has developed a specific set of assemblies and specifications that achieve a 44.9% reduction in energy use compared with a home built to the 2009 International Residential Code, qualifying the houses for the DOE's Challenge Home. The super-insulated houses provide data for several research topics in a cold climate. BSC studied the moisture risks in double stud walls insulated with open cell spray foam and cellulose. The mini-split air source heat pump (ASHP) research focused on the range of temperatures experienced in bedrooms as well as the homeowners' perceptions of equipment performance. BSC also examined the developer's financing options for the photovoltaic (PV) systems, which take advantage of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, local incentives, and state and federal tax credits.

  7. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  8. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  9. Energetics of Climate Models: Net Energy Balance and Meridional Enthalpy Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, V.; Ragone, F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the publicly released outputs of the simulations performed by climate models (CMs) in preindustrial (PI) and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B (SRESA1B) conditions. In the PI simulations, most CMs feature biases of the order of 1 W m-2 for the net global and the net atmospheric, oceanic, and land energy balances. This does not result from transient effects but depends on the imperfect closure of the energy cycle in the fluid components and on inconsistencies over land. Thus, the planetary emission temperature is underestimated, which may explain the CMs' cold bias. In the PI scenario, CMs agree on the meridional atmospheric enthalpy transport's peak location (around 40°N/S), while discrepancies of ˜20% exist on the intensity. Disagreements on the oceanic transport peaks' location and intensity amount to ˜10° and ˜50%, respectively. In the SRESA1B runs, the atmospheric transport's peak shifts poleward, and its intensity increases up to ˜10% in both hemispheres. In most CMs, the Northern Hemispheric oceanic transport decreases, and the peaks shift equatorward in both hemispheres. The Bjerknes compensation mechanism is active both on climatological and interannual time scales. The total meridional transport peaks around 35° in both hemispheres and scenarios, whereas disagreements on the intensity reach ˜20%. With increased CO2 concentration, the total transport increases up to ˜10%, thus contributing to polar amplification of global warming. Advances are needed for achieving a self-consistent representation of climate as a nonequilibrium thermodynamical system. This is crucial for improving the CMs' skill in representing past and future climate changes.

  10. New Whole-House Case Study: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts. The company has been developing strategies for cost-effective super-insulated homes in the New England market since 2006. After years of using various construction techniques, it has developed a specific set of assemblies and specifications that achieve a 44.9% reduction in energy use compared with a home built to the 2009 International Residential Code, qualifying the houses for the DOE’s Challenge Home. The super-insulated houses provide data for several research topics in a cold climate. BSC studied the moisture risks in double stud walls insulated with open cell spray foam and cellulose. The mini-split air source heat pump (ASHP) research focused on the range of temperatures experienced in bedrooms as well as the homeowners’ perceptions of equipment performance. BSC also examined the developer’s financing options for the photovoltaic (PV) systems, which take advantage of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, local incentives, and state and federal tax credits.

  11. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  12. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  13. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  14. Preliminary Design of a Solar Photovoltaic Array for Net-Zero Energy Buildings at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate photovoltaic (solar electric systems) systems for a single building at NASA Langley as a representative case for alternative sustainable power generation. Building 1250 in the Science Directorate is comprised of office and laboratory space, and currently uses approximately 250,000 kW/month of electrical power with a projected use of 200,000 kW/month with additional conservation measures. The installation would be applied towards a goal for having Building 1250 classified as a net-zero energy building as it would produce as much energy as it uses over the course of a year. Based on the facility s electrical demand, a photovoltaic system and associated hardware were characterized to determine the optimal system, and understand the possible impacts from its deployment. The findings of this investigation reveal that the 1.9 MW photovoltaic electrical system provides favorable and robust results. The solar electric system should supply the needed sustainable power solution especially if operation and maintenance of the system will be considered a significant component of the system deployment.

  15. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton Multiplicity Distributions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report the beam energy (√sNN =7.7-200 GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au +Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model.

  16. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model. PMID:24484135

  17. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for biohydrogen production pathways.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the energy and environmental aspects of producing biohydrogen for bitumen upgrading from a life cycle perspective. Three technologies are studied for biohydrogen production; these include the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier, and fast pyrolysis. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered including forest residue (FR), whole forest (WF), and agricultural residue (AR). The fast pyrolysis pathway includes two cases: truck transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of bio-oil. The net energy ratios (NERs) for nine biohydrogen pathways lie in the range of 1.3-9.3. The maximum NER (9.3) is for the FR-based pathway using GTI technology. The GHG emissions lie in the range of 1.20-8.1 kg CO₂ eq/kg H₂. The lowest limit corresponds to the FR-based biohydrogen production pathway using GTI technology. This study also analyzes the intensities for acid rain precursor and ground level ozone precursor.

  18. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment.

  19. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

  20. A system for predicting energy and protein requirements of wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Wild ruminants require energy and protein for the normal function. I developed a system for predicting these energy and protein requirements across ruminant species and life stages. This system defines requirements on the basis of net energy (NE), net protein (NP), and ruminally degraded protein (RDP). Total NE and NP requirements are calculated as the sum of NE and NP required for several functions (maintenance, activity, thermoregulation, gain, lactation, and gestation). To estimate the requirements for each function, I collected data predominantly for wild species and then formulated allometric and other equations that predict requirements across species. I estimated RDP requirements using an equation for cattle. I then related NE, NP, and RDP to quantities more practical for diet formulation (e.g. dry matter intake). I tabulated requirements over a range of body mass and life stages (neonate, juvenile, nonproductive adult, lactating adult, and gestating adult). Tabulated requirements suggest that adults at peak lactation require greatest quantities of energy and neonates generally require greatest quantities of protein, agreeing with suggestions that lactation is energetically expensive and protein is most limiting during growth. Equations used in this system were precise (allometric equations had R(2) generally ≥0.89 and coefficient of variation <31.1%) and expected to reliably predict requirements across species. Results showed that a system for beef cattle would overestimate NE and either over- or underestimate NP for gain when applied to wild ruminants, showing that systems for wild ruminants should not extrapolate from requirements for domestic ruminants. One prominent system for wild ruminants predicted at times vastly different protein requirements from those predicted by the proposed system. The proposed system should be further evaluated and expanded to include other nutrients.

  1. ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non-energy raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vidal, o.; christmann, p.; Bol, d.; Goffé, b.; Groth, m.; Kohler, e.; Persson Nelson, k.; Schumacher, k.

    2012-04-01

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it remains dependent on the importation of many metals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production. We will present the project ERA-MIN, which is an ERA-NET on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European industries, financially supported by the European Commission. The main objectives of ERA-MIN are: 1) Mapping and Networking: interconnecting the members of the currently fragmented European mineral resources research area, to the aim of fostering convergence of public research programs, industry, research institutes, academia and the European Commission, 2) Coordinating: establishing a permanent mechanism for planning and coordination of the European non-energy mineral raw materials research community (ENERC). 3) Roadmapping: defining the most important scientific and technological challenges that should be supported by the EU and its state members, 4) Programming: designing a Joint European Research Programme model and implementating it into a call for proposals open to academic and industrial research. The topics of interest in ERA-MIN are the primary continental and marine resources, the secondary resources and their related technologies, substitution and material efficiency, along with transversal topics such as environmental impact, public policy support, mineral intelligence, and public education and teaching. Public scientific research is very central in the scope of the ERA-MIN activity, whose consortium is indeed lead by a public organisation of fundamental research. Thus, universities and public research organisations are warmly invited to play an active role in defining the scientific questions and challenges that shall determine the European Raw Materials Roadmap and should be addressed by joint programming at the European scale

  2. Maintenance energy requirements in miniature colony dogs.

    PubMed

    Serisier, S; Weber, M; Feugier, A; Fardet, M-O; Garnier, F; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2013-05-01

    There are numerous reports of maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs, but little information is available about energy requirements of miniature dog breeds. In this prospective, observational, cohort study, we aimed to determine MER in dogs from a number of miniature breeds and to determine which factors were associated with it. Forty-two dogs participated in the study. MER was calculated by determining daily energy intake (EI) during a period of 196 days (28-359 days) when body weight did not change significantly (e.g. ±2% in 12 weeks). Estimated median MER was 473 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-766 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, median 113 kcal/kg(0.75) /day (68-183 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). In the obese dogs that lost weight, median MER after weight loss was completed was 360 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-515 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, 86 kcal/kg(0.75) /day, (68-123 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). Simple linear regression analysis suggested that three breeds (e.g. Chihuahua, p = 0.002; Yorkshire terrier, p = 0.039; dachshund, p = 0.035) had an effect on MER. In addition to breed, simple linear regression revealed that neuter status (p = 0.079) and having previously been overweight (p = 0.002) were also of significance. However, with multiple linear regression analysis, only previous overweight status (MER less in dogs previously overweight p = 0.008) and breed (MER greater in Yorkshire terriers [p = 0.029] and less in Chihuahuas [p = 0.089]) remained in the final model. This study is the first to estimate MER in dogs of miniature breeds. Although further information from pet dogs is now needed, the current work will be useful for setting energy and nutrient requirement in such dogs for the future.

  3. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  4. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-08-23

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application.

  5. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application. PMID:27550827

  6. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-08-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application.

  7. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application. PMID:27550827

  8. Energy and protein requirements of young Holstein calves in tropical condition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Lima, Jessika Carolina Moutinho; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Filho, Sebastião de Campos Valadares; Campos, Mariana Magalhães; Chizzotti, Mário Luiz; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein young calves up to 87 days old. Forty-two Holstein calves aged 4 days were used. From these, ten were randomly selected and slaughtered to compose the baseline slaughter (BS) group. The remaining calves were randomly assigned to eight treatments in a 4 × 2 factorial using a completely randomized design. The treatments were 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg/day of milk (297 g/kg CP; 319 g/kg of fat) fed twice daily, and then harvested at 59 or 87 days of age. Calves were fed a starter (193 g/kg CP; 133 g/kg NDF) ad libitum in all treatments. The calves slaughtered at 87 days of age had milk replaced by Coast-cross (Cynodoon sp.) hay (125 g/kg CP; 728 g/kg NDF). The net requirement of energy for maintenance (NEm) was 0.36 MJ/kg EBWG, with efficiency of utilization of energy for maintenance (k m) of 59.4 %. The equation obtained to estimate the net requirement of energy for gain (NEg; MJ/d) was 4.40 × EBW(0.099), with the efficiency of utilization of energy for gain (k g) equal to 46.5 %. The observed requirements of net and metabolizable protein for maintenance (NPm and MPm) were 3.67 and 3.88 g/kg BW(0.75), respectively. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for maintenance (k pm ) was 94.6 %. The predicted requirements were higher than those observed in the literature, and this study demonstrated that the requirements of newborn calves are higher than the recommended.

  9. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  10. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  11. 10 CFR 12.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 10 CFR part 9, subpart A. ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 12.202 Section 12.202 Energy NUCLEAR... Required From Applicants § 12.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant, except a qualified...

  12. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  13. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  14. Metabolic energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

  15. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  16. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  17. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  18. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  19. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each...

  20. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.

  1. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore » used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  2. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS. PMID:26305106

  3. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm(2), respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.

  4. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm(2), respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS. PMID:26305106

  5. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  6. Analysis of Residential System Strategies Targeting Least-Cost Solutions Leading to Net Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Building America residential systems research project uses an analysis-based system research approach to identify research priorities, identify technology gaps and opportunities, establish a consistent basis to track research progress, and identify system solutions that are most likely to succeed as the initial targets for residential system research projects. This report describes the analysis approach used by the program to determine the most cost-effective pathways to achieve whole-house energy-savings goals. This report also provides an overview of design/technology strategies leading to net zero energy buildings as the basis for analysis of future residential system performance.

  7. Trace element concentrations and distributions in the main body tissues and the net requirements for maintenance and growth of Dorper × Hu lambs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Nie, H T; Wang, Q; Wang, Z Y; Zhang, Y L; Guo, R H; Wang, F

    2015-05-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the trace element concentrations and distributions in the main body tissues and the net requirements for maintenance and growth of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs. Thirty-five lambs of each gender (19.2 ± 0.36 kg initial BW) were used. Seven lambs of each gender were randomly chosen and slaughtered at approximately 20 kg BW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another 7 lambs of each gender were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at approximately 28 kg BW. The remaining 21 sheep of each gender were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and assigned to ad libitum or 40 or 70% of ad libitum intake of a pelleted mixed diet (42:58 concentrate:roughage, DM basis). The 3 groups of each gender were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached approximately 35 kg BW. Empty body (head + feet, hide, viscera + blood, and carcass) trace element contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the trace elements were mainly distributed in viscera (blood included), except for Zn, which was mainly distributed in the muscle and bone tissues. The net requirements were calculated using the comparative slaughter technique. For males and females, the daily net trace element requirements for maintenance were 356.1 and 164.1 μg Fe, 4.3 and 3.4 μg Mn, 42.0 and 29.8 μg Cu, and 83.5 and 102.0 μg Zn per kilogram empty body weight (EBW), respectively. Net requirements for growth decreased from 65.67 to 57.27 mg Fe, 0.35 to 0.25 mg Mn, and 3.45 to 2.82 mg Cu and increased from 26.36 to 26.65 mg Zn per kilogram EBW gain (EBWG) for males. Net requirements for growth decreased from 30.66 to 22.14 mg Fe, 0.43 to 0.32 mg Mn, 2.86 to 2.18 mg Cu, and 27.71 to 25.83 mg Zn per kilogram EBWG for females from 20 to 35 kg BW. This study indicated that the net trace element requirements for Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs may be

  8. A neglected requirement for optimizing treatment of age-related osteoporosis: Replenishing the skeleton's base reservoir with net base-producing diets.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda A

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone in which the mass of the bone is reduced and the bone's architecture at the microscopic level is disordered. Together those abnormalities predispose affected individuals to experience fractures despite only minimal trauma (i.e., fragility fractures). Age related osteoporosis is a common type of osteoporosis that occurs with aging in both men and women usually beginning after the age of peak bone mass. Research has found that the disorder can be partially reversed by reducing the net amount of acid that is produced when consuming typical Western diets. However, the amelioration that results has not been so dramatic or so consistent that physicians have adopted the procedure as part of the standard treatment for age-related osteoporosis. We propose that reducing the net acid load from the diet is not sufficient to reverse age related osteoporosis because it fails to supply base needed to restore the large amount of base in bone that had been lost by reacting with the net acid load of the diet that had been consumed for years or decades. Reducing the net acid load from the diet might be expected to have little ameliorative effect or merely slow the progression of the disorder. We hypothesize that both to restore osteoporotic bone to, or nearly to, its pre-disease state, as well as to eliminate the risk of fragility fractures, requires consuming diets that produce net amounts of base to restore the base lost from years to decades of consuming diets that produce net amounts of acid. We hypothesize also that the excess base and attendant subclinical metabolic alkalosis will both stimulate the cellular process of bone formation and suppress the cellular process of bone resorption, and thereby implement the restorative process.

  9. Net charge changes in the calculation of relative ligand-binding free energies via classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-01-30

    The calculation of binding free energies of charged species to a target molecule is a frequently encountered problem in molecular dynamics studies of (bio-)chemical thermodynamics. Many important endogenous receptor-binding molecules, enzyme substrates, or drug molecules have a nonzero net charge. Absolute binding free energies, as well as binding free energies relative to another molecule with a different net charge will be affected by artifacts due to the used effective electrostatic interaction function and associated parameters (e.g., size of the computational box). In the present study, charging contributions to binding free energies of small oligoatomic ions to a series of model host cavities functionalized with different chemical groups are calculated with classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Electrostatic interactions are treated using a lattice-summation scheme or a cutoff-truncation scheme with Barker-Watts reaction-field correction, and the simulations are conducted in boxes of different edge lengths. It is illustrated that the charging free energies of the guest molecules in water and in the host strongly depend on the applied methodology and that neglect of correction terms for the artifacts introduced by the finite size of the simulated system and the use of an effective electrostatic interaction function considerably impairs the thermodynamic interpretation of guest-host interactions. Application of correction terms for the various artifacts yields consistent results for the charging contribution to binding free energies and is thus a prerequisite for the valid interpretation or prediction of experimental data via molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis and correction of electrostatic artifacts according to the scheme proposed in the present study should therefore be considered an integral part of careful free-energy calculation studies if changes in the net charge are involved.

  10. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  11. Energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Fernandes, J S; Silva, H M; Carstens, G E; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Akinaga, L

    2007-04-01

    Meat production by goats has become an important livestock enterprise in several parts of the world. Nonetheless, energy and protein requirements of meat goats have not been defined thoroughly. The objective of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of 34 (3/4) Boer x (1/4) Saanen crossbred, intact male kids (20.5 +/- 0.24 kg of initial BW). The baseline group was 7 randomly selected kids, averaging 21.2 +/- 0.36 kg of BW. An intermediate group consisted of 6 randomly selected kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 28.2 +/- 0.39 kg. The remaining kids (n = 21) were allocated randomly on d 0 to 3 levels of DMI (treatments were ad libitum or restricted to 70 or 40% of the ad libitum intake) within 7 slaughter groups. A slaughter group contained 1 kid from each treatment, and kids were slaughtered when the ad libitum treatment kid reached 35 kg of BW. Individual body components (head plus feet, hide, internal organs plus blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Initial body composition was determined using equations developed from the composition of the baseline kids. The calculated daily maintenance requirement for NE was 77.3 +/- 1.05 kcal/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW) or 67.4 +/- 1.04 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW. The daily ME requirement for maintenance (118.1 kcal/kg(0.75) of EBW or 103.0 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW) was calculated by iteration, assuming that the heat produced was equal to the ME intake at maintenance. The partial efficiency of use of ME for NE below maintenance was 0.65. A value of 2.44 +/- 0.4 g of net protein/kg(0.75) of EBW for daily maintenance was determined. Net energy requirements for growth ranged from 2.55 to 3.0 Mcal/kg of EBW gain at 20 and 35 kg of BW, and net protein requirements for growth ranged from 178.8 to 185.2 g/kg of EBW gain. These results suggest that NE and net protein requirements

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  13. ALINET: neural net automatic alignment of high-energy laser resonator optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, George A.; Bailey, Adam W.; Palumbo, Louis J.; Kuperstein, Michael

    1993-10-01

    A novel neural net approach has successfully solved the time consuming practical problem of aligning the many optical elements used in the resonator of high power chemical lasers. Moreover, because the neural net can achieve optimal performance in only 2 - 4 steps, as compared with 50 for other techniques, the important ability to effect real time control is gained. This represents a significant experimental breakthrough because of the difficulty previously associated with this alignment process. Use of either near or far field image information produces excellent performance. The method is very robust in the presence of noise. For cases where the initial misalignment falls outside the regime encompassed by the training set, a hybrid approach utilizing an advanced conventional method can bring the optical system within the capture range of the neural net. This reported use of a neural net to rapidly convert imagery information into high precision control information is of broad applicability to optical, acoustic, or electromagnetic alignment, positioning, and control problems.

  14. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    PubMed

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  15. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  16. A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption. PMID:22163802

  17. Landfill-gas-to-Energy projects: analysis of net private and social benefits.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Matthews, H Scott

    2005-10-01

    Methane emissions from municipal landfills represent 3% of the total United States greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. These methane emissions can be released to the air or collected and flared. This landfill gas also has the potential to be used to generate electricity. In 1994,the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) created the Landfill Methane Outreach Program, with the objective of promoting the development of landfill-gas-to-energy projects around the country. There are currently 2,300 active landfills in the United States. Although there are already 382 operational projects, there are many more landfills with the potential to use the gas. EPA has identified at least 630 candidate landfills for energy projects, and many more have still not been identified. The objective of this paper is to evaluate total private and social benefits of landfill-gas-to-energy projects, taking into consideration not only the costs of installing and maintaining the necessary equipment and the revenues obtained from selling the electricity but also a valuation of the greenhouse gas emissions that would be prevented and the emissions of criteria pollutants created by the electricity generating equipment. It also evaluates the breakeven government subsidies that would be required to make such projects economically viable from private and social perspectives in comparison to current subsidies. It was found that the private breakeven price of electricity for these projects is lower than dollar 0.04/kWh. Moreover, the optimum social subsidywas found to be less than dollar 0.0085/ kWh, which is about 40% lower than the currently available federal tax break of dollar 0.015/kWh. The method developed for this paper can be applied to other renewable energy technologies, to show their relative social costs and benefits.

  18. Energy requirements in nonobese men and women: results from CALERIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy intake necessary to maintain weight and body composition is called the energy requirement for weight maintenance and can be determined by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. The objective was to determine the energy requirements of nonobese men and women in the Comprehensive Asse...

  19. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  20. Energy saving for OpenFlow switch on the NetFPGA platform based on queue engineering.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tran Hoang; Luc, Vu Cong; Quan, Nguyen Trung; Thanh, Nguyen Huu; Nam, Pham Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Data centers play an important role in our daily activities. The increasing demand on data centers in both scale and size has led to huge energy consumption that rises the cost of data centers. Besides, environmental impacts also increase considerably due to a large amount of carbon emissions. In this paper, we present a design aimed at green networking by reducing the power consumption for routers and switches. Firstly, we design the Balance Switch on the NetFPGA platform to save consumed energy based on Queue Engineering. Secondly, we design the test-bed system to precisely measure the consumed energy of our switches. Experimental results show that energy saving of our switches is about 30% - 35% of power consumption according to variation of input traffic compared with normal Openflow Switch. Finally, we describe performance evaluations.

  1. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-22

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  3. Beam Energy Dependence of Moments of the Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    We report the first measurements of the moments—mean (M), variance (σ2), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)—of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from √sNN =7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ2/M, Sσ, and κσ2, with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ2 values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  4. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-29

    We report the first measurements of the moments--mean (M), variance (σ(2)), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)--of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from sqrt[sNN]=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ(2)/M, Sσ, and κσ(2), with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ(2) values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models. PMID:25215979

  5. Energy Requirements of Squash and Racquetball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Richard R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored in 32 male adults playing racquetball and squash. Results indicated that energy expenditure in racquetball was only slightly less than for squash, suggesting that either sport is appropriate for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. (Author/CB)

  6. An assessment of the net value of CSP systems integrated with thermal energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mehos, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Turchi, C.

    2015-05-01

    Within this study, we evaluate the operational and capacity value—or total system value—for multiple concentrating solar power (CSP) plant configurations under an assumed 33% renewable penetration scenario in California. We calculate the first-year bid price for two CSP plants, including a 2013 molten-salt tower integrated with a conventional Rankine cycle and a hypothetical 2020 molten-salt tower system integrated with an advanced supercritical carbon-dioxide power block. The overall benefit to the regional grid, defined in this study as the net value, is calculated by subtracting the first-year bid price from the total system value.

  7. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  8. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  9. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  10. Toward Net Energy Buildings: Design, Construction, and Performance of the Grand Canyon House

    SciTech Connect

    C. Edward Hancock; Greg Barker; J. Douglas Balcomb.

    1999-06-23

    The Grand Canyon house is a joint project of the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. National Park Service and is part of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 13 (Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings). Energy consumption of the house, designed using a whole-building low-energy approach, was reduced by 75% compared to an equivalent house built in accordance with American Building Officials Model Energy Code and the Home Energy Rating System criteria.

  11. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of male saanen goat kids.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, A N; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Araújo, M J; Yáñez, E A; Ferreira, A C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg(0.75) of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats.

  12. Energy Requirements for Maintenance and Growth of Male Saanen Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, A. N.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.; Araújo, M. J.; Yáñez, E. A.; Ferreira, A. C. D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg0.75 of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg0.75 of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats. PMID:25178373

  13. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  14. Energy requirements of irrigation systems - subirrigation versus sprinkler irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, F.C.; Skaggs, R.W.; Sneed, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term simulations were conducted to determine the energy requirements for 3 North Carolina soils. Subirrigation required 4 to 3 cm more water than sprinkler systems but less than 10% of the energy when surface water sources were used. 26 refs.

  15. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  16. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  17. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  18. Life Styles. Teacher's Guide and Student Guide. Net Energy Unit. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Virginia; Hetherington, Martin

    This module is intended to assist the teacher in presenting lessons on the influence of energy on lifestyles now and in the future. Five activities are presented including: (1) a science fiction story; (2) lifestyles interview; (3) future projections; (4) energy usage and lifestyle; and (5) lifestyle differenees. The module is intended to cover…

  19. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  20. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  1. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  2. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  3. Energy required to propel irrigators on wet and dry soil

    SciTech Connect

    Borbovsky, J.P.; Lyle, W.M.

    1982-12-01

    Mobile irrigation application systems, such as the LEPA system (Lyle and Bordovsky, 1981), are being designed to maximize irrigation efficiencies and minimize energy requirements. The drop tube application of water with such systems results in dry wheel operation in contrast to the wet operations experienced with conventional sprinkler and spray systems. Field tests were conducted using a load cell, power/energy instrumentation, and recorder to determine the magnitude of energy savings resulting from dry wheel operation on firm loam soil. The results indicate that wet soil increased the energy requirement by an average of 28 percent on interior towers and 50 percent on the end tower.

  4. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  5. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Marc L; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T

    2004-06-24

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production--the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis--can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production 'supply' and 'demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production 'imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  6. Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

  7. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Cooking increases net energy gain from a lipid-rich food

    PubMed Central

    Groopman, Emily E.; Carmody, Rachel N.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Starch, protein, and lipid are three major sources of calories in the human diet. The unique and universal human practice of cooking has been demonstrated to increase the energy gained from foods rich in starch or protein. Yet no studies have tested whether cooking has equivalent effects on the energy gained from lipid-rich foods. Using mice as a model, we addressed this question by examining the impact of cooking on the energy gained from peanuts, a lipid-rich oilseed, and compared this impact against that of nonthermal processing (blending). We found that cooking consistently increased the energy gained per calorie, whereas blending had no detectable energetic benefits. Assessment of fecal fat excretion showed increases in lipid digestibility when peanuts were cooked, and examination of diet microstructure revealed concomitant alterations to the integrity of cell walls and the oleosin layer of proteins that otherwise shield lipids from digestive lipases. Both effects were consistent with the greater energy gain observed with cooking. Our findings highlight the importance of cooking in increasing dietary energy returns for humans, both past and present. PMID:25293786

  9. Cooking increases net energy gain from a lipid-rich food.

    PubMed

    Groopman, Emily E; Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Starch, protein, and lipid are three major sources of calories in the human diet. The unique and universal human practice of cooking has been demonstrated to increase the energy gained from foods rich in starch or protein. Yet no studies have tested whether cooking has equivalent effects on the energy gained from lipid-rich foods. Using mice as a model, we addressed this question by examining the impact of cooking on the energy gained from peanuts, a lipid-rich oilseed, and compared this impact against that of nonthermal processing (blending). We found that cooking consistently increased the energy gained per calorie, whereas blending had no detectable energetic benefits. Assessment of fecal fat excretion showed increases in lipid digestibility when peanuts were cooked, and examination of diet microstructure revealed concomitant alterations to the integrity of cell walls and the oleosin layer of proteins that otherwise shield lipids from digestive lipases. Both effects were consistent with the greater energy gain observed with cooking. Our findings highlight the importance of cooking in increasing dietary energy returns for humans, both past and present.

  10. Muon and neutrino energy reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT/ARCA is a European deep-sea research infrastructure that will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometers at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will search for galactic and extragalactic neutrinos from astrophysical sources like gamma ray bursts, super-novae or colliding stars. The analyses performed in large water Cherenkov detectors rely upon the reconstruction of the muon direction and energy, and consequently, those of the neutrino. The estimation of the muon energy is also critical for the differentiation of muons from neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from muons and neutrinos that have been generated in the atmosphere and constitute the detector background. The energy is derived from the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the muons that are created during the charged current interactions of neutrinos in or in the vicinity of the detector. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of about 0.29 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  11. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  12. Catamaran Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    West Coast Netting, Inc.'s net of Hyperester twine, is made of three strands of fiber twisted together by a company-invented sophisticated twisting machine and process that maintain precisely the same tension on each strand. The resulting twine offers higher strength and improved abrasion resistance. The technology that created the Hyperester supertwine has found spinoff applications, first as an extra-efficient seine for tuna fishing, then as a capture net for law enforcement agencies. The newest one is as a deck for racing catamarans. Hyperester twine net has been used on most of the high performance racing catamarans of recent years, including the America's Cup Challenge boats. They are tough and hold up well in the continual exposure to sunlight and saltwater.

  13. Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

    Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

  14. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  15. Detection potential of the KM3NeT detector for high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KM3NeT Collaboration; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Alexandri, M.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bakker, R.; Ball, A. E.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; de Bel, M.; Belias, A.; Bellou, N.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bigourdan, B.; Billault, M.; de Boer, R.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bonori, M.; Borghini, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bradbury, S.; Brown, A.; Bruni, F.; Brunner, J.; Brunoldi, M.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, D.; Calzas, A.; Canals, M.; Capone, A.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Chaleil, Th.; Chateau, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Choqueuse, D.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Chronis, G.; Ciaffoni, O.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Cohen, F.; Colijn, F.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Craig, J.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; D'Amico, A.; Damy, G.; De Asmundis, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, P.; Delagnes, E.; De Rosa, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drogou, J.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Durand, G. A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Espinosa, V.; Etiope, G.; Favali, P.; Felea, D.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fotiou, A.; Fritsch, U.; Gajanana, D.; Garaguso, R.; Gasparini, G. P.; Gasparoni, F.; Gautard, V.; Gensolen, F.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Gialas, I.; Giordano, V.; Giraud, J.; Gizani, N.; Gleixner, A.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Grasso, D.; Grimaldi, A.; Groenewegen, R.; Guédé, Z.; Guillard, G.; Guilloux, F.; Habel, R.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; van Heerwaarden, J.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hillebrand, T.; van de Hoek, M.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Imbesi, M.; Jamieson, A.; Jansweijer, P.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U. F.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kiskiras, Y.; Klein, R.; Kok, H.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Kopper, C.; Korporaal, A.; Koske, P.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Laan, M.; La Fratta, C.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Le Provost, H.; Lim, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Lloret, J.; Löhner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Lotrus, P.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lykousis, V.; Malyshev, D.; Mangano, S.; Marcoulaki, E. C.; Margiotta, A.; Marinaro, G.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markopoulos, E.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marvaldi, J.; Masullo, R.; Maurin, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Motz, H.; Moudden, Y.; Mul, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, Ch.; Neff, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Orlando, A.; Palioselitis, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Papazoglou, I. A.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H. Z.; Perkin, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Priede, I. G.; Psallidas, A.; Rabouille, C.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Reito, S.; Resvanis, L. K.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.; Rose, J.; Roux, J.; Rovelli, A.; Russo, A.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J.-W.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schroeder, K.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schussler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Sparnocchia, S.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Staller, T.; Stavrakakis, S.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, A.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tonoiu, D.; Toscano, S.; Touramanis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Traverso, P.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urbano, F.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Werneke, P.; White, R. J.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zhukov, V.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-02-01

    A recent analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope data provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E-2 spectrum from two large areas, spanning 50° above and below the Galactic centre (the "Fermi bubbles"). A hadronic mechanism was proposed for this gamma-ray emission making the Fermi bubbles promising source candidates of high-energy neutrino emission. In this work Monte Carlo simulations regarding the detectability of high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles with the future multi-km3 neutrino telescope KM3NeT in the Mediterranean Sea are presented. Under the hypothesis that the gamma-ray emission is completely due to hadronic processes, the results indicate that neutrinos from the bubbles could be discovered in about one year of operation, for a neutrino spectrum with a cutoff at 100 TeV and a detector with about 6 km3 of instrumented volume. The effect of a possible lower cutoff is also considered.

  16. Microalgae conversion to biogas: thermal pretreatment contribution on net energy production.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-06-17

    Microalgal biomass harvested from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds may be valorised through anaerobic digestion producing biogas. However, microalgae anaerobic biodegradability is limited by their complex cell wall structure. Thus, pretreatment techniques are being investigated to improve microalgae methane yield. In the current study, thermal pretreatment at relatively low temperatures of 75-95 °C was effective at enhancing microalgae anaerobic biodegradability; increasing the methane yield by 70% in respect to nonpretreated biomass. Microscopic images showed how the pretreatment damaged microalgae cells, enhancing subsequent anaerobic digestion. Indeed, digestate images showed how after pretreatment only species with resistant cell walls, such as diatoms, continued to be present. Energy balances based on lab-scale reactors performance at 20 days HRT, shifted from neutral to positive (energy gain around 2.7 GJ/d) after thermal pretreatment. In contrast with electricity consuming pretreatment methods, such as microwave irradiation, thermal pretreatment of microalgae seems to be scalable.

  17. Thermodynamics energy for both supervised and unsupervised learning neural nets at a constant temperature.

    PubMed

    Szu, H

    1999-06-01

    Unified Lyaponov function is given for the first time to prove the learning methodologies convergence of artificial neural network (ANN), both supervised and unsupervised, from the viewpoint of the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy at the constant temperature. Early in 1982, Hopfield has proven the supervised learning by the energy minimization principle. Recently in 1996, Bell & Sejnowski has algorithmically demonstrated Independent Component Analyses (ICA) generalizing the Principal Component Analyses (PCA) that the continuing reduction of early vision redundancy happens towards the "sparse edge maps" by maximization of the ANN output entropy. We explore the combination of both as Lyaponov function of which the proven convergence gives both learning methodologies. The unification is possible because of the thermodynamics Helmholtz free energy at a constant temperature. The blind de-mixing condition for more than two objects using two sensor measurement. We design two smart cameras with short term working memory to do better image de-mixing of more than two objects. We consider channel communication application that we can efficiently mix four images using matrices [AO] and [Al] to send through two channels.

  18. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  19. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  20. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  1. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a...

  2. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a...

  3. An Exploration of Impacts of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity, which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Widespread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time-of-day rates or real-time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  4. The Impact of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-08-16

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Wide-spread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time of day rates or real time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  5. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  6. Sequential recovery of copper and nickel from wastewater without net energy input.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-Fang; Fang, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Meng-Xi; Liu, Xiao-He; Wang, Yun-Hai

    2015-01-01

    A novel bioelectrochemical system (BES) was designed to recover copper and nickel from wastewater sequentially. The BES has two chambers separated by a bipolar membrane and two cathodes. Firstly, the copper ions were reduced on a graphite cathode with electricity output, and then with an additional bias-potential applied, the nickel ions were recovered sequentially on a copper sheet with electricity input. In this design, nickel and copper can be recovered and separated sequentially on two cathodes. By adjusting the molar ratio of copper and nickel ions to 2.99:1 in wastewater, 1.40 mmol Cu²⁺ could be recovered with 143.78 J electricity outputs, while 50.68 J electricity was input for 0.32 mmol nickel reduction. The total energy output of copper recovery was far more than the electricity input of nickel reduction. The present technology provides a potential method for heavy metal ion separation and recovery.

  7. Title: Energetics of PCMDI/CMIP3 Climate Models: Net Energy Balance and Meridional Enthalpy Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragone, F.; Lucarini, V.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the PCMDI/CMIP3 simulations performed by climate models (CMs) using pre-industrial and SRESA1B scenarios. Relatively large biases are present for most CMs when global energy budgets and when the atmospheric, oceanic, and land budgets are considered. Apparently, the biases do not result from transient effects, but depend on the imperfect closure of the energy cycle in the fluid components and on inconsistencies over land. Therefore, the planetary emission temperature is underestimated. This may explain the CMs' cold bias. In the pre-industrial scenario, CMs agree on the location of the peaks of the meridional atmospheric enthalpy transport (about 40°N/S), while large discrepancies exist on the intensity. Disagreements on the location and intensity of the oceanic transport peaks are serious. With increased CO2 concentration, a small poleward shift of the peak and an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric transport of up to 10% are detected in both hemispheres. Instead, most CMs feature a decrease in the oceanic transport intensity in the northern hemisphere and an equatorward shift of the peak in both hemispheres. The Bjerkens compensation mechanism is active both on climatological and interannual time scales. The peak of the total meridional transport is typically around 35° in both hemispheres and scenarios, whereas disagreements on the intensity are relevant. With increased CO2 concentration, the total transport increases by up to 10%, thus contributing to polar amplification. Advances in the representation of physical processes are definitely needed for providing a self-consistent representation of climate as a non-equilibrium thermodynamical system.

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  9. Women at altitude: energy requirement at 4,300 m.

    PubMed

    Mawson, J T; Braun, B; Rock, P B; Moore, L G; Mazzeo, R; Butterfield, G E

    2000-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that prolonged exposure to moderately high altitude increases the energy requirement of adequately fed women and that the sole cause of the increase is an elevation in basal metabolic rate (BMR), we studied 16 healthy women [21.7 +/- 0.5 (SD) yr; 167.4 +/- 1.1 cm; 62.2 +/- 1.0 kg]. Studies were conducted over 12 days at sea level (SL) and at 4,300 m [high altitude (HA)]. To test that menstrual cycle phase has an effect on energetics at HA, we monitored menstrual cycle in all women, and most women (n = 11) were studied in the same phase at SL and HA. Daily energy intake at HA was increased to respond to increases in BMR and to maintain body weight and body composition. Mean BMR for the group rose 6.9% above SL by day 3 at HA and fell to SL values by day 6. Total energy requirement remained elevated 6% at HA [ approximately 670 kJ/day (160 kcal/day) above that at SL], but the small and transient increase in BMR could not explain all of this increase, giving rise to an apparent "energy requirement excess." The transient nature of the rise in BMR may have been due to the fitness level of the subjects. The response to altitude was not affected by menstrual cycle phase. The energy requirement excess is at present unexplained.

  10. Minimizing sludge handling and energy requirements for AWT

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, G.B.; Rivinus, R.P.; Brown, J.

    1980-02-01

    Upgrading of local stream use classification has required Cobb County, Georgia, which includes much of northwestern metropolitan Atlanta, to provide nitrification, phosphorus removal, and effluent filtration at the new 30-ML/d Noonday Creek Water Pollution Control Plant. The design study at the Noonday Plant is described, and means by which energy requirements are being minimized are discussed. Use of anaerobically produced methane will be maximized to enable the plant to be self-sufficient during electric utility peak demand periods.

  11. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  12. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations... Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or..., safety lines, or safety belts is impractical. (b) Where safety net protection is required by this...

  13. 27 CFR 19.644 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 19.644... Requirements § 19.644 Net contents. The net contents of liquor bottles shall be shown on the label, unless the statement of the net contents is permanently marked on the side, front, or back of the bottle. (Sec....

  14. K/S Lambert problem. [energy requirements for transfer orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Lambert problem in orbital mechanics is formulated in Kustaanheimo/Stiefel variables. The problem is to determine the required energy and the value of the generalized eccentric anomaly such that a particle at the initial position vector will transfer to the final position vector in a physical time interval. The fictitious time solution results in two nonlinear equations in the two unknowns, energy and fictitious time. The generalized eccentric anomaly solution, however, results in only one nonlinear equation in the one unknown, the eccentric anomaly. This simplification is possible because the energy equation is separable in the eccentric anomaly formulation.

  15. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  16. Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, A. A.; Steduto, P.; Orgaz, F.; Matista, A.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes a Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) system which, in conjunction with an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA), is referred to as BREB+ and is used to estimate evapotranspiration ( ET) and net CO2 flux ( NCF) over crop canopies. The system is composed of a net radiometer, soil heat flux plates, two psychrometers based on platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), bridge circuits to measure resistances, an IRGA, air pumps and switching valves, and a data logger. The psychrometers are triple shielded and aspirated, and with aspiration also between the two inner shields. High resistance (1 000 ohm) PRT's are used for dry and wet bulbs to minimize errors due to wiring and connector resistances. A high (55 K ohm) fixed resistance serves as one arm of the resistance bridge to ensure linearity in output signals. To minimize gaps in data, to allow measurements at short (e.g., 5 min) intervals, and to simplify operation, the psychrometers were fixed at their upper and lower position over the crop and not alternated. Instead, the PRT's, connected to the bridge circuit and the data logger, were carefully calibrated together. Field tests using a common air source showed appartent effects of the local environment around each psychrometer on the temperatures measured. ET rates estimated with the BREB system were compared to those measured with large lysimeters. Daily totals agreed within 5%. There was a tendency, however, for the lysimeter measurements to lag behind the BREB measurements. Daily patterns of NCF estimated with the BREB+ system are consistent with expectations from theories and data in the literature. Side-by-side comparisons with a stirred Mylar canopy chamber showed similar NCF patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies between the results of the two methods were quite marked in the morning or afternoon on certain dates. Part of the discrepancies may be attributed to inaccuracies in the psychrometric temperature measurements. Other possible causes

  17. Energy requirement of growing pigs under commercial housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Naatjes, Maike; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientifically derived recommendations for the energy supply to growing pigs are generally based on estimates of the metabolisable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance (MEm) and protein (MEp) and fat (MEf) retention. It is supposed that animals are kept within the zone of thermoneutrality and that their physical activity is not elevated. These assumptions might not always be true for practical housing conditions, and it is difficult to quantify the additional energy needed for thermoregulation and physical activity. Hence, at a given ME intake, differences can occur between the actual growth rates and those predicted from the recommendations. To quantify such differences, three trials were carried out under commercial farming conditions with pigs growing from 25 to 120 kg body weight (BW). In each trial, 624 castrated male and female pigs were allocated to four feeding groups distributed over 24 double pens. The rations were provided according to the animals' feed intake capacity and BW was recorded every three weeks. Protein, fat and energy retention (RE) was derived from carcass composition and BW gain. The difference between ME intake and MEm plus ME required for growth (MEg = RE/kpf) was calculated and seen as the ME required for purposes other than maintenance and growth (MEx). MEx accounted for 2.0%, 17.0% and 21.4% of the animals' ME intake in Trials 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and was higher in female than in castrated male pigs when related to metabolic BW. It was concluded that total ME requirements of pigs kept under commercial housing conditions can be considerably higher than ME requirements predicted from feeding standards since they usually ignore MEx. MEx can be used as an indicator for the quality of housing systems. Further studies are needed to identify the key factors responsible for MEx to allow for more precise recommendations for the energy supply to commercially raised pigs.

  18. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  19. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  20. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  1. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  2. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  3. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  4. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  5. Energy requirement for maintenance and growth of Nellore bulls and steers fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Boin, C; Fox, D G; Leme, P R; Alleoni, G F; Lanna, D P D

    2002-06-01

    Data from three comparative slaughter experiments with individually fed Nellore bulls (n = 31) and steers (n = 66) were utilized to determine their NEm and NEg requirements when fed high-forage diets. The experimental design provided ranges in ME intake, BW, and ADG for the development of regression equations to predict NEm and NEg requirements. The Nellore bulls (Trial 1) were divided into two intake levels (ad libitum and 65% of the ad libitum). The steers (Trials 2 and 3) were allocated to three intake levels (ad libitum and 55 and 70% of the ad libitum). In both trials, there were three slaughter groups within each intake level. The three end points for the bulls were different days on treatment (100, 150, and 190 d and 130, 180, and 200 d, respectively, for older and younger animal subgroups). The steers were slaughtered when animals of the ad libitum treatment reached 400, 440, and 480 kg shrunk BW (SBW) on average for the first, second, and third group, respectively. For all body composition determinations, whole empty body components were weighed, ground, and subsampled for chemical analysis. In each of the trials, initial body composition was determined with equations developed from a baseline slaughter group, using SBW and empty BW (EBW), fat (EBF), and protein (EBP) as variables. The NEm was similar for bulls and steers; NEm averaged 77.2 kcal/ kg0.75 EBW. However, the efficiency of conversion of ME to net energy for maintenance was greater for steers than for bulls (68.8 and 65.6%, respectively), indicating that bulls had a greater ME requirement for maintenance than steers (5.4%; P < 0.05). Our analyses do not support the NRC (2000) conclusion that Nellore, a Bos indicus breed, has a lower net energy requirement for maintenance than Bos taurus breeds. An equation developed with the pooled data to predict retained energy (RE) was similar to the NRC (2000) equation. A second equation was developed to predict RE adjusted for degree of maturity (u): RE

  6. A `warp drive' with more reasonable total energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Broeck, Chris

    1999-12-01

    I show how a minor modification of the Alcubierre geometry can dramatically improve the total energy requirements for a `warp bubble' that can be used to transport macroscopic objects. A spacetime is presented for which the total negative mass needed is of the order of a few solar masses, accompanied by a comparable amount of positive energy. This puts the warp drive in the mass scale of large traversable wormholes. The new geometry satisfies the quantum inequality concerning WEC violations and has the same advantages as the original Alcubierre spacetime.

  7. Validation of International Atomic Energy Agency Equipment Performance Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, PJ

    2004-02-17

    Performance requirements and testing protocols are needed to ensure that equipment used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is reliable. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the US Support Program, tested equipment to validate performance requirements protocols used by the IAEA for the subject equipment categories. Performance protocol validation tests were performed in the Environmental Effects Laboratory in the categories for battery, DC power supply, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Specific test results for each piece of equipment used in the validation process are included in this report.

  8. A meta-analysis of energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C

    2008-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine NE and net protein requirements of growing bulls, steers, and heifers of Nellore purebred and Nellore x Bos taurus crossbreds. A database of 16 comparative slaughter studies (n = 389 animals) was gathered to provide enough information to develop equations to predict the requirements of NE(m), NE(g), and net protein for maintenance (NP(m)) and growth (NP(g)). The data were analyzed using a random coefficients model, considering studies as random effects, and sex and castrate status (bulls, steers, and heifers; n = 262, 103, and 24, respectively) and breeds as fixed effects. There were no differences in NE(m) requirements among sex and castrate status (P = 0.73) and breeds (P = 0.82). The combined data indicated a NE(m) requirement of 75 kcal/ kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW) with a partial efficiency of use of ME for NE(m) of 0.67. The NE(g) requirement was different (P = 0.009) among sex and castrate status and tended (P = 0.06) to be different among breeds. The equation for NE(g) requirement for bulls was 0.0514 x EBW(0.75) x EWG(1.070); for steers, it was 0.0700 x EBW(0.75) x EWG(1.070); and for heifers, it was 0.0771 x EBW(0.75) x EWG(1.070), where EWG = EBW gain (kg/d). The partial efficiency of use of ME for NE(g) was not different among sex and castrate status (P = 0.33) and breeds (P = 0.20) and averaged 0.44. There were no differences in NP(m) requirement among sex and castrate status (P = 0.59) and breeds (P = 0.92); the overall NP(m) requirement was 1.74 g of NP.kg(-0.75) of EBW.d(-1). The overall MP requirement for maintenance was 2.59 g of MP.kg(-0.75) EBW.d(-1). The NP(g) requirement (g/d) was not different among sex and castrate status (P = 0.59) and breeds (P = 0.14); the overall equation was EWG x [217 - (12.8 x RE/EWG)], where RE = retained energy (Mcal/d). The percentage of RE deposited as protein (%RE(p)) decreased exponentially as the content of RE in the gain (REc, Mcal/kg of EWG) increased. Because no study

  9. Xantusiid lizards have low energy, water, and food requirements.

    PubMed

    Mautz, W J; Nagy, K A

    2000-01-01

    Lizards in the family Xantusiidae (the night lizards) are known to have resting metabolic rates that are only half those of other lizards of comparable size. We evaluated whether xantusiids also have low field metabolic rates (FMR) and food requirements by measuring FMR and water flux rates with doubly labeled water in three xantusiid species in their natural habitats. Free-living Xantusia vigilis, Xantusia henshawi, and Xantusia riversiana processed energy and water very slowly, about one-third as fast as do other reptiles of similar size. Xantusiid lizards have a distinctive life history that is characterized by very slow growth and low reproductive rates, and they are intensely reclusive. This general lifestyle is also found in some species that live in environments with scarce food resources, such as in caves and in arid habitats, and these species may also have relatively low energy requirements.

  10. Predicting efficiency of use of metabolizable energy to net energy for gain and maintenance of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Gionbelli, M P

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-six comparative slaughter studies were used (n = 752 animals) and coded within each experiment by gender (431 bulls, 204 steers, and 117 heifers) and breed (447 Nellore and 305 Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbreds) to develop equations to predict the efficiency of use of ME to NE for growth (kg) and ME to NE for maintenance (km). The retained energy (RE) was regressed on ME intake (MEI) available for gain using orthogonal regression to obtain the kg within each experiment. The estimated kg was regressed on RE as protein (REp) according to the following equation: kg = a/(b + REp). Gender and breed effects were not tested because of limited number of experiments. The km was estimated as the intercept of the following equation: HP = β0 × e((β1 × MEI)), in which HP is heat production, β0 and β1 are coefficients, and e is the natural logarithm. The ME for maintenance (MEm) was computed assuming MEI equals to HP at maintenance. The km was obtained using the stepwise procedure of a multiple regression including ADG, empty body gain (EBG), empty BW (EBW), EBW(0.75), kg, and energy content in the EBW. A random coefficient model, assuming a random variation for study effects, was used to test breed and gender effects to identify the best model to estimate km. The overall equation to predict kg was 0.327 (±0.142)/[0.539 (±0.317) + REp], with an R(2) of 0.963. The equation to predict km was 0.513 (±0.024) + 0.173 (±0.061) × kg + a × EBG, R(2) = 0.92, in which a = 0.100 (±0.021) for B. indicus or a = 0.073 (±0.021) for crossbreds. Our results indicated that B. indicus were more efficient to use ME for maintenance. We concluded that km can be predicted from kg and EBG and that B. indicus × B. taurus crossbreds can affect km. Furthermore, kg can be predicted from REp and neither gender nor crossbreeding (B. indicus × B. taurus) affected kg. Because our database consisted of Nellore and B. indicus and B. taurus crossbreds, it is necessary to further

  11. Energy requirements for HE-3 mining operations on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    At the present rate of world energy consumption (10 TW-y/y) and allowing for an equilibrium consumption of 20 to 30 TW-y/y in mid 21st century, we will exhaust economically recoverable fossil fuels in the next 50 to 60 years. We will then have to rely on nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy to feed, warm, and protect the world's population. Fusion energy is expected to play an important role in the 21st century and there a 2 billion dollar per year research program to commercialize that energy resource. A serious problem with this is its reliance on the D-T fuel cycle which releases 80 percent of its energy in the form of neutrons. These neutrons cause significant radiation damage and induce large amounts of radioactivity. There is another fusion fuel cycle involving the isotopes of Deuterium and Helium-3 which, if configured properly, releases 1 percent or less of its energy in neutrons. Obviously, such a fuel would be preferred, but there is no large source of He-3 known to satisfy world energy needs. Fortunately, a very large source of He-3 was found on the Moon, implanted over the past 4 billion years by the solar wind. Recent analysis of Apollo and Luna data reveals that over a million tons of He-3 sit on the Moon's surface. The potential energy in this He-3 fuel is 10 times that contained in all the coal, oil, and natural gas on the Earth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the energy required to extract the He-3 from the lunar regolith.

  12. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep.

  13. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  14. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    PubMed Central

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  15. Social Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    This is not only the time to get down to work, as I noted at the end of the last chapter, but also a time to thank you for your patience in coming along with me on this trip to Netland. We have reached an important point. We are just about to rise above ourselves. In the last chapter, we surveyed some of the networks in our body, and in this chapter the same body will be an element of a larger network, the social net. The current chapter will give me a good opportunity to understand my obsession with building social networks.

  16. Energy and packaging from energy materials: requirements of beverage containers and packaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boustead, I.; Hancock, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of the energy and materials requirements of the beverage container and packaging industry is presented. Information available to the industry for the first time is given and a quantitative picture of many significant industrial sectors is provided. Contains original reports presented to the UK Government's Waste Advisory Council, that analyze, in detail, the energy and materials required to produce and use glass bottles, plastic bottles, and metal cans for the packaging of beers, cider, and carbonated soft drinks. An extensive collection of tables of energy requirements broken down by fuel type is also presented.

  17. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  18. Switchgrass reestablishment on cropland: Evaluating net energy, spatial effects, temporal effects, and estimating switchgrass productivity using indirect methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, Marty R.

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was managed as a bioenergy crop in field trials on marginal cropland on 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. The fields were established in 2000 and 2001 with cultivars 'Trailblazer', 'Cave-in-Rock', 'Shawnee', and 'Sunburst'. Agricultural inputs, switchgrass stand frequency, weed stand frequency, quadrat yields, baled yields, indirect yield and plant compositions methods were recorded annually for each field. Annual baled yields from established fields averaged 5.2 -11.1 Mg·ha-1 with a resulting average estimated net energy yield of 60 GJ·ha-1·y -1. Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than GHG emissions from gasoline. Temporal stability for switchgrass stands increased on quadrat sites with higher stand frequencies and temporal stability decreased on quadrat sites with lower stand frequencies within the majority of fields. Temporal stability for yield was lower in areas with higher yields than the field means while temporal stability increased in areas that had lower than average field means. Topographic effects on switchgrass stand frequency and yield were largely insignificant. A secondary study was conducted in eastern Nebraska from 2003 to 2007 at three nitrogen rates (0 kg N ha-1, 60 kg N ha-1, and 120 kg N ha-1), using cultivars Cave-in-Rock and Trailblazer and at two harvesting periods. A modified Robel-pole was used to determine visual obstruction, elongated leaf height, and canopy height measurements. Prediction models from the secondary study using elongated leaf height, visual obstruction, and canopy height measurements accounted for >91%, >90%, and >82% of the variation in switchgrass biomass, respectively. There was a linear relationship between indirect measurements and harvested switchgrass field yields, but more variation occurred at the field

  19. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  2. NET Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics – high numbers and toxicity – that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil “containment” processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  3. NET Confusion.

    PubMed

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D; Quinn, Mark T; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics - high numbers and toxicity - that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil "containment" processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  4. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  5. Neural nets.

    PubMed

    Hejnol, Andreas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-09-21

    Although modern evolutionary biology has abandoned the use of 'lower' or 'higher' for animals, the quote of G.H. Parker captures quite well the current understanding of the nerve net as the evolutionarily oldest organization of the nervous system, the major organ system responsible for processing information and coordinating animal behaviour. The degree of complexity of a nervous system - in particular its organization into substructures such as brains and nerve cords - shows fascinating variations between animals. Even within an individual, the nervous system can show parallel existing types of organizations that are only partially connected, illustrated by the well-known central and peripheral nervous system. In general, the architecture of the nervous system is adapted to the specific needs and lifestyle of the individual species. How these diverse and complex nervous systems evolved is an ongoing debate among zoologists and evolutionary biologists.

  6. Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.; Krout, R.

    1995-08-01

    Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

  7. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  8. Using Net Energy Intake models to predict and evaluate the benefits of stream restoration to improve juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwes, N.; Wall, C. E.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S.; Jordan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration is often targeted to improve fish habitat. However, predictions or evaluations of habitat or fish population responses to these actions are rarely assessed or more often assumed. Model predictions that describe both physical and biological effects from different types of restorations can help test hypotheses to improve our understanding of fish habitat requirements, especially if restoration is treated as an experiment. In addition, models can help synthesize data to determine project effectiveness to link fish responses to physical habitat responses, promoting a mechanistic understanding that is transferrable to other systems. We are applying a mechanistic model to estimate net energy intake (NEI) potential for juvenile steelhead throughout a stream reach. NEI modeling approaches attempt to describe the quantity of food a fish can ingest at a particular site (as a function of food availability, temperature, and fish size) and the energetic costs of living there (as a function of flow patterns, temperature, and fish size). The collection of NEI estimates can be used to help understand the site's overall energetic profitability for fish and to generate an estimate of carrying capacity. We collected topographic information to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of a stream channel along with drifting invertebrates, temperature, discharge, and substrate type, before and after the addition of large wood in the Asotin watershed. This information was used to create hydraulic models to estimate water velocities and flow direction which were then used to predict delivery rates of drift, swimming costs to fish, and ultimately NEI potential throughout the reach. The model was used to predict restoration benefits based on expected geomorphic responses to large wood. In addition, the model was used to translate modest observed changes in topography from the restoration to increases in NEI and carrying capacity of the stream reach. We believe the NEI

  9. 7 CFR 1423.7 - Net worth alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth alternatives. 1423.7 Section 1423.7... WAREHOUSES § 1423.7 Net worth alternatives. Warehouse operators with net worth equal to or greater than the minimum net worth required, but less than the total net worth for the commodity involved in the...

  10. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  11. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  12. Comparison of growth and efficiency of dietary energy utilization by growing pigs offered feeding programs based on the metabolizable energy or the net energy system.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J; Patience, J F; Boyd, R D

    2016-04-01

    The NE system describes the useful energy available for growth better than the ME system. The use of NE in diet formulation should maintain growth performance and carcass parameters when diets contain a diversity of ingredients. This study compared the growth performance of pigs on diets formulated using either the ME or the NE system. A total of 944 gilts and 1,110 castrates (40.8 ± 2.0 kg initial BW) were allotted to group pens and assigned to 1 of 5 different feeding programs according to a randomized complete block design. The 5 treatments included: a corn-soybean meal control diet (CTL), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), formulated to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-D), a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, to be equal in ME to the CTL diet (ME-DC) and a corn-soybean meal diet plus corn DDGS and corn germ meal, formulated to be equal in NE to the CTL diet (NE-DC). When required, fat was added as an energy source. Pigs were harvested at an average BW of 130.3 ± 4.0 kg. Growth performance was not affected by treatment ( = 0.581, = 0. 177, and = 0.187 for ADG, ADFI, and G:F, respectively). However, carcass growth decreased with the addition of coproducts except for the NE-D treatment ( = 0.016, = 0.001, = 0.018, = 0.010, and = 0.010 for dressing percentage, HCW, carcass ADG, back fat, and loin depth, respectively). Carcass G:F and lean percentage did not differ among treatments ( = 0.109 and = 0.433, respectively). On the other hand, NE intake decreased ( = 0.035) similarly to that of carcass gain, suggesting a relationship between NE intake and energy retention. Calculations of NE per kilogram of BW gain differed among treatments ( = 0.010), but NE per kilogram of carcass was similar among treatments ( = 0.640). This suggests that NE may be better than ME at explaining the carcass results

  13. Energy expenditure studies to predict requirements of selected national athletes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1997-03-01

    A study to predict energy requirements of national athletes, 84 males and 24 females in 9 and 4 different types of sports respectively, were conducted during centralised training. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, 3-day activity pattern and energy cost (kcal/min) of common activities to derive total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Based on body mass index (BMI), 68 males or 81% and 19 females or 79% of the athletes were classified as normal. The mean body fat content for males and females were 13.8 ± 4.5% and 24.7 ± 5.3%, respectively. The mean daily activity pattern of males and females athletes were similar for light activities (16½ hr or 68% of day), for moderate activities (3½ hr or 15% of day in male, 4 hr or 17% in females) while moderate to heavy activities related to training were 4 hr (17%) and 3½ hr (15%) in males and females, respectively. Energy cost of some common activities ranges from 1.00-3.00 kcal/min in males and 0.84-2.04 kcal/min in females, while values for jogging were 6.60 kcal/min and 5.62 kcal/min in males and females, respectively. The mean TDEE in male ranges from 2938 kcal (12.3 MJ) in boxers (57 kg) to 4861 kcal (20.3 MJ) in weightlifters (110 kg) while the mean TDEE in female ranges from 2099 kcal (8.8 MJ) in athletics (51 kg) to 3098 kcal (13.0 MJ) in basketball (61.4 kg). The calculated physical activity level (PAL) values using measured BMR for males and females athletes ranges from 1.99-2.58 and 1.77-2.34, respectively. In conclusion, the estimated energy requirement for the various sports event studied ranges from 44-55 kcal/kg/day in males and 38-50 kcal/kg/day in female athletes.

  14. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  15. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  16. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P < 0.05). The coefficients for the nonlinear regression of retained energy (RE) on the empty body weight gain (EBWG) were not different among the different sex classes (P > 0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs. PMID:26431709

  17. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P < 0.05). The coefficients for the nonlinear regression of retained energy (RE) on the empty body weight gain (EBWG) were not different among the different sex classes (P > 0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs.

  18. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  19. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  20. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper × Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60 ± 1.57 kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30 ± 1.28 kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35 kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01 ± 1.66 kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43 ± 1.17 kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61 ± 20.31 vs. 427.24 ± 18.70 kJ kg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64 ± 0.02 vs. 0.65 ± 0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.44 ± 0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83 ± 0.17 vs. 1.99 ± 0.28 g kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P > 0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62 ± 13.21 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5 % greater than that (274.16 ± 11.99 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32 g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95 g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC

  1. Spatial structures in microtubular solutions requiring a sustained energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabony, J.; Job, D.

    1990-08-01

    MICROTUBULES are believed to be the principal organizers of the cell interior1. Cells respond to a variety of stimuli by modifying the spatial distribution of the microtubules. These effects are central to cell division and morphogenesis2, and embryo development3. During embryo development, macroscopic patterns are frequently observed3. Here we report that microtubular solutions spontaneously form alternating white and dark stripes about 1 mm wide and 1 cm long. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements show that in each segment the microtubules are aligned obliquely to the direction of the stripe, and that the white and dark stripes differ in having mutually orthogonal orientations. The formation of these structures requires an initial reservoir of organic phosphate. Phosphorus NMR measurements show that the process is accompanied by the energy-liberating conversion of organic to inorganic phosphate. These observations, together with similarities to the dissipative spatial structure formed by the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction4-6, provide strong evidence that the observed structures are energy-dissipative in nature. Dissipative structures are thought to be critical to the appearence of complex living organisms7,8. Our results strongly suggest that microtubules are capable of forming such structures. Microtubular dissipative structures may occur during mitosis and embryo morphogenesis.

  2. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  3. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  4. Energy requirements for a swimming pool through a water-atmosphere energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Almanza, F.; Lara, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The methodology displayed here is to calculate the energy requirements for heating a swimming pool to a desired temperature. This methodology consists of an energy balance between water-atmosphere as is used in the temperature evaluation of cooling ponds in power plants. Different mathematical expressions are given to calculate such a balance. It is necessary to know the month of the year, the ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and solar radiation. With these parameters it is possible to know the natural temperature of the water, natural evaporation, energy needed to reach a determined swimming pool temperature and the evaporation of the heated pool.

  5. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  6. Development of a genetic algorithm optimisation tool for the early stage design of low and net-Zero Energy Solar Homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Remi

    Homes that utilise solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies to generate as much energy as they consume in a year are referred to as net-Zero Energy Solar Homes (ZESH). This thesis presents the methodology used to develop a Genetic Algorithm (GA) Optimisation Tool that finds optimal configurations of low and net-zero energy solar homes taking into consideration effects from the use of different technologies, local climate, economics, and other factors. The tool links a low energy solar home model developed in TRNSYS with a GA optimisation program that automates the search for cost-effective building designs. The tool varies a predefined set of parameters including building width to length ratio, heating system type, solar thermal collector type and size, and more. The results from the TRNSYS model are compared with monitored data of an energy efficient house to verify that the model was correctly implemented. A total of 40 test cases were evaluated with the tool in order to verify the effects of climate, energy consumption target, control strategy, utility price structures, and other factors, to examine their impact on the resulting optimal design configurations. The GA program was capable of finding designs that were on average within 0.5% of the best known solution with the evaluation of only 0.00012% of the solution space. Results indicated that homes could be built with near equivalent monthly costs of conventional homes, while reducing the annual net-energy consumption by an order of magnitude. A reduction in PV system costs or the introduction of appropriate feed-in-tariffs had significant impacts on the overall cost-effectiveness of ZESH. The thesis clearly demonstrated the extent to which local climate, economic factors, and specific design constraints can have a major impact on the optimal design configuration, which limits the usefulness of generic design guidelines. The methodology developed was also a novel way of using TRNSYS for the

  7. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  8. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  9. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand “chemical energy” is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk about chemical energy (which is also the way we talk about energy in everyday life); 2) the macroscopic approach to energy concepts that is common in physics and physical sciences; and 3) the failure of chemistry courses to explicitly link molecular with macroscopic energy ideas. From a constructivist perspective, it is unlikely that students can, without a coherent understanding of such a central concept, attain a robust and accurate understanding of new concepts. However, changes are on the horizon, guided by the increasing understanding that difficult concepts require coherent, well-designed learning progressions and the new National Research Council Framework for K–12 Science Education. We provide supporting evidence for our assertions and suggestions for an interdisciplinary learning progression designed to better approach the concept of bond energies, a first step in an understanding chemical energy and behavior of reaction systems that is central to biological systems. PMID:23737636

  10. Net Test

    2001-09-01

    Nettest is a secure, real-time network utility. The nettest framework is designed to incorporate existing and new network tests, and be run as a daemon or an interactive process. Requests for network tests are received via a SSL connection or the user interface and are authorized using a ACL list (in the future authorization using Akenti will also be supported). For tests that require coordination between the two ends of the test, Nettest establishes anmore » SSL connection to accomplish this coordination. A test between two remote computers can be requested via the user interlace if the Nettest daemon is running on both remote machines and the user is authorized. Authorization for the test is through a chain of trust estabtished by the nettest daemons. Nettest is responsible for determining if the test request is authorized, but it does nothing further to secure the test once the test is running. Currently the Nettest framework incorporates lperf-vl.2, a simple ping type test, and a tuned TCP test that uses a given required throughput and ping results to determine the round trip time to set a buffer size (based on the delay bandwidth product) and then performs an iperf TCP throughput test. Additional network test tools can be integrated into the Nettest framework in the future.« less

  11. Nitrogen: the key to biofuel energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vigorous debate continues regarding the net energy that can be gained in producing liquid fuels from crop materials. However, it is clear that the net energy gain from the process is small relative to the energy demands of producing the fuel. Thus, a small reduction in the energy required to produ...

  12. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  13. Interim storage requirements at department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.

    2008-07-15

    DOE has developed new requirements for packages containing tritiated material that hold tritium of a form and quantity that pose a risk of exposure to workers. These requirements include meeting specified leak rate criteria for both pre and post package drop tests. Packaging that fails to meet these new requirements must be stored in a specified manner in designated areas. (authors)

  14. 76 FR 33329 - Energy Performance Contracting-Request for Comments on Proposed Guidance and Policy Clarifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... other stakeholders? 2. Net Present Value Currently, HUD is considering requiring that the Investment Grade Energy Audit incorporate Net Present Value calculations. Does the industry use a standard rate...

  15. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community, Ithaca, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community and builder AquaZephyr in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community-scale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments, and 25 single family residences that range in size from 1,250 ft2–1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 to $235,000. The community is pursing DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH), US Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold, and ENERGY STAR certifications for the entire project.

  16. Influence of net energy content of the diets on productive performance and carcass merit of gilts, boars and immunocastrated males slaughtered at 120kg BW.

    PubMed

    Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Sánchez, J L; López-Bote, C J; Mateos, G G

    2014-12-01

    In total, 540 crossbred pigs with an initial body weight of 28.5kg were used to investigate the effects of the net energy (NE) content (2.29, 2.33, 2.37, 2.41 and 2.45 Mcal/kg) of the diet on growth performance and carcass and meat quality traits of gilts, boars and immunocastrated males (IMC). An increase in dietary NE increased NE intake and decreased feed conversion ratio linearly. The IMC pigs showed greater feed intake and average daily gain than gilts and boars. Backfat depth increased and chilled and trimmed ham yield decreased, as the dietary NE increased. Backfat depth was greater for gilts and IMC than for boars. Also, gilts had greater carcass and loin yields than boars and IMC. Diets with the greater NE content were more appropriate for the production of heavy pigs. However, the economic interest of this practice needs further assessment. PMID:25134013

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance.

  20. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  1. Energy end-use requirements in manufacturing, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, D. R.; Isser, S.; Beatty, R.; Colville, G.; Lang, K.; Krawiec, F.

    1981-07-01

    A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases were undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research to analyze technical and economic feasibility of solar technologies, and to establish multilayer R and D programs for: solar thermal industrial electric power systems and solar IPH systems. In the review of existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use.

  2. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  3. Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and EO 13423

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Describes what counts toward the federal goals, the definition of "new" for renewable power/renewable energy certificate (REC) purchases, and what types of on-site projects will get double credit (Section 203 (C)).

  4. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  5. Comparison of energy intake and requirement of young students in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mehdi; Bahraini, Nimah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of energy intakes is required for understanding of growth and disease in young students. This study was conducted to estimate the energy intake of young students and compare with their energy requirements. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling, 400 students, aged 14–18 years, were selected in 2010. Hariss–Benedict equations were used to estimate the energy requirement of each group. Results: Mean and standard error of energy intake and requirements of males was 2155 ± 30 and 1670 ± 18, respectively, and of females was 2700 ± 21, 2300 ± 4 kcal, respectively. Differences of means, energy intake, and requirement in both sexes were significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because of their age (14–18 years), which is called growth age, energy intake was lower than their needs PMID:23798932

  6. A survey of the electrical energy requirement of hotels in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.K.; Chan, K.T. . Dept. of Building Services Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Electrical energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for about 50 percent of the total electricity produced in Hong Kong. Investigation of the electrical energy requirement in these buildings is essential to energy conservation. With it, norms of energy use for the buildings in use can be deduced and can be used to establish energy management programs. This article reports on a pioneer investigation on the electrical energy use of hotels in Hong Kong. A survey on the actual consumption in 20 hotels has been conducted, and results are presented. Significance of the norms and the various end-use components of the total electrical energy requirement are discussed.

  7. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  8. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  9. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Status Through 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    This report was assembled by the Energy Information Administration from a number of sources and in a series of steps, beginning with a review of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and other program summaries available on web sites, followed by a review of state laws and regulations, and then further clarified by direct contact with State public utility commissions, electric utilities, and others.

  10. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  11. Energy and protein requirements for growth and maintenance of F1 Nellore x Red Angus bulls, steers, and heifers.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Valadares Filho, S C; Tedeschi, L O; Chizzotti, F H M; Carstens, G E

    2007-08-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted with 36 F1 Nellore x Red Angus calves (12 steers, 12 bulls, and 12 heifers), averaging 274 kg of BW, to assess the net requirements of protein and energy for growth and maintenance. Three cattle from each group (i.e., steers, bulls, and heifers) were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial to determine the initial body composition. The remaining calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: maintenance (diet containing 70% of DM as corn silage fed at 1.2% of BW daily) or concentrate at 0.75 or 1.5% of BW daily with corn silage available for ad libitum consumption. The diets were isonitrogenous (2% N, DM basis). The experimental design provided ranges in ME intake, BW, and ADG for the development of regression equations to predict the maintenance requirements for NE and net protein (MRNE and MRNP, respectively) and the growth requirement for NE and net protein (GRNE and GRNP, respectively). After 84 d of growth, the cattle were slaughtered. The cleaned gastrointestinal tracts, organs, carcasses, heads, hides, tails, feet, blood, and tissues were weighed to measure empty BW (EBW). These parts were ground separately and subsampled for chemical analyses. For each animal within a period, DMI was measured daily and samples of feces were collected to determine diet digestibility. There were no differences in MRNE (P = 0.06) among groups. The combined data indicated a MRNE of 71.2 kcal x kg(-0.75) of EBW x d(-1), with a partial efficiency of use of ME to NE(m) of 0.71. The partial efficiency of use of ME to NE for growth was 0.54 for bulls, 0.47 for steers, and 0.54 for heifers. The GRNE for steers and heifers were similar (P = 0.15) but were 18.7% greater (P = 0.03) for steers and heifers than for bulls. The MRNP did not differ among groups and averaged 2.53 g of CP x kg(-0.75) of EBW x d(-1). Likewise, GRNP was not different among groups. The percentage of retained energy deposited as protein (RE(p)) increased as the

  12. Workshop: Promoting Sustainability Through Net Zero Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) signed an MOU with the U.S. Army to support the Army’s Net Zero initiative. The 17 Net Zero pilot installations aim to produce as much energy as used; limit freshwater use and increase water reuse; and reduce the generation ...

  13. How is ERBE net radiation defined?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... at top of the atmosphere (TOA) as the following: Net (TOA) = Solar_down (TOA) - SW_up (TOA) - LW_up (TOA) where Solar_down (TOA) ... a net radiative energy surplus/deficit of the Earth system, respectively. ERBE: General Questions ...

  14. Energy Requirements of Hydrogen-utilizing Microbes: A Boundary Condition for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems based on the energy supplied by water-rock chemistry carry particular significance in the context of geo- and astrobiology. With no direct dependence on solar energy, lithotrophic microbes could conceivably penetrate a planetary crust to a depth limited only by temperature or pressure constraints (several kilometers or more). The deep lithospheric habitat is thereby potentially much greater in volume than its surface counterpart, and in addition offers a stable refuge against inhospitable surface conditions related to climatic or atmospheric evolution (e.g., Mars) or even high-energy impacts (e.g., early in Earth's history). The possibilities for a deep microbial biosphere are, however, greatly constrained by life s need to obtain energy at a certain minimum rate (the maintenance energy requirement) and of a certain minimum magnitude (the energy quantum requirement). The mere existence of these requirements implies that a significant fraction of the chemical free energy available in the subsurface environment cannot be exploited by life. Similar limits may also apply to the usefulness of light energy at very low intensities or long wavelengths. Quantification of these minimum energy requirements in terrestrial microbial ecosystems will help to establish a criterion of energetic habitability that can significantly constrain the prospects for life in Earth's subsurface, or on other bodies in the solar system. Our early work has focused on quantifying the biological energy quantum requirement for methanogenic archaea, as representatives of a plausible subsurface metabolism, in anoxic sediments (where energy availability is among the most limiting factors in microbial population growth). In both field and laboratory experiments utilizing these sediments, methanogens retain a remarkably consistent free energy intake, in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions that affect energy availability. The energy yields apparently required by

  15. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Christopher

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  16. Dynein Associates with oskar mRNPs and Is Required For Their Efficient Net Plus-End Localization in Drosophila Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Paulomi; Laxani, Shobha; Li, Xuan; Bullock, Simon L.; Gonsalvez, Graydon B.

    2013-01-01

    In order for eukaryotic cells to function properly, they must establish polarity. The Drosophila oocyte uses mRNA localization to establish polarity and hence provides a genetically tractable model in which to study this process. The spatial restriction of oskar mRNA and its subsequent protein product is necessary for embryonic patterning. The localization of oskar mRNA requires microtubules and microtubule-based motor proteins. Null mutants in Kinesin heavy chain (Khc), the motor subunit of the plus end-directed Kinesin-1, result in oskar mRNA delocalization. Although the majority of oskar particles are non-motile in khc nulls, a small fraction of particles display active motility. Thus, a motor other than Kinesin-1 could conceivably also participate in oskar mRNA localization. Here we show that Dynein heavy chain (Dhc), the motor subunit of the minus end-directed Dynein complex, extensively co-localizes with Khc and oskar mRNA. In addition, immunoprecipitation of the Dynein complex specifically co-precipitated oskar mRNA and Khc. Lastly, germline-specific depletion of Dhc resulted in oskar mRNA and Khc delocalization. Our results therefore suggest that efficient posterior localization of oskar mRNA requires the concerted activities of both Dynein and Kinesin-1. PMID:24244700

  17. Comparison of 2006 IECC and 2009 IECC Commercial Energy Code Requirements for Kansas City, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yunzhi; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-03-22

    This report summarizes code requirements and energy savings of commercial buildings in climate zone 4 built to the 2009 IECC when compared to the 2006 IECC. In general, the 2009 IECC has higher insulation requirements for exterior walls, roof, and windows and have higher efficiency requirements for HVAC equipment (HVAC equipment efficiency requirements are governed by National Appliance Conversion Act of 1987 (NAECA), and are applicable irrespective of the IECC version adopted). The energy analysis results show that residential and nonresidential commercial buildings meeting the 2009 IECC requirements save between 6.1% and 9.0% site energy, and between 6.4% and 7.7% energy cost when compared to 2006 IECC. Analysis also shows that semiheated buildings have energy and cost savings of 3.9% and 5.6%.

  18. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, corn dried distillers grains with solubles, and net energy formulation on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    De Jong, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D

    2014-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine effects of dietary wheat middlings (midds), corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and NE formulation on nursery pig performance and caloric efficiency. In Exp. 1, 180 nursery pigs (11.86 ± 0.02 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and included 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI. Caloric efficiency improved (linear; P < 0.05) on both an ME (NRC, 1998) and NE (Sauvant et al., 2004) basis as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (6.85 ± 0.01 kg BW and 26 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 35 d, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and contained 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds did not affect overall ADG or ADFI but decreased (quadratic; P < 0.013) G:F at 20%. Caloric efficiency for both ME and NE improved (quadratic; P < 0.05) as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 3, 180 pigs (12.18 ± 0.4 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of DDGS (0 or 20%) and wheat midds (0, 10, or 20%) for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 5 replications per treatment. No DDGS × wheat midds interactions were observed, and DDGS did not influence ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but increasing dietary wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and final BW. In Exp. 4, 210 pigs (6.87 kg BW and 26 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Wheat middlings (0, 10, or 20%) were added to the first 3 diets without balancing for energy. In diets 4 and 5, soybean oil was added (1.4 and 2.8%) to 10 and 20% wheat midds diets to balance to the same NE as the positive control (0% wheat midds). Overall, no wheat midds × fat interactions occurred. Regardless of

  19. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, K. H.; Barada, K.; Chen, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Muscatello, C. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2 = 1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers E × B rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the E × B shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN = 1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with

  20. A mixture neural net for multispectral imaging spectrometer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Slagle, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Each spatial region viewed by an imaging spectrometer contains various elements in a mixture. The elements present and the amount of each are to be determined. A neural net solution is considered. Initial optical neural net hardware is described. The first simulations on the component requirements of a neural net are considered. The pseudoinverse solution is shown to not suffice, i.e. a neural net solution is required.

  1. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  2. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  3. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  4. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  5. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  6. Prediction of energy requirements and drying times for surface drying fresh produce

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    For numerous fresh fruits and vegetables, drying of surface adhering water is required to facilitate materials handling and wax treatments. Using humidity ratio difference and air flow rates as manipulated variables, a computer program and a graphical approach were developed to predict required drying time. Modeling results were extended to investigate air recycling and the relationship of recycling on energy requirements.

  7. What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?

    PubMed

    Saleska, Scott R; Shorter, Joanne H; Herndon, Scott; Jiménez, Rodrigo; McManus, J Barry; Munger, J William; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2006-06-01

    Better quantification of isotope ratios of atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of CO2 could substantially improve our ability to probe underlying physiological and ecological mechanisms controlling ecosystem carbon exchange, but the ability to make long-term continuous measurements of isotope ratios of exchange fluxes has been limited by measurement difficulties. In particular, direct eddy covariance methods have not yet been used for measuring the isotopic composition of ecosystem fluxes. In this article, we explore the feasibility of such measurements by (a) proposing a general criterion for judging whether a sensor's performance is sufficient for making such measurements (the criterion is met when the contribution of sensor error to the flux measurement error is comparable to or less than the contribution of meteorological noise inherently associated with turbulence flux measurements); (b) using data-based numerical simulations to quantify the level of sensor precision and stability required to meet this criterion for making direct eddy covariance measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 fluxes above a specific ecosystem (a mid-latitude temperate forest in central Massachusetts, USA); (c) testing whether the performance of a new sensor-a prototype pulsed quantum cascade laser (QCL) based isotope-ratio absorption spectrometer (and plausible improvements thereon)-is sufficient for meeting the criterion in this ecosystem. We found that the error contribution from a prototype sensor (approximately 0.2 per thousand, 1 SD of 10 s integrations) to total isoflux measurement error was comparable to (1.5 to 2x) the irreducible 'meteorological' noise inherently associated with turbulent flux measurements above this ecosystem (daytime measurement error SD of approximately 60% of flux versus meteorological noise of 30-40% for instantaneous half-hour fluxes). Our analysis also shows that plausible instrument improvements (increase of sensor precision to approximately 0.1 per

  8. Wavelets, self-organizing maps and artificial neural nets for predicting energy use and estimating uncertainties in energy savings in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yafeng

    This dissertation develops a "neighborhood" based neural network model utilizing wavelet analysis and Self-organizing Map (SOM) to predict building baseline energy use. Wavelet analysis was used for feature extraction of the daily weather profiles. The resulting few significant wavelet coefficients represent not only average but also variation of the weather components. A SOM is used for clustering and projecting high-dimensional data into usually a one or two dimensional map to reveal the data structure which is not clear by visual inspection. In this study, neighborhoods that contain days with similar meteorological conditions are classified by a SOM using significant wavelet coefficients; a baseline model is then developed for each neighborhood. In each neighborhood, modeling is more robust without unnecessary compromises that occur in global predictor regression models. This method was applied to the Energy Predictor Shootout II dataset and compared with the winning entries for hourly energy use predictions. A comparison between the "neighborhood" based linear regression model and the change-point model for daily energy use prediction was also performed. We also studied the application of the non-parametric nearest neighborhood points approach in determining the uncertainty of energy use prediction. The uncertainty from "local" system behavior rather than from global statistical indices such as root mean square error and other measures is shown to be more realistic and credible than the statistical approaches currently used. In general, a baseline model developed by local system behavior is more reliable than a global baseline model. The "neighborhood" based neural network model was found to predict building baseline energy use more accurately and achieve more reliable estimation of energy savings as well as the associated uncertainties in energy savings from building retrofits.

  9. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  10. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  11. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  12. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  13. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  14. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  15. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  16. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an...

  17. Energy requirements for metals production: comparison between ocean nodules and land-based resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A methodology was developed to compare the energy requirements of technologies for production of metals from ocean nodules with production of same metals from land based ores using conventional processes. The energy requirements for production of copper, nickel, cobalt, and manganese from ocean nodules are based on an ocean mining operation of 3 million tons per year of dry nodules. A linear relationship exists between the amount of nodules processed and the total energy so that the energy can be easily converted to other processing rates if desired.

  18. Requirements for supercomputing in energy research: The transition to massively parallel computing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses: The emergence of a practical path to TeraFlop computing and beyond; requirements of energy research programs at DOE; implementation: supercomputer production computing environment on massively parallel computers; and implementation: user transition to massively parallel computing.

  19. A NET Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thea; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis. PMID:23227026

  20. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  1. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 960.10 Section 960.10 Postal... JUSTICE ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 960.10 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  2. 45 CFR 13.11 - Net worth exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibits. 13.11 Section 13.11 Public... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 13.11 Net worth exhibits. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of...

  3. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  4. 28 CFR 24.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 24.202 Section 24.202... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 24.202 Net worth... submit with its application a detailed exhibit showing its net worth at the time the proceeding...

  5. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2610.202 Section 2610... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  6. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1512 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.1512 Section 1.1512... Access to Justice Act (EAJA) in Agency Proceedings Information Required from Applicants § 1.1512 Net... must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and...

  8. 22 CFR 134.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 134.12 Section 134.12... Information Required From Applicants § 134.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualifed tax... showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 960.4(f)) when the...

  9. 17 CFR 210.6-05 - Statements of net assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements of net assets. 210... Statements of net assets. In lieu of the balance sheet otherwise required by § 210.6-04 of this part, persons may substitute a statement of net assets if at least 95 percent of the amount of the person's...

  10. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  11. 29 CFR 16.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Net worth exhibit. 16.202 Section 16.202 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 16.202 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at...

  13. 14 CFR 14.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 14.11 Section 14.11... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Information Required From Applicants § 14.11 Net worth... provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any...

  14. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  15. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section 4204.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS VARIANCES FOR SALE OF ASSETS Variance of the Statutory Requirements §...

  16. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section 4204.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS VARIANCES FOR SALE OF ASSETS Variance of the Statutory Requirements §...

  17. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand "chemical energy" is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk…

  18. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  19. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.

  20. Electro-netting: fabrication of two-dimensional nano-nets for highly sensitive trimethylamine sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Si, Yang; Yang, Shangbin; Sun, Gang

    2011-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylic acid (PAA) nano-nets that comprise interlinked ultrathin nanowires with diameters of 10-30 nm are successfully prepared by a facile electro-netting process. Nano-nets feature a clear geometric characteristic with ideal and weighted Steiner networks due to the rapid phase separation process and its obeyed minimal energy principle. The versatile nano-nets create enhanced interconnectivity and additional surface area and facilitate the diffusion of analytes into the membranes, which significantly boost the gas diffusion coefficient and sensing properties. As one example, PAA membranes containing fibers and nano-nets used as sensing materials are deposited by electrospinning/electro-netting on an electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for trimethylamine (TMA) detection, which exhibits a quick response (∼180 s), low detection limit (1 ppm) and ideal selectivity at room temperature.

  1. Neural timing nets.

    PubMed

    Cariani, P A

    2001-01-01

    Formulations of artificial neural networks are directly related to assumptions about neural coding in the brain. Traditional connectionist networks assume channel-based rate coding, while time-delay networks convert temporally-coded inputs into rate-coded outputs. Neural timing nets that operate on time structured input spike trains to produce meaningful time-structured outputs are proposed. Basic computational properties of simple feedforward and recurrent timing nets are outlined and applied to auditory computations. Feed-forward timing nets consist of arrays of coincidence detectors connected via tapped delay lines. These temporal sieves extract common spike patterns in their inputs that can subserve extraction of common fundamental frequencies (periodicity pitch) and common spectrum (timbre). Feedforward timing nets can also be used to separate time-shifted patterns, fusing patterns with similar internal temporal structure and spatially segregating different ones. Simple recurrent timing nets consisting of arrays of delay loops amplify and separate recurring time patterns. Single- and multichannel recurrent timing nets are presented that demonstrate the separation of concurrent, double vowels. Timing nets constitute a new and general neural network strategy for performing temporal computations on neural spike trains: extraction of common periodicities, detection of recurring temporal patterns, and formation and separation of invariant spike patterns that subserve auditory objects.

  2. Effect of experimental methodology on fasting heat production and the net energy content of corn and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dewen; Jaworski, Neil William; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Zhongchao; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the three experiments was to evaluated methods to predict fasting heat production (FHP) and to compare methods to determine the net energy (NE) of corn and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. To estimate heat production (HP), pigs were housed in respiratory chambers for all experiments. In Experiment 1, six barrows (43.0 ± 1.4 kg body weight [BW]) were fed a Corn-SBM diet for 20 d. The experimental design consisted of following periods: 7 d adaptation, 5 d ad libitum feeding, 3 d feeding at 2 × metabolisable energy (ME) for maintenance (MEm), 3 d feeding at 1 × MEm and 2 d fasting. The FHP was calculated by extrapolating HP measured at the different feeding levels to zero ME intake. The daily FHP [per kg BW(0)(.6)] determined directly after fasting for 24 h and using the regression method was 774 kJ and 694 kJ, respectively. In Experiment 2, 18 barrows (34.3 ± 1.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to three diets: Diet 1 contained 97.5% corn (direct NE determination of corn); diets 2 and 3 contained 25 % and 15% SBM at the expense of corn, respectively, and were used to calculate the NE of corn by difference. The NE of corn determined directly (13.21 MJ/kg DM) and by difference (13.69 MJ/kg DM) was not different. In Experiment 3, 24 barrows (36.2 ± 1.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to four diets to determine the effects of different basal diets on the NE content of SBM. The diets were: Basal diet 1 (97.5% corn), Test diet 1 (15% SBM at the expense of corn), Basal diet 2 (contained 72.5% corn and 25% SBM) and Test diet 2 (58% corn and 39.5% SBM). These diets were used to determine the NE of SBM using the Corn-basal diet or the Corn-SBM-basal diet, respectively. It was shown that the estimated NE of SBM did not depend on the used diet (10.04 MJ/kg and 10.62 MJ/kg DM for Basal diet 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, using the regression method to determine FHP results in lower FHP than the fasting method. There was no difference observed in the NE of

  3. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  4. Electro-netting: Fabrication of two-dimensional nano-nets for highly sensitive trimethylamine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Si, Yang; Yang, Shangbin; Sun, Gang

    2011-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylic acid (PAA) nano-nets that comprise interlinked ultrathin nanowires with diameters of 10-30 nm are successfully prepared by a facile electro-netting process. Nano-nets feature a clear geometric characteristic with ideal and weighted Steiner networks due to the rapid phase separation process and its obeyed minimal energy principle. The versatile nano-nets create enhanced interconnectivity and additional surface area and facilitate the diffusion of analytes into the membranes, which significantly boost the gas diffusion coefficient and sensing properties. As one example, PAA membranes containing fibers and nano-nets used as sensing materials are deposited by electrospinning/electro-netting on an electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for trimethylamine (TMA) detection, which exhibits a quick response (~180 s), low detection limit (1 ppm) and ideal selectivity at room temperature.Two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylic acid (PAA) nano-nets that comprise interlinked ultrathin nanowires with diameters of 10-30 nm are successfully prepared by a facile electro-netting process. Nano-nets feature a clear geometric characteristic with ideal and weighted Steiner networks due to the rapid phase separation process and its obeyed minimal energy principle. The versatile nano-nets create enhanced interconnectivity and additional surface area and facilitate the diffusion of analytes into the membranes, which significantly boost the gas diffusion coefficient and sensing properties. As one example, PAA membranes containing fibers and nano-nets used as sensing materials are deposited by electrospinning/electro-netting on an electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for trimethylamine (TMA) detection, which exhibits a quick response (~180 s), low detection limit (1 ppm) and ideal selectivity at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; Fig. S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00783h

  5. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  6. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  7. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  8. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  9. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  10. Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From its conception, Richardsville Elementary was designed to be an affordable net zero facility. The design team explored numerous energy saving strategies to dramatically reduce energy consumption. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing…

  11. NETS/PROSSS - NETS COUPLED WITH THE PROGRAMMING SYSTEM FOR STRUCTURAL SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Expensive analysis programs are often combined with optimization procedures to solve engineering problems. An optimal solution requires numerous iterations between the analysis program and an optimizer. This often becomes prohibitive due to cost and amount of computer time needed to converge to an optimal solution. NETS/PROSSS was developed to provide a system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), a neural network program developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the optimization program CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836) developed at Ames Research Center. After training, NETS approximates the results from the analysis program, possibly allowing the user to reach a near-optimal solution in much less time than before. These results can then be used as a starting point in a normal optimization process, possibly allowing the user to converge to an optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NETS/PROSSS is written in C-language and FORTRAN 77 for Sun series computers running SunOS. The required CONMIN and NETS v3.0 files are included in this package. The documentation for CONMIN and NETS are included with the documentation of NETS/PROSSS. The program requires 342K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this program is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. NETS/PROSSS was developed in 1991.

  12. NetState

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  13. SpawnNet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  14. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  15. NASA's Software Bank (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NETS (A Neural Network Development Tool) is a software system for mimicking the human brain. It is used in a University of Arkansas project in pattern matching of chemical systems. If successful, chemists would be able to identify mixtures of compounds without long and costly separation procedures. Using NETS, the group has trained the computer to recognize pattern relationships in a known compound and associate the results to an unknown compound. The research appears to be promising.

  16. Energy requirements in Terrestrial biology and implications for the habitability of Europa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehler, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Among the classically suggested determinants of habitability - availability of energy, clement physiochemical conditions, and a solvent and inventory of elements suitable for biochemistry - energy availability is the greatest uncertainty for Europa. Life on Earth expresses the need for energy in two dimensions: a minimum Gibbs Energy change (ΔG) requirement and a minimum energy flux (power) requirement. The first is a 'binary' requirement (if the minimum ΔG is met, metabolism is possible; otherwise not) that is constrained by theory and observation to about -10 to -20 kJ/mol. Plausible scenarios have been suggested by which any of several prospective metabolisms could meet this requirement on Europa. The power requirement specifies the minimum energy flux needed to maintain a standing biomass of a given size. The quotient of environmental energy flux and mass-normalized power requirement thus places an upper bound on the quantity of biomass a given system can support. On Earth, variability in the terms of this quotient underlie more than eight orders of magnitude in biomass abundance from energy-replete to energy-poor systems. Uncertainty in the terms of this quotient for Europa is very large, and spans a range from pessimistic to relatively optimistic, where 'energetic habitability' is concerned. Even for life on Earth, cellular power requirements are not well quantified, with field and lab-based estimates spanning a range from 10-17 to 10-13 kJ/cell/day for typical microbial cells. The rate and mode of energy delivery to the Europan ocean is even more uncertain. In energetic terms, the greatest headway in assessing the habitability of Europa would be made by: quantifying the rate at which specific oxidants may be delivered to the ocean by transport from the surface, if any; quantifying the extent to which water has reacted with a rocky crust, and whether such reaction is ongoing; and understanding the 'style' of energy flux - e.g., by focused venting of reduced

  17. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  18. Estimates of the energy deficit required to reverse the trend in childhood obesity in Australian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel; de Castella, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To estimate: 1) daily energy deficit required to reduce the weight of overweight children to within normal range; 2) time required to reach normal weight for a proposed achievable (small) target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day; 3) impact that such an effect may have on prevalence of childhood overweight. Methods: Body mass index and fitness were measured in 31,424 Australian school children aged between 4.5 and 15 years. The daily energy deficit required to reduce weight to within normal range for the 7,747 (24.7%) overweight children was estimated. Further, for a proposed achievable target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day, the time required to reach normal weight was estimated. Results: About 18% of children were overweight and 6.6% obese; 69% were either sedentary or light active. If an energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day could be achieved, 60% of overweight children would reach normal weight and the current prevalence of overweight of 24.7% (24.2%–25.1%) would be reduced to 9.2% (8.9%–9.6%) within about 15 months. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight in Australian school children could be reduced significantly within one year if even a small daily energy deficit could be achieved by children currently classified as overweight or obese. PMID:26561382

  19. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  20. Contactor Energy Requirements for Capturing CO2 From ambient air using NaOH determined in a pilot-scale prototype system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaroff, J. K.; Keith, D.; Lowry, G.

    2005-12-01

    Systems for capturing CO2 from ambient air for sequestration have recently been proposed (e.g. Dubey et al., 2002; Zeman and Lackner, 2004; Keith et al., 2004). Capture from ambient air has a number of structural advantages over capture from point sources; in particular it makes possible future emissions scenarios with negative net CO2 emissions. The systems suggested use either a Ca(OH)2 or NaOH solution to capture CO2 and then regenerate the solution in a chemical loop. The energy requirements of such a system, however, have been hotly disputed (Herzog, 2003). The energy requirements and effectiveness of the chemical regeneration are well established as they are practiced on a large scale in the industrial kraft process used in pulp and paper production, but the energy and land use requirements of a contactor for this system are uncertain as this component of the system is not implemented industrially. In this research, we address the most controversial component of the system, the contactor, which extracts CO2 from air into solution. A prototype contactor with a spray tower design is constructed (1m by 6m), and CO2 absorption by a NaOH solution spray (5 l/min) is measured. The CO2 absorption efficiency and energy requirements per unit CO2 absorbed are calculated. The energy requirements of the contactor are found to be on the order of 10-40 kJ/mol-CO2, which is small compared to the energy of combustion of fossil fuels, and compared with the energy required for the regeneration steps. Thus, a NaOH-based spray tower design can serve as an energy-efficient contactor for capturing CO2 from ambient air. Dubey, M. K., Ziock, H., Rueff, G., Elliott, S., and Smith, W. S. (2002). ``Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through engineered chemical sinkage''. ACS -- Division of Fuel Chemistry Reprints, 47(1):81--84. Herzog, H. (2003). Assessing the feasibility of capturing co2 from the air. Technical report, MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. Keith

  1. Lower-Energy Requirements for Power-Assist HEV Energy Storage Systems--Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-03-18

    Presented at the 27th International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, 15-18 March 2010, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. NREL conducted simulations and analysis of vehicle test data with research partners in response to a USABC request; results suggest that power-assist hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), like conventional HEVs, can achieve high fuel savings with lower energy requirements at potentially lower cost.

  2. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  3. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  4. Lower body versus whole body resistive exercise training and energy requirements of older men and women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kruskall, Laura J; Evans, William J

    2002-08-01

    A person's energy requirement is defined as the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) consumed over a period of body weight stability. Controversy exists regarding whether resistive exercise training (RT) influences the energy requirement of older people. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of RT on the energy requirement of older people. The subjects were 11 men (M) and 17 women (W); age range, 55 to 78 years. During a 14-week precisely controlled diet study, each subject consumed foods and beverages portioned to provide sufficient MEI to match their energy requirement and to keep body weight stable at +/- 0.5 kg of their starting weight. MEI was determined from bomb calorimeter analyses of the gross energy (GE) content of food, urine, and feces samples collected during 4-day intake-balance periods at study weeks 2, 8, and 14 (baseline, week RT6, and week RT12, respectively). MEI = GE(food)-GE(urine) - GE(feces). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. From study weeks 3 to 14, 10 subjects (4 M, 6 W) remained sedentary (SED), 9 subjects (4 M, 5 W) performed lower body RT (LBRT) 3 times/week, and 9 subjects (3 M, 6 W) performed whole body RT (WBRT) 3 times/week. Body weight was not different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups at baseline and were not changed over time or influenced by RT. At baseline, MEI was not different among the 3 groups. From weeks RT1 to RT12, MEI had to be increased by 17% +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM), 14% +/- 7%, and 12% +/- 7% in the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups, respectively, to maintain stable body weights. At week RT12, the MEI required to maintain stable body weight was not significantly different among the SED, LBRT, and WBRT groups (9.45 +/- 0.95, 9.40 +/- 0.83, and 8.64 +/-0.53 MJ/d, respectively). At week RT12, the MEI and MEI/REE ratio were higher in men versus women, independent of group assignment. These data suggest that RT, whether performed using the lower body only or the whole body, does

  5. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facility requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development programs

  6. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  7. Energy Requirements of Hydrogen-Utilizing Microbes: Boundary Condition for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For planetary bodies with surface conditions that are too harsh to permit continuous occupation by life, the deep subsurface offers a potentially stable and habitable niche. For organisms occupying this niche, the spectrum of possible metabolisms must be limited to those which do not include sunlight as an energy source or oxygen as a chemical reagent - generally, low-energy anaerobic oxidation-reduction processes. The quantity of energy released in such processes is critical, because currently understood mechanisms of biological energy conservation indicate that energy is only 'useful' to an organism when it is available at a certain minimum level - the 'biological energy quantum'. The mere existence of a BEQ implies that a significant fraction of the chemical energy present in the environment cannot be exploited by life; similarly, the absolute magnitude of the BEQ must be a key variable in determining the potential viability and distribution of subsurface microbial communities. Laboratory culture studies suggest that organisms require an energy of about -20 kJ/mol to grow. However, we find that hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms in an energy-limited natural ecosystem are active with energy yields as low as -10 kJ/mol. A lower BEQ would mean a significantly expanded range of energetically viable subsurface habitat for life.

  8. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch.

  9. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch. PMID:11895165

  10. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  11. Net Zero Ft. Carson: making a greener Army base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Army Net Zero program seeks to reduce the energy, water, and waste footprint of bases. Seventeen pilot bases aim to achieve 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases are pursuing Net Zero in a single secto...

  12. Invariance and neural nets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, E; Casasent, D

    1991-01-01

    Application of neural nets to invariant pattern recognition is considered. The authors study various techniques for obtaining this invariance with neural net classifiers and identify the invariant-feature technique as the most suitable for current neural classifiers. A novel formulation of invariance in terms of constraints on the feature values leads to a general method for transforming any given feature space so that it becomes invariant to specified transformations. A case study using range imagery is used to exemplify these ideas, and good performance is obtained.

  13. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  14. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  15. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  16. Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Sotak-Peper, K M; Gonzalez-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different areas of the United States if fed to growing pigs. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities located throughout the soybean growing area of the United States. For analysis, crushing plant locations were separated into 4 zones: 1) MI, MN, and SD ( = 4); 2) GA, IN, and OH ( = 6); 3) IA, MO, and NE ( = 7), and 4) IL ( = 5). Dietary treatments included a corn-based diet and 22 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM. Twenty-three growing barrows (initial BW: 26.4 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 23 × 8 Youden square design with 23 diets and 8 periods. Pigs were placed in individual metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder, a cup waterer, slatted floors, and a urine tray. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 7-d adaptation period. The GE was 4,165, 4,209, 4,162, and 4,198 kcal/kg (as-fed) for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the GE in SBM from Zone 2 tended ( = 0.08) to be greater than the GE in SBM from Zones 1 and 3. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE for SBM was not different among zones. The DE and ME were 4,343 and 4,098; 4,319 and 4,117; 4,135 and 3,926; and 4,248 and 4,039 kcal/kg DM for SBM from Zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The DE and ME of SBM from Zones 1 and 2 were greater ( < 0.05) than the DE and ME of SBM from Zone 3, but the DE and ME of SBM from Zone 4 were not different from that of the other zones. Net energy was calculated for each source of SBM using a published prediction equation based on DE, ether extract, starch, CP, and ADF. The NE of SBM from Zones 1 and 2 (2,534 and 2,497 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than the NE of SBM from Zone 3 (2391 kcal/kg DM), but the NE of SBM from Zone 4 (2448 kcal/kg DM) was not different from the NE of SBM from the other zones. Regardless of growing area, values for DE, ME, and NE of SBM determined in

  17. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production.

  18. MEGASTAR: The Meaning of Energy Growth: An Assessment of Systems, Technologies, and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach that includes the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption for the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario. The total requirements and the energy subsystems for each scenario are assessed for their primary impacts in the areas of society, the environment, technology and the economy.

  19. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  20. 78 FR 34359 - NET Mexico Pipeline Partners, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NET Mexico Pipeline Partners, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 20, 2013, NET Mexico Pipeline Partners, LLC (NET Mexico), 5847 San Felipe Street, Suite 1910... directed to Duncan Rhodes, Managing Director, NET Mexico Pipeline Partners, LLC, 5847 San Felipe...

  1. MASTER Net: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Ricart, M. Serra; Podesta, R.; Levato, H. O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 38m 49.60s -44d 37m 24.5s on 2016-10-01.73438 UT with unfiltered m_OT=16.4m (mlim=19.7m).

  2. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  3. Strengthening the safety net.

    PubMed

    May, Ellen Lanser

    2004-01-01

    If you've ever built a house of cards or played a game of Jenga, you know how quickly an ill-timed move can destroy your goal of maintaining equilibrium. The consequence of upsetting one piece of the whole is a common metaphor many safety net providers use to help other healthcare organizations understand their role in the system. The fiscal and physical pressure on just one safety net provider can create a dangerous ripple effect in a community, threatening the stability of other area providers and access to care for the patients they serve. "We have created a complicated tension within our healthcare system," says Stuart H. Altman, Ph.D., HFACHE, professor, National Health Policy, at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA. "If any single major sector of the system is out of balance, the others will be affected in a very negative way." Depending (in part) on geography as well as local and state politics, the fate of "non"-safety net providers can hinge on the success of those organizations whose primary mission is to provide indigent care. "If the safety net fails, the whole healthcare system could potentially collapse because the remaining providers simply cannot handle all of the demand," says C. Duane Dauner, FACHE, president of the California Healthcare Association in Sacramento. The current situations in Washington, D.C., Dallas, and several California counties illustrate this domino effect Dauner describes. PMID:14716922

  4. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  5. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  6. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  7. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  8. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  9. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  10. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  11. Decision net, directed graph, and neural net processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki; Barnard, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    A decision-net solution involving a novel hierarchical classifier and a set of multiple directed graphs, as well as a neural-net solution, are respectively presented for large-class problem and mixture problem treatments of imaging spectrometer data. The clustering method for hierarchical classifier design, when used with multiple directed graphs, yields an efficient decision net. New directed-graph rules for reducing local maxima as well as the number of perturbations required, and the new starting-node rules for extending the reachability and reducing the search time of the graphs, are noted to yield superior results, as indicated by an illustrative 500-class imaging spectrometer problem.

  12. The roles of body mass and gravity in determining the energy requirements of homoiotherms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies by Kleiber and by Brody in the 1930's established the 3/4 power of body weight as the unit of metabolic size for homoiotherms. Later Kleiber conceived of the energy requirement as a composite function, with a thermoregulatory component that is proportional to heat loss, and an antigravity component that is directly proportional to body weight. Maintenance feed requirements (F) have been measured with groups of small animals chronically exposed to several acceleration fields (G). Analysis of the results leads to an arithmetic relationship between the maintenance requirement and acceleration field strength: F sub G = F sub 0 + kG. When the equations are compared for groups of different body size, F sub 0 tends to vary between the 0.4 and 0.5 power of body mass - and k tends to be the same, irrespective of body mass. These findings tend to confirm the Kleiber concept of a composite nature of homoiotherm maintenance requirements.

  13. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  14. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  15. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    DOE PAGES

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Givenmore » a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.« less

  16. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Given a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.

  17. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  18. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  19. Evaluation of Advanced Stirling Convertor Net Heat Input Correlation Methods Using a Thermal Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including testing validation hardware, known as the Thermal Standard, to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This validation hardware provided a comparison for scrutinizing and improving empirical correlations and numerical models of ASC-E2 net heat input. This hardware simulated the characteristics of an ASC-E2 convertor in both an operating and non-operating mode. This paper describes the Thermal Standard testing and the conclusions of the validation effort applied to the empirical correlation methods used by the Radioisotope Power System (RPS) team at NASA Glenn.

  20. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  1. Simulated annealing and stochastic learning in optical neural nets: An optical Boltzmann machine

    SciTech Connect

    Shae, Zonyin.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the study of stochastic learning and neural computation in opto-electronic hardware. It presents the first demonstration of a fully operational optical learning machine. Learning in the machine is stochastic taking place in a self-organized multi-layered opto-electronic neural net with plastic connectivity weights that are formed in a programmable non-volatile spatial light modulator. Operation of the machine is made possible by two developments in this work: (a) Fast annealing by optically induced tremors in the energy landscape of the net. The objective of this scheme is to exploit the parallelism of the optical noise pattern so as to speed up the simulated annealing process. The procedure can be viewed as that of generating controlled gradually decreasing deformations or tremors in the energy landscape of the net that prevents entrapment in a local minimum energy state. Both the random drawing of neurons and the state update of the net are now done in parallel at the same time and without having to computer explicitly the change in the energy of the net and associated Boltzmann factor as required ordinarily in the Metropolis-Kirkpartrik simulated annealing algorithm. This leads to significant acceleration of the annealing process. (b) Stochastic learning with binary weights. Learning in opto-electronic neural nets can be simplified greatly if binary weights can be used. A third development, that is the development of schemes for driving and enhancing the frame rate of magneto-optic spatial light modulators, can make the machine learning speed potentially fast. Details of these developments together with the principle, architecture, structure, and performance evaluation of this machine are given.

  2. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  3. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  4. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  5. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  6. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  7. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  8. Reduced tillage systems for irrigated cotton: Energy requirements and crop response

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, W.; Thacker, G.

    1997-09-01

    Arizona law mandates that plant material left in the field following cotton harvest be buried to reduce overwintering sites for insects. Conventional operations which accomplish this are energy-intensive. Reduced tillage systems offer significant energy savings over conventional systems, however growers have expressed concerns that compaction will increase over time, with resultant yield reduction. To address this concern, two reduced tillage systems were compared to a conventional system over six reasons at one site, while at another site, four reduced tillage systems were compared to the same conventional system over three seasons. The reduced tillage systems required significantly indicates that growers can reduce the inputs required to produce irrigated cotton, without negatively impacting yield, at least over the time intervals examined.

  9. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  10. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  11. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oil and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.

  12. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    DOE PAGES

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oilmore » and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.« less

  13. Quantum Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Williams, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of classical neurocomputers is limited by the number of classical degrees of freedom which is roughly proportional to the size of the computer. By Contrast, a Hypothetical quantum neurocomputer can implement an exponentially large number of the degrees of freedom within the same size. In this paper an attempt is made to reconcile linear reversible structure of quantum evolution with nonlinear irreversible dynamics for neural nets.

  14. What are Up, Down and Net Fluxes?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... is of particular interest. Hence the term "Up" and "Down" for characterizing the direction of flow of radiative fluxes at a ... level. Moreover, by counting in or out these "Up" and "Down" energy fluxes, one can define a "Net" flux that is ultimately ...

  15. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  16. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  17. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  18. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  19. Energy requirements for growth in relation to sexual size dimorphism in marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus nestlings.

    PubMed

    Krijgsveld, K L; Dijkstra, C; Visser, G H; Daan, S

    1998-01-01

    Food consumption was measured in six female and seven male hand-raised marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) nestlings. Females consumed on average 4,321 g and males consumed 3,571 g of food during the nestling stage from 0 to 36 d. Total consumption until 56 d was 6,960 g and 5,822 g for females and males, respectively. On the basis of Fisher's sex ratio theory, this food intake ratio of 0.46 (intake male/[intake male + female]) would explain the observed male-biased fledging sex ratio of 55% males in marsh harrier broods. Growth, gross energy intake, and metabolizable energy intake were measured, along with metabolism of the nestlings, enabling us to determine energy allocation. The assimilation quotient (Q = 0.72) did not differ systematically between the sexes. Differences in metabolic rates between males and females at 15 and 30 d of age were fully attributable to the difference in body mass. Sexual size dimorphism in marsh harriers (female body mass around 60 d of age is 1.28 times greater than male mass) did not fully explain the difference in food intake between male and female nestlings: an analysis of energy requirements for growth and body mass in 16 avian species shows that energy intake was less than proportional to the average body mass at release. The data presented in this study are in agreement with Fisher's theory of inverse proportionality between the sex-specific ratios of energy requirements for growth and of offspring numbers in the marsh harrier population.

  20. Intergovernmental relations inherent in the Energy Management Partnership Act: a workshop on information requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoop, W.J.; Edelson, E.

    1980-02-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the first of three workshops that were planned to assess the information needed by the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) to effectively evaluate the pending Energy Management Partnership Act (EMPA); the workshop concentrated on issues of the EMPA hierarchical partnership. The approach utilized offers two major benefits to CS. First, by considering the problem of program evaluation while EMPA is still in the planning stage, this study identifies any baseline information that should be collected prior to implementation of EMPA, and also provides CS with the opportunity to include evaluation considerations in the operating guidelines for the program. Second, by identifying the potential problems and benefits inherent in EMPA and then identifying the information necessary to evaluate these problems and benefits, information requirements tied to the reasons for needing that information are generated, rather than a long unrelated laundry list of information requirements. Drafting of EMPA is not yet complete. When the term EMPA is used here, it refers to a set of bills that are presently being melded together. The original EMPA bill, which originated in DOE, was designed to expand the role of state and local governments in achieving national energy goals. Specifically, EMPA would provide a total of $110 million annually to state and local governments over a five year period to (1) develop an overall state energy plan, (2) consolidate three existing federal energy grant programs, (3) allow the secretary to fund directly innovative projects at the local level, and (4) provide additional assistance to states to cover the administrative costs of existing energy programs. Other bills, which may be passed in conjuncttion with EMPA or incorporated into EMPA, place additional emphasis on the local level by allocating as much as $400 million annually to local governments.

  1. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    PubMed

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  2. Calculation of protein and energy requirements in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Amrkolaie, A Keramat; Yansari, A Teimouri; Khalesi, M K

    2013-06-01

    This study tried to determine the protein and energy requirements of growing beluga sturgeon Huso huso using a factorial approach. The experiment was composed of four small-scale growth trails covering different weight ranges. The fish fed at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of satiation. DWG had a steady increase throughout the experiment following a non-linear equation as Y = 1.433 (±0.056) × Ln(X) -2.740 (±0.261); r(2) = 0.99, p < 0.001, where Y = weight gain (g/day) and X = fish weight (g). The daily requirement of digestible energy (DE) for maintenance amounted to 79.09 kJ × BW (kg)(0.8) . The daily requirement of DP for maintenance calculated as 0.93 g × BW (kg)(0.7) . The relationship between DE intake (X) and DE gain (Y) expressed as Y = -0.0004 (±0.000) X(2) + 0.600 (±0.082) X -44.95 (± 6.72). Also, the relationship between DP intake (X) and protein gain (Y) was expressed as Y = -0.019 (±0.006) X(2) + 0.548 (±0.062) X - 0.498 (±0.121). The daily requirements of energy and protein were estimated as 79.09 kJ × BW (kg)(0.8) + 2.94 × DE gain and 0.93 g × BW (kg)(0.7) + 2.63 × DP gain. Apparently, beluga sturgeon is inefficient in converting energy and protein into body tissue. Therefore, energy content of the diet should be sufficiently high to satisfy large energy demands in beluga sturgeon and also to reduce the catabolism of protein.

  3. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  4. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  5. The energy requirements for the basal efflux of 3H-noradrenaline from sympathetically innervated organs.

    PubMed

    Russ, H; Schömig, E; Trendelenburg, U

    1991-09-01

    In the rat vas deferens (preloaded with 3H-noradrenaline, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibited, calcium-free solution) ouabain, glucose deprivation or the combination of hypoxia plus presence of lactate were found to induce a carrier-mediated (desipramine-sensitive) outward transport of the 3H-amine. Glucose deprivation additionally increased the efflux of deaminated 3H-metabolites, as a consequence of an increased net leakage of vesicular 3H-noradrenaline; moreover, 3H-dihydroxymandelic acid then became the predominant neuronal metabolite. The simultaneous lack of oxygen and glucose resulted in a very pronounced release of the 3H-amine. Moreover, during spontaneous efflux more outward transport of 3H-noradrenaline was observed in the absence than in the presence of extracellular calcium. In rat atria (under the same experimental conditions) the contribution by carrier-mediated outward transport to the spontaneous efflux of tritium exceeded that in vasa deferentia. Moreover, the efflux of lactate (as an index of hypoxia of the tissue) exceeded that observed in vasa deferentia, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It is proposed that the greater contribution by outward transport of 3H-noradrenaline to spontaneous efflux in atria than in vasa deferentia does not reflect any basic difference between the varicosities in two different organs. It is likely that the less heterogeneous distribution of the 3H-amine in atria than in vasa deferentia is responsible for storage of the exogenous amine in atrial varicosities that are subject to some hypoxia, to an increased extracellular lactate level and to perhaps a minor degree of glucose deficiency; these factors may well be responsible for the difference with regard to outward transport of 3H-noradrenaline during spontaneous efflux. Thus, in addition to the heterogeneity of the distribution of 3H-noradrenaline, an additional heterogeneity with regard to the energy supply must be expected for incubated organs.

  6. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  7. Digestible energy requirements of Mexican donkeys fed oat straw and maize stover.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Roque, L; Colunga, B; Smith, D G; González-Ronquillo, M; Solis-Mendez, A; Castelán-Ortega, O

    2005-11-01

    The limited availability of food, together with the constraints that traditional management systems impose on the natural foraging behaviour of donkeys, often results in severe under-nutrition. Few studies have been conducted into the digestibility of different forages and little information exists on nutritional requirements of donkeys. In order to measure digestible energy requirements of donkeys under tropical conditions, an experiment was carried out at the Centre for Research in Agricultural Science (CICA) and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad Aut6noma del Estado de México located in the Toluca valley, Central Mexico. Thirty-two donkeys of a body condition typical for Central Mexico were divided into four groups of 8 animals each according to their sex and live weight: group 1 (G1) comprised male donkeys below the average body weight (102+/-5 kg); group 2 (G2) comprised male donkeys of average body weight (121.5+/-4 kg); group 3 (G3) comprised female donkeys below average weight (111.8 +/- 5 kg); and group 4 (G4) comprised female donkeys of average weight (127.6 +/- 5 kg). A diet of oat straw or maize stover and 15% alfalfa hay was offered to meet exact maintenance requirements. The donkeys were monitored for 13 months. The live weight of all animals was recorded daily in order to monitor whether maintenance requirements were being met. Mean daily digestible energy (DE) requirements were measured during the winter, spring, summer and autumn of 2003-2004. Digestible energy requirements of all four sex and liveweight groups were significantly (p > 0.05) higher during the spring than during the other seasons of the year (13.5, 18.0, 10.4 and 14.3 MJ DE per day during winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively). Predicted DE requirements of donkeys with a live weight range betweenn 90 and 150 kg using the data from the present study were less than those predicted using scaled-down horse feeding standards.

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues

  9. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  10. Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-03-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.

  11. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  12. 17 CFR 148.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 148.12... Required from Applicants § 148.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  13. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposed of in accordance with the Agency's regulations under the Freedom of Information Act, at 14 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262... AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each...

  14. 15 CFR 18.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the Department's established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act (15 CFR Part 4). ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 18.12 Section 18.12... Information Required from Applicants § 18.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified...

  15. 12 CFR 625.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regarding release of information (12 CFR part 602). ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 625.11 Section 625.11 Banks... EXPENSES UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Applicant Information Required § 625.11 Net worth...

  16. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1016.202 Section 1016.202... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1016.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  17. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act, 19 CFR 201.17-201.21. ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth...

  18. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net...

  19. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net...

  20. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net...

  1. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net...

  2. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases' interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species' omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net.

  3. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    PubMed Central

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  4. Computation and control with neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-10-04

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs.

  5. Energy and CO2 balance of maize and grass as energy crops for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Patrick A; Vliegen, François; Jossart, Jean-Marc

    2008-05-01

    Energy crops can be used to feed anaerobic digesters and produce renewable energy. However, sustainability of this option requires that it contributes to a net production of renewable energy and a net reduction of fossil CO2 emission. In this paper, the net balance of CO2 emission and renewable energy production is assessed for maize and grass energy crops produced in several agricultural systems relevant for Southern Belgium and surrounding areas. The calculated net energy yields are 8-25 (maize) and 7.4-15.5 (grass) MWh of renewable CH4 per MWh of fossil energy invested, depending on the agricultural option considered. After conversion to electricity, the specific CO2 emissions range from 31 to 104 kg(CO2)MWhelectricity(-1), depending on the case considered. This corresponds to a significant reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the current reference gas-steam turbine technology which produces 456 kg(CO2)MWhelectricity(-1). PMID:17574409

  6. Liquid-Desiccant Vapor Separation Reduces the Energy Requirements of Atmospheric Moisture Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Gido, Ben; Friedler, Eran; Broday, David M

    2016-08-01

    An innovative atmospheric moisture harvesting system is proposed, where water vapor is separated from the air prior to cooling and condensation. The system was studied using a model that simulates its three interconnected cycles (air, desiccant, and water) over a range of ambient conditions, and optimal configurations are reported for different operation conditions. Model results were compared to specifications of commercial atmospheric moisture harvesting systems and found to represent saving of 5-65% of the electrical energy requirements due to the vapor separation process. We show that the liquid desiccant separation stage that is integrated into atmospheric moisture harvesting systems can work under a wide range of environmental conditions using low grade or solar heating as a supplementary energy source, and that the performance of the combined system is superior.

  7. Liquid-Desiccant Vapor Separation Reduces the Energy Requirements of Atmospheric Moisture Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Gido, Ben; Friedler, Eran; Broday, David M

    2016-08-01

    An innovative atmospheric moisture harvesting system is proposed, where water vapor is separated from the air prior to cooling and condensation. The system was studied using a model that simulates its three interconnected cycles (air, desiccant, and water) over a range of ambient conditions, and optimal configurations are reported for different operation conditions. Model results were compared to specifications of commercial atmospheric moisture harvesting systems and found to represent saving of 5-65% of the electrical energy requirements due to the vapor separation process. We show that the liquid desiccant separation stage that is integrated into atmospheric moisture harvesting systems can work under a wide range of environmental conditions using low grade or solar heating as a supplementary energy source, and that the performance of the combined system is superior. PMID:27435379

  8. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  9. Metabolic requirements for neutrophil extracellular traps formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, Oscar; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina Bertha; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    As part of the innate immune response, neutrophils are at the forefront of defence against infection, resolution of inflammation and wound healing. They are the most abundant leucocytes in the peripheral blood, have a short lifespan and an estimated turnover of 1010 to 1011 cells per day. Neutrophils efficiently clear microbial infections by phagocytosis and by oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms. In 2004, a new neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism was described, the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA, histones and anti-microbial peptides. Several microorganisms, bacterial products, as well as pharmacological stimuli such as PMA, were shown to induce NETs. Neutrophils contain relatively few mitochondria, and derive most of their energy from glycolysis. In this scenario we aimed to analyse some of the metabolic requirements for NET formation. Here it is shown that NETs formation is strictly dependent on glucose and to a lesser extent on glutamine, that Glut-1, glucose uptake, and glycolysis rate increase upon PMA stimulation, and that NET formation is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-glucose, and to a lesser extent by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. Moreover, when neutrophils were exposed to PMA in glucose-free medium for 3 hr, they lost their characteristic polymorphic nuclei but did not release NETs. However, if glucose (but not pyruvate) was added at this time, NET release took place within minutes, suggesting that NET formation could be metabolically divided into two phases; the first, independent from exogenous glucose (chromatin decondensation) and, the second (NET release), strictly dependent on exogenous glucose and glycolysis. PMID:25545227

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  11. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  12. Getting to Net Zero

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    Buildings have a significant impact on energy use and the environment. Commercial and residential buildings use almost 40% of the primary energy and approximately 70% of the electricity in the United States.

  13. Energy and protein requirements for molt in the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Cherel, Y; Charrassin, J B; Challet, E

    1994-04-01

    Adult king penguins annually fast ashore for 1 mo for molting. By the end of molt, they have lost 44% of their prefasting body mass. About 18% of new feather synthesis occurs at sea, thus reducing both nutrient requirement and fasting duration. Plumage synthesis continues during the first 3 wk of fasting. Loss of old feathers occurs between day 12 and day 21 of the molt, and it is associated with a peak in daily body mass loss. The dry mass of epidermal structure synthesized during molt is 395 g. Body composition analysis indicates that fat oxidation accounts for 85% of total energy expenditure. The proportion for protein is 15%, a value twofold higher than during the breeding (nonmolting) fast. The mean energy expenditure is also 21% higher during the molting fast (3.04 W/kg). Compared with other birds, the energetic cost of feather synthesis is the lowest in king penguins (85 kJ/g) and consequently the energetic efficiency is the highest (25%). Changes in tissue composition during molt show that integument is the main lipid source (72% of the lipid loss) and thus the main source of energy (61% of the total energy expenditure). The integument and the pectoral muscles play a major role in molting protein metabolism, providing 20 and 57%, respectively, of the total protein needs for feather synthesis and/or energy expenditure. This result emphasizes the role of integument as a protein source, because the large premolting muscle hypertrophy is not sufficient to account for the totality of the protein cost of molt. PMID:8184961

  14. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Dib, C.; Feldman, G.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z/sup 0/ resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. OglNet

    SciTech Connect

    Verba, Jared

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as well as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.

  16. OglNet

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as wellmore » as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.« less

  17. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  18. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and

  19. Automatic quantification of in vitro NET formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Volker; Goosmann, Christian; Kühn, Lars I; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) consist of decondensed chromatin studded with granular and some cytoplasmic proteins. They are formed by activated neutrophil granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) as the result of an active cell death program, named NETosis. NETosis can be induced by a wide range of stimuli including coculture of neutrophils with pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites, virus particles), activated platelets, or pathogen components. The first step of the NETotic cascade is stimulation of one or several receptors followed by activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway that culminates in the assembly of the multimeric NADPH oxidase complex and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Later, intracellular membranes disintegrate, the granular protein Neutrophil Elastase enters the nucleus and processes core histones that also get hypercitrullinated. This leads to decondensation and mobilization of chromatin. The amount of NET formation varies with the degree of stimulation, and this is dependent on the type and concentration of the stimulus. NETs can be quantified using various methods including fluorescence microscopy or measuring DNA release. Each of these methods have specific drawbacks: analysis of fluorescence microscopy is prone to subjective variations, and DNA release does not differentiate between DNA that has been released by NETosis or by other forms of cell death. Here we present a protocol to semi-automatically quantify NET formation. It relies on the observation that anti-chromatin antibodies bind more readily to decondensed chromatin present in the nuclei of cells undergoing NETosis and in the NETs. Relating the fluorescence signals of the anti-chromatin antibody to the signals of a DNA-binding dye allows the automatic calculation of the percentage of netting neutrophils. This method does not require sophisticated microscopic equipment, and the images are quantified with a public-domain software package. PMID

  20. Energy requirements for quantum data compression and 1-1 coding

    SciTech Connect

    Rallan, Luke; Vedral, Vlatko

    2003-10-01

    By looking at quantum data compression in the second quantization, we present a model for the efficient generation and use of variable length codes. In this picture, lossless data compression can be seen as the minimum energy required to faithfully represent or transmit classical information contained within a quantum state. In order to represent information, we create quanta in some predefined modes (i.e., frequencies) prepared in one of the two possible internal states (the information carrying degrees of freedom). Data compression is now seen as the selective annihilation of these quanta, the energy of which is effectively dissipated into the environment. As any increase in the energy of the environment is intricately linked to any information loss and is subject to Landauer's erasure principle, we use this principle to distinguish lossless and lossy schemes and to suggest bounds on the efficiency of our lossless compression protocol. In line with the work of Bostroem and Felbinger [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032313 (2002)], we also show that when using variable length codes the classical notions of prefix or uniquely decipherable codes are unnecessarily restrictive given the structure of quantum mechanics and that a 1-1 mapping is sufficient. In the absence of this restraint, we translate existing classical results on 1-1 coding to the quantum domain to derive a new upper bound on the compression of quantum information. Finally, we present a simple quantum circuit to implement our scheme.