Science.gov

Sample records for netherlands integrale veiligheidsbeoordeling

  1. Netherlands.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Netherlands is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the Netherlands and the US. The Dutch, primarily of Germanic stock with some Gallo-Celtic mixture, have clung to their small homeland against the constant threat of destruction by the North Sea and recurrent invasions by the great European powers. Religion influences Dutch history, society, institutions, and attitudes and is closely related to political life but to a diminishing degree. The present constitution dates from 1848 and has been amended several times. The government, based on the principles of ministerial responsibility and parliamentary government common to most constitutional monarchies in Western Europe, is composed of 3 basic institutions: the crown (monarch, Council of Ministers, and Council of State); the States General (Parliament); and the courts. Catholics, Protestants, Labor, and Liberals are the groups which form the historical basis for the 3 main political parties. The Dutch economy is based on private enterprise. The government has little direct ownership or participation, but it heavily influences the economy. More than 45% of the gross national product is involved in government operations and social programs. Services, which account for half of the national income, are primarily in transport and financial areas, such as banking and insurance. Industrial activity provides about 19% of the national income and is dominated by the metalworking, oil refining, chemical, and food-processing industries. In the last several years Dutch economic growth has been limited by the world's general economic slowdown. After an average 2% growth in 1984-86, real growth in 1987 is estimated at 1.5%. For much of its modern history, the Netherlands pursued a neutralist foreign policy. The good relationship between the US and the Netherlands is based on close historical

  2. Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    1983-10-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands Antilles focuses on the following: geography, the people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1980 the population totaled 253,400 with an annual growth rate of 1%. The Netherlands Antilles consists of 2 groups of 3 islands each, situated in the Caribbean Sea about 880 kilometers apart. 40 nationalities are represented. Dutch is the official language, but Spanish and English are spoken widely. Alonzo de Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, landed on Curacao in 1499, and in 1527 the Spanish took possession of Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. In 1634 the 3 islands passed to the Netherlands, where they have remained except for 2 short periods during the Napoleonic wars when the British ruled at Willemstad. According to the statute of 1954, which serves as the constitution, the Netherlands Antilles has a constitutional and parliamentary form of government. The highest power in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is the sovereign, Queen Beatrix, who is represented in the Antilles by an appointed governor. The independent court system is under the control of the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Justice. Each of the island territories has its own representative body, the Island Council. Politics are dominated by 3 issues: economic problems, the prospect of independence, and Aruban separatism. The economic well-being of the Netherlands Antilles is based principally on the operations of 2 huge oil refineries. Because of the high volume of shipments in and out of the 2 islands, Curacao and Aruba ports are among the busiest in the world. Until recently, petroleum or petroleum products accounted for about 85% of the dollar volume of imports and exports from the Netherlands Antilles. That figure has declined with the worldwide oil glut, and the refineries are using only 50-60% of capacity. The next most important industries are tourism and offshore investment and banking. The per capita income in the Antilles is one

  3. Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    1983-10-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands Antilles focuses on the following: geography, the people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1980 the population totaled 253,400 with an annual growth rate of 1%. The Netherlands Antilles consists of 2 groups of 3 islands each, situated in the Caribbean Sea about 880 kilometers apart. 40 nationalities are represented. Dutch is the official language, but Spanish and English are spoken widely. Alonzo de Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, landed on Curacao in 1499, and in 1527 the Spanish took possession of Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. In 1634 the 3 islands passed to the Netherlands, where they have remained except for 2 short periods during the Napoleonic wars when the British ruled at Willemstad. According to the statute of 1954, which serves as the constitution, the Netherlands Antilles has a constitutional and parliamentary form of government. The highest power in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is the sovereign, Queen Beatrix, who is represented in the Antilles by an appointed governor. The independent court system is under the control of the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Justice. Each of the island territories has its own representative body, the Island Council. Politics are dominated by 3 issues: economic problems, the prospect of independence, and Aruban separatism. The economic well-being of the Netherlands Antilles is based principally on the operations of 2 huge oil refineries. Because of the high volume of shipments in and out of the 2 islands, Curacao and Aruba ports are among the busiest in the world. Until recently, petroleum or petroleum products accounted for about 85% of the dollar volume of imports and exports from the Netherlands Antilles. That figure has declined with the worldwide oil glut, and the refineries are using only 50-60% of capacity. The next most important industries are tourism and offshore investment and banking. The per capita income in the Antilles is one

  4. Grados de comprobación de estudios de terapias integrales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información acerca de cómo sopesar la fuerza de los datos probatorios obtenidos de los estudios de investigación sobre terapias integrales, alternativas y complementarias en seres humanos con cáncer.

  5. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  6. Psychotraumatology in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview of psychotraumatology in the Netherlands, we will discuss some of the key events and processes that contribute to the current interest. We outlined the historical basis and development of the field in the Netherlands, including the impact of World War II, the effects of major man-made or natural disasters, engagement in military conflicts, as well as smaller scale traumatic events like sexual abuse and traffic accidents. The liberal and open culture may have reduced stigma to trauma, while other sociocultural aspects may have contributed to increased prevalence. Finally, we describe Dutch psychotraumatology today and how history and culture have shaped the current scientific basis. PMID:23671764

  7. Media in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaver, Franca

    This 2-part report summarizes Dutch policy on mass media and reviews the status of cable television in the Netherlands. The first part defines the underlying principles of a national policy on mass media in relation to the press, commercial and educational television broadcasting, radio, cable television, and media research. Parliamentary debate…

  8. Netherlands: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Kroneman, Madelon; Boerma, Wienke; van den Berg, Michael; Groenewegen, Peter; de Jong, Judith; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2016-03-01

    This analysis of the Dutch health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, two major reforms implemented since the mid-2000s are among the main issues today. The newly implemented long-term care reform will have to realize a transition from publicly provided care to more self-reliance on the part of the citizens and a larger role for municipalities in its organization. A particular point of attention is how the new governance arrangements and responsibilities in long-term care will work together. The 2006 reform replaced the division between public and private insurance by one universal social health insurance and introduced managed competition as a driving mechanism in the healthcare system. Although the reform was initiated almost a decade ago, its stepwise implementation continues to bring changes in the healthcare system in general and in the role of actors in particular. In terms of performance, essential healthcare services are within easy reach and waiting times have been decreasing. The basic health insurance package and compensations for lower incomes protect citizens against catastrophic spending. Out-of-pocket payments are low from an international perspective. Moreover, the Dutch rate the quality of the health system and their health as good. International comparisons show that the Netherlands has low antibiotic use, a low number of avoidable hospitalizations and a relatively low avoidable mortality. National studies show that healthcare has made major contributions to the health of the Dutch population as reflected in increasing life expectancy. Furthermore, some indicators such as the prescription of generics and length of stay reveal improvements in efficiency over the past years. Nevertheless, the Netherlands still has one of the highest per capita health expenditures in Europe, although growth has slowed considerably after

  9. A Compact Geography of the Netherlands. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    This short booklet on the geography of the Netherlands, designed for use at the upper elementary and secondary levels, contains 17 short descriptive analyses of Dutch physical and human geography. Each section is well illustrated with diagrams and maps. Titles of the sections include (1) High Netherlands--Low Netherlands, (2) Land Reclamation, (3)…

  10. Pictorial Atlas of the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    The atlas contains almost 40 photographs and 40 maps of geographical aspects of the Netherlands: the coast, dikes, canals, towns, and farmland. Each page contains a photograph, a section of a map showing the area in which the photograph was taken, and a discussion of several paragraphs about the geographical problems of the area and how they have…

  11. Educational Development in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, D. B. P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The history of education in the Netherlands, including the political and administrative framework of educational policy, the relation between education and the labor market, and current trends, is discussed. Teacher education, educational planning, and participation by educators and noneducators in the schools through committees are also examined.…

  12. Higher Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, R. A.

    There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

  13. CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLOOS, ISAAEC; AND OTHERS

    RECENT TRENDS AND EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS IN CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS ARE CONSIDERED, TOGETHER WITH RESEARCH ON THE SOCIOCULTURAL AND MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY, AND THE SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD. THEORIES AND IDEAS UNDERLYING THE DIDACTICS OF CORRESPONDENCE…

  14. Medical education in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims to draw a picture of current medical education in The Netherlands. Based on strong historical roots in the seventeenth century, Dutch medical education has adapted to changing circumstances through the ages. Nowadays, medical education in The Netherlands may be called "modern", according to international standards and schools such as the one in Maastricht serve as examples, nationally and internationally. After considerable redesign of undergraduate education in the 1980s and 1990s, the first decade of the new century shows a revolutionary development of postgraduate medical education, with the introduction of nationwide competency-based training, and mandatory in-training assessments and portfolios for residents. The high level of activity in medical education development is reflected in high research productivity, measured as Dutch articles in international journals. Despite these strengths, several critical issues around medical education are in debate, ranging from entrance selection, small group tutoring, the two-cycle bachelor-master model and the relevance of basic sciences to the planning of enrolment numbers and working hours for residents. Medical education in The Netherlands is a dynamic field.

  15. Emergency medicine in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Holmes, John L

    2010-02-01

    The Dutch health-care system provides high-quality inpatient care, but emergency care apart from trauma is poorly developed. A model for emergency medicine based on Anglo-American and Australasian principles was introduced in 2000, and a national integrated training curriculum was introduced in 2007. There exist many impediments and opposition to the acceptance of emergency medicine as a defined discipline. Despite this emergency medicine became a recognized specialty this year (2009). The present paper gives an overview of the Dutch health-care system and the history, current status, training and future development of emergency medicine in the Netherlands. PMID:20152006

  16. Compact Geography of the Netherlands. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, H.

    A short, concise summary of the geography of the Netherlands is presented in this document. The introduction describes the country's governmental forms, physical location, provinces, population, and history. Geographic coverage includes: (1) the high and low Netherlands; (2) the struggle against flooding and land reclamation; (3) the polders, or…

  17. The Netherlands: health system review.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Willemijn; Kroneman, Madelon; Boerma, Wienke; van den Berg, Michael; Westert, Gert; Devillé, Walter; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems. They also describe the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies, highlighting challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Undoubtedly the dominant issue in the Dutch health care system at present is the fundamental reform that came into effect in 2006. With the introduction of a single compulsory health insurance scheme, the dual system of public and private insurance for curative care became history. Managed competition for providers and insurers became a major driver in the health care system. This has meant fundamental changes in the roles of patients, insurers, providers and the government. Insurers now negotiate with providers on price and quality and patients choose the provider they prefer and join a health insurance policy which best fits their situation. To allow patients to make these choices, much effort has been made to make information on price and quality available to the public. The role of the national government has changed from directly steering the system to safeguarding the proper functioning of the health markets. With the introduction of market mechanisms in the health care sector and the privatization of former sickness funds, the Dutch system presents an innovative and unique variant of a social health insurance system. Since the stepwise realization of the blueprint of the system has not yet been completed, the health care system in The Netherlands should be characterized as being in transition. Many measures have been taken to move from the old to the new system as smoothly as possible. Financial measures intended to prevent sudden budgetary

  18. Clinical immunology--autoimmunity in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking care of patients with immune-deficiencies, vasculitides and systemic auto-immune diseases. Clinical immunology in the Netherlands has always been an important contributor to basic and clinical science in the Netherlands. Major scientific contributions were made in the field of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and ANCA associated vasculitis. These Dutch contributions will be reviewed in this article.

  19. [Naturalization in the Netherlands, 1860-1984].

    PubMed

    Tas Rfj

    1985-12-01

    Trends in naturalization in the Netherlands from 1860 to 1984 are reviewed. The procedures for obtaining Dutch nationality are described, and the nationalities of those obtaining Dutch nationality in the period since World War II are examined. (summary in ENG)

  20. Plasma medicine in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroesen, Gerrit

    2012-10-01

    Eindhoven, the Netherlands was one of the locations were Plasma Medicine originated: Eva Stoffels was one of the founders of the field. Since then, the attention for the field steadily increased. Nowadays, strong collaborations exist between the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and the Red Cross Burn Wound Hospital in Beverwijk, the Amsterdam Medical Center, the Maxima Medical Center in Eindhoven, the Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Free University in Amsterdam, and also companies, both large industries (Philips) and SME's (Vabrema, Lavoisier, Plastech). At TU/e we focus on the plasma itself: developing real time non-invasive diagnostics like TALIF, LIF, IF absorption, Thomson, Rayleigh and Raman scattering, mass spectroscopy, etc, while at the same time developing numerical models on the MD2D platform. For the biology, microbiology and medical aspects we rely on our colleagues who have specialized in those areas. Lesions that are studied are burn wounds, permanent inflammations, diabetic feet, skin infections, and internal diseases like Crohn's disease.

  1. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  2. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  3. Rural Youth Culture: "Keten" in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable present-day phenomenon in rural areas in the Netherlands is that young people, mostly males, often meet in small groups in self-built or at least self-fitted out sheds or caravans ("keten"). At first glance, these "keten" seem to be substitutes for more official entertainment sites in the relatively sparsely populated parts of the…

  4. Treponemal infections in hares in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Lumeij, J T; de Koning, J; Bosma, R B; van der Sluis, J J; Schellekens, J F

    1994-01-01

    Treponemal infections in wild European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from The Netherlands were diagnosed by means of serological tests for human syphilis and histological demonstration of spirochetes by the Bosma-Steiner silver impregnation method in histological sections of skin lesions. The treponeme should probably be classified as "Treponema paraluisleporis." Images PMID:8150971

  5. Childcare in the Netherlands: Lessons in Privatisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; Plantenga, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 the Child Care Act was introduced in the Netherlands. The explicit objective of the childcare reform has been to stimulate the operation of market forces so that childcare services are provided in an efficient way. The change towards a demand-driven financing system implies that there is no longer public provision of childcare services in…

  6. Islamic Primary Schools in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years of the 20th century, Islamic primary schools were founded in the Netherlands thanks to its constitutional "freedom of education" (which allows state-funded religious schools), its voucher system (each school receives the same amount of money per pupil), and school choice by parents. This essay gives some…

  7. Compact Geography of the Netherlands. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    This document presents information on the physical and human geography of the Netherlands. In this third revised edition, the contents have been brought up-to-date and expanded. In addition, sections on physical planning and environmental problems have been added. The booklet is intended for use by geography classroom teachers and students at…

  8. Education and Diversity in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out the Dutch approach to the multicultural question. It focuses on how national policies, schools, teachers and teacher educators are addressing and making sense of questions of cultural and religious diversity. The article shows how the Netherlands has partly accommodated itself to greater cultural diversity through compulsory…

  9. Going Dutch: Higher Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, David

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines some of the policy issues currently faced by research-based universities in the Netherlands. The focus is on four leading universities (University of Amsterdam: UvA; Free University of Amsterdam: VU; Leiden University; and Delft University of Technology: TUD). The author visited these institutions as part of a Study Tour…

  10. Moral Panic in the Netherlands? A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien

    1994-01-01

    A Dutch physiotherapist expounds upon the conditions and culture surrounding the Bolderkar case. Despite being an extremely open society, the Netherlands has a strong Calvinistic tradition of noninterference in family matters. This was the primary reason for the public reaction about the case, and because of the denial of public officials of the…

  11. Effective School Improvement in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hechuan; de Jong, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what kind of contextual factors that positively or negatively influence effective school improvement (ESI) in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the above-mentioned purpose, Sun's contextual level model with ten contextual factors and 48 indicators has been used to carefully…

  12. [Divorce in the Netherlands, 1960-1984].

    PubMed

    Tas Rfj

    1986-06-01

    Divorce trends in the Netherlands between 1960 and 1984 are analyzed using official municipal data. The frequency of divorce increased during this period from 22 to 99 per 10,000 married couples. The impact of changes in legislation on divorce is noted. (summary in ENG)

  13. [Imported Zika virus infection in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    von Eije, Karin J; Schinkel, Janke; van den Kerkhof, J H C T Hans; Schreuder, Imke; de Jong, Menno D; Grobusch, Martin P; Goorhuis, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Since mid-2015, a rapidly expanding outbreak of Zika virus infection is spreading across Latin America and the Caribbean. Although Zika virus infection usually causes only mild disease, the World Health Organization has declared the epidemiological association with the occurrence of congenital microcephaly and neurological complications a 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' and urged the international community to mount a coordinated international response aimed to protect people at risk, especially pregnant women. In December 2015, the first case of imported Zika virus infection in the Netherlands was diagnosed in a returned traveler from Surinam. To date, more than 20 cases have been reported in The Netherlands, all imported from Surinam. We describe the epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnostic challenges and the existing evidence to date that link Zika virus infection to complications.

  14. [Climate change and health in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Huynen, Maud M T E; van Vliet, Arnold J H

    2009-01-01

    Climate change possibly affects public health in the Netherlands, including changes in (a) temperature-related effects, heat stress and air pollution, (b) allergies, (c) vector borne infectious disease, and (d) food- and waterborne infectious disease. Due to many prevailing uncertainties, opinions differ regarding the exact size of the expected health risks and the speed at which these might occur, as well as regarding to what degree society would need to or could adapt to these potential health effects. Thus, the gaps in our knowledge are substantial. Scientists and experts are clearly concerned about the limited amount of attention being paid to health effects of climate change in the Netherlands. In response, a proposal for a research programme 'Klimaatverandering en Gezondheid' ('Climate change and health') has been developed over the past year.

  15. Wind energy in the north Netherlands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheemstra, W.; Devries, B.

    1983-03-01

    A computer model was used to estimate the technical/economical potential of wind energy in the northern Netherlands. Local wind supply, technical and economic characteristics of wind turbines, and local energy consumptions were assessed. The data of an average dairy farm are investigated to determine the parameters to be used. Results for several consumer groups are determined. A potential estimate for the province of Friesland is presented.

  16. The construction of a Central Netherlands temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schrier, G.; van Ulden, A.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Central Netherlands Temperature (CNT) is a monthly daily mean temperature series constructed from homogenized time series from the centre of the Netherlands. The purpose of this series is to offer a homogeneous time series representative of a larger area in order to study large-scale temperature changes. It will also facilitate a comparison with climate models, which resolve similar scales. From 1906 onwards, temperature measurements in the Netherlands have been sufficiently standardized to construct a high-quality series. Long time series have been constructed by merging nearby stations and using the overlap to calibrate the differences. These long time series and a few time series of only a few decades in length have been subjected to a homogeneity analysis in which significant breaks and artificial trends have been corrected. Many of the detected breaks correspond to changes in the observations that are documented in the station metadata. This version of the CNT, to which we attach the version number 1.1, is constructed as the unweighted average of four stations (De Bilt, Winterswijk/Hupsel, Oudenbosch/Gilze-Rijen and Gemert/Volkel) with the stations Eindhoven and Deelen added from 1951 and 1958 onwards, respectively. The global gridded datasets used for detecting and attributing climate change are based on raw observational data. Although some homogeneity adjustments are made, these are not based on knowledge of local circumstances but only on statistical evidence. Despite this handicap, and the fact that these datasets use grid boxes that are far larger then the area associated with that of the Central Netherlands Temperature, the temperature interpolated to the CNT region shows a warming trend that is broadly consistent with the CNT trend in all of these datasets. The actual trends differ from the CNT trend up to 30 %, which highlights the need to base future global gridded temperature datasets on homogenized time series.

  17. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem

    2005-03-01

    The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.

  18. Gene therapy legislation in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bleijs, D A; Haenen, I T W C; Bergmans, J E N

    2007-10-01

    Several regulatory organisations are involved in the assessment of clinical gene therapy trials involving genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in The Netherlands. Medical, ethical and scientific aspects are, for instance, evaluated by the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO). The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) is the competent authority for the environmental risk assessment according to the deliberate release Directive 2001/18/EC. A Gene Therapy Office has been established in order to streamline the different national review processes and to enable the official procedures to be completed as quickly as possible. Although the Gene Therapy Office improved the application process at the national level, there is a difference of opinion between the EU member states with respect to the EU Directive according to which gene therapy trials are assessed, that urges for harmonisation. This review summarises the gene therapy legislation in The Netherlands and in particular The Netherlands rationale to follow Directive 2001/18/EC for the environmental risk assessment.

  19. Energy R and D in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    EEM Luiten; JJ Dooley; K Blok

    1999-09-07

    This report documents trends in R and D and in particular (public) energy R and D in the Netherlands. Besides quantitative information on R and D and energy R and D, the report gives an impression of changes in science and technology policy, energy policy and changes in energy research priorities (both organizational and financial). In the Netherlands, 2.09% of GDP (or $6.7 billion) was invested in R and D activities in 1995. The private sector financed 46% of all R and D in that year. A small but significant fraction (9.3%) of the research performed in the Netherlands is financed by foreign public and private sector entities. Energy R and D has been identified by the national Strategic Foresight Activity as an important area of R and D for government support in the future. This is due in part to the overall decline in public support for energy R and D that occurred from 1985 to 1995. However, recent concern over climate change and energy policy has resulted in increased budgets for energy R and D. Recent policy documents (e.g., the Memorandum on Energy R and D in April 1998) and initiatives (e.g., a recent university energy R and D program; intensification of climate policy, partly in R and D) indicate the growing interest in addressing the issue of climate change partly through energy R and D. The Dutch government believes that the liberalization of the energy market in the Netherlands justifies an active role for the government to guarantee the longer-term transformation to a sustainable energy system. In terms of climate policy, the expanded and more efficient use of natural gas is seen as a suitable transition option towards a sustainable energy system. However, energy efficiency (and in particular energy efficiency in the industrial sector) and the introduction of renewable technologies (solar energy, wind energy and biomass) are generally favored for the long term. Recently, additional funding was allocated for research on industrial ''breakthrough

  20. Gay Affirmative Counseling and Psychotherapy in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippers, Jan; Schorerstichting, J. A.

    During the last 20 years, the Netherlands has established a name for itself throughout the gay communities in the world as a tolerant country for homosexuality. This document addresses some theoretical issues that play a major role in gay affirmative counseling and psychotherapy in the Netherlands and discusses some examples of the work in the…

  1. The Structure of the Educational System in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert P. M.

    The history and structure of education in the Netherlands, the relationship of that structure to educational systems in selected other countries, and the current status of educational innovation in the Netherlands are the major topics of this paper. The author discusses briefly the development of national educational policy, the place of private…

  2. The Salient History of Dalton Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are 400 Dalton schools, while Dalton education has all but disappeared elsewhere, including in its country of origin: the USA. Following a brief period in the 1920s in which it enjoyed strong international interest, it disappeared from the scene. How can it be that the Dalton Plan still exists only in the Netherlands? This…

  3. Innovation in the Netherlands: Toward Guidelines for Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiekema, Esther I.

    2005-01-01

    When the objectives of the Lisbon Convention were formulated in 2000, the Dutch Government decided that the Netherlands should give priority to achieving these objectives. In 2010 the Netherlands should be one of the most successful economies in Europe, which should itself be the most competitive knowledge-based economic region in the world. With…

  4. Young Migrants and Discourses on Young Migrants in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands. At present, the…

  5. The Future of Agricultural Education: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin; Kupper, Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural education has been an essential factor in the success of agricultural development in the Netherlands. At present, as in many countries throughout the world, the position of agricultural education is threatened. Does agricultural education have a future in the Netherlands, and if so, what strategies are being used for its survive? This…

  6. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.; van der Meulen, Gerwin; Goedhart, Willem

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations and their urban areas. We find superlinearity with power-law exponents of around 1.15. But remarkably, both types of agglomerations underperform if we compare for the same size of population an agglomeration with a city as a municipality. In other words, an urban system as one formal municipality performs better as compared to an urban agglomeration with the same population size. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for urban policy, in particular municipal reorganizations. A residual analysis suggests that cities with a municipal reorganization recently and in the past decades have a higher probability to perform better than cities without municipal restructuring. PMID:26751785

  7. Cervical Ripening in The Netherlands: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Claartje M. A.; Jozwiak, Marta; de Leeuw, Jan Willem; Mol, Ben Willem; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals). In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100%) applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2). In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006). In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006), 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006), 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections. PMID:23997770

  8. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J; van der Meulen, Gerwin; Goedhart, Willem

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations and their urban areas. We find superlinearity with power-law exponents of around 1.15. But remarkably, both types of agglomerations underperform if we compare for the same size of population an agglomeration with a city as a municipality. In other words, an urban system as one formal municipality performs better as compared to an urban agglomeration with the same population size. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for urban policy, in particular municipal reorganizations. A residual analysis suggests that cities with a municipal reorganization recently and in the past decades have a higher probability to perform better than cities without municipal restructuring. PMID:26751785

  9. Prevalence of child maltreatment in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Euser, Eveline M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-02-01

    The first nationwide prevalence study of child maltreatment in The Netherlands (NPM-2005) was designed as a replication of the National Incidence Studies (NISs) conducted in the United States. Child maltreatment cases were reported by 1,121 professionals from various occupational branches, trained in a detailed registration system of six types of abuse and neglect. In addition, cases registered by the Dutch Child Protection Services (CPS) were analyzed. For 2005, the overall prevalence rate was estimated to be 107,200 (95% CI 102,054-112,882) maltreated children aged 0-18 years, or 30 cases per 1,000 children. Neglect was the most prevalent type (56% of all cases) and sexual abuse had the lowest rate (4%). Of the maltreated children, 47% experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Major risk factors were very low parental education and unemployment. It is worrisome that CPS agencies only see the tip of the iceberg as only 12.6% of all maltreatment cases were reported to the CPS. Training of professionals in observing and reporting child maltreatment is badly needed. The absence of a legal obligation to report in The Netherlands needs reconsideration. PMID:19729577

  10. Dealing with future risks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Tuyll, Maaike

    2013-09-01

    The national security strategy is the Dutch government's instrument for multihazard risk management and is intended to contribute to the prevention of societal disruption as a consequence of a (future) disaster or crisis in the Netherlands. It considers the likelihood that a certain incident will occur, the impact if it should occur, and what can be done to prevent the occurrence and/or reduce the impact. In other words, "which threats is the Netherlands faced with, how serious are they, and what can be done to mitigate the consequences?" By annually assessing the likelihood and impact of different scenarios, the government is able to continually improve its overview of risks and to determine priorities regarding the allocation of resources for the prevention of, preparation for, and response to threats. At the start of the annual cycle of the implementation of the national security strategy, possible scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then drawn up and assessed by the Network of Analysts for National Security, resulting in the national risk assessment (NRA). On the basis of this risk assessment, a capabilities analysis is performed. This capabilities analysis assesses whether the country (government, private sector, and civilians) has sufficient capabilities (people, material, knowledge, skills, and procedures) at its disposal to adequately deal with the threat, and it considers which capabilities should be strengthened or developed. Finally, a report is prepared for the council of ministers. On the basis of this report, the cabinet decides which capabilities will be strengthened. PMID:23971823

  11. Landmine detection technology research in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2003-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection in the Netherlands. The main players, their projects and the long term and short term project goals are presented. The projects cover the range from military applications to humanitarian demining. In the "conventional" detection systems area the activities on Metal detection, Ground Penetrating Radar and Thermal Infrared are covered. Signal processing and Sensor fusion are key activities in this area and examples of these activities are shown as well. The focus for these techniques is on vehicle mounted and airborne multi-sensor systems. The activities are supported by more fundamental modeling of the interaction of sensors with the landmines and especially the effects of the environment of the mines on this interaction. In the area of more future oriented techniques the following techniques are discussed: forward looking Polarised Infrared for moving platforms, Neutron Backscattering techniques and Laser Vibrometry for acoustic detection.

  12. [The new medical oath in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van Everdingen, J J E; Horstmanshoff, H F J

    2005-05-01

    The Hippocratic oath derives its name from the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. It has been embraced as a code of conduct by the medical profession throughout the ages, and is used by medical faculties as an explicit moment of reflection during graduation ceremonies. Although this oath is primarily of ceremonial value, it was felt that the text needed revision as it no longer reflected the current ethical norms in the Netherlands. The new Dutch oath drawn up in 2003 has a dual function: it is symbolic in that it represents the end of a doctor's training, but it is also intended to trigger the discussion of moral issues during the medical studies. PMID:15909397

  13. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society. PMID:22515464

  14. Regulating Privacy and Biobanks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Aart C; van Hellemondt, Rachèl E

    2016-03-01

    The Netherlands does not have any specific legislation pertaining to human biological materials and data collection by biobanks. Instead, these issues are governed by a patchwork of laws, codes of practices, and other ethical instruments, where special emphasis is given to the right to privacy and self-determination. While draft legislation for biobanking was scheduled to enter into force in 2007, as of mid-2015 such legislation was still under consideration, with the intent that it would focus particularly on individual self-determination, the interests of research, the use of bodily materials collected by biobanks for criminal law purposes, and dilemmas around results that are clinically relevant for biobank participants. Under the current framework, the amount of privacy protection afforded to data is linked to its level of identifiability. International sharing of personal data to non-EU/European Economic Area countries is allowed if these countries provide adequate protection.

  15. Medical murder in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Magelssen, Morten

    2016-09-01

    This article is a response to Raphael Cohen-Almagor's paper entitled 'First do no harm: intentionally shortening lives of patients without their explicit request in Belgium'. His paper deals with very important matters of life and death, however its concept usage is in part misleading. For instance, the fact that medical murder takes place both in Belgium and the Netherlands is missed. Cohen-Almagor calls such acts 'worrying' and considers them to be 'abuse'. However, it remains an open question whether or not there can be such a thing as legitimate murder in a medical context. From the combined perspectives of justice and the duty to end unbearable suffering, there might be. Thus, key arguments for euthanasia are also prominent in an argument for medical murder. PMID:27114470

  16. Regulating Privacy and Biobanks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Aart C; van Hellemondt, Rachèl E

    2016-03-01

    The Netherlands does not have any specific legislation pertaining to human biological materials and data collection by biobanks. Instead, these issues are governed by a patchwork of laws, codes of practices, and other ethical instruments, where special emphasis is given to the right to privacy and self-determination. While draft legislation for biobanking was scheduled to enter into force in 2007, as of mid-2015 such legislation was still under consideration, with the intent that it would focus particularly on individual self-determination, the interests of research, the use of bodily materials collected by biobanks for criminal law purposes, and dilemmas around results that are clinically relevant for biobank participants. Under the current framework, the amount of privacy protection afforded to data is linked to its level of identifiability. International sharing of personal data to non-EU/European Economic Area countries is allowed if these countries provide adequate protection. PMID:27256125

  17. [Adaptation of Einthoven's string galvanometer for electrocardiography in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Wyers, P J

    2001-12-22

    After the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published the construction of his string galvanometer in 1901, the development of electrocardiography in the Netherlands was slow. During the next twenty years only a few string galvanometers were in use in the Netherlands, mostly in physiology laboratories. Publications concerning electrocardiographic tests on patients were scarce. In 1924, Einthoven was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for discovering the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. From that moment onwards, electrocardiography developed rapidly in the Netherlands and during the following 30 years particular use was made of the French string galvanometer designed by Boulitte.

  18. [Adaptation of Einthoven's string galvanometer for electrocardiography in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Wyers, P J

    2001-12-22

    After the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published the construction of his string galvanometer in 1901, the development of electrocardiography in the Netherlands was slow. During the next twenty years only a few string galvanometers were in use in the Netherlands, mostly in physiology laboratories. Publications concerning electrocardiographic tests on patients were scarce. In 1924, Einthoven was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for discovering the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. From that moment onwards, electrocardiography developed rapidly in the Netherlands and during the following 30 years particular use was made of the French string galvanometer designed by Boulitte. PMID:11789151

  19. Netherlands to Aid Central, Eastern Europe in Halting Pollution Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)

  20. Dutch perspectives on palliative care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2002-01-01

    This study reports data gathered via extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on the euthanasia policy that were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: It has been argued that the policy and practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is the result of undeveloped palliative care. What do you think? I also mentioned the fact that there are only a few hospices in the Netherlands. The responses were different and contradictory. Many interviewees agreed with the statement. Almost all of those agreeing with it said that only during the late 1990s were people beginning to admit that there was a need to improve palliative care. Some interviewees insisted that doctors first need to explore other options for helping the patient prior to choosing the course of euthanasia. Other interviewees thought that palliative care is well developed in the Netherlands and that euthanasia has actually paved the way for calling more attention to palliative care. PMID:12479156

  1. Evaluation of the Netherlands' International Test Facility for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Pratt, Annabelle

    2015-06-01

    The Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, or RVO) engaged the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for two primary purposes: to evaluate the International Test Facility for Smart Grids (ITF) sponsored by RVO and to learn best practices for integrated test facilities from NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This report covers the ITF evaluation and is largely based on a one-week visit to the Netherlands in November 2014.

  2. Results of Infrasound Interferometry in Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2012-04-01

    The travel time of infrasound through the atmosphere depends on the temperature and the wind. These atmospheric conditions could be estimated by measuring the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). For such an estimation an inverse model of the propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is essential. In the first step it is useful to build a forward model. The inputs of our raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and the positions of source and receiver. The model consists of three elements the source, the channel and the receiver. The source is a blast wave or microbaroms. The channel is the atmosphere and it takes into account the travel time along the eigen ray, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. Each receiver is reached by different rays (eigen rays). To determine the eigen rays is part of the receiver element. As output the model generates synthetic barograms. The synthetic barograms can be used to explain measured barograms. Furthermore the synthetic barograms can also be used to evaluate the determination of the travel time. The accurate travel time is for the inverse model as input essential. Since small changes of the travel time lead to big changes of the output (temperature and wind). The travel time between two receivers is determined by crosscorrelating the barograms of these two receivers. This technique was already successfully applied in the troposphere (Haney, 2009). We show that the same can be achieved with more complicated stratospheric phases. Now we compare the crosscorrelation of synthetic barograms with the crosscorrelation of measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA will consist of thirty microbarometers

  3. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  4. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills.

  5. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. PMID:24999096

  6. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  7. Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.

    2002-02-26

    All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.

  8. [Number of children of Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, W D

    1987-09-01

    A multivariate analysis of the 1984 Quality of Life-Survey, which was held among Turkish and Moroccan heads of households in the Netherlands, shows that their fertility is affected by factors concerning their native country as well as by some aspects of life in the Netherlands. A low current number of children is associated with a higher education in the native country, an urban background and no strong commitment to Islam. In addition, the marital status at immigration and the nationality of the woman also show a particular correlation with the fertility. Some socio-cultural characteristics such as the woman's work and house-ownership also have a certain association with the family size. The likelihood of further declines in fertility among Turks and Moroccans living in the Netherlands is discussed.

  9. "Culture of death" in The Netherlands: Dutch perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, R

    2001-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on euthanasia policy were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: Daniel Callahan argues that there is a 'culture of death' in the Netherlands. What do you think? The majority of interviewees disagreed with the statement. They said that the Netherlands is not fundamentally different than other countries. If at all, the Dutch culture is open and tolerant, welcomes debates and plurality of views, and physicians are decent people who wish to help their patients, not to kill them. A small minority acknowledged that there is some truth in Callahan's observations, arguing that the Dutch actually do not welcome critique and are quite conservative in their liberal attitude toward euthanasia. PMID:11816935

  10. [Targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.

  11. The Introduction of Bioptic Driving in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Aart C; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M; Peli, Eli; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Pijnakker, Petra; Van Delden, Geert; Van Pluuren, Eelko; Van Iddekinge, Birgit; Derksen, Peter; Busscher, Rens B; Bredewoud, Ruud A; Van Rosmalen, Jose H M; Postema, Fokke Jan; Wanders, Irene; De Vries, Jos; Witvliet, Jaap M D

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many states of the U.S.A., people with moderately reduced visual acuity e.g., 20/50 - 20/200) can legally drive with the aid of a small, spectacle-mounted ("bioptic") telescope. We conducted a demonstration project to assess the viability of implementing bioptic driving in The Netherlands. In this paper we describe the framework of the project from conception through to realization of our primary objective - the introduction of bioptic driving as a legal option for visually impaired people in The Netherlands. METHODS: The project was based on bioptic driving programs in the U.S.A., which were adapted to fit within current driving training and assessment practices in The Netherlands. The project convened a consortium of organizations including the Netherlands Bureau of Driving Skills Certificates (CBR), service organizations for the visually impaired, and research departments at universities investigating driving and vision. All organizations were educated about bioptic driving and participating professionals were trained in their specific aspects of the project. Media publicity led to significant interest and helped recruitment that enabled the screening and selection of potential participants. OUTCOMES: The project demonstrated that people with moderately reduced visual acuity can be trained to achieve an adequate level of proficient and safe driving (as assessed by the local official driving licensing professionals) when using a bioptic telescope for the road conditions in the Netherlands. Based on the successful project outcomes, a request was made to the Minister to allow bioptic driving in the Netherlands. This request has been accepted; the legal procedures for implementation are in process.

  12. Implications of legalising euthanasia in The Netherlands: greater regulatory control?

    PubMed

    Thynne, Kelisiana

    2002-11-01

    Euthanasia has been decriminalised in The Netherlands for the last 30 years, but it was only in April 2001 that the Dutch Parliament legalised voluntary physician-assisted suicide. The legislation incorporates developments in case law, including scope for peer review, and provides common ethical principles for a clear system of control over doctors' actions in regard to patients who request euthanasia. The legalised regulatory system may prove more effective in controlling voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia in The Netherlands than in countries where euthanasia remains illegal.

  13. Implications of legalising euthanasia in The Netherlands: greater regulatory control?

    PubMed

    Thynne, Kelisiana

    2002-11-01

    Euthanasia has been decriminalised in The Netherlands for the last 30 years, but it was only in April 2001 that the Dutch Parliament legalised voluntary physician-assisted suicide. The legislation incorporates developments in case law, including scope for peer review, and provides common ethical principles for a clear system of control over doctors' actions in regard to patients who request euthanasia. The legalised regulatory system may prove more effective in controlling voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia in The Netherlands than in countries where euthanasia remains illegal. PMID:12497737

  14. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  15. Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Trude

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of language planning with respect to Sign Language of the Netherlands, or Nederlandse Gebarentaal (NGT). For nearly thirty years members of the Deaf community, the Dutch Deaf Council (Dovenschap) have been working together with researchers, several organizations in deaf education, and the organization of…

  16. The Big Five of School Leadership Competences in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Meta

    2009-01-01

    School leaders have been given an important role in initiating and implementing school improvement, which demands new forms of leadership. This invokes the question of the basic competences for leadership that are presently required. This article focuses on the formulation of competences for school leaders in the Netherlands with the aim of…

  17. Working Economics: Labor Policy and Conducive Economy in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korver, Ton

    2004-01-01

    The conducive economy challenges both the conceptual foundations and the practices of present-day economies. In the Netherlands, a few initiatives during the 1980s and early 1990s looked promising, in particular, as these initiatives focused on work quality as one major precondition for reducing disability and enhancing labor participation.…

  18. Private Education Provision and Public Finance: The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One of the key features of the Dutch education system is freedom of education--freedom to establish schools and organize teaching. Almost 70% of schools in the Netherlands are administered by private school boards, and all schools are government funded equally. This allows school choice. Using an instrument to identify private school attendance,…

  19. Child Guidance and Mental Health in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in the United States, the introduction of the concept of "mental health" in education is closely related to the development of a network of child guidance clinics. The first of these was established in Amsterdam in 1928. However, a substantial movement to actively promote mental health did not come into existence until after…

  20. Educational Opportunities in the Netherlands: Policy, Students' Performance and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Educational Priority Policy (EPP), implemented in the Netherlands in 1985 to reduce the educational disadvantage of socioeconomically challenged students. Describes an EPP evaluation that examined the impact of gender, social class, and ethnic background on test performance. Social class and immigrant status were found to…

  1. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  2. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden (70 FR 39734). The Commission is conducting reviews... suspension, and carboxymethylcellulose that is cross-linked through heat treatment. (4) The Domestic...

  3. The Master in Addiction Medicine Program in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Cornelis; Luycks, Lonneke; Delicat, Jan-Wilm

    2011-01-01

    Since 2007 there is a full-time, 2-year professional training in addiction medicine in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to describe in detail the development and present status of the Dutch Master in Addiction Medicine (MiAM) program. In this competency-based professional training, theoretical courses are integrated with learning in…

  4. Stagnation in Mortality Decline among Elders in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fanny; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses whether the stagnation of old-age (80+) mortality decline observed in The Netherlands in the 1980s continued in the 1990s and determines which factors contributed to this stagnation. Emphasis is on the role of smoking. Design and Methods: Poisson regression analysis with linear splines was applied to total and…

  5. Laboratories for Educational Innovation: Honors Programs in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.; Van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In Dutch universities, honors programs are a fast growing development. The first such programs started in 1993. Twenty years later a large number of programs are implemented at nearly all research universities and also at many universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Recent data have revealed significant diversity in the types and…

  6. Ethnic Identity and Young Migrants in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Hans; Pels, Trees

    1984-01-01

    The situational approach to ethnic identity with regard to migrants in the Netherlands is examined. This approach says that ethnicity is continuously created and can only be understood in relation to both past experience and specific political, economic, and social processes. (RM)

  7. The seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M

    2011-04-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium.

  8. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses reforms in postgraduate education in geography in the Netherlands in the context of Europeanization and globalization. Europeanization and globalization have resulted in challenges as well as opportunities for students and universities. In terms of internationalization, Europeanization and the global economic crisis have…

  9. Initiative for Transformative Sustainability Education at Wageningen University, The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a student-initiated Initiative for Transformative Sustainability Education (ITSE) at Wageningen University in The Netherlands which has led to the development of an undergraduate minor called Sustainability-in-Action consisting of four interlinked courses. When formally approved, the minor will be offered…

  10. Teaching Gender and Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2011-01-01

    Feminist geography teaching in universities in the Netherlands originated 30 years ago in an academic context that counteracted this new development for ideological reasons. Nowadays, the neoliberal conditions of the market have replaced the conservative ideology that prevailed 30 years ago. Feminist geography is supported as far as it returns…

  11. Child Health in the Netherlands: Facts and Figures, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirasing, R. A.; van Zaal, M. A. E.; Meulmeester, J. F.; Verbrugge, H. P.

    This book presents information on the current health status of children and adolescents in the Netherlands. Chapter 1 discusses demographic factors, including population trends and life expectancy. Chapter 2 focuses on children's health status, reporting on child mortality rates, abortion, birth rate, family planning, perinatal health problems,…

  12. The Netherlands in Fifty Maps: An Annotated Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamsma, R.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical data relating to The Netherlands is presented in 50 maps that were originally published in the "Journal of Economic and Social Geography" between 1977 and 1986. Lengthy annotations accompanying each map provide important background information on the issues depicted. These elucidations were written with the foreign reader in mind, who…

  13. Social Studies in the Netherlands: A Challenging Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steur, Rick

    This paper outlines the development of the social studies curriculum of the Noordelijke Hogeschool Leeuwarden (NHL), a polytechnic college in the north of The Netherlands. The following issues are addressed: (1) current developments in the labor market and in education that have to be addressed by a new curriculum; (2) the concept of 'learning how…

  14. Vocational Training in the Netherlands: Reform and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in the Netherlands. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Organized in two…

  15. Delta Project Planning and Implementation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutt, Ashok K.; Heal, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Describes a water management project in the Netherlands which is intended to protect the people, land, and property in the Delta Region from abnormally high floods. Presents background for initiation of the Delta Project and discusses problems encountered in the project to date. (Author/DB)

  16. Teaching in Innovative Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Elly

    2012-01-01

    The orientation of vocational education towards competence-based education has led to fundamental changes in the work of vocational education teachers. This article pictures teaching in innovative, competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. In a multiple case study, the teaching practices of 10 teachers from five vocational schools…

  17. Social Partners and Vocational Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Cor; And Others

    This document on the links between the world of work and the world of vocational training in the Netherlands includes 5 chapters, a list of abbreviations, and a 42-item reference list. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 outlines the Dutch system of industrial relations and presents the concept of "neocorporatism." Chapter 3 identifies…

  18. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be

  19. Operational Water Resources Forecasting System for The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, A.; Prinsen, G.; Patzke, S.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.; Kroon, T.

    2011-12-01

    During periods of low flows of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers and/or agricultural drought the National Coordinating Committee for Water Distribution of the Netherlands has to decide how the available surface water is used and allocated between different functions like safety (e.g. peat-levee stability), reduction of salt water intrusion, drinking water and agriculture. Since 2009, a real time forecasting system is operational and provides daily nationwide forecasts on the total fresh surface water supply, groundwater levels and saturation of the root zone at 250x250 meters using a surface water model coupled with a MODFLOW-MetaSWAP model of the saturated-unsaturated zone and with a lead-time of 10-30 days. In 2011, new forecasts products like a spatial groundwater anomaly plots for the weekly drought bulletin were introduced. Besides this product, a no rain scenario with a leadtime of 30 days and schematic status displays were also introduced. These products turned out to provide usefull information to support decision making and inform the public during the low period and unusal dry start of 2011 in the Netherlands and Rhine and Meuse basin. The changing patterns in groundwater anomaly give good insight into the hydrological behaviour of the Netherlands. The no-rain scenario provided usefull information to decide on maintaining increased target levels of Lake IJssel and Lake Marker (e.g. the main fresh water supply basins in the Netherlands). Displays of water quality infomation (chloride concentrations) helped to gain insight on the extend of salt water intrusion in the South-Western part of the Netherlands. The schematic status displays provide the water managers a quick and easy to understand overview of the hydrological status cumulating all the underlying detailed information.

  20. Operational Water Resources Forecasting System for The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, A. H.; Prinsen, G.; Patzke, S.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.; Kroon, T.

    2012-04-01

    During periods of low flows of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers and/or agricultural drought the National Coordinating Committee for Water Distribution of the Netherlands has to decide how the available surface water is used and allocated between different functions like safety (e.g. peat-levee stability), reduction of salt water intrusion, drinking water and agriculture. Since 2009, a real time forecasting system is operational and provides daily nationwide forecasts on the total fresh surface water supply, groundwater levels and saturation of the root zone at 250x250 meters using a surface water model coupled with a MODFLOW-MetaSWAP model of the saturated-unsaturated zone and with a lead-time of 10-30 days. In 2011, new forecasts products like a spatial groundwater anomaly plots for the weekly drought bulletin were introduced. Besides this product, a no rain scenario with a leadtime of 30 days and schematic status displays were also introduced. These products turned out to provide usefull information to support decision making and inform the public during the low period and unusal dry start of 2011 in the Netherlands and Rhine and Meuse basin. The changing patterns in groundwater anomaly give good insight into the hydrological behaviour of the Netherlands. The no-rain scenario provided usefull information to decide on maintaining increased target levels of Lake IJssel and Lake Marker (e.g. the main fresh water supply basins in the Netherlands). Displays of water quality infomation (chloride concentrations) helped to gain insight on the extend of salt water intrusion in the South-Western part of the Netherlands. The schematic status displays provide the water managers a quick and easy to understand overview of the hydrological status cumulating all the underlying detailed information.

  1. Women in physics in the Netherlands: Progress and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Petra; de Graaf, Noortje; Koornstra, Renée-Andrée; van Tijn, Paula; Kool, Dorien

    2015-12-01

    The visibility of women and the awareness of a healthy gender balance in physics in the Netherlands have clearly improved over the last few years. Initiatives to promote women and their possibilities to pursue a career in physics are plentiful and commendable. Nevertheless, the numbers do not yet show the desired impact of all these initiatives. Although student numbers have increased, the percentage of female first-year student remains at approximately 13% of the total students in physics. Similarly, the relative numbers of female PhD candidates and postdocs have been stable over the last years at (both) approximately 20% to 25%. Despite the number of women obtaining a PhD in physics and continuing a scientific career as postdoc, the presence of women further up on the scientific ladder in physics remains strikingly low. We will here focus on the current status, ambitions, and initiatives in the Netherlands to promote women, and especially to keep them, in physics.

  2. Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices,The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, M. A.; Koopmans, M. P.; Kortbeek, L. M.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Bartelds, A. I.; van Duynhoven, Y. T.

    2001-01-01

    From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for gastroenteritis (cases) and an equal number of patients visiting for nongastrointestinal symptoms (controls) were invited to participate in a case-control study. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 79.7 per 10,000 person years. Campylobacter was detected most frequently (10% of cases), followed by Giardia lamblia (5%), rotavirus (5%), Norwalk-like viruses (5%) and Salmonella (4%). Our study found that in the Netherlands (population 15.6 million), an estimated 128,000 persons each year consult their general practitioner for gastroenteritis, slightly less than in a comparable study in 1992 to 1993. A pathogen could be detected in almost 40% of patients (bacteria 16%, viruses 15%, parasites 8%). PMID:11266298

  3. Primary care obstetrics and perinatal health in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hingstman, L

    1994-01-01

    The Netherlands is the only industrialized country in which a large percentage of obstetric care takes place at home. Almost 31% of all deliveries are home confinements under supervision of a midwife or a general practitioner, and 84% of all postnatal care is given at home by maternity care assistants. To gain a better understanding of this unique situation, the structure of Dutch obstetric care is examined with special attention to the four pillars on which the system rests: the special protected position of the midwife, a generally accepted screening system for high-risk pregnancies, a well-organized maternity home care system, and the sociocultural environment in The Netherlands in which pregnancy and childbirth are considered normal physiological processes. Description of the obstetric system shows a degree of competition between the obstetricians, midwives, and general practitioners, in which the general practitioner has lost a considerable part of the "obstetric market." PMID:7830147

  4. Reproductive technology: in the Netherlands, tolerance and debate.

    PubMed

    De Wachter, Maurice A M; De Wert, Guido MWR

    1987-06-01

    Two ethicists from the Netherlands' Institute for Bioethics file a report on their country in one of six Hastings Center Report articles on the status of reproductive technologies around the world. The situation in the Netherlands reflects the tolerant attitudes of the Dutch toward what are regarded as private matters. Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood are available, and research on embryos is in the planning stages. Facilities offering reproductive services are regulated by the Minister of Health, with advice from the independent Health Council on Artificial Reproduction, the National Council for Public Health, and various insurance companies and professional medical organizations. Public policy debates center around such issues as the value of parenthood; involvement of third parties; secrecy about a child's genetic origins; privacy for semen, ovum, and embryo donors; access to services; and insurance coverage of treatment.

  5. Reproductive technology: in the Netherlands, tolerance and debate.

    PubMed

    De Wachter, Maurice A M; De Wert, Guido MWR

    1987-06-01

    Two ethicists from the Netherlands' Institute for Bioethics file a report on their country in one of six Hastings Center Report articles on the status of reproductive technologies around the world. The situation in the Netherlands reflects the tolerant attitudes of the Dutch toward what are regarded as private matters. Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood are available, and research on embryos is in the planning stages. Facilities offering reproductive services are regulated by the Minister of Health, with advice from the independent Health Council on Artificial Reproduction, the National Council for Public Health, and various insurance companies and professional medical organizations. Public policy debates center around such issues as the value of parenthood; involvement of third parties; secrecy about a child's genetic origins; privacy for semen, ovum, and embryo donors; access to services; and insurance coverage of treatment. PMID:11644022

  6. [Health-related fitness of sedentary elderly in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    de Greef, M; Popkema, D; Kroes, G; Middel, B

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of fitness is a component of a national project aimed at the enhancement of physical avtivity among sedentary older adults, aged 55-65 year in the Netherlands. Deterioration in physical functioning may be improved through an exercise programme. Research showed that enhancement of physical activity results in improved fitness, increased functional ability and health-related quality of life. Scientific results of the association between exercise and physical fitness in older adults is not sufficiently evidence-based in the Netherlands. In order to support health policy interventions 5.584 fitness tests of sedentary older adults were analyzed. The fitness was assessed by the Groninger Fitnesstest for Elderly (GFE). The analysis of physical fitness in sedentary older adults showed a lower fitness status among the age group 55-65 of age and women. Health risk factors such as overweight and having a chronic disease explained 88% of the variance between a low fitness and a high fitness profile.

  7. The Genome of the Netherlands: design, and project goals.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Dorret I; Wijmenga, Cisca; Slagboom, Eline P; Swertz, Morris A; Karssen, Lennart C; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ye, Kai; Guryev, Victor; Vermaat, Martijn; van Dijk, Freerk; Francioli, Laurent C; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Laros, Jeroen F J; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Ruoyan; Du, Yuanping; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; van Setten, Jessica; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Beekman, Marian; Elbers, Clara C; Byelas, Heorhiy; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Patrick; Dijkstra, Martijn; den Dunnen, Johan T; de Knijff, Peter; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Koval, Vyacheslav; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Enckevort, David van; Mai, Hailiang; Kattenberg, Mathijs; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Oostra, Ben; Rivadeneira, Fernanodo; Suchiman, Eka H D; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H; Wang, Jun; de Bakker, Paul I W; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2014-02-01

    Within the Netherlands a national network of biobanks has been established (Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure-Netherlands (BBMRI-NL)) as a national node of the European BBMRI. One of the aims of BBMRI-NL is to enrich biobanks with different types of molecular and phenotype data. Here, we describe the Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL), one of the projects within BBMRI-NL. GoNL is a whole-genome-sequencing project in a representative sample consisting of 250 trio-families from all provinces in the Netherlands, which aims to characterize DNA sequence variation in the Dutch population. The parent-offspring trios include adult individuals ranging in age from 19 to 87 years (mean=53 years; SD=16 years) from birth cohorts 1910-1994. Sequencing was done on blood-derived DNA from uncultured cells and accomplished coverage was 14-15x. The family-based design represents a unique resource to assess the frequency of regional variants, accurately reconstruct haplotypes by family-based phasing, characterize short indels and complex structural variants, and establish the rate of de novo mutational events. GoNL will also serve as a reference panel for imputation in the available genome-wide association studies in Dutch and other cohorts to refine association signals and uncover population-specific variants. GoNL will create a catalog of human genetic variation in this sample that is uniquely characterized with respect to micro-geographic location and a wide range of phenotypes. The resource will be made available to the research and medical community to guide the interpretation of sequencing projects. The present paper summarizes the global characteristics of the project.

  8. Mental health care and the opposition movement in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haafkens, J; Nijhof, G; Van der Poel, E

    1986-01-01

    In The Netherlands, there is a more or less recognized movement in the field of mental health care which is referred to as the psychiatric opposition movement or the patients movement. The nucleus of the Dutch movement consists of patients and ex-patients. As far as mental health professionals are participating in the movement, they do so as more or less passive supporters of a movement dominated by patients and ex-patients. This article is dealing with two questions. The first question is how and to what degree the opposition movement in The Netherlands has succeeded in breaking through or at least questioning the closed nature of Dutch mental health care system. The second question will be whether the dilemma between resistance and dependence in the position of patients and ex-patients is visible in the activities of the opposition movement, and whether this dilemma acted as an obstacle to their efforts to influence the mental health care debate in The Netherlands. An effort is being made to answer this question by describing the position of the opposition movement with respect to the Insanity Law and with respect to the organization of mental health care. In conclusion, three stages were found to be crucial in the development of Dutch opposition movement. In the 1970s, the opposition movement appeared to operate within the borders of a closed system in which the medical profession had a high degree of autonomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  10. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  11. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  12. Possibilities for reuse of treated domestic wastewater in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, L C; Norton-Brandão, D; Shang, R; van Agtmaal, J; van Lier, J B

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of wastewater reuse is becoming an increasingly important means of supplementing water supply needs and/or reducing costs. The present paper provides examples of possible uses of treated domestic effluent for the three sectors, i.e. public water supply, industrial and agricultural uses with the aim to address the feasibility of these applications. It is concluded that, although The Netherlands as a whole is considered to be a low water stressed country, regional fresh water scarcity and costs can result in the need for applications of domestic wastewater reuse.

  13. [Aliens in the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983].

    PubMed

    Verhoef, R; Tas Rfj

    1984-05-01

    A description of the resident alien population of the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983, is presented. It is noted that the total alien population at this date was 546,000, that most of the aliens arrived in the 1960s and 1970s as foreign workers, and that the major countries of origin are Turkey and Morocco. Differences between the age structure of the alien and native populations are described, and consideration is given to differences in fertility, nuptiality, and mortality. Preliminary data for 1984 are also introduced. (summary in ENG)

  14. Plastic ingestion by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Van Franeker, Jan A; Jansen, Okka E; Brasseur, Sophie M J M

    2013-02-15

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incidence of plastic was 11% for stomachs, 1% for intestines, and 0% for scats. Younger animals, up to 3 years of age, were most affected. This is the first quantitative study of plastic ingestion by phocid seals. The observed level of incidence is of environmental concern, but is low in the sense of suitability of seals for MSFD monitoring purposes. PMID:23245459

  15. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military.

    PubMed

    Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F

    2006-06-01

    For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757

  16. Weichselian Aeolian Geoheritage Top 20 of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Platform Aardkundige Waarden, members

    2016-04-01

    The Netherlands are known world-wide for its engineered landscapes, its deep polders and bulb fields. The deep polders, up to more than 5 meters below sea level, originated by reclaiming peat lakes and peat quarries made for fuel. Its bulb fields are situated on levelled permeable dunes on which the precise water management is possible that growing bulbs requires. The Waddensea and -islands are less widely known (except by German bathers), although they are a World Heritage. The Waddensea is a highly pristine tidal landscape that already occurs along the Dutch coast for over 10,000 years and an important Natura 2000 area. The Wadden islands have an interesting history of erosion and re-growth and old cultural landscapes that show the interaction of land use and small-scale differences in geology and geomorphology during different cultural periods. Therefore, it is time to change the international perception of foreign visitors to The Netherlands and add the high variety of its historical landscapes, partly pristine and partly old cultural landscapes, to its tourism qualities. The poster presents a Top 20 of a less spectacular but another internationally important Dutch landscape: the coversand sites of the Netherlands. The Top 20 is selected by Geoheritage NL's Platform Aardkundige Waarden. The coversands evolved during the Late Weichselian, when the Netherlands was not covered by land ice and for a long period of time was part of a polar desert. The coversand landscape with dunes of 0,5 m up to 15 metres is not spectacular, but very characteristic. The coversands comprise of more than half a kilometre broad and 40 kilometre long dunes, series of river dunes as well as isolated dunes. The coversands and related Holocene drift sands make up about a quarter of the Dutch landscape. Over a century ago more than half of this landscape still had its pristine topography. Now less than a few percent is remaining. Especially the few remaining heathlands on coversand are an

  17. Mission Statements of Christian Elementary Schools in the United States and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandstra, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…

  18. Buruli Ulcer in Traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Bouke; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Zeegelaar, Jim E.; Portaels, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    We report Buruli ulcer in a man in the Netherlands. Phenotyping of samples indicate the Buruli pathogen was acquired in Suriname and activated by trauma on return to the Netherlands. Awareness of this disease by clinicians in non–Buruli ulcer–endemic areas is critical for identification. PMID:25695367

  19. The Dangers of Schooling: The Introduction of School Medical Inspection in the Netherlands (c.1900)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke; de Beer, Fedor

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors address the question of why school medical inspection in the Netherlands developed not only considerably slower than the British service but did so also on a more modest scale in terms of the impact on children's lives. In the Netherlands school doctors were not allowed to treat children's illnesses and therefore never…

  20. Education as Cultural Mobilisation: The Great War and Its Effects on Moral Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Vincent; Los, Willeke; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    Education during World War I has been a relatively unexplored field of research, especially in the case of countries with a neutral stance in that war. The Netherlands is one such country. This article argues that even though the Netherlands was politically neutral, it was and considered itself a part of western civilisation and shared in the…

  1. 77 FR 14733 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension..., inter alia, purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands covering the period July...

  2. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onstenk, Jeroen; Voncken, Eva

    The impact of developments in work organizations on the skilling process in the Netherlands was studied through a macro analysis of available statistical information about the development of education for work in the Netherlands and case studies of three Dutch firms. The macro analysis focused on the following: vocational education in the…

  3. 76 FR 66687 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose from the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 36519... clarification, see Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR... Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005). These cash-deposit requirements, when imposed,...

  4. Revision and update of the stratigraphic nomenclature of Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Van Adrichem Boogaert, A. ); Kouwe, W. )

    1993-09-01

    In 1991, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands started a project for revision and updating of the pre-Quaternary lithostratigraphy of Netherlands. This had not been done systematically since 1980. Main objective of the study are (1) to bring the lithostratigraphic ideas into agreement with new findings and increased knowledge of Dutch subsurface geology (lithostratigraphy was extended into the Lower Carboniferous and Devonian), (2) expansion and standardization of the definitions and descriptions of existing lithostratigraphic units, (3) application of modern concepts (e.g. sequence stratigraphy) in order to describe better the distribution of reservoir-prone sediments, and (4) to reach consensus on a number of stratigraphy-related subjects, such as a chronological time frame, application of biozonations, and the designation of the behavior of main structural elements through time. Eight working groups were formed, each working on a specific aspect or stratigraphic interval, under the supervision of a steering committee. Both working groups and steering committee were composed of persons from the Geological Survey, several leading oil companies and, in some cases, universities. Several working groups have completed their tasks, and updates of these stratigraphic intervals are available at the conference. Posters will display stratigraphic updates of lithostratigraphy for the Carboniferous, Zechstein, Lower Triassic, and Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous.

  5. Increasing flood exposure in the Netherlands: implications for risk financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on an accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information provides valuable input to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood-prone areas has been higher than in non-flood-prone areas. We also find that property values in flood-prone areas are lower than those in non-flood-prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood-prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  6. Impact of wind turbine noise in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy. PMID:22122963

  7. Effect of climate changes on waterborne disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schijven, J F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2005-01-01

    Effects of climate change in The Netherlands in the 21st century on the microbiological quality of water for drinking water production and recreation were evaluated. The following was concluded: increased temperature leads to significant additional inactivation of enteric pathogens in surface waters with residence times of more than a month, but not in waters with residence times of up to ten days. Increased precipitation, runoff and storm water overflow lead to more peak concentrations of waterborne pathogens in surface water. Peak concentrations strongly determine the infection risk through drinking water consumption. Drought lowers and increased precipitation elevates groundwater tables, but an effect on the risk of groundwater contamination with waterborne pathogens is not clear. Climate effects are not noticeable near a groundwater well, where the groundwater table and flow rate are mainly determined by the pumping rate. Exposure of recreants to waterborne pathogens that can grow in the water is expected to increase due to increased recreation and increased growth opportunities of these pathogens. Due to warmer summers, pathogens, like amoeba, that have not caused problems up to date in The Netherlands, may now emerge in recreational waters.

  8. Governing Healthcare through Performance Measurement in Massachusetts and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Van der Wees, Philip J.; der Sanden, Maria W.G. Nijhuis-van; van Ginneken, Ewout; Ayanian, John Z.; Schneider, Eric C.; Westert, Gert P.

    2016-01-01

    Massachusetts and the Netherlands have implemented comprehensive health reforms, which have heightened the importance of performance measurement. The performance measures addressing access to health care and patient experience are similar in the two jurisdictions, but measures of processes and outcomes of care differ considerably. In both jurisdictions, the use of health outcomes to compare the quality of health care organizations is limited, and specific information about costs is lacking. New legislation in both jurisdictions led to the establishment of institutes to monitor the quality of care, similar mandates to make the performance of health care providers transparent, and to establish a shared responsibility of providers, consumers and insurers to improve the quality of health care. In Massachusetts a statewide mandatory quality measure set was established to monitor the quality of care. The Netherlands is stimulating development of performance measures by providers based on a mandatory framework for developing such measures. Both jurisdictions are expanding the use of patient-reported outcomes to support patient care, quality improvement, and performance comparisons with the aim of explicitly linking performance to new payment incentives. PMID:24138729

  9. Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Barendregt, Jan J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population. PMID:11884970

  10. Impact of wind turbine noise in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy.

  11. The role of hospital midwives in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most midwives in the Netherlands work in primary care where they are the lead professionals providing care to women with 'normal' or uncomplicated pregnancies, while some midwives work in hospitals ("clinical midwives"). The actual involvement of midwives in maternity care in hospitals is unknown, because in all statistics births in secondary care are registered as births assisted by gynaecologists. The aim of this study is to gain insight in the involvement of midwives with births in secondary care, under supervision of a gynaecologist. This is done using data from the PRN (The Netherlands Perinatal Registry), a voluntary registration of births in the Netherlands. The PRN covers 97% to 99% of all births taking place under responsibility of a gynaecologist. Methods All births registered in secondary care in the period 1998-2007 (1,102,676, on average 61% of all births) were selected. We analyzed trends in socio-demographic, obstetric and organisational characteristics, associated with the involvement of midwives, using frequency tables and uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. As main outcome measure the percentage of births in secondary care with a midwife 'catching' the baby was used. Results The proportion of births attended by a midwife in secondary care increased from 8.3% in 1998 to 26.06% in 2007, the largest increase involving spontaneous births of a second or later child, on weekdays during day shifts (8.00-20.00 hr) from younger mothers with a gestational age (almost) at term. After 2002, parallel to the growing numbers of midwives working in hospitals, the percentage of instrumental births decreased. Conclusions In 2007 more midwives are assisting with more births in secondary care than in 1998. Hospital-based midwives are primarily involved with uncomplicated births of women with relatively low risk demographical and obstetrical characteristics. However, they are still only involved with half of the less complicated births

  12. [One hundred years of Freud editions in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Greven, Elsbeth

    2009-01-01

    The history of Dutch editions of Freud is discussed from a publisher's point of view. The author focuses on the main publishers involved in presenting Freud's work to the Dutch public: S. C. van Doesburgh, De Wereldbibliotheek, De Bezige Bij and Uitgeverij Boom. She describes their role, together with their networks of translators, editors and psychoanalysts, in the production, perception and reception of Freud's work--and hence in the development of psychoanalysis in The Netherlands--as well as their approaches to translation, publishing strategies and use of paratextual resources. Three main stages can be identified: 1. 1912 to World War I (Freud was introduced), 2. World War I to 1950 (Freud was popularised), and 3. 1960 to 1990 (Freud was canonised, but also criticised). A fourth stage, the historicisation of Freud, began in 2006 with a new, scholarly edition of his Werken, arranged in chronological order.

  13. Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Kimberly R.; Duarte, Tamara A.T.E.; Kliffen, Suzanne J.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2013-01-01

    To increase knowledge of leptospirosis in the Netherlands and identify changing trends of this disease over time, we analyzed historical passive surveillance reports for an 84-year period (1925–2008). We found that 2,553 mainly severe leptospirosis cases were diagnosed (average annual incidence rate 0.25 cases/100,000 population). The overall case-fatality rate for patients with reported leptospirosis was 6.5% but decreased over the period, probably because of improved treatment. Ninety percent of reported leptospirosis cases were in male patients. Most autochthonous leptospirosis infections were associated with recreational exposures, but 15.5% of the cases were attributed to accidents that resulted in injury and to concomitant water contact. Since the end of the 1950s, the proportion of imported infections gradually increased, reaching 53.1% of the total during 2005–2008. Most (80.1%) imported infections were associated with sporting and adventurous vacation activities. PMID:23622144

  14. New developments in waste management in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goorhuis, Maarten; Reus, Pieter; Nieuwenhuis, Ellen; Spanbroek, Natascha; Sol, Mario; van Rijn, Jørgen

    2012-09-01

    With a current recycling rate of 51% the Netherlands has one of the leading positions in the recycling of household waste in Europe. However, in the last 10-15 years there have been few developments made in the recycling of household waste. The introduction of producer responsibility for waste electrical and electronic equipment in 1999 and for packaging in 2005 have been the biggest changes in this period. However, these measures have, so far, not significantly influenced the overall recycling rate for household waste. In order to plan the next steps, which are necessary to reach the goals of the National Waste Management plan, new innovative methods are needed. A number of Dutch municipalities and waste collection companies are investigating promising new paths to enhance separate collection and recycling of household waste. This article reports on three of the most interesting initiatives.

  15. Underdiagnosis of Foodborne Hepatitis A, the Netherlands, 2008–20101

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Linda; Vennema, Harry; van Hunen, Rianne; Baas, Dominique; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne hepatitis A are rarely recognized as such. Detection of these infections is challenging because of the infection’s long incubation period and patients’ recall bias. Nevertheless, the complex food market might lead to reemergence of hepatitis A virus outside of disease-endemic areas. To assess the role of food as a source of infection, we combined routine surveillance with real-time strain sequencing in the Netherlands during 2008–2010. Virus RNA from serum of 248 (59%) of 421 reported case-patients could be sequenced. Without typing, foodborne transmission was suspected for only 4% of reported case-patients. With typing, foodborne transmission increased to being the most probable source of infection for 16%. We recommend routine implementation of an enhanced surveillance system that includes prompt forwarding and typing of hepatitis A virus RNA isolated from serum, standard use of questionnaires, data sharing, and centralized interpretation of data. PMID:24655539

  16. [The Health Council of the Netherlands' advice on Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Verbon, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about Lyme disease. At the initiative of the Dutch Association for Lyme Patients, the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament requested a report on Lyme disease. The Health Council of the Netherlands advised standardization of Lyme serology in all Dutch laboratories as soon as possible. Standardization of diagnostic serological tests was strongly recommended. Studies into new tests which discriminate between active disease and past infection were recommended. Patients with Lyme disease were divided in those with Lyme specific and non-specific symptoms and duration of symptoms. Treatment advice was given for each of these 6 patient categories with a prominent role for the decision of the attending physician. Additionally it was advised to set up specialized treatment centers with a multidisciplinary approach. The report clearly shows the problems in care for Lyme patients from the perspective of both patients and physicians, but is cautious in the solutions offered. PMID:23859114

  17. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  18. [Tropical veterinary medicine and education in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Uilenberg, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    in this lecture an overview is given of the development of tropical veterinary medicine and education in The Netherlands after the Dutch colonial period. The starting point is the development of tropical veterinary medicine in general, especially in Europe and Africa. It is pointed out that just now it is very important to have specialists in tropical diseases not only in the tropics but also in the western world since globalization involves the import of a lot of tropical diseases. The speaker is an advocate of a course on tropical veterinary medicine on an European level, but at the same time he is sceptical about it. In the second part he gives an overview of the education programme on tropical veterinary medicine from the foundation of the Institute at Utrecht University in 1948 until its decline.

  19. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    PubMed

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  20. Climate change impacts on dunes erosion in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, Renske; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    The dunes in the Netherlands are occasionally eroded as a result of storms and corresponding storm surge levels and extreme waves. We discuss the effect of climate change and the corresponding sea level rise on dune erosion. With the XBeach dune erosion model we studied two representative profiles and analysed the effect of sea-level rise ranging from 0.20 to 2.50 m on dune erosion, as well as changes in the angle of wave incidence. The eroded volume in our XBeach model under storm conditions is in the order of magnitude of previous studies. In contrast with the Bruun-rule, which suggests a relation between sea-level rise and retreat distance, we found a linear relation between SLR and the amount of eroded volume of the dunes. Changes in the wave angle from shore normal to ~40 degrees, increase the erosion volume to the same extend as 40 cm sea-level rise.

  1. Weed control on hard surfaces in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kempenaar, Corné; Spijker, Joop H

    2004-06-01

    The non-agricultural use of pesticides in The Netherlands declined in the period 1986-2001 from 127000 to 40000 kg AI per annum. However use on pavements rose from 23% to 50% of the total non-agricultural use. To diminish the dependency on herbicides, both preventive and curative non-chemical weed control methods have been examined. In the future both mechanical and thermal methods can be improved. On a flat pavement mechanical methods are preferred because they are more effective. Two approaches are used by municipalities to lower the environmental impact of the use of herbicides on pavements. The first is to phase out the use of chemicals on hard surfaces and the second is the integrated approach in which herbicides are not prohibited, but used only on places and at times when the risk of run-off is below a mutually accepted level. Both approaches can be effective.

  2. The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geographical areas in the Netherlands. The aim of the study is to create a research infrastructure that will allow the study of risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic determinants for severe diabetes complications. Methods/design Baseline examinations began November 2009 and will continue through 2012. By the end of 2012, it is expected that 7000 patients with type 2 diabetes will be included in the Diabetes Pearl cohort. To ensure quality of the data collected, standard operation procedures were developed and used in all 8 recruitment centers. From all patients who provide informed consent, the following information is collected: personal information, medication use, physical examination (antropometry, blood pressure, electrocardiography (ECG), retina photographs, ankle-brachial index, peripheral vibration perception), self-report questionnaire (socio-economic status, lifestyle, (family) history of disease, and psychosocial well-being), laboratory measurements (glucose, A1c, lipid profile, kidney function), biobank material (storage of urine and blood samples and isolated DNA). All gathered clinical data and biobank information is uploaded to a database for storage on a national level. Biobanks are maintained locally at all recruitment centers. Discussion The Diabetes Pearl is large-scale cohort of type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands aiming to study risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic markers, for disease deterioration and the development of severe diabetes complications. As a result of the well-designed research design and the national coverage, the Diabetes Pearl data can be of great value to national and international researchers with an interest in diabetes

  3. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  4. Nutrient flows for poultry production in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Boer, I J; Van Der Togt, P L; Grossman, M; Kwakkel, R P

    2000-02-01

    Government targets for ammonia emission and for N and P loss per hectare (ha) of agricultural land were used to assess carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands with data from 1990. In addition, the effect of alternative management strategies on carrying capacity was determined. Ammonia emission from poultry production in 1990 [20.5 gigagrams (Gg) N] exceeded the target for 2000 (i.e., 6.9 Gg N). Targets defined for 2000 and 2010 (i.e., 4.6 Gg N) can be achieved, however, without reducing poultry numbers, assuming national introduction of measurements studied. Measures that reduced ammonia emission directly, i.e., introduction of low-emission housing or manure application techniques, were most effective. In 1990, N and P losses equalled 215 kg/ha for N and 31 kg/ha for P. The N loss was slightly lower than the target for 2000 (219 kg N/ha) but exceeded the target for 2010 (144 kg N/ha). Reduction of application of artificial N fertilizer, however, reduced N loss effectively from 215 to 22 kg/ha. National P loss in 1990 exceeded the target for 2000 (15.3 kg P/ha). Reduction of application of artificial P fertilizer reduced P loss most effectively from 31 to 14 kg/ha. To achieve the target for 2010 (8.7 kg P/ha), additional reduction in P excretion by poultry is required. This reduction can be achieved by use of phytase in layer and broiler feed and by use of a coarse Ca source in layer feed. Unlike pig production, carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands is not limited by governmental targets for acidification, eutrophication, or drinking water contamination. PMID:10735744

  5. Towards sustainable management of groundwater: policy developments in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lijzen, Johannes P A; Otte, Piet; van Dreumel, Mari

    2014-07-01

    This article presents and discusses the main elements for a fundamental policy change for groundwater management in The Netherlands. The study analyzes the status and current use of groundwater, the increasing pressure in The Netherlands and many other countries on the natural soil-water system, the effects on quality and quantity of groundwater and the use of the subsoil. An overview is given of the current national and European regulations regarding groundwater and related policies for e.g. drinking water, soil policies and other interventions in the subsurface. The Dutch National Government is developing a new framework for groundwater management that aims a sustainable use of groundwater not only in environmental, but also in economic and social perspective. This framework for groundwater will benefit the Structure vision on the subsoil. The question is how 'sustainable use' can be a guiding principle in groundwater management, strengthening the relation between groundwater quantity and quality. It is proposed to define a generic National approach for the assessment of new and existing activities with potential effects on groundwater and for groundwater quality assessment. Additionally it is proposed to give local authorities the opportunity to set area-specific objectives on a regional or local scale to adjust for specific societal needs and area-specific characteristics. For setting these objectives it is recommended to use the concept of ecosystem services as a leading principle for defining the groundwater quality and quantity (e.g. for use as source for drinking water, aquifer thermal storage and sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems).

  6. Risk characterization of detergent surfactants in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Feijtel, T.; Plassche, E. van de

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch Soap Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Environmental Ministry (VROM) developed in 1991 an aquatic hazard priority list of all detergent ingredients. The agreed priority list consisted of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylates (AE), alcohol ethoxylated sulfates (AES), and soap. A stepwise or tiered risk assessment approach was adopted as the recommended approach to evaluate the risk of these surfactants. This implies that depending on the risk (or PEC/PNEC) ratio, the sequential test program or assessment would proceed further, to ensure adequate protection of the ecosystem. The agreed calculation scheme for the aquatic compartment is based on the comparison of the 90th percentile of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) in the Netherlands -- at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall -- to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for ecosystems. The 90th percentile surfactant concentrations at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall can be calculated using information or data on (1) release, (2) in-sewer removal, (3) treatment efficiency, (4) dilution and (5) instream-removal and/or measured in representative sites in The Netherlands. In addition, all toxicological data was critically reviewed by company experts and experts of RIVM and VROM to present a rationale for a sound database for the derivation of a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). It was concluded that the risk of LAS, AE and AES and soap for the aquatic environment is low. Also taking the estimated uncertainty into account, the predicted environmental concentrations are always considerably lower that the predicted no effect concentrations.

  7. Insurance against climate change and flooding in the Netherlands: present, future, and comparison with other countries.

    PubMed

    Botzen, W J W; van den Bergh, J C J M

    2008-04-01

    Climate change is projected to cause severe economic losses, which has the potential to affect the insurance sector and public compensation schemes considerably. This article discusses the role insurance can play in adapting to climate change impacts. The particular focus is on the Dutch insurance sector, in view of the Netherlands being extremely vulnerable to climate change impacts. The usefulness of private insurance as an adaptation instrument to increased flood risks is examined, which is currently unavailable in the Netherlands. It is questioned whether the currently dominant role of the Dutch government in providing damage relief is justified from an economic efficiency perspective. Characteristics of flood insurance arrangements in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France are compared in order to identify possible future directions for arrangements in the Netherlands. It is argued that social welfare improves when insurance companies take responsibility for part of the risks associated with climate change.

  8. The City and the Self: The Case of Girls' Protection in the Netherlands around 1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2002-01-01

    Examines educational activities organized by local committees and women's organizations in 19th-century Netherlands to protect working girls from prostitution. Places these activities in the context of the social construction of gender identity. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  9. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... review (75 FR 57815, September 22, 2010). Due to a scheduling conflict with the hearing in another... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  10. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, D; Oliveira dos Santos, C; Wagelaar, M; de Kleuver, M; Koene, M G J; Roest, H I J; Sinha, B; Tomaso, H; Bierman, W F W; Stienstra, Y

    2015-12-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  11. 75 FR 77829 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 48310 (August 10, 2010) (Preliminary Results... clarification, see Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR... Orders: Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR...

  12. First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; Bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal

    2016-08-18

    In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931

  13. First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931

  14. Sero-surveillance of wild boar in The Netherlands, 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R; Dekkers, L J; van der Giessen, J W

    2000-12-01

    From 1996 to 1999, blood samples were collected from wild boar shot during the hunting season in Crown properties, national parks and the free wildlife belt in the Netherlands. Sera were screened for the presence of antibodies against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and Trichinella spiralis. The results of the sero-surveillance system indicate that CSFV, SVDV and ADV are uncommon within the wild boar population. Hence, the wild boar population is not thought to be an important reservoir of these viruses in the Netherlands. Infection with ADV and CSFV is endemic in the wild boar population in Germany. Since contact between the wild boar populations of Germany and the Netherlands cannot be excluded in the southern part of the Netherlands, continuation of the sero-surveillance system seems appropriate. In the decade before 1998, no antibodies to Trichinella spp. were found in the wild boar population of the Netherlands. The detection of some seropositive animals during the hunting season of 1998-1999 corresponds to the previous findings in wild boar before 1988. However, the recent data do not have consequences for the pig industry of the Netherlands, since the country has been considered Trichinella-free for many decades.

  15. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  16. Lower limb deficient children in The Netherlands: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rijnders, L J; Boonstra, A M; Groothoff, J W; Cornel, M C; Eisma, W H

    2000-04-01

    Information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in The Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency or amputation and male/female ratios. Data were obtained from a regional birth defects registry for the northern part of The Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL) and from a national survey. Inclusion criteria for the selection of the EUROCAT data were: children/foetuses with lower leg deficiencies born in 1981-1986. Inclusion criteria for the survey data were: children aged 1-18 years with congenital deficiencies or acquired amputations of the leg, excluding toe deficiencies/amputations. Both the regional birth defects registry and the national survey only yielded small numbers of children, which limits the validity of the authors' findings. The Eurocat data show a prevalence of lower leg deficiencies at birth of 2.07/10,000. Fifty-five (55) children/foetuses were included in the present study. The male/female ratio was 1:1. Of the live-born children, 30% also had defects of the upper limbs, while 38% had bilateral lower limb deficiencies. The national survey included 89 children, of whom 73% had congenital deficiencies, while the others had undergone amputations: of which 37% were due to malignancies, 29% to traumata, 13% to infections and 21% to other pathology. The male/female ratio was 7:3 for the children with congenital deficiencies versus 6:4 for the children with acquired amputations. In the group of congenital deficiencies, fibula deficiency was most frequently seen (36%), while in the group with acquired amputations trans-femoral amputation, knee disarticulation and trans-tibial amputation were seen with equal frequency (21%). In 40% of the children with congenital deficiency and in 8% of the children with acquired amputations the arm was also affected. Both legs were

  17. Nitrate leaching concentrations in the Netherlands decreased more than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumans, Leo; Fraters, Dico; Wattel, Esther

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of EU environmental directives and national policies into measures has led to a decrease in nitrogen (N) surplus in agriculture, notably at dairy farms in the 1995-2002 period. In addition, N emissions to air from agricultural fields have been reduced, and atmospheric N deposition on nature areas subsequently lessened. The nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching at dairy farms and nature areas in the Sand region of the Netherlands also decreased. These decreases were larger than would be expected based on the decreases in net loads. We have formulated and tested hypotheses to explain these extra decreases at farms and in nature areas. Dairy farms cover about 60% of the area in the sandy region of the Netherlands. They have shown a nitrate leaching decrease of 100 mg/l during the 1992-2010 period (67%). The N-surplus at dairy farms decreased from about 340 to 180 kg/ha in this period (47%). Other farm management factors may have caused the additional decrease in root zone leaching concentration on farm level. The main potential factors are the ratio grassland - arable land, the grazing intensity and the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N. There are no indications that the ratio grassland - arable land or the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N significantly changed between 1992 and 2010. The mowing percentage, as an indicator for grazing intensity, increased from about 180 to 290% in the study period. About 80% (80 mg/l) of the decrease at dairy farms can be attributed to a lower N-surplus and about 20% (20 mg/l) is postulated to be caused by an increasing mowing percentage or less fodder grazing. Nature areas cover about 20% of the area in the Sand region. Nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching in nature areas showed a decrease of 55% in 2010 compared to 1990. Yet in rainwater, the concentration decrease is only 40%. Several factors may cause an additional decrease in nitrate concentration particularly an increase of plant

  18. Needle sharing in The Netherlands: an ethnographic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, J P; Kaplan, C D; Adriaans, N F

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Needle sharing has been reported to be the main cause of the rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting drug users. Risk behaviors such as needle sharing are, however, the end result of complicated interaction patterns in drug user networks, which have their specific rules and rituals, and larger social structures and official drug policy. METHODS. To study these interaction patterns we examined the drug administration rituals of heroin addicts in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intensive ethnographic descriptions were collected by participant observation. RESULTS. In less than 10% of the observed self-injections unsafe syringes were used. In 68% of the self-injections new, sterile syringes were used. Needle sharing as a planned sequence was not observed. Sharing was determined primarily by the availability of syringes, experience with the injecting ritual, and drug craving. In all observed needle-sharing events, subjects were aware of the risks involved and undertook efforts to clean the injection equipment. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to psychological approaches aimed at reducing individual "risk behavior," these findings suggest that HIV prevention can be made more effective if active drug injectors are organized to help themselves and their peers prevent high-risk exchange situations. PMID:1746657

  19. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes.

  20. Gender contributes to personal research funding success in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    We examined the application and review materials of three calls (n=2,823) of a prestigious grant for personal research funding in a national full population of early career scientists awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Results showed evidence of gender bias in application evaluations and success rates, as well as in language use in instructions and evaluation sheets. Male applicants received significantly more competitive "quality of researcher" evaluations (but not "quality of proposal" evaluations) and had significantly higher application success rates than female applicants. Gender disparities were most prevalent in scientific disciplines with the highest number of applications and with equal gender distribution among the applicants (i.e., life sciences and social sciences). Moreover, content analyses of the instructional and evaluation materials revealed the use of gendered language favoring male applicants. Overall, our data reveal a 4% "loss" of women during the grant review procedure, and illustrate the perpetuation of the funding gap, which contributes to the underrepresentation of women in academia.

  1. Pyrite formation in two freshwater systems in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Marnette, E.C.L.; Van Breemen, N. ); Hordijk, K.A.; Cappenberg, T.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Cycling of Fe and S was investigated in sediments of Gerritsfles and Kliplo, two acidic shallow moorland pools in the Netherlands, in order to reveal the importance of pyrite as a pool of inorganic S. The porewater chemistry in both pool sediments is extremely dynamic as, e.g., Fe[sup 2+] concentrations may increase twentyfold within a time span of a month. Periodic oxidized conditions occur in the top several centimetres of the sediment. The redox status appeared to be a main factor in determining whether pyrite or a monosulfide, defined by the content of acid volatile sulfur (AVS), is formed. In Gerritsfles and Kliplo, pyrite was the most important iron sulfide phase; sedimentary FeS[sub 2]-S/AVS-S molar ratios were 32 and 55, respectively. In other lakes, where stratification caused anaerobic conditions in the hypolimmion, FeS[sub 2]/AVS ratios were <1. Morphological investigation by light and scanning electron microscopy indicated that pyrite was present as single crystals and as framboids. The framboids, mainly associated with organic matter, were thought to form in microsites where they may form slowly. The presence of a single crystal morphology point to a rapid formation of pyrite.

  2. Bicycling safety and distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    As planners and public health officials in many cities around the world seek to increase bicycle ridership, bicyclists who are performing a secondary task (such as listening to a portable music device) may pose a risk to public safety. This study examines bicycling safety and potentially distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands, a place where bicycling is a common, everyday travel mode among all walks of life and where bicycling infrastructure is well developed. Based on 1360 observations of bicycling behavior, this study shows that bicyclists who were using a cell phone, listening to a portable music device, or talking with other bicyclists exhibited more unsafe behaviors than those bicyclists who were not performing a secondary task. Furthermore, bicyclists who were performing a secondary task also more frequently created situations where other people had to evade them to avoid an accident. As with distracted car driving, the performance of a secondary task while bicycling may be unsafe for the person engaging in the behavior as well as for other people around them.

  3. Rainwater harvesting: quality assessment and utilization in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; Italiaander, R; van den Berg, H H J L; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-06-01

    The use of roof-collected rainwater as a freely available and sustainable alternative to drinking water produced by drinking water companies increases worldwide. Initially, rainwater is free of microbial contamination, but it may become contaminated by animals and humans or, alternatively, human pathogens may grow in stored rainwater resulting in a significant human health risk from infectious diseases. This three-year study demonstrated that rainwater stored in different reservoirs in The Netherlands was frequently faecally contaminated and incidentally contained potential human pathogens such as Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Aeromonas hydrophila and Legionella. Analysis of samples during a period with variable weather conditions showed a correlation between rainfall intensity and faecal indicator counts and increased detection of pathogens after heavy rainfall incidents. Outside temperature had a limited effect on both the temperature and the microbiological quality of the water in the reservoirs, which did not comply with Dutch drinking water legislation and should thus not be consumed without treatment. In general, a health risk may arise from exposure to pathogens when contaminated droplets are inhaled, ingested or come into contact with the skin. Health risks may be reduced by regular cleaning of the collection, storage and transport means, but to assess their efficacy field intervention studies are required.

  4. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  5. Hydrology of bank groundwater withdrawals in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, C. R.; Grakist, G.

    1985-05-01

    Bank filtration in the strict sense is not applied in The Netherlands. However, several well fields are situated at some distance from generally infiltrating rivers. These extractions have both the features of groundwater withdrawal and of river-induced recharge. In the past, problems were considered from the viewpoint of groundwater. Examples are land subsidence, attraction of brackish groundwater, clogging of wells and treatment required for poor groundwater quality. At present, especially the quality transformation between parent river and wells is investigated. Use is made of the convolution integral, including an impulse response function, derived from the frequency distribution of travel times of river water in the subsoil. Travel times for each particular well field are computed using numerical modelling of the geohydrological situation. No generally accepted protection strategies and design criteria have been developed yet. Preventing polluted river water to enter the subsoil is not feasible. The emphasis should be put on adequate design, monitoring and appropriate operation of the well fields in order to keep the quality of the pumped water at acceptable standards.

  6. Gender contributes to personal research funding success in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    We examined the application and review materials of three calls (n=2,823) of a prestigious grant for personal research funding in a national full population of early career scientists awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Results showed evidence of gender bias in application evaluations and success rates, as well as in language use in instructions and evaluation sheets. Male applicants received significantly more competitive "quality of researcher" evaluations (but not "quality of proposal" evaluations) and had significantly higher application success rates than female applicants. Gender disparities were most prevalent in scientific disciplines with the highest number of applications and with equal gender distribution among the applicants (i.e., life sciences and social sciences). Moreover, content analyses of the instructional and evaluation materials revealed the use of gendered language favoring male applicants. Overall, our data reveal a 4% "loss" of women during the grant review procedure, and illustrate the perpetuation of the funding gap, which contributes to the underrepresentation of women in academia. PMID:26392544

  7. Sequences and cyclicities in the upper Rotliegende of the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kouwe, W. )

    1993-09-01

    A regional study of released well and core data from the Netherlands on- and offshore territory, performed by InterGeos, has revealed the preservation of supersequences, sequences, and short-term cyclicities in upper Rotliegende deposits. These have always been interpreted as formed in an inland basin, disconnected from marine influence. Sequences and cyclicities are reflected in vertical sections by correlatable alternations of lithofacies, which can be observed in cores and wireline logs. The lithofacies shifts, which often show a marked periodicity, are interpreted as caused by climatic fluctuations. This implies that sequence stratigraphic methods can be used also in the southern Permian basin, even though direct marine influence is dubious. Supersequences, sequences, and cyclicities each have specific applications in Rotliegende exploration. Supersequences serve best for rough regional correlation and prediction of sand and clay. Sequences are suited for detailed regional or field correlation and studies of the detailed distribution of (un) favorable lithofacies, e.g., within a field. the correlation of sequences has revealed that existing lithostratigraphy is diachronous in character. Short-term cycles can be used to make estimates of net sedimentation rates and sequence durations, because the periods of these Milankovitch cycles are known. Short-term cyclicities are preserved better in the desert red beds of the rotliegende than in coastal plain deposits such as the Carboniferous, where they are overprinted heavily by longer term cyclicities.

  8. Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eja; van den Berg, Frits; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2009-08-01

    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643

  10. Crossing cultures: health promotion for senior migrants in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Abma, Tineke A; Heijsman, Anke

    2015-09-01

    A health promotion programme focusing on the meaning of everyday activities was implemented and evaluated to test its usefulness for community-dwelling seniors in the Netherlands. To evaluate how senior migrants with a Surinamese-Hindustani background and professionals received the programme, and how it could be contextualized and improved in line with their values and expectations. A responsive evaluation methodology was followed to foster reflexive learning in and among stakeholders as the basis for programme contextualization. The evaluation consisted of three phases. Outcomes of former phases served as input for subsequent phases. Methods included interviews and focus groups with seniors and professionals. Open and selective coding techniques were used to analyse the interactively derived data. A. small group of women was interested and followed the programme. It was not individual concerns or daily life problems that dominated, but the wish to become well informed, to maintain functional capacities and to continue their roles in the family and community. Striking differences in perspectives between professionals and migrants related to conflict between the underlying Western values of the programme (independence, personal control and autonomy) and the values of the migrants (interdependence, predestination, rebirth and destiny). Awareness among professionals of their own cultural background and the values of the migrant seniors was enhanced, but adapting the programme to the local context and values appeared far more complicated than originally expected. Adaptation requires intensive collaboration with participants and cultural brokers in the community.

  11. Applicability of internationally available health literacy measures in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fransen, M P; Van Schaik, T M; Twickler, T B; Essink-Bot, M L

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy measures for use in clinical-epidemiological research have all been developed outside Europe. In the absence of validated Dutch measures, we evaluated the cross-cultural applicability of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ), and the measure of Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL). Each measure was translated into Dutch following standardized procedures. We assessed feasibility, internal consistency, and construct validity among patients with coronary artery disease (n = 201) and patients with diabetes type 2 (n = 88). Patients expressed most problems in responding to the NVS-D. They were not familiar with the type of food label and had difficulties calculating in portions instead of grams. The FCCHL-D items seemed too theoretical for many patients. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable for all measures. Correlation patterns between the measures were moderately coherent with a priori hypotheses. All translated measures were able to distinguish between high- and low-educated groups of patients, with the NVS-D performing best. Despite reasonable psychometric properties as demonstrated so far, these measures need to be further developed in order to increase applicability for assessing health literacy in clinical-epidemiological research in the Netherlands.

  12. Educational Opportunities in the Netherlands: Policy, Students' Performance and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

    1997-07-01

    Since 1985 the Educational Priority Policy (EPP) has been in effect in the Netherlands. This policy is aimed at reducing the educational disadvantage of children due to their social, economic and cultural circumstances. The first section of this article describes the outlines of the EPP. The second section presents the results of an EPP evaluation study conducted in secondary education among 20,000 students from nearly 400 schools. The emphasis is on test performance in relation to three student characteristics: gender, social class and ethnic background. The analyses show that the test results are largely determined by social class. Gender hardly plays a role, while the influence of ethnic origin is also limited. It should however be added that the performance of two migrant groups, the Turks and Moroccans, is the worst of all. As most Turks and Moroccans belong to the lowest socioeconomic category, the factor of ethnic origin is so closely interwoven with the factor of social class, that it is not really possible to distinguish the two. In the final section of the article these findings are related to three theoretical perspectives regarding the explanation of differences in educational performance. This is followed by a discussion on possible consequences for the EPP.

  13. The first Team Haemophilia Education meeting, 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik; Hart, Daniel; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; d'Oiron, Roseline; Perry, David; O'Mahony, Brian; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Crato, Miguel; Pasi, John; Miners, Alec; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Kitchen, Steve; Boehlen, Françoise; Giangrande, Paul; Cebura, Elizabete; Uitslager, Nanda; Osooli, Mehdi; Janeckova, Daniela; Haldon, Rosie; Rivolta, Gianna Franca

    2016-07-01

    Haemophilia remains a complex disorder to diagnose and manage, requiring close cooperation between multidisciplinary healthcare professionals. There are still many unmet challenges in haemophilia care. The first Team Haemophilia Education (THE) meeting, held on 7-8 May 2015 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, aimed to promote the optimal care of haemophilia patients through education of the multidisciplinary treatment team. This was achieved by reviewing the latest developments in haemophilia management, considering how these can be implemented in the clinic to improve patient care and providing a platform for networking and debate for all haemophilia treatment team members. Haemophilia treatment centres from several countries were asked to complete a premeeting online questionnaire to establish the biggest challenges that they face when managing patients. The concerns expressed were used to develop the agenda, which comprised a combination of formal presentations, case studies and informal workshops covering such topics as pharmacokinetics, laboratory assays and tailoring of treatment to individual patients. This report is a summary of the key developments in haemophilia care presented by various investigators and healthcare professionals at THE meeting 2015. PMID:27272000

  14. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes. PMID:21350859

  15. Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eja; van den Berg, Frits; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2009-08-01

    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable. PMID:19640029

  16. Governance of conditional reimbursement practices in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Boon, Wouter; Martins, Luis; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2015-02-01

    When entering the market, orphan drugs are associated with substantial prices and a high degree of uncertainty regarding safety and effectiveness. This makes decision making about the reimbursement of these drugs a complex exercise. To advance on this, the Dutch government introduced a conditional reimbursement trajectory that requires a re-evaluation after four years. This article focuses on the origins, governance and outcomes of such a conditional reimbursement trajectory for orphan drugs. We find that the conditional reimbursement scheme is the result of years of discussion and returning public pressure about unequal access to expensive drugs. During the implementation of the scheme the actors involved went through a learning process about the regulation. Our analysis shows that previous collaborations or already existing organisational structures led to faster production of the required data on cost-effectiveness. However, cost-effectiveness evidence resulting from additional research seems to weigh less than political, judicial and ethical considerations in decision making on reimbursement of orphan drugs in The Netherlands. PMID:25467790

  17. Gender contributes to personal research funding success in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the application and review materials of three calls (n = 2,823) of a prestigious grant for personal research funding in a national full population of early career scientists awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Results showed evidence of gender bias in application evaluations and success rates, as well as in language use in instructions and evaluation sheets. Male applicants received significantly more competitive “quality of researcher” evaluations (but not “quality of proposal” evaluations) and had significantly higher application success rates than female applicants. Gender disparities were most prevalent in scientific disciplines with the highest number of applications and with equal gender distribution among the applicants (i.e., life sciences and social sciences). Moreover, content analyses of the instructional and evaluation materials revealed the use of gendered language favoring male applicants. Overall, our data reveal a 4% “loss” of women during the grant review procedure, and illustrate the perpetuation of the funding gap, which contributes to the underrepresentation of women in academia. PMID:26392544

  18. Dental hygienists in The Netherlands: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed-Zoet, C; Bol-van den Hil, E M; La Rivière-Ilsen, J; van der Sanden-Stoelinga, M S E

    2012-08-01

    Dental hygiene education in the Netherlands started in 1968 after a long political debate about roles, functions and the working domain. From a slow start with five students in a school based on the American model with a 2-year curriculum, dental hygiene education is now a 4-year, higher professional education with an admission of 300 students annually who pursue the degree of Bachelor of Health at a University of Applied Sciences. In the 45 years of its existence, the dental hygiene profession has undergone a tremendous change. In the beginning, dental hygienists worked under the supervision of a dentist, which changed in 1992 to their working 'under referral' from a dentist, and again in 2006, when dental hygienists became directly accessible. One-third of the working force of approximately 2700 dental hygienists (2010) is now working in their own independent practice. The focus of professional practice has changed from the prevention of caries via periodontology to the relationship between dental health and general health and well-being. The profession, the education and the Dutch Dental Hygienists' Association (Nederlandse Vereniging van Mondhygiënisten) have matured, and its members are now serious partners in oral health care. PMID:23046003

  19. [Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Robben, J H; Mout, H C; Kuijpers, E A

    1997-09-01

    The occurrence, the diagnosis, and the treatment of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in the Netherlands was evaluated by a survey among Dutch veterinarians carried out by the National Poisons Control Center (NPCC). The survey included information on 54 dogs, 32 being treated by veterinarians who consulted the NPCC and 22 that were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic for Companion Animals (UUCCA). The poisons that were suspected were brodifacoum (n = 19), bromadiolone (n = 14), difenacoum (n = 8), difethialone (n = 6) and chlorophacinone (n = 1). In 6 dogs the identity of the poison was unknown. Of 31 dogs with hemorrhages, 2 died shortly after presentation to practitioners and 2 died shortly after admission to the UUCCA. Signs of bleeding occurred especially in poisoning by brodifacoum (n = 16). In all but one of the dogs without hemorrhages, the intake of poison had taken place within 24 hours before presentation. The method of treatment varied, with the induction of vomiting and the use of vitamin K mentioned most. The choice of therapy was determined by the length of time after intake of the poison, the clinical signs and whether or not an anticoagulant toxicosis was suspected at the time of the initial examination. These findings provide the basis for discussion of several aspects of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:9534772

  20. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  1. Women in physics in the Netherlands: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerd, Adrianne R. T.; van der Marel, Nienke; Rudolf, Petra; de Wolf, Els

    2009-04-01

    Although women are still a small minority in physics in the Netherlands, their visibility has increased markedly over the past five years. The measures put in place after the first IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2002 have in fact not increased the total number of female staff, but put the spotlight on female talent in physics. Affirmative actions by Dutch science faculties and physics departments have brought about a more than fivefold increase of female full professors: by now only one university is left without a female chair. At the assistant and associate professor levels, the MEERVOUD and ASPASIA programs of NWO (the national funding agency for scientific research) have been a success. The FOm/f program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter has accomplished its goal of stimulating the participation of women in physics through covering salary costs, giving research funding and postdoctoral positions, and highlighting outstanding female physicists through the MINERVA prize. Despite these success stories, the number of female physics students is still far too low, and even if there is an important influx of foreigners at all career levels from the PhD student upward, reaching 10% women in permanent positions in physics is still a goal for the future.

  2. Three frequency false color image of Flevoland, the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, the Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown covers an area approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers. Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43941.

  3. [First case of chikungunya diagnosed in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Hassing, R J; Heijstek, M W; van Beek, Y; van Doornum, G J J; Overbosch, D

    2008-01-12

    A 52-year-old man was seen in the Diagnostic Centre for Tropical Diseases of the Havenziekenhuis, Rotterdam, presenting with arthralgia, fever and exanthema following a stay in Mauritius. Infection with the Dengue virus infection is a common diagnosis for this combination of complaints, but nowadays chikungunya should also be considered. This is particularly the case when a patient has visited a country in or around the Indian Ocean. Risk areas are La Réunion and Mauritius, where, in February 2005 and April 2005 respectively, epidemics broke out. Chikungunya is a viral infection. The causative virus is an Alpha virus, transmitted by mosquitoes. The symptoms include arthralgia, myalgia, diffuse maculopapular rash, fever and headache. In contrast to dengue, chikungunya is not associated with haemorrhagic diathesis. Treatment takes place in response to the symptoms, since there is no targeted therapy available. The main preventive measure is to prevent mosquito bites. The disease is not deadly and healing is spontaneous. To our knowledge this is the first case of chikungunya diagnosed in the Netherlands during this epidemic. The disease has recently been reported in Italy, where native mosquitoes transmit it.

  4. Changing pattern of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zeegelaar, J E; Steketee, W H; van Thiel, P P A M; Wetsteyn, J C F M; Kager, P A; Faber, W R

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in western countries seems to be appearing more frequently. Our aim was to determine if there has been a shift in countries where CL is acquired and whether the incidence has changed, and to assess current diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities. In a retrospective study medical records of patients with the diagnosis of CL at the Departments of Tropical Dermatology and Tropical Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from 1990 to 2000 were analysed. CL was diagnosed in 78 patients. The majority was acquired in Belize, Surinam, French Guyana and Bolivia. Giemsa stains were positive for the parasite in impression smears from 43% and in biopsies from 71%. Seventy-eight per cent of cases were culture-positive and 89% were PCR-positive. Sixty-two patients were treated systemically: pentavalent antimony (32), pentamidine isetionate (11), itraconazole (19), and 13 locally, the majority with a combination of cryosurgery and intralesional pentavalent antimony. Imported CL is becoming more frequent, with South and Middle American countries being important sources of infection. Multiple tests, of which PCR is the most sensitive, are required to confirm the diagnosis. Systemic treatment was given to the majority of the patients.

  5. Contraception in The Netherlands: the low abortion rate explained.

    PubMed

    Ketting, E; Visser, A P

    1994-07-01

    This article gives a review of the main factors that are related to the low abortion rate in the Netherlands. Attention is payed to figures on abortion and the use of contraceptive methods since the beginning of the 1960s up to the end of the 1980s. The strong acceptance of family planning was influenced by changing values regarding sexuality and the family, the transition from an agricultural to a modern industrial society, rapid economic growth, declining influence of the churches on daily life, introduction of modern mass media and the increased general educational level. The introduction of modern contraceptives (mainly the pill and contraceptive sterilization) was stimulated by a strong voluntary family planning movement, fear for overpopulation, a positive role of GPs, and the public health insurance system. A reduction of unwanted pregnancies has been accomplished through successful strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy (including sex education, open discussions on sexuality in mass media, educational campaigns and low barrier services) as well as through wide acceptance of sterilization. The Dutch experience with family planning shows the following characteristics: a strong wish to reduce reliance on abortion, ongoing sexual and contraceptive education related to the actual experiences of the target groups, and low barrier family planning services.

  6. Dissociative identity disorder: diagnosis and treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sno, H N; Schalken, H F

    1999-09-01

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a controversial diagnosis and empirical data on the efficacy of treatment modalities are scanty. The objective of this study was to explore the frequency of the diagnosis, the types and efficacy of prevailing treatment practices, and to examine demographic data on patients in the Netherlands. A questionnaire, including questions on one selected DID patient, was mailed to 1,452 Dutch psychiatrists. The response rate was 46.7%. A total of 273 psychiatrists reported having made the diagnosis at least once. The diagnosis was made in a statistically significant manner more frequently by female psychiatrists, by psychiatrists aged 50 years or younger, and by those certified after 1982. No correlation was observed with primary theoretical orientation or the type or topography of work facility. The mean age of the selected patients was 33.2 and the male:female (M:F) ratio 1:9. The majority of patients were seen once a week in an outpatient setting. Individual psychotherapy and adjunctive anxiolytic or antidepressant medications were the most widely endorsed treatment modalities. Hypnosis was rarely used. We conclude that the diagnosis of DID is not to be dismissed as a local eccentricity. It is warranted as an explanatory framework in the context of a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  7. Driving factors of influenza transmission in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    te Beest, Dennis E; van Boven, Michiel; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; van den Dool, Carline; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Influenza epidemics in temperate regions show a characteristic seasonal pattern with peak incidence occurring in winter. Previous research has shown that low absolute humidity and school holidays can both affect influenza transmission. During an epidemic, transmission is strongly influenced by the depletion of susceptibles (i.e., increase in the number of those immune). To assess how much variability in influenza transmission intensity is due to each of these driving factors, we used a long time series of the number of weekly visits to general practitioners for influenzalike illness in the Netherlands from 1970-2011 and transformed this into a time series of weekly influenza reproduction numbers, which are a measure of transmission intensity. We used statistical regression techniques to quantify how the reproduction numbers were affected by each driving factor. We found a clear ranking of importance of driving factors in explaining the variation in transmission intensity. Most of the variation (30%) was explained by the depletion of susceptibles during the season, 27% was explained by between-season effects, and 3% was explained by absolute humidity. School holidays at the Christmas period did not have a statistically significant effect on influenza transmission. Although the influence of absolute humidity was small, its seasonal fluctuations may determine when sustained influenza transmission is possible and may thus drive influenza seasonality.

  8. Contraception in The Netherlands: the low abortion rate explained.

    PubMed

    Ketting, E; Visser, A P

    1994-07-01

    This article gives a review of the main factors that are related to the low abortion rate in the Netherlands. Attention is payed to figures on abortion and the use of contraceptive methods since the beginning of the 1960s up to the end of the 1980s. The strong acceptance of family planning was influenced by changing values regarding sexuality and the family, the transition from an agricultural to a modern industrial society, rapid economic growth, declining influence of the churches on daily life, introduction of modern mass media and the increased general educational level. The introduction of modern contraceptives (mainly the pill and contraceptive sterilization) was stimulated by a strong voluntary family planning movement, fear for overpopulation, a positive role of GPs, and the public health insurance system. A reduction of unwanted pregnancies has been accomplished through successful strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy (including sex education, open discussions on sexuality in mass media, educational campaigns and low barrier services) as well as through wide acceptance of sterilization. The Dutch experience with family planning shows the following characteristics: a strong wish to reduce reliance on abortion, ongoing sexual and contraceptive education related to the actual experiences of the target groups, and low barrier family planning services. PMID:7971545

  9. Communication Strategy of a successful Frack Campaign in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogerduijn Strating, Eilard; Seinen, Chiel; Heeringa, Henk; Pestman, Bart

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, after several years without frack activities onshore in the Netherlands, a new conventional frack campaign was planned. In the interim, anti-shalegas sentiments had carried over from the US to Europe and various countries had announced a frack moratorium. The Netherlands was not amongst these yet, but it was recognized that starting a new conventional frack campaign could potentially result in a significant negative public sentiment and affect our License to Operate. A team of subsurface and communication experts drafted a communication strategy that was premised on the "Discuss > Decide > Deliver" philosophy, implying that a decision on the campaign-start would only be taken after the results of the engagements with key stakeholders indicated sufficient support. It was recognized that in order to start communication with stakeholders and the general public through engagements, infographics, websites etc., several minimum requirements had to be in place: 1] An explanation about why fracking is done and what it entails 2] An assessment and description of the risks (eg groundwater contamination, tremors) 3] A description of the REACH compliant chemicals used (composition & quantities). With the basic info in place, a staged engagement process was set up where key stakeholders at the national level were informed first, followed by those at regional level (including waterboards), followed by local stakeholders. Several "Go-No go" decision points were build in. Throughout it was agreed that a target date for the actual frack campaign was only to be set once local engagements were going to start. Several of the technical staff (eg subsurface and well engineers) received media and communication training to prep them for the engagements with external stakeholders and communities. Also several staff were identified that would be involved in the writing of Q&A's, external bulletins etc. Having technical staff involved in such communications helped build credibility

  10. Blood Pressure and Lifestyle on Saba, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, LE; Demerath, EW; Ochs, N; James, GD; Little, MA; Bindon, JR; Garruto, RM

    2010-01-01

    During the 20th century, infectious disease morbidity and mortality generally waned while chronic degenerative diseases posed a growing burden at the global level. The population on Saba, Netherlands Antilles, has recently experienced such an epidemiologic transition, and hypertension was reported to be extraordinarily high, although no prevalences have been reported and relationships with lifestyle factors associated with rapid modernization have not been explored. In this study, a medical and demographic questionnaire, as well as body composition and blood pressure measures were collected from 278 Saban men and women aged 18-91 years. When age and sex adjusted, 48% of the population was hypertensive. Age, BMI and Afro-Caribbean descent were all associated with higher blood pressures. In a second phase, 124 individuals of the 278 were invited to receive a longer questionnaire on individual exposure to modernizing influences such as travel and education. Higher blood pressure was associated with having lived in fewer different places in the past; those who stayed only on Saba or Statia had higher blood pressures than those who had also lived in more modernized areas. However, this was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age and BMI. Lifestyle incongruity was positively associated with higher blood pressure in that those with more discord between material wealth and income were more likely to be hypertensive, and this remained statistically significant after adjustment for age and adiposity. In summary, hypertension is highly prevalent on Saba, and tended to be associated with greater age, adiposity, Afro-Caribbean ancestry and lifestyle incongruity. PMID:19189411

  11. Open access echocardiography is feasible in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Baur, L.H.B.; Veenstra, L.; Lenderink, T.; der Bolt, C.L.B. Lodewijks-van; Winkens, R.A.G.; Soomers, F.L.M.; Stoffers, H.E.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives In an urban region in the Netherlands, general practitioners (GPs) were offered an open access echocardiographic service. We report the outcomes of the first two years of this project. Methods GPs were given a course on the indications and restrictions for diagnostic referral as well as the interpretation of echocardiographic results. Indications were restricted to `dyspnoea', `cardiac murmur' and `peripheral oedema'. A uniform request form was developed, using ticking boxes for quick completion. The echocardiogram was performed within one week after the request. Results were interpreted by the cardiologist according to the criteria of the Dutch, European and American Societies of Echocardiography. Results Sixty GPs from 43 general practices participated, covering a practice population of 130,000 persons. During a period of 24 months, 198 patients were referred. Only 1.5% of the workload of the echocardiography department was due to requests from GPs. The GPs kept well to the agreements on indications for echocardiography (91% approved reasons). An abnormal echocardiographic outcome was found in 53% of all patients. For `cardiac murmur' this was 52%, for `dyspnoea' 63%, and for `peripheral oedema' 58%. Left ventricular dysfunction was present in 49 patients (25%); diastolic dysfunction was present in most of them (39 patients, 19%). Systolic dysfunction (LVEF < 40%) was found in 19 patients (10%). Twenty patients (10%) appeared to have relevant aortic or mitral valve disease. Conclusion GPs did not overuse the open access echocardiographic service; they possibly used it conservatively. To prevent underdiagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction, diagnostic strategies in which electrocardiogram, NT-pro-BNP and echocardiography are combined, should be developed. PMID:25696570

  12. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  13. Free pill in the Netherlands: for how much longer?

    PubMed

    Doppenberg, H

    1994-03-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) and other medical methods of contraception have been available free of charge in the Netherlands since 1972, which may explain the high rate of modern contraceptive use and low rate of abortions. Recently, however, partial private payment has been introduced and there have been proposals to abolish free availability of OCs altogether. In 1972 the national health insurance scheme started to cover OCs, IUDs, sterilization, and diaphragms. As a result, by 1982 more than 40% of all women in reproductive age were using OCs, the highest rate in the world. But in 1991 the government introduced a new system for reimbursing medicines: the GVS system which set a maximum price for all medications including OCs. In practice, women had to pay part of the price of more expensive modern OCs. Recently, combined OC and condom use has been promoted as Double Dutch. A conflict often arises between the government and pharmaceutical companies that argue that prices are too low, hampering the development of higher quality products. The Ministry of Health can also lower prices if it finds that a new product is superior to older ones, thereby interfering in the contraceptive market. The government can also decide to pay or not to pay for a new drug if it finds that its additional medical qualities do not justify the higher price. Drug companies claim the need to charge more because of research and development costs. Most women have to pay very little for more expensive OCs; however, low-income women find even this small fee to be a problem. Contraceptive prevalence was not influenced by the introduction of private payment (it was 36.9% for OCs in 1991 and 39.0% in 1992). On the other hand, studies have found that 10% of all OC users would halt usage if they had to pay the full price.

  14. Baseline health care for refugees in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hondius, A J; van Willigen, L H

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are some 20,000 refugees from different parts of the world (e.g. Vietnam, Latin America). Most of them have experienced a form of organized violence. The somatic and psychosocial complaints of the refugees are comparable to those of Dutch war victims. They are mostly of an aspecific kind and making a diagnosis can be difficult because of the culturally different presentation of ill being. In order to help general practitioners in making a diagnosis the Refugee Health Centre (CGV) has made a classification of complaints according to whether or not they have a specific cause. It is clear from the literature that there are different opinions about the causes of the somatic complaints. As far as the psychic complaints are concerned it is remarkable that in our pilot study (n = 135) only 6% of the examined refugees suffer from a classical picture of the post-traumatic stress disorder; in a number of cases the picture is limited to some components only. Psychosocial complaints of refugees are subdivided and described. The philosophy of the CGV-treatment is to give assistance as much as possible in the refugee's neighbourhood; so that the clinician(s) will become part of the refugee's new social network. Another very important aspect of the assistance given is preventing medicalization of psychological problems. The basis of help is a recognition of the problems and complaints of the refugee. The structure of the Dutch health care, built up in 'lines', is very often very confusing for a refugee; this confusion can cause communication difficulties between refugee and clinician. To develop methods of treatment, definition and registration of complaints and problems can be a first step.

  15. [Perinatal mortality in The Netherlands: an audit is now more necessary than ever].

    PubMed

    Merkus, J M W M

    2008-03-15

    In 1999, The Netherlands was found to have the highest perinatal mortality rate (11.4 per thousand), according to the WHO definition, in comparison with 14 other European countries. Many explanations were given, amounting essentially to a higher percentage of women with one or more risk factors (higher age at delivery, more non-western immigrants, and more multiple pregnancies). Furthermore, screening for congenital anomalies was not yet an issue at that time in The Netherlands. Finally, Dutch obstetricians and paediatricians have a restrictive policy regarding the treatment of newborns with a very poor prognosis. There are, however, also doubts about the quality of the delivered perinatal care. In an audit feasibility study in 2004 in a representative part of The Netherlands, it was found that in 9% of the cases of perinatal mortality, substandard care was (very) probably related to the mortality. In The Netherlands, a nationwide perinatal audit programme will start this year. The Netherlands, with its specific obstetric care system, has the obligation to look for the causes of perinatal mortality and to introduce improvements based on the results of a perinatal audit. Hasty conclusions are a threat to a careful audit.

  16. [Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Vliet, J A; Reusken, C B E M

    2008-04-12

    Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

  17. The intake of cadmium in the Kempen, an area in the south of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J H; Copius Peereboom, J W

    1989-08-01

    In The Netherlands many areas with soil pollution have been detected. The largest polluted area is a zone of 350 km2 in the Kempen, in the south of The Netherlands. This Kempen zone is polluted with heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), emitted from metal factories in the Netherlands and in Belgium. Because of the high Cd in soil, vegetables grown in that area contain relatively high Cd concentrations. The Cd uptake by inhabitants of these areas--especially individuals consuming vegetables from their own gardens--therefore is considerably increased. This Cd intake is shown to be higher than the provisionally tolerated weekly uptake of Cd set by the WHO. The role of smoking in Cd intake is discussed.

  18. Parental Choice in the Netherlands: Growing Concerns about Segregation. Sanford Working Paper Series. SAN10-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.; Fiske, Edward B.; Ruijs, Nienke

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long history of parental choice and school anatomy. This paper examines why segregation by educational disadvantage has only recently emerged as a policy issue in the Netherlands. In addition, we document the levels and trends of school segregation in Dutch cities. We find segregation levels that are high both absolutely and…

  19. Displeasure at Plurality and Fear of Strangers? An Empirical Study among Youth in Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; van der Tuin, Leo

    2008-01-01

    A comparison between the Netherlands and Germany concerning religious, cultural and ethnic plurality provides interesting insights. Germany has never defined itself as a multicultural society, as was historically the case in the Netherlands. The outcomes of the research are somewhat surprising. Dutch pupils--especially boys--are more negative…

  20. A Matter of Facts...and More: An Exploratory Analysis of the Content of Sexuality Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Rebecca M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Knijn, Trudie

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands is often recognized for its approach to adolescent sexual health, noted by the country's low rates of teen pregnancy and high contraceptive use among young people. Different studies have compared the sexual health outcomes of youth in The Netherlands with those of young people in other developed countries, and, to varying degrees,…

  1. Education in the U.S. and the Netherlands: An Equity Comparison and a Few Big Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, William A.; Kaplan, Leslie S.; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Using an equity perspective, this article compares the education systems of the United States and the Netherlands. Existing data examining student demographics, the organizational structures, curricula, funding, and student outcomes are examined. The Netherlands appears to be getting a "bigger bang for their buck." We make the case that…

  2. The Public Acceptance of Voluntary Childlessness in the Netherlands: From 20 to 90 Per Cent in 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordhuizen, Suzanne; de Graaf, Paul; Sieben, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Within a relatively short period of 30 years, public acceptance of voluntary childlessness has increased enormously in the Netherlands. In this paper, we address two research questions, which we answer with data from 13 waves of the repeated cross-sectional survey Cultural Change in the Netherlands (CCN, 1965-1996). First, we investigate to what…

  3. Feminist initiatives on women's health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L

    1984-04-01

    In the 1960s the Dutch Women's Liberation organization "Dolle Mina" carried out a campaign in Holland to promote the use of oral contraceptives and tried to generate political support in the home and through street demonstrations. What was needed was an adequate abortion service with a corresponding abortion law, a free and adequate supply of contraceptives, and a non-sexist approach to and treatment of women in the field of sexuality, birth control, and medical servicces in general. About 15 years later, the Netherlands now has a flourishing women's health movement, including efforts in information provision, guidance, research, reference, schooling, and contact-building. The basic principles of the women's movement are; 1) the woman herself is the stardard; 2) problems women have with regard to their health are not to be observed in isolation from their social l ife and position; 3) women's acquaintance with feelings about the functioning of their own bodies form the basis of all therapies to improve women's health; 4) women must be offered the choice of existing methods of treatment and help procedures; 5) women should help each other with their common ailments, and heirarchical divisions such as helper-patient, and expert-nonexpert, should be removed; and 6) as often as possible help should be given to women in their own surroundings. Women's health centers have begun to take on a number of women's physical and psychosomatic complaints; 5 centers now operate in 5 different cities, and others are being developed. The Women's Health Center in Amsterdam was initiated in 1976 and caters to gynecological questions, breast examination problems, eating disorders, and drug addiction. Contracts between feminist health groups and the traditional health system are varied, and individuals involved in family planning groups are often also active in the feminist health acctiities. There is resistance to feminist initiatives, mainly from those working in traditional health

  4. From behind Dikes and Dunes: Communities that Care in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkman, Harrie B.; Junger-Tas, Josine; van Dijk, Bram

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a general overview of the implementation of the Communities that Care (CtC) programme in the Netherlands. It outlines the socio-historical development of the initiative and considers the rationale and starting point for the Dutch experiment and the tools used in the process. Attention will also be paid to the implementation…

  5. The Ambiguity of Professing Gender: Women Educationists and New Education in the Netherlands (1890-1940)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke; van Essen, Mineke

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the concept of gender script is applied to examine the cases of two women educationists trying to construct a professional "self" in confrontation with gender scripts that constantly recited meanings of gender, in particular of femininity. The research focus is on the period 1890-1940, when in the Netherlands, like abroad, New…

  6. The Prevention of Ill-Treatment of Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The report discusses the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect in the Netherlands. Two Dutch institutions concerned specifically with the prevention of child abuse are described: a network of special teams consisting of doctors, social workers, and administrators; and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Aspects of…

  7. Is There an Oppositional Culture among Immigrant Adolescents in the Netherlands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…

  8. Children with Special Educational Needs in the Netherlands: Number, Characteristics and School Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, Ineke; Smeets, Ed; Derriks, Mechtild

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several barriers are hampering the provision of adequate education to students with special educational needs in mainstream primary schools. It is not clear how many and which students in the Netherlands are considered children with special educational needs. The problems that make teachers consider children to have special educational…

  9. L2-Induced Changes in the L1 of Germans Living in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbert, Anne; Kuiken, Folkert

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of changes in the grammatical competence of Germans living in the Netherlands. The participants (N = 52) were asked to give their judgments on the grammaticality of infinitive clauses in German. The judgments of this group were compared to those of a control group that lived in Germany and did not have…

  10. Explaining Parents' School Involvement: The Role of Ethnicity and Gender in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Fenella; de Haas, Annabel

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority parents are often less involved with their children's schooling, and this may hamper their children's academic success, thus contributing to ethnic educational inequality. The authors aim to explain differences in parental involvement, using nationally representative survey data from the Netherlands of parents of primary…

  11. Education and the Emancipation of Jewish Girls in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld-van Wingerden, Marjoke; Bakker, Nelleke

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the first girl admitted to a qualifying secondary education and the first female university student were sisters, Frederika and Aletta Jacobs, after the father and Aletta had made successful requests. In each case, the admission brought an end to a long-standing male privilege. And in each case contemporaries conceived of these…

  12. Why Do Tertiary Education Graduates Regret Their Study Program? A Comparison between Spain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…

  13. Lexical Richness in Maternal Input and Vocabulary Development of Turkish Preschoolers in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined lexical richness in maternal input to Turkish preschool children in the Netherlands and the relationship with their vocabulary. Fifteen Turkish mother-child dyads were videotaped at the age of 3 and 4 in three settings: book reading, picture description and block building. Children's vocabulary in Turkish was…

  14. Family Influences on Intermarriage Attitudes: A Sibling Analysis in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijnk, Willem; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the family on native Dutch attitudes toward having ethnic minority members as kin through marriage using multiactor data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N = 1,652). Results from multilevel models showed that 28% of the variation in ethnic attitudes can be ascribed to the family. We investigated…

  15. Comparison of Primary School Foreign Language Curricula of Turkey, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language education at early ages involves a broad spectrum of communication skills using communication, culture, connections, comparisons and community. The aim of this study is to compare the primary foreign language curricula of Turkey, Germany and the Netherlands in terms of objectives, content, teaching processes and evaluation…

  16. Poster Session Presentation [from the Netherlands] [and] Seen at Close Quarters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergers, Ton

    Two papers examine vocational training, special education, and government services for the disabled in the Netherlands. Originally presented at a convention poster session of the 16th World Congress of Rehabilitation International, the first paper focuses on the national institute at Werkenrode which provides a residential practice-based education…

  17. Comparing the Use of the Empty Number Line in England and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to meet the needs of children's learning in arithmetic has led to an increased emphasis on the teaching of mental calculation strategies in England. This has included the adoption of didactical tools such as the empty number line (ENL) that was developed as part of the realistic mathematics movement in the Netherlands. It has been claimed…

  18. [Getting Ready for Our World Journey: Africa, Australia, and the Netherlands. 4th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 4. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies; including units entitled "Getting Ready for Our World Journey,""Africa,""Australia," and "The Netherlands." ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four separately bound units. Each unit is further subdivided into lessons. The units are mimeographed and staple-bound.…

  19. Training in the Retail Trade in the Netherlands. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Tillaart, Harry

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in the Netherlands' retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  20. The history of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Hypnose (Netherlands Society of Hypnosis).

    PubMed

    Korsen, A; Wilken, T

    2001-07-01

    The foundation and history of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Hypnose (Netherlands Society of Hypnosis or Nvvh) is described. The year 2001 marks the 70th anniversary of the Nvvh's creation. The article describes the accomplishments, leadership, and philosophy of the Society across the decades. Current professional and training directions are discussed.

  1. Reciprocal Learning by Experienced Teachers and Their Educators on a Master's Degree Programme in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Ponte, Petra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports findings from a case study into reciprocal learning in tutor groups in a research-based master's programme, run jointly by Roehampton University, London, UK and Fontys OSO, The Netherlands. The research was designed to investigate to what extent, and how, forms of reciprocal learning arose in tutor groups for experienced…

  2. Students' Mental Models with Respect to Flood Risk in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosschaart, Adwin; Kuiper, Wilmad; van der Schee, Joop

    2015-01-01

    Until now various quantitative studies have shown that adults and students in the Netherlands have low flood risk perceptions. In this study we interviewed fifty 15-year-old students in two different flood prone areas. In order to find out how they think and reason about the risk of flooding, the mental model approach was used. Flood risk turned…

  3. Identity and School History: The Perspective of Young People from the Netherlands and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grever, Maria; Haydn, Terry; Ribbens, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the findings from a survey of over 400 young people in metropolitan areas in the Netherlands and England concerning their views on identity and school history. The research explored pupils' ideas about which facets of history were of interest to them, what history they believed should be taught in schools, and their views on…

  4. Graduate Employability and Educational Context: A Comparison between Great Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholen, Gerbrand

    2014-01-01

    Within policy circles, graduate employability remains a problem. It is often understood as an individual phenomenon, overlooking the influence of the organisation of higher education on the competition for graduate jobs. This article explores and compares how graduate employability is socially constructed within Great Britain and the Netherlands.…

  5. Citizenship in Young People's Daily Lives: Differences in Citizenship Competences of Adolescents in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; Reumerman, Rene; ten Dam, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The results of a nationwide study of the citizenship competences of adolescents in the Netherlands are presented from the perspective of democratic citizenship in this article. Citizenship competences are defined as the knowledge, skills, attitudes and reflection needed by young people in a democratic and multicultural society to adequately fulfil…

  6. Conceptions of the Opposite-Sex Ideal by International Students in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Judith L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared adolescent perceptions of the opposite-sex ideal. Subjects were students from 44 countries attending secondary schools or universities in the Netherlands. Results showed that males put more emphasis on physical attributes whereas females placed emphasis on inner qualities. (GG)

  7. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  8. Economic Costs of Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Woudenberg, Tom; Hahné, Susan J M; Nic Lochlainn, Laura; de Melker, Hester E; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Lugnér, Anna K

    2015-11-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 million.

  9. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... FR 39734 (July 11, 2005). On June 2, 2010, the Department published a notice of initiation of its... Netherlands. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). ] As a result of..., 75 FR 61700 (October 6, 2010) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum. On May 12, 2011,...

  10. The Limits of Educational Policy and Practice? The Case of Ethnic Minorities in The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert

    2000-01-01

    Describes four types of immigrants to The Netherlands since World War II and three phases of educational policies aimed at compensating for their educational disadvantages. Discusses the disappointing outcomes of compensatory education, bilingual education, intercultural education, and preschool and early school programs, and describes the…

  11. Sexual Behaviour Profiles of HIV-Positive Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Linda; Jedeloo, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Young people living with HIV are challenged when it comes to exploring their sexuality. Their sex education is hampered by the fact that their preferences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour are little known about. In this study from the Netherlands, Q-methodology was used to identify sizeable and meaningful sub-groups sharing common attitudes…

  12. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  13. On the Right Track? Islamic Schools in the Netherlands after an Era of Turmoil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands currently has 43 Islamic primary schools. Each is fully subsidised by the government. Yet since the first school was established in 1988 Islamic schools have been confronted with obstacles by the Ministry of Education, bad press and increasingly strict state supervision. Under pressure to improve their image, since 2008 Dutch…

  14. Childhood and Youth in Germany and the Netherlands: Transitions and Coping Strategies of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Bois-Reymond, Manuela, Ed.; And Others

    This book examines how young people in Germany and the Netherlands grow into adults in their society and how they cope with the accompanying experiences and changes. The 14 chapters of the book are: (1) "The Modernization of the Youth Phase. Educational, Professional and Family Careers of Dutch Youth in the Nineties" (Els Peters); (2) "Courtship…

  15. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  16. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  17. Testing Times: Careers Market Policies and Practices in England and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deirdre; Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2015-01-01

    Careers work is a very political business. Since the early 1990s, successive governments in England and the Netherlands have persistently challenged those working in the careers sector to demonstrate the educational, social and economic value and impact of their work. In this context, the marketisation of career guidance policies and practices has…

  18. Cracking of high-solids epoxy coatings on steel structures in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Bijen, J. ); Montfort, J. van

    1999-05-01

    High-solids epoxy coatings on steel flood barriers in The Netherlands showed cracking shortly after application. An investigation revealed the cause of cracking. It appeared that shrinkage-induced stresses caused the coatings to fail. Two cracking phenomena are described and simulated by an accelerated test and computer modeling.

  19. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  20. Leaving It to the Schools: Citizenship, Diversity and Human Rights Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Jeroen; Thijs, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands traditionally has a strong civil society. This has had an impact on the education system through the relatively high degree of autonomy for schools on moral and didactical choices as well as on the curriculum. Such freedom provides ample room for citizenship to develop at a local level. The large degree of curricular…

  1. Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

  2. The Family Factor in Jewish-Gentile Intermarriage: A Sibling Analysis of The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Liefbroer, Aart C.; van Poppel, F. W. A.; van Solinge, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The tendency of members of many ethno-religious groups to marry within their group has been considered evidence for the persistent role of ascription in modern society. What is the role of the family of origin in this process? To answer this question, we study the marriage choices of Jews in the Netherlands, using a unique dataset and a novel…

  3. Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) - Utrecht, Netherlands The May 8, 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 4th workshop of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) was held on May 8 in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in conjunction with the NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application. AQMEII was launched in 2009 as a l...

  4. Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ras, Gerard J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

  5. Religious Group Relations among Christian, Muslim and Nonreligious Early Adolescents in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted among Christian, Muslim, and nonreligious early adolescents living in the Netherlands used intergroup theory for examining religious group evaluations. There was evidence for a religious group divide with a third of the Christian and nonreligious participants explicitly indicating negative feelings toward Muslims, and Muslim…

  6. The Precarious Balance between General and Vocational Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the precarious balance between general and vocational education in the Netherlands looks at some characteristics of the Dutch educational system, enrollment trends, and individual benefits of each kind of education. It is concluded that status and opportunities provided by general vs. vocational education vary by discipline. (MSE)

  7. The Family Ties of Unmarried Cohabiting and Married Persons in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerbrugge, Martijn J. A.; Dykstra, Pearl A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative survey (N = 4,612), we analyze whether there is a difference in the Netherlands between cohabiting and married persons with regard to the frequency of contact with one's own family as well as the parents of the partner. Clustered regression analyses show that, as expected, cohabiting persons have less contact with…

  8. Study in the Netherlands. A Small Country with Great Potential. Europe Edition. 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, The Hague.

    This is the third edition of a publication that describes the opportunities for study in the Netherlands for students interested in either advanced training for professionals or exchange programs and scholarships. This "Europe" edition is intended mainly for distribution in western, central, and eastern Europe. Highlighted by photographs and…

  9. Public Debates over Islam and the Awareness of Muslim Identity in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadid, Wasif A.

    2006-01-01

    Immigration and integration, especially in terms of Muslim people in the Netherlands, has become one of the most critical issues in the Dutch political arena. Issues related to Islam and the position of its adherents in the country are discussed daily in parliament, school administrations, the corporate world, and the media. In the wake of various…

  10. Design Research in the Netherlands: Introducing Logarithms Using Realistic Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, David C.; van der Kooij, Henk; Geist, Monica R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), a design theory for mathematics education proposed by Hans Freudenthal and developed over 40 years of developmental research at the Freudenthal Institute for Science and Mathematics Education in the Netherlands. Activities from a unit to develop student understanding of logarithms are…

  11. Sexual Health Among Male College Students in the United States and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Yarber, William L.; de Wit, John

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess differences in sexual health behaviors, outcomes, and potential sociocultural determinants among male college students in the United States and the Netherlands. Methods: Survey data were collected from random samples of students from both national cultures. Results: American men were more likely to report inadequate…

  12. Apprenticeship in France, Ireland, the Netherlands and Scotland: Comparisons and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartkamp, Jannes

    A study compared developments in size of apprenticeship programs and changes in the distribution of apprentices over occupational categories in Ireland, Scotland, and the Netherlands during the last 2 decades. Data were from the "time-series" school leavers' surveys database. Findings indicated, toward the late 1990s, Irish apprenticeship was…

  13. Adolescent Tobacco Use in the Netherlands: Social Background, Education, and School Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Chip; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.; Monshouwer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior and school organization. Using the 2007 Dutch…

  14. Reform and Development of Higher Education in Europe: France, The Netherlands, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document examines reform and development of higher education in France, Poland, and the Netherlands. Part I examines facets of higher education in France including the tasks of the universities: research, teaching, and development of higher training and continuing education; present structures of French universities; increase in student…

  15. Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

  16. 76 FR 36519 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 70 FR 9041 (February 24, 2005), and accompanying Issues and Decision... sales of subject merchandise by Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals B.V. were made at less than normal value... Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005) (CMC Order). On July 1,...

  17. 76 FR 38053 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... the change in the political status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands Antilles. DATES..., successor political entities remain eligible as beneficiary countries. Therefore, the definitions have been... Government. The rule only reflects the political status of the islands that comprised the...

  18. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Netherlands 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ree, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Netherland's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education. Decisions related to the implementation of arts curriculum are made at school level. The cultural and creative aims of the whole curriculum…

  19. Assessment of Sign Language Development: The Case of Deaf Children in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we will describe the development of an assessment instrument for Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) for deaf children in bilingual education programs. The assessment instrument consists of nine computerized tests in which the receptive and expressive language skills of deaf children at different linguistic levels (phonology,…

  20. Pre-service Teachers' Beliefs about Inclusive Education in the Netherlands: In Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civitillo, Sauro; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs are crucial to the success of inclusion programmes and reform efforts for children with special educational needs (SEN). Based on this evidence, one hundred and thirty-nine primary pre-service teachers from one training institution in the Netherlands completed an adapted version of a measure of beliefs towards inclusive…

  1. Brain Disease and the Study of Learning Disabilities in the Netherlands (c. 1950-85)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the role brain disease has played in the discourse and practices of child scientists involved in the study of learning disabilities and behavioural disorders from the 1950s up to the mid-1980s, particularly in the Netherlands as part of a developing international scientific community. In the pre-ADHD era, when child sciences…

  2. Fighting Segregation in Special Needs Education in the Netherlands: The Effects of Different Funding Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the number of students attending segregated special schools in the Netherlands has risen considerably. In 1975, 2.2% of all students between 4 and 11 years old attended a special school, and this percentage almost doubled to 4.3% over the next 20 years. In order to stop further growth, two new education policies came into…

  3. Interactions between Cultural and Economic Determinants of Divorce in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.; Poortman, Annerigt

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between gendered family roles and divorce in The Netherlands. Cultural and economic aspects of this relationship are distinguished. Economic hypotheses argue that the likelihood of divorce is increased if women work for pay and have attractive labor market resources. Cultural hypotheses argue that divorce…

  4. Recent Developments in Career Education in the Netherlands: Learning by Experience and Value Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Jane; Veugelers, Wiel

    Career education in the Netherlands is a regular part of the curriculum and provides students the opportunity to collect information about different professions and studies. The policy of the Dutch administration is to stimulate the creation of secondary schools with both vocational and academic tracks. Career education is designed to balance…

  5. Netherlands 2016: Foundations for the Future. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can the Netherlands move its school system "from good to great?" This report draws on international experience to look at ways in which the strong Dutch school system might go further still on the path to excellence. Clearly the Dutch school system is one of the best in the OECD, as measured by PISA and PIAAC and is also equitable,…

  6. Validation Evidence for the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire for Young Children: The Iowa Bone Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present reliability and validity information for the Netherlands (Health Education Project) Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ), a global proxy report of children's everyday activity preferences (Montoye, Kemper, Saris, & Washburn, 1996). In this study, the authors examined the measurement properties of a global proxy…

  7. A Quantitative Assessment of Educational Integration of Students with Down Syndrome in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Graaf, G.; Van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, there are indications of an inclusive school policy for children with Down syndrome. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate to what extent this policy has actually succeeded in supporting the mainstreaming of these students. Method: For the period 1984-2011, the number of…

  8. The Future of Open Access Publishing in the Netherlands: Constant Dripping Wears Away the Stone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woutersen-Windhouwer, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    At present, about 20% of the scientific publications worldwide are freely (open-access) available (Bjork, Welling, Laakso, Majlender, Hedlund, & Guonason, 2010) and this percentage is constantly on the rise. In the Netherlands, a similar trend is visible (see Fig. 1). Why is open-access (OA) publishing important, and why will it become even more…

  9. Neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information in criminal cases in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    de Kogel, C.H.; Westgeest, E.J.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a ‘genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression’, the expectation was expressed that such ‘genetic defenses’ would appear in the Netherlands too. To assess how neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information are used in criminal justice practice in the Netherlands, we systematically collect Dutch criminal cases in which neuroscientific or behavioral genetic information is introduced. Data and case law examples are presented and discussed. Although cases are diverse, several themes appear, such as prefrontal brain damage in relation to criminal responsibility and recidivism risk, and divergent views of the implications of neurobiological knowledge about addiction for judging criminal responsibility. Whereas in the international ‘neurolaw literature’ the emphasis is often on imaging techniques, the Dutch findings also illustrate the role of neuropsychological methods in criminal cases. Finally, there appears to be a clear need of practice oriented instruments and guidelines. PMID:27774213

  10. Distribution of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in Rattus norvegicus in the Netherlands according to Vkorc1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; van Gent-Pelzer, Marga PE; Schoelitsz, Bruce; van der Lee, Theo AJ

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test for genotypic variation at codon 139 in the Vkorc1 gene associated with anticoagulant rodenticide resistance. Test results are linked to results of a questionnaire that was conducted among pest controllers. RESULTS Genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus can be encountered in many parts of the Netherlands. In 34/61 rat tails, a genotype was found that is linked to anticoagulant rodenticide resistance (56%). In droppings, 42/169 samples (25%) showed a resistance-mediating genotype. In addition, indications of a clear genetic substructure in the Netherlands were found. In some regions, only resistance-mediating genotypes were found, corroborating results from the questionnaire in which pest controllers indicated they suspected resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. CONCLUSION This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of multiple genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus in the Netherlands. As rodenticides should keep their efficacy because they are a last resort in rodent management, more studies are urgently needed that link specific genetic mutations to the efficacy of active substances. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:24753361

  11. Migration and Multilingualism in Western Europe: A Case Study of the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus; Vallen, Ton

    1997-01-01

    Reviews demographic and linguistic consequences of recent processes of migration and minority group influx in Western Europe and describes the case of the Netherlands to illustrate these effects. Highlights first- and second-language studies of immigrant and ethnic minority groups and notes resulting major demographic trends in Dutch society and…

  12. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Childhood Developmental Disorders between Schoolchildren in the Netherlands and Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manti, Eirini; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the present study was first to evaluate the cross-cultural reliability and validity of the Social Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ) and second to estimate and compare the prevalence rates of childhood developmental and psychiatric disorders in the general population of young children in the Netherlands and Greece. To this end, the…

  13. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  14. A New Curriculum for Ethology and Student Skills in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bram J.; Dijkstra, Maurits J.; Bloem, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Describes the new national biology curriculum in the Netherlands, including a modern branch of biology called ethology. Topics covered include General Objectives, Lessons on Ethology and Student Skills, Role of Ethological Theory in Lessons, Emphasis on Human Behavior, Student Skills to be Developed, and items to be included in lessons such as…

  15. Learning for Now or Later? Career Competencies among Students in Higher Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuijpers, Marinka; Meijers, Frans

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the question: which aspects of a learning environment, aimed at fostering career learning, correspond with the development of career competencies among university students in the Netherlands? A questionnaire-based study was carried out among 4820 students and 371 career counsellors in 11 universities. Four career…

  16. Measuring the effect of changing legislation on the frequency of divorce: The Netherlands, 1830-1990.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, F; de Beer, J

    1993-08-01

    This article discusses different procedures for measuring the effects of judicial changes on divorce rates. It presents an alternative model and applies it to a historical time series for the Netherlands. In this model, intervention variables were added to a statistical time-series (ARIMA) model. The conclusion of our analysis was that the effects of three judicial changes were only temporary.

  17. Genetic and Environmental Stability in Attention Problems across the Lifespan: Evidence from the Netherlands Twin Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Dolan, Conor V.; Nivard, Michel G.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review findings on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention problems (AP) in children, adolescents, and adults, as established in the database of the Netherlands Twin Register and increase the understanding of stability in AP across the lifespan as a function of genetic and environmental influences. Method: A…

  18. Water Education in the Netherlands: An Integrated Curriculum Using NCSS Standards for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Jeroen; van Vliet, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    There is much that can be learned from a curriculum developed in The Netherlands, a country famous for having been "claimed from the sea." Nothing can be truer than that, but there is more to the story than just the physical aspect of claiming land from the water. The identity of the Dutch, the history of their maritime and seafaring…

  19. Technical solutions to reduce and to control the noise load in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekebrede, Gerard

    The research conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR of the Netherlands related to the environmental problems caused by aircraft is summarized. Attention is given to investigations of the acoustic treatment of aircraft engines, research into minimum noise routes, and the realization of monitoring systems in the surroundings of airports.

  20. Economic Costs of Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, Tom; Hahné, Susan J.M.; Lochlainn, Laura Nic; de Melker, Hester E.; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L.M.; Lugnér, Anna K.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles–mumps–rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 million. PMID:26488199

  1. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  2. Fitness effects of Alternaria dauci on wild carrot in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Henk J; van Tongeren, Carin A M; van den Bulk, Ruud W

    2002-10-01

    In a field experiment with a susceptible population of annual wild carrot (Daucus carota) from Iran, artificial inoculations with the fungal pathogen A. dauci led to a strong and very significant increase of the diseased leaf area. The pathogen caused a very significant decrease in fecundity and seed survival of the host. This considerable fitness reduction by A. dauci would suggest that introgression of disease resistance from cultivated (transgenic) carrot cultivars into wild carrot populations could strongly increase the fitness of wild carrot. In spite of the potential ability of A. dauci to lower the fitness of the host considerably, wild carrot is very common in The Netherlands. Disease levels of wild carrot were estimated in 26 natural populations in 1998. No A. dauci could be detected on the leaves, and only 0.4% of the seeds were contaminated with A. dauci, in spite of the conducive weather for A. dauci. Resistance tests showed that all 26 monitored populations were highly resistant to A. dauci strains from The Netherlands. It is probable that the strong potential fitness reduction by A. dauci led to a high selection pressure towards resistance in The Netherlands. In conclusion, our results suggest that transgenic resistance to A. dauci would not be beneficial to wild carrot populations in The Netherlands because they are already resistant to this pathogen.

  3. Developing Competence Profiles for Educators in Environmental Education Organisations in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesselink, Renate; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the meanings and possible merits of introducing competence profiles for enhancing professional development in the environmental education sector in the Netherlands. It presents the three most important environmental education jobs and their underlying competencies alongside their core professional challenges, as…

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROTTERDAM MOBILITY RESEARCH CONFERENCE (ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, AUGUST 3-7, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE MOBILITY RESEARCH CONFERENCE HELD IN ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, AUGUST 3-7, 1964. PROGRESS REPORTS ARE GIVEN ON THE FOLLOWING--(1) ULTRASONIC MOBILITY AID, (2) ULTRASONIC GUIDANCE SYSTEM, (3) ELEKTROFTALM MOBILITY AID, (4) PASSIVE ENVIRONMENT SENSORS, (5) AMBIENT-LIGHT OBJECT DETECTOR, (6) TRAVEL PATH…

  5. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, D; Oliveira dos Santos, C; Wagelaar, M; de Kleuver, M; Koene, M G J; Roest, H I J; Sinha, B; Tomaso, H; Bierman, W F W; Stienstra, Y

    2015-12-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals. PMID:26687265

  6. 78 FR 9884 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Preliminary Intent To Rescind, 77 FR 46024 (August 2, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective Date... Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005) (Order). Determination of No Shipments As noted in the...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  7. 77 FR 46024 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005) (CMC Order). \\2\\ See... Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609 (July 1, 2011). Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(b)(1), Aqualon Company (Aqualon), a..., 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). The Department issued its antidumping duty questionnaire to Akzo...

  8. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans) does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed, before even attempting any

  9. A case study of haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands: witnessing the past, lessons for the future

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Suze M.P.J.; van El, Carla G.; Houwaart, Eddy S.; Westerman, Marjan J.; Janssens, Rien J.P.A.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette L.M.; Plass, Anne Marie C.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. In 2007 neonatal screening (NNS) was expanded to include screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassaemia. Up until that year no formal recommendations for haemoglobinopathy (carrier) screening existed in the Netherlands. Although it has been subject to debate in the past, preconceptional and prenatal haemoglobinopathy carrier screening are not part of routine healthcare in the Netherlands. This study aimed to explore the decision-making process of the past: why was the introduction of a screening programme for haemoglobinopathy considered to be untimely, and did ethnicity play a role given the history in other countries surrounding the introduction of haemoglobinopathy screening? Design. A witness seminar was organised, inviting key figures to discuss the decision-making process concerning haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands, thereby adding new perspectives on past events. The transcript was content-analysed. Results. The subject of haemoglobinopathy screening first appeared in the 1970s. As opposed to a long history of neglect of African-American health in the United States, the heritage of the Second World War influenced the decision-making process in the Netherlands. As a consequence, registration of ethnicity surfaced as an impeding factor. However, overall, official Dutch screening policy was restrained regarding reproductive issues caused by fear of eugenics. In the 1990s haemoglobinopathy screening was found to be ‘not opportune’ due to low prevalence, lack of knowledge and fear of stigmatisation. Currently the registration of ethnicity remains on the political agenda, but still proves to be a sensitive subject. Discussion. Carrier screening in general never appeared high on the policy agenda. Registration of ethnicity remains sensitive caused by the current political climate. Complexities related to carrier screening are a challenge in Dutch healthcare. Whether carrier screening will be considered a valuable

  10. A New Curriculum for Ethology and Student Skills in The Netherlands. Part 2: Innovation and Implementation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bram J.; Dijkstra, Maurits J.; Bloem, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Presents the case for employing an action research framework for curriculum development in The Netherlands. Argues that this bottom-up strategy can be effective because many teachers are willing to refine and modify their practices. (DDR)

  11. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  12. Consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands: demographic and medical genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, Leo P; Teeuw, Marieke E; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the presence of consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands, in the past and today, and concludes with a discussion of medical genetic aspects. First geographic characteristics, the demographic history, the genetic make-up of the native population, legal aspects and the public opinion are reviewed. Then data on the prevalence of consanguinity in the native population are presented for marriages since 1840, followed by data on consanguineous marriages among immigrants from countries with a tradition of close-kin marriages. It is estimated that approximately 1% of at-risk consanguineous couples are referred to clinical genetic centres for prospective genetic counselling in the Netherlands. This picture will change dramatically if and when next-generation sequencing is introduced to identify couples at ≥ 25% risk prospectively. PMID:25060279

  13. Characterization and treatment of runoff from highways in the Netherlands paved with impervious and pervious asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Berbee, R.; Rijs, G.; Brouwer, R. de; Velzen, L. van

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to assess the effects of impervious and pervious (or porous) asphalt on the quality of runoff from highways in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the effects of settling and filtration on the quality of runoff of both types of asphalt have been elaborated. This study has been performed to support decisionmaking on how to deal with polluted runoff from highways in the Netherlands. The results show that runoff from well-maintained pervious asphalt contains a relatively low concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals, mineral oil, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and suspended solids compared to runoff from impervious asphalt. In runoff from both types of asphalt, copper, lead, and zinc are the prevailing heavy metals. The impression exists that especially the hard shoulders along highways provided with pervious asphalt act as a sink for suspended solids, soil particles, and other pollutants. To maintain its permeability and filter action, the hard shoulders should be regularly cleaned.

  14. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  15. Fertility and age at marriage of Turkish women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schoorl, J J

    1984-01-01

    Based on data from the Dutch population registers, the fertility of the Turkish immigrant population in the Netherlands was analyzed. It appears that even within a short period of 6 years (1976-82), a significantly substantial decline in age specific fertility occurred among Turkish women in the Netherlands. This decline can partly be attributed to a decrease in the proportion of married young women, probably as a consequence of the normalization of the population structure due to a decline in immigration, to restrictive conditions on family reunion, and possibly to the effects of modernization and assimilation. In part, it may also be due to a decrease in the fertility of married women. With the exception of the youngest women, immigrant fertility patterns still closely resemble the fertility patterns of the population in the country of origin where fertility has also been declining.

  16. [The effect of climate change on pollen allergy in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    de Weger, Letty A; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can exert a range of effects on pollen, which might have consequences for pollen-allergic patients. New allergenic pollen types might appear in the Netherlands, like common ragweed and olive, which result in allergy patients developing allergies that scarcely occur in the Netherlands at present. Trees, such as birches and planes, might produce larger quantities of pollen, which could result in more severe symptoms. The pollen season might become longer thereby extending the period in which patients suffer from allergy symptoms. This extension of the pollen season could be due to a prolonged flowering period of certain species, e.g. grasses, or the appearance of new species that flower in late summer, e.g. common ragweed. Climate change could cause an increase in heavy thunderstorms on summer days in the grass pollen season, which are known to increase the chance of asthma exacerbations. PMID:20025786

  17. Instruments to reduce the leaching of heavy metals from building materials in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, A J H; Vermij, P H M

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands the leaching of heavy metals from metal building and constructing materials results in serious contamination problems in the water system. The most common sources of these heavy metals in construction materials are copper waterworks and roofs, zinc roofs, gutters and rain pipes, zinced steel, stainless steel, and lead sealing material. In urban waters the surface water and sediment standards are often exceeded. Although building and construction materials are certainly not the only source of heavy metals, they are an important part of the problem. This article focuses on six instruments that are in use in the Netherlands to try to reduce impact on the surface waters. In addition to this, national as well as international, a reconsideration of the risks and surface water standards for several heavy metals is considered. A balanced use of instruments can be considered as the application of a best practice.

  18. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in wild amphibians, the Netherlands, 2010: a first report.

    PubMed

    Kik, Marja; Martel, An; Sluijs, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der; Pasmans, Frank; Wohlsein, Peter; Gröne, Andrea; Rijks, Jolianne M

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, a mass die-off of over 1000 wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and at least 10 common newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) occurred in a pond in The Netherlands. Haemorrhagic disease with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was evident. Microscopically, multiple organs presented cells with multifocal intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, in which ranavirus-like particles were demonstrated ultrastructurally. All specimens examined tested positive for ranavirus by PCR. The sequence obtained showed a 100% identity with the one deposited for common midwife toad virus (CMTV). This is the first report of ranavirus-associated mortality in wild amphibian populations in The Netherlands. It is also the first time CMTV or a CMTV-like virus has been reported in these two species in the adult stage and outside of Spain.

  19. High risk of a large measles outbreak despite 30 years of measles vaccination in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mollema, L; Smits, G P; Berbers, G A; Van Der Klis, F R; Van Binnendijk, R S; De Melker, H E; Hahné, S J M

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to assess progress towards measles elimination from The Netherlands by studying humoral measles immunity in the Dutch population. A population-based seroepidemiological study was conducted in 2006-2007 (N = 7900). Serum samples were analysed by a bead-based multiplex immunoassay. IgG levels ⩾0·2 IU/ml were considered protective. The overall seroprevalence in the Dutch population was 96%. However, 51% of socio-geographically clustered orthodox Protestant individuals aged <10 years were susceptible. Infants might be susceptible to measles between ages 4 months and 14 months, the age at which maternal antibodies have disappeared and the first measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination is administered, respectively. Waning of antibody concentrations was slower after the second MMR vaccination than after the first. The Netherlands is at an imminent risk of a measles outbreak in the orthodox Protestant minority. To prevent subsequent transmission to the general population, efforts to protect susceptible age groups are needed.

  20. [The presence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi in companion animals in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Lipman, L; Tienhoven, N; Gaastr, W

    2011-07-01

    The presence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi in companion animals in The Netherlands. This article reports about a research that is done to determine the presence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi in companion animals in the Netherlands using a species specific PCR in combination with classic microbial isolation. Because of the high presence of the bacteria in the mouth of especially cats and dogs (respectively 21 and 19%) and the severe consequences of an infection for humans the risk of an infection with C. canimorsus is high. Therefore owners of cats and dogs should be informed about this risk especially if the owners belong to specific risk groups like elderly people, pregnant women, young children and immune deficient patients. PMID:21870573

  1. Design and management of an orthopaedic bone bank in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zwitser, Eline W; Jiya, Timothy U; George Licher, H; van Royen, Barend J

    2012-03-01

    The design and management of an orthopaedic bone bank is a complex process in which medical organisation and legislation intertwine. Neither in the Netherlands, nor in any other European country, there are official guidelines for the organisation and management of an orthopaedic bone bank. In the Netherlands, the recently modified 'law of security and quality for using human materials' (WVKL) dictates requirements for technical and organisational aspects for the use of human tissue and cells. The bone bank procedures include a thorough questionnaire for donor selection, extensive serological, bacteriological and histopathological examination, as well as standard procedures for registration, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of bone allografts. This article describes the organisation of an accredited bone bank and can be used as a proposition for an official guideline or can be useful as an example for other orthopaedic bone banks in Europe.

  2. Marital fertility decline in the Netherlands: child mortality, real wages, and unemployment, 1860-1939.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona; van Poppel, Frans

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies of the fertility decline in Europe are often limited to an earlier stage of the marital fertility decline, when the decline tended to be slower and before the large increase in earnings in the 1920s. Starting in 1860 (before the onset of the decline), this study follows marital fertility trends until 1939, when fertility reached lower levels than ever before. Using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN), this study shows that mortality decline, a rise in real income, and unemployment account for the decline in the Netherlands. This finding suggests that marital fertility decline was an adjustment to social and economic change, leaving little room for attitudinal change that is independent of social and economic change.

  3. Evidence and policymaking: The introduction of MMR vaccine in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Stuart; Tump, Janneke

    2010-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in the Netherlands two decades ago, using documentary and archival sources, this paper examines the way evidence is used in policymaking. Starting from the question of ‘what counts as evidence’, two central claims are developed. First, the decision to introduce MMR was not one but a series of decisions going back at least seven years, over the course of which the significance attached to various forms of evidence changed. Second, results of international studies were coming gradually to be of greater significance than evidence gathered from within the Netherlands itself. These developments had, and continue to have, major consequences for national scientific competences. PMID:20667640

  4. Consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands: demographic and medical genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, Leo P; Teeuw, Marieke E; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the presence of consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands, in the past and today, and concludes with a discussion of medical genetic aspects. First geographic characteristics, the demographic history, the genetic make-up of the native population, legal aspects and the public opinion are reviewed. Then data on the prevalence of consanguinity in the native population are presented for marriages since 1840, followed by data on consanguineous marriages among immigrants from countries with a tradition of close-kin marriages. It is estimated that approximately 1% of at-risk consanguineous couples are referred to clinical genetic centres for prospective genetic counselling in the Netherlands. This picture will change dramatically if and when next-generation sequencing is introduced to identify couples at ≥ 25% risk prospectively.

  5. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  6. Physician-assisted dying and psychiatry: recent developments in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands was one of the first countries in the world to establish a legal framework for physician-assisted dying (PAD). In this article, we provide an overview of the public, political, legal, and medical debates on physician-assisted dying in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of psychiatry and mental illness. The number of individuals with chronic mental illness requesting PAD has been relatively small (although the number can be expected to increase because of the activities of various civic organizations advocating the right to die) and Dutch psychiatrists have been extremely reluctant to respond to such requests. Nevertheless, mental conditions have been central to the public debate on PAD by helping to define the nature and limits of current legislation and professional practice. Although a few Dutch psychiatrists have campaigned to increase the involvement of psychiatrists and many support PAD in principle, the majority has been hesitant to engage in PAD despite increasing public pressure. PMID:23816378

  7. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, ‘Decision robustness’ and ‘Learning success’, we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing. PMID:23471143

  8. Ten years of personal neutron dosimetry with albedo dosemeters in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Draaisma, F S; Verhagen, H W

    2002-01-01

    Since 1987, the dosimetry service of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has been certified by the Dutch government to perform personal dosimetry, using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). Performing neutron personal dosimetry requires a rather large investment in readers, TLDs and personnel to operate the service. About 800 persons are subjected to routine neutron monitoring in The Netherlands and their annual neutron doses are a relatively small fraction (less than 10%) of the annual Hp(10). In general, the measured neutron dose values are low (on average 93% of the users receive an annual neutron dose <0.2 mSv). The collective annual (neutron) dose has tended to decrease since 1992, but incidentally high doses have been observed. Leaving these incidents out, the average collective annual neutron doses for the different users of neutron sources are about the same. PMID:12382755

  9. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, M; Middelkoop, H

    2012-05-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine-Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, 'Decision robustness' and 'Learning success', we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing.

  10. First-year evaluation of IMERG - Final Run in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    For almost two years now, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission has provided worldwide satellite rainfall estimates at higher spatiotemporal resolutions than its predecessor TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission). Accurate rainfall estimates at higher resolutions are the main input in modeling physical processes relevant to society like floods, landslides, and weather extremes. Conversely to TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products, the Netherlands is within the coverage of GPM Level-3 products, i.e., IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM). The IMERG spatiotemporal resolution is 0.1° x 0.1° every 30 min (180°W to 180°E, and 60°N to 60°S), with latencies of 6, 18 hours and 4 months. Here we evaluate the first full year of the IMERG Day 1 Final Run over the land surface of the Netherlands. IMERG Final Run is considered the research product, and provides the longest public data set among IMERG products. We compare half-hourly and daily IMERG rainfall maps against Dutch gauge-adjusted radar rainfall maps. Radar rainfall maps are provided by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), and are considered as the ground truth given its accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution and availability. In general, there is a tendency of GPM to underestimate rainfall intensities over the land surface of the Netherlands. Nevertheless, this underestimation is relatively low, which suggests a potential applicability of IMERG Final Run as a reliable source of rainfall estimates in diverse hydrological and hydrometeorological applications. The robustness and data availability of IMERG is an important asset, especially in places where rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained, or where weather radar networks are too expensive to acquire and/or maintain.

  11. Data assimilation for the investigation of deep temperature and geothermal energy in the Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; Limberger, Jon; Lipsey, Lindsey; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems, mostly for the direct use of heat, have been attracting more and more interest in the past 10 years in Western Europe. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system, the scientific community has been working on tools that could be used to highlight area of potential interest for geothermal exploration. In the Netherlands, ThermoGIS is one such tool that has been developed to inform the general public, policy makers, and developers in the energy sector of the possibility of geothermal energy development. One major component incorporated in this tool is the temperature model. For the Netherlands, we created a thermal model at the lithospheric scale that focus on the sedimentary deposits for deep geothermal exploration. This regional thermal modelling concentrates on the variations of geological thermal conductivity and heat production both in the sediments and in the crust. In addition, we carried out special modelling in order to specifically understand convectivity in the basin, focusing on variations at a regional scale. These works, as well as recent improved of geological knowledge in the deeper part of the basin, show interesting evidence for geothermal energy development. At this scale, the aim of this work is to build on these models and, using data assimilation, to discriminate in the actual causes of the observed anomalies. The temperature results obtained for the Netherlands show some thermal patterns that relate to the variation of the thermal conductivity and the geometry of the sediments. There is also strong evidence to indicate that deep convective flows are responsible for thermal anomalies. The combination of conductive and local convective thermal patterns makes the deeper part of the Dutch sedimentary basin of great interest for the development of geothermal

  12. Training of Older Workers in the Netherlands. Training Discussion Paper No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenhaeff, Carel R.

    By the year 2025, 38 percent of the population of the Netherlands is projected to be aged 55 and over. Only 40 percent of the group aged 55-64 was working in 1985, and only 2.3 percent of the people aged 65 and over was working--the smallest number among industrialized countries. This development was mainly due to early retirement schemes and…

  13. Child Care in the Netherlands: Trends in Quality over the Years 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; de Kruif, Renee E. L.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Zeijl, Jantien

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the quality of child care in a representative national sample of 42 child-care centers in the Netherlands and compared it with the quality of care that researchers have found using similar samples in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. J. M. Stams, M. J. E. Verhoeven, & E. J. Reiling, 1998) and 2001 (M. J. J.…

  14. Schmallenberg virus epidemic in the Netherlands: spatiotemporal introduction in 2011 and seroprevalence in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, A M B; van Schaik, G; Vellema, P; Elbers, A R W; Bouwstra, R; van der Heijden, H M J F; Mars, M H

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) seroprevalence in dairy heifers, non-dairy adult cattle, sheep and goats in the Netherlands after cessation of SBV transmission at the end of 2011. Archived serum samples from ruminants submitted to the GD Animal Health Service for monitoring purposes between November 2011 and March 2012 were selected and tested for presence of SBV-specific antibodies using an in-house ELISA. Animal seroprevalences were estimated at 63.4% in dairy heifers, 98.5% in adult non-dairy cattle, 89.0% in sheep and 50.8% in goats. Multivariable analyses were carried out to describe the relationship between potential risk factors and the ELISA outcome S/P%. The overall SBV seroprevalence in ruminants and ruminant herds in the Netherlands at the end of 2011 was high, with considerable differences between species and farm types. No gradient spatial pattern in final seroprevalence could be detected and therefore no suggestions about the site of introduction and spread of SBV in the Netherlands in 2011 could be made. In dairy heifers, it was shown that S/P% increased with age. In sheep, S/P% was lower in animals located in the coastal area. Whether herds were located near the German border did not affect the S/P% in sheep nor in dairy heifers. An attempt was made to gain insight in the spatiotemporal introduction of SBV in the Netherlands in 2011, by testing sheep serum samples from 2011. A seroprevalence of about 2% was found in samples from April, June and July 2011, but the ELISA positive samples could not be confirmed in a virus neutralization test. A clear increase in seroprevalence started at August 2011. From mid-August 2011 onwards, seropositive samples were confirmed positive by virus neutralization testing. This indicated the start of the epidemic, but without a clear spatial pattern.

  15. Sustaining Medicare through consumer choice of health funds: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U; Paolucci, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The current escalation in costs of Australia's health care system does not appear to be sustainable. Sustainable financing requires direct engagement of consumers - instead of the current political process driven by special interest groups, targeted at gaining a larger share of the federal and state governments' budgets. Reforms in the Netherlands, directed at achieving universal insurance with consumer choice of health fund, provide valuable lessons for Australia on how to design sustainable financing. PMID:19580534

  16. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  17. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ. PMID:26366629

  18. Weighted Student Funding in the Netherlands: A Model for the U.S.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.; Fiske, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Although a relatively new idea in the U.S., weighted student funding (WSF) for individual schools has a long history in the Netherlands. This country of about 16.5 million people has been using a version of WSF for all its primary schools (serving children from age 4 to 12) for 25 years. In this article we describe and evaluate the Dutch system…

  19. Missing in action: inclusion and exclusion in the first days of AIDS in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dijstelbloem, Huub

    2014-11-01

    Approaches combining social and political theory with ontology have rarely been utilised in the evaluation of decision-making processes. Drawing on such an approach clarifies the questions that still need to be asked about the policy response to HIV/AIDS in The Netherlands in the early 1980s. The initial response in The Netherlands is internationally regarded as an example of successful cooperation between public authorities, health organisations, blood banks and the gay movement. In comparison with other countries, deeply dividing social conflicts as well as dramatic medical disasters were avoided. This image, however, is misleading. Although it was on a smaller scale than the disasters with contaminated blood products in other countries, The Netherlands had their blood scandal too. A reconstruction of this episode offers the opportunity to evaluate the role objects are granted in theories of institutionalisation and to critically examine the procedural notion of politics in actor network theory. The aim of the article is to show that analyses of decision-making processes under conditions of uncertainty ought to engage more carefully with processes of exclusion and the transformative role of objects.

  20. Bridging between professionals in perinatal care: towards shared care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, A G; Schölmerich, V L N; Waelput, A J M; Vos, A A; De Jong-Potjer, L C; Bakker, R; Bonsel, G J; Groenewegen, P; Steegers, E A P; Denktaş, S

    2013-12-01

    Relatively high perinatal mortality rates in the Netherlands have required a critical assessment of the national obstetric system. Policy evaluations emphasized the need for organizational improvement, in particular closer collaboration between community midwives and obstetric caregivers in hospitals. The leveled care system that is currently in place, in which professionals in midwifery and obstetrics work autonomously, does not fully meet the needs of pregnant women, especially women with an accumulation of non-medical risk factors. This article provides an overview of the advantages of greater interdisciplinary collaboration and the current policy developments in obstetric care in the Netherlands. In line with these developments we present a model for shared care embedded in local 'obstetric collaborations'. These collaborations are formed by obstetric caregivers of a single hospital and all surrounding community midwives. Through a broad literature search, practical elements from shared care approaches in other fields of medicine that would suit the Dutch obstetric system were selected. These elements, focusing on continuity of care, patient centeredness and interprofessional teamwork form a comprehensive model for a shared care approach. By means of this overview paper and the presented model, we add direction to the current policy debate on the development of obstetrics in the Netherlands. This model will be used as a starting point for the pilot-implementation of a shared care approach in the 'obstetric collaborations', using feedback from the field to further improve it.

  1. Reduction of veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands. The Dutch success model.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, D C; Mevius, D J; Bruschke, C J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Use of antimicrobials in animals poses a potential risk for public health as it contributes to the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Although knowledge of the negative consequences of extensive antimicrobial use in humans and animals accumulated over the decades, total therapeutic antimicrobial use in farm animals in the Netherlands doubled between 1990 and 2007. A series of facts and events formed a window of opportunity to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. The recent discovery of significant reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (ESBL) in farm animals, with potential public health implications, combined with an increasing lack of confidence of the public in intensive livestock industries, and discrepancy between the very low antimicrobial use in humans and high use in animals, resulted in intensive collaboration between the government, veterinary professional organizations and important stakeholders within the livestock sector. A combination of compulsory and voluntary actions with clear reduction goals resulted in a 56% reduction in antimicrobial use in farm animals in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2012 and aims at accomplishing a 70% reduction target in 2015. This article describes and analyses the processes and actions behind this transition from an abundant antimicrobial use in farm animals towards a more prudent application of antimicrobials in farm animals in the Netherlands. PMID:25421382

  2. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Postma, M; Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A; Dewulf, J

    2016-07-16

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm animal veterinarians in Flanders and the Netherlands, of which 174 and 437 were returned respectively. Suboptimal climate conditions were regarded as the most important cause for high antimicrobial use in farm animals. Flemish veterinarians also regarded insufficient biosecurity measures and farmers' mentality as important determinants, while the Dutch respondents ranked insufficient immunity of young animals and economic considerations of farmers as major causes. The majority of Dutch respondents (63.8 per cent) supported the existing national policy, which aimed to halve veterinary antimicrobial use, while the Flemish (32.9 per cent) were less supportive of such a policy. Improvements in housing and climate conditions, biosecurity measures and strict control of specific infectious diseases were seen as important and promising measures to reduce antimicrobial use. To reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals, some shared approaches might be applicable in both countries. However, cultural, political and societal differences between Flanders and the Netherlands require differentiated approaches to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use. PMID:27313178

  3. Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

  4. Ethics on the dental treatment of patients with mental disability: results of a Netherlands - Belgium survey.

    PubMed

    Marks, Luc; Adler, Naomi; Blom-Reukers, Helen; Elhorst, Jan H; Kraaijenhagen-Oostinga, Annelies; Vanobbergen, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates several ethical dilemmas of by dental practitioners treating persons with mental disabilities (PMD) by dentists in the Netherlands and Belgium. Ethical dental care for PMD is a hot topic. Worldwide different treatment strategies are used in the dental treatment of this patient group. In addition, cultural aspect seems to play an important role in the choices made. The latter can explain the difficulty in creating European and worldwide guidelines on this issue. A questionnaire was sent to dental practitioners interested in treating PMD persons both in the Netherlands and in Belgium including questions on the use of behaviour management techniques, use and attitude towards sedation and physical fixation and the cooperation with other health care personal. Behaviour management techniques and sedation are frequently used. Dentist of the Netherlands and Belgium in general reject the restraint of PMD persons. However, limited use of manual restraint in accordance with the carers and the close surrounding of the patient seems to be accepted. Dental practitioners are sometimes confronted with an emotional dilemma in treating PMD and the majority feels that it is a continuous challenge to obtain optimal result of the dental treatment.

  5. Hepatitis E virus sequences in swine related to sequences in humans, The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    van der Poel, W. H.; Verschoor, F.; van der Heide, R.; Herrera, M. I.; Vivo, A.; Kooreman, M.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of viral hepatitis in much of the developing world, has recently been detected in swine in North America and Asia, raising concern about potential for zoonotic transmission. To investigate if HEV is commonly present in swine in the Netherlands, pooled stool samples from 115 swine farms and nine individual pigs with diarrhea were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. HEV RNA was detected by RT-PCR and hybridization in 25 (22%) of the pooled specimens, but in none of the individual samples. RT-PCR amplification products of open reading frames 1 and 2 were sequenced, and the results were compared with published sequences of HEV genotypes from humans and swine. HEV strains from swine in the Netherlands were clustered in at least two groups, together with European and American isolates from swine and humans. Our data show that HEV in swine in the Netherlands are genetically closely related to HEV isolates from humans. Although zoonotic transmission has not been proven, these findings suggest that swine may be reservoir hosts of HEV. PMID:11747723

  6. Predictors of Homonegativity in the United States and the Netherlands Using the Fifth Wave of the World Values Survey.

    PubMed

    Haney, Jolynn L

    2016-10-01

    Using data from the fifth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS), I investigated negative attitude toward homosexual individuals in two countries-the United States and the Netherlands-to determine how factors associated with homonegativity in the United States compare with factors associated with homonegativity in the Netherlands. Logistic regression of survey responses from 2,299 participants from the United States (n = 1,249) and the Netherlands (n = 1,050) supported findings from previous research suggesting that homonegativity is more likely to occur in the United States than in the Netherlands, and that negative attitudes toward persons with AIDS and immigrants predicted homonegativity in both countries. Predictors of homonegativity in the United States included being male and being unemployed; in the Netherlands, being unhappy predicted homonegativity. How these findings inform social work policy and practice related to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  7. Predictors of Homonegativity in the United States and the Netherlands Using the Fifth Wave of the World Values Survey.

    PubMed

    Haney, Jolynn L

    2016-10-01

    Using data from the fifth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS), I investigated negative attitude toward homosexual individuals in two countries-the United States and the Netherlands-to determine how factors associated with homonegativity in the United States compare with factors associated with homonegativity in the Netherlands. Logistic regression of survey responses from 2,299 participants from the United States (n = 1,249) and the Netherlands (n = 1,050) supported findings from previous research suggesting that homonegativity is more likely to occur in the United States than in the Netherlands, and that negative attitudes toward persons with AIDS and immigrants predicted homonegativity in both countries. Predictors of homonegativity in the United States included being male and being unemployed; in the Netherlands, being unhappy predicted homonegativity. How these findings inform social work policy and practice related to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed. PMID:26914279

  8. Declining incidence of imported malaria in the Netherlands, 2000-2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To describe the epidemiology and trends of imported malaria in the Netherlands from 2000 through 2007. Methods Based on national surveillance data regarding all reported infections of imported malaria, diagnosed 2000 through 2007, incidence and trends of imported malaria in the Netherlands were estimated. Travellers statistics were used to estimate incidence, and data on malaria chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were used to estimate the number of unprotected travellers. Results Importation of malaria to the Netherlands is declining even as more travellers visit malaria-endemic countries. On average, 82% were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa, and 75% were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The overall incidence in imported falciparum malaria fell from 21.5 to 6.6/10,000 of unprotected travellers. The percentage of unprotected travellers rose from 47% to 52% of all travellers. The incidence of imported falciparum infections is greatest from Middle and West Africa, and decreased from 121.3 to 36.5/10,000 travellers. The import of malaria from this region by immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR) decreased from 138 infections in 2000, to 69 infections in 2007. Conclusion The annual number of imported malaria shows a continuing declining trend, even with an increasing number of travellers visiting malaria endemic countries. VFR import less malaria than previously, and contribute largely to the declining incidence seen. The decline is not readily explained by increased use of chemoprophylaxis and may reflect a reduced risk of infection due to decreasing local malaria transmission as observed in some malaria endemic areas. Nevertheless, the increasing number of unprotected travellers remains worrisome. PMID:21029424

  9. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information: Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanova, S.; Ghawana, T.; Kaur, A.; Neuvel, J. M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial Information is an integral part of flood management practices which include risk management & emergency response processes. Although risk & emergency management activities have their own characteristics, for example, related to the time scales, time pressure, activities & actors involved, it is still possible to identify at least one common challenge that constrains the ability of risk & emergency management to plan for & manage emergencies effectively and efficiently i.e. the need for better information. Considering this aspect, this paper explores flood management in Netherlands& India with an emphasis on spatial information requirements of each system. The paper examines the activities, actors & information needs related to flood management. Changing perspectives on flood management in Netherlands are studied where additional attention is being paid to the organization and preparation of flood emergency management. Role of different key actors involved in risk management is explored. Indian Flood management guidelines, by National Disaster Management Authority, are analyzed in context of their history, institutional framework, achievements and gaps. Flood Forecasting System of Central Water Commission of India is also analyzed in context of spatial dimensions. Further, information overlap between risk & emergency management from the perspectives of spatial planners & emergency responders and role of GIS based modelling / simulation is analyzed. Finally, the need for an integrated spatial information structure is explained & discussed in detail. This examination of flood management practices in the Netherlands and India with an emphasis on the required spatial information in these practices has revealed an increased recognition of the strong interdependence between risk management and emergency response processes. Consequently, the importance of an integrated spatial information infrastructure that facilitates the process of both risk and emergency

  10. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies.

  11. The Association of Neighborhood Social Capital and Ethnic (Minority) Density with Pregnancy Outcomes in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, ‘Western’ women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital – measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors – as well as ethnic (minority) density. Methods Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000–2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. Results We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Conclusions Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but

  12. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  13. Epidemiology of Sepsis and Its Recognition by Emergency Medical Services Personnel in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Wekken, Lena C W; Alam, Nadia; Holleman, Frits; van Exter, Pieternel; Kramer, Mark H H; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of sepsis in the Netherlands. In addition, information regarding the ability of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to recognize sepsis is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological characteristics of sepsis and the recognition of sepsis by EMS personnel in an urban area in the Netherlands. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using transport information from EMS Amsterdam and admission diagnoses at the emergency department gathered through discharge data from two academic hospitals in Amsterdam for the year 2012. A total of 253 patients with sepsis were evaluated, of which 131 were transported by ambulance. The in-hospital mortality rate of the total population was 21% and a mean length of hospital stay was of 13.5 days. Sixty-seven patients (26.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Almost half of the patients were assigned to the internal medicine ward (117; 46.2%). The most common site of infection was the urinary tract (30%). E. coli was the most frequent cause of infections. EMS staff recognized 18/131 (13.7%) transported patients with (severe) sepsis or septic shock. In 52 cases (39.7%) sepsis went unrecognized, probably due to an incomplete primary survey. In 60 cases (45.8%) sepsis went unrecognized, although enough systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were present at initial presentation. Recognition of sepsis by EMS staff in the Netherlands is low, probably due to a lack of awareness of the syndrome and infrequent measurement of temperature and respiratory rate. As early initiation of treatment is crucial, the EMS staff, general practitioners, and other specialties could benefit from more education on this critical illness.

  14. Geographical, Ethnic and Socio-Economic Differences in Utilization of Obstetric Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Posthumus, Anke G.; Borsboom, Gerard J.; Poeran, Jashvant; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2016-01-01

    Background All women in the Netherlands should have equal access to obstetric care. However, utilization of care is shaped by demand and supply factors. Demand is increased in high risk groups (non-Western women, low socio-economic status (SES)), and supply is influenced by availability of hospital facilities (hospital density). To explore the dynamics of obstetric care utilization we investigated the joint association of hospital density and individual characteristics with prototype obstetric interventions. Methods A logistic multi-level model was fitted on retrospective data from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (years 2000–2008, 1.532.441 singleton pregnancies). In this analysis, the first level comprised individual maternal characteristics, the second of neighbourhood SES and hospital density. The four outcome variables were: referral during pregnancy, elective caesarean section (term and post-term breech pregnancies), induction of labour (term and post-term pregnancies), and birth setting in assumed low-risk pregnancies. Results Higher hospital density is not associated with more obstetric interventions. Adjusted for maternal characteristics and hospital density, living in low SES neighbourhoods, and non-Western ethnicity were generally associated with a lower probability of interventions. For example, non-Western women had considerably lower odds for induction of labour in all geographical areas, with strongest effects in the more rural areas (non-Western women: OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.77–0.80, p<0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest inequalities in obstetric care utilization in the Netherlands, and more specifically a relative underservice to the deprived, independent of level of supply. PMID:27336409

  15. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N = 27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies. PMID:24071745

  16. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the Netherlands; the results of a consensus model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the Netherlands. While two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. Existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. We aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large differences in previously estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. Methods Based on updated data on health outcomes and cost estimates, we re-assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine paediatric rotavirus vaccination within the National Immunization Program for the Netherlands. Two consensus meetings were organised with national and international experts in the field to achieve consensus and resolve potential controversies. Results It was estimated that rotavirus vaccination in the Netherlands could avert 34,214 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children aged less than 5 years. Notably, 2,779 hospitalisations were averted of which 315 were extensions of existing hospital stays due to nosocomial rotavirus infection. With a threshold varying from 20K€ - 50K€ per QALY and according to the base-case scenario, the full vaccination costs per child leading to cost-effectiveness was €57.76 -€77.71. Results were sensitive to the inclusion of potential vaccine induced herd protection, QALY losses and number of deaths associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Conclusions Our economic analysis indicates that inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in the Dutch National Immunization Program might be cost-effective depending on the cost of the vaccine and the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on children's quality of life. PMID:21663620

  17. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were collected from the Netherlands (n = 95) and Greece (n = 76). The egg yolks were analysed for 11 PFASs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. PFAS levels in yolk were higher in home produced eggs from the Netherlands (median 3.1, range < LOQ - 31.2 ng g(-1)) and Greece (median 1.1, range < LOQ - 15.0 ng g(-1)) compared to the eggs collected from supermarkets. In these eggs, all PFAS levels were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng g(-1), except for a small amount of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 1 sample in each country (1.1 ng g(-1) and 0.9 ng g(-1) for the Netherlands and Greece respectively). PFOS was the predominant PFAS, making up on average 85% of ∑PFASs. The highest PFOS concentration was detected in a Dutch home produced egg sample (24.8 ng g(-1)). The contamination pattern was similar in both countries with the long-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) being most frequently detected, while short-chain PFASs were rarely found. The most likely cause of the contamination of home produced eggs is ingestion of soil through pecking. Although regular consumption of home produced eggs will lead to an increased PFOS exposure, it is not expected that it will lead to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake established by EFSA.

  18. Modeled impacts of farming practices and structural agricultural changes on nitrogen fluxes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O

    2001-11-16

    In the Netherlands, nutrient emissions from intensive animal husbandry have contributed to decreased species diversity in (semi) natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, pollution of groundwater, and possibly global warming due to N2O emissions. This paper presents the results of a modelling study presenting the impacts of both structural measures and improved farming practices on major nitrogen (N) fluxes, including NH3 and N2O emission, uptake, leaching, and runoff, in the Netherlands, using input data for the year 2000. Average annual fluxes (Gg N year(-1)) for the year 2000 were estimated at 132 for NH3 emission (160 Gg NH 3 year(-1)), 28 for N2O emission, 50 for N inflow to groundwater, and 15 for N inflow to surface water at a total N input of 1046. At this input, nitrate (NO3) concentrations in groundwater often exceeded the target of 50 mg NO3 l(-1), specifically in well-drained sandy soils. The ammonia (NH3) emissions exceeded emission targets that were set to protect the biodiversity of nonagricultural land. Improved farming practices were calculated to lead to a significant reduction in NH3 emissions to the atmosphere and N leaching and runoff to groundwater and surface water, but these improvements were not enough to reach all the targets set for those fluxes. Only strong structural measures clearly improved the situation. The NH3 emission target of 30 Gg NH3 year(-1), suggested for the year 2030, could not be attained, however, unless pig and poultry farming is completely banned in the Netherlands and all cattle stay almost permanently in low emission stables.

  19. The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data

  20. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands(1).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Geurts, Yvon; Dierikx, Cindy M; Brouwer, Michael S M; Kant, Arie; Wit, Ben; Heymans, Raymond; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mevius, Dik J

    2016-07-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations.

  1. Increase in ECHOvirus 6 infections associated with neurological symptoms in the Netherlands, June to August 2016

    PubMed Central

    Benschop, Kimberley SM; Geeraedts, Felix; Beuvink, Barbara; Spit, Silke A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Claas, Eric CJ; Pas, Suzan D; Schuurman, Rob; Verweij, Jaco J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Wolthers, Katja C; Niesters, Hubert GM; Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch virus-typing network VIRO-TypeNed reported an increase in ECHOvirus 6 (E-6) infections with neurological symptoms in the Netherlands between June and August 2016. Of the 31 cases detected from January through August 2016, 15 presented with neurological symptoms. Ten of 15 neurological cases were detected in the same province and the identified viruses were genetically related. This report is to alert medical and public health professionals of the circulation of E-6 associated with neurological symptoms. PMID:27719751

  2. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands(1).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Geurts, Yvon; Dierikx, Cindy M; Brouwer, Michael S M; Kant, Arie; Wit, Ben; Heymans, Raymond; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mevius, Dik J

    2016-07-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations. PMID:27314180

  3. Cognitive Adaptation Training Provided to Chronically Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia in The Netherlands: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Quee, Piotr J.; Schneider, Harald; van Slogteren, Saskia; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Velligan, Dawn I.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) improves functional outcome in outpatients with schizophrenia living in the United States of America. The efficacy of CAT has never been demonstrated for patients living in a residential facility. We describe how CAT was delivered to two chronically hospitalized patients with schizophrenia living in The Netherlands. CAT was delivered for 8 months, and consisted of weekly home visits by a psychiatric nurse. Both patients improved on measures of functional outcome used in the US studies. These results indicate that CAT may improve outcomes, even in patients that have been hospitalized for several years. PMID:23082269

  4. A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients.

  5. Large ongoing measles outbreak in a religious community in the Netherlands since May 2013.

    PubMed

    Knol, Mj; Urbanus, At; Swart, Em; Mollema, L; Ruijs, Wl; van Binnendijk, Rs; Te Wierik, Mj; de Melker, He; Timen, A; Hahne, Sj

    2013-09-05

    Despite vaccination coverage over 95%, a measles outbreak started in May 2013 in the Netherlands. As of 28 August, there were 1,226 reported cases, including 82 hospitalisations. It is anticipated that the outbreak will continue. Most cases were orthodox Protestants (n=1,087/1,186; 91.7%) and unvaccinated (n=1,174/1,217; 96.5%). A unique outbreak control intervention was implemented: a personal invitation for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was sent for all children aged 6–14 months living in municipalities with MMR vaccination coverage below 90%.

  6. The Human Liver Proteome Project (HLPP) Workshop August 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Beretta, Laura

    2015-01-01

    An HLPP workshop was held in conjunction with the 7th HUPO 2008 World Congress in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The workshop was chaired by Laura Beretta (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC)) and Xiaohong Qian (Beijing Proteome Research Center (BPRC)). The workshop was organized in three sessions: Session 1: The Human Proteome Project: the liver perspective, moderated by John Bergeron (McGill University); Session 2: The comparative analysis of the liver and plasma proteomes, moderated by Young-Ki Paik (Yonsei University) and Session 3: Opportunities for the study of liver diseases within the HLPP, moderated by Chantal Housset (INSERM, France). PMID:19862759

  7. Examining new ways of office work between the Netherlands and the USA.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M; Vink, P

    2012-01-01

    There are many definitions of new ways of work, but working with a computer at another location than at the office or at the clients' location with Information Communication Technology as a support is becoming more prevalent. A new office having shared desks and facilitating informal meetings along with a changed leadership style is yet another way. Examining the experiences of alternative work styles, telework, between the Netherlands and the USA are especially apparent in the design of office environments as is the emergence of new leadership behaviors to promote safe and healthy work. PMID:22317509

  8. The Hard X-ray experiment on the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursky, H.; Schnopper, H.; Parsignault, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Experiment flown on the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite is described. The instrument consists of two parts. One is a large-area detector of about 60 sq cm in total area, sensitive in the energy range between 1.5 and 30 keV. Two counters comprise this detector, each collimated 10 min by 3 deg and offset in the narrow direction by 4 min. The other part is a Bragg-crystal assembly consisting of two PET crystals and counters aligned to search for the silicon emission lines near 2 keV. Instrument characteristics and orbital operations are described.

  9. Developments in in situ biorestoration of contaminated soil and groundwater in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Staps, J J

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the actual state of the art of in-situ biorestoration of contaminated soil and groundwater in the Netherlands. After a description of the relevant research programme, some research projects are described. These concern stimulation of biodegradation by means of venting and circulation of water for addition of oxygen and nutrients. Furthermore, some information about treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater on full scale is given. For groundwater, some activities on research of biological treatment systems for specific pollutants are mentioned. PMID:2658037

  10. A simple approach to identify critical source areas for phosphorus leaching in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Salm, C.; Schoumans, O. F.; Walvoort, D.; Groenendijk, P.; Pleijter, M.

    2009-04-01

    High soil phopshorus contents in agricultural soils in the Netherlands cause excessive losses of P to surface waters. The reductions in P application rates in the present manure policy are not sufficient to reach surface water quality standards resulting from the European Water Framework Directive in all catchments by 2015. Accordingly, additional measures have to be considered to further reduce P loading to surface water. For a cost effective implementation of these measures an instrument to identify critical source areas for phosphorus leaching is indispensable. In the Netherlands phosphorus leaching at a national scale is simulated with a comprehensive mechanistic simulation model (STONE, Wolf et al., 2005) focusing on changes in P leaching with time. The identification of critical source areas requires simulations at a high spatial resolution. STONE is less suitable for this purpose, because of the large number of input parameters required by this complex model. For this reason, a simple model (PLEASE: Phosphorus LEAching from Soils to the Environment; Schoumans et al., in prep.) has been developed based on the same mechanistic process description for inorganic P as the complex model STONE and a simplified description of the lateral flow of water from soil to surface waters. With this model P leaching to surface waters can be calculated using readily available information of field characteristics like depth of the groundwater table, precipitation surplus and P status and phosphorus adsorption capacity of the soil. To evaluate the performance of the model, it was applied to the Netherlands using the same input as the national model. Parameterised in this way, PLEASE is a metamodel of STONE. The model was also tested on two small catchments: a catchment with sandy soils and high P accumulation and a clay catchment with a moderate P accumulation. The application at the national scale showed that the overall order of magnitude of the calculated leaching fluxes was

  11. Information on vaccination: meeting the needs of unvaccinated youngsters in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van 't Spijker, Kees; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2011-06-01

    To improve vaccination coverage in the Netherlands, compulsory consultation of the youth health service has been suggested for unvaccinated youngsters. It is assumed that sound medical arguments will convince them to accept vaccination. We assessed the need for information of the highest risk group, the unvaccinated orthodox protestant youngsters. Only 21% of over 600 respondents were interested in medical aspects of vaccination, whereas >50% were interested in religious aspects. Their preferred information source was a Christian organization, not the youth health service. Our study shows the importance of exploration of the target group before introducing a new policy.

  12. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Yvon; Dierikx, Cindy M.; Brouwer, Michael S.M.; Kant, Arie; Wit, Ben; Heymans, Raymond; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mevius, Dik J.

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations. PMID:27314180

  13. Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

  14. Strengthening Innovation in the Netherlands: Making Better Use of Knowledge Creation in Innovation Activities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 479

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Theisens, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    Strengthening the innovation system in the Netherlands is a priority for raising productivity growth, which has been relatively weak in recent years. Knowledge creation in the Netherlands is strong -- scientific publications per capita are the sixth highest in the OECD -- but innovation activity is only around the average for OECD countries…

  15. Full-Genome Sequence of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Poultry Linked to Sequences of Strains from Asia, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Heutink, Rene; Bossers, Alex; Harders, Frank; Koch, Guus; Elbers, Armin

    2015-05-01

    Genetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus from the Netherlands, and comparison with strains from Europe, South Korea, and Japan, showed a close relation. Data suggest the strains were probably carried to the Netherlands by migratory wild birds from Asia, possibly through overlapping flyways and common breeding sites in Siberia.

  16. The Factors Affecting End-of-Life Decision-Making by Physicians of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemans, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Proot, I.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the process of end-of-life decision-making regarding people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Netherlands, from the perspective of physicians. Methods: This qualitative study involved nine semi-structured interviews with ID physicians in the Netherlands after the deaths of patients with…

  17. Old Narratives Adapted: Post-Napoleonic History Education and Its Relation to the Present in the Southern Netherlands (1815-1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirlaen, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the recent revolutionary past in post-Napoleonic history education in the Southern Netherlands. From 1794 until 1815 the Southern Netherlands had been incorporated into the French revolutionary state and the Napoleonic Empire, respectively. Often, the experience of the revolution is associated with the birth…

  18. User Education in the Online Age II. IATUL International Seminar Proceedings, (2nd, Delft, The Netherlands, July 30-August 2, 1984). Vol. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Papers presented at an August 1984 international seminar on online user education include "Library Policies and Strategies in The Netherlands" (Chris J. van Wijk, The Netherlands); "Promotion and Marketing of Library Services" (Nancy Fjallbrant, Sweden); "Library Promotion by Computer" (Ian Malley, United Kingdom); "Library User Education and…

  19. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and…

  20. A comparison of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany, adjusted for population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tannen, Antje; Bours, Gerrie; Halfens, Ruud; Dassen, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Annual pressure ulcer surveys in the Netherlands and Germany have shown remarkable differences in prevalence rates. We explored the differences between the two populations, and the degree to which these differences were associated with differences in prevalence. To this end, data from 48 Dutch and 45 German facilities (n = 9772) from 2003 were analyzed. The prevalence of pressure ulcers (excluding grade 1) was 12.5% in the Netherlands and 4.3% in Germany. After adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, the probability of developing a pressure ulcer of stage 2 or higher in Dutch nursing homes was three times greater than in German homes.

  1. Divorce and social class during the early stages of the divorce revolution: evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Vanassche, Sofie; Matthijs, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    In times of low divorce rates (such as the nineteenth century and early twentieth century), the authors expect higher social strata to have the highest divorce chances as they are better equipped to break existing barriers to divorce. In this article, the authors analyze data from marriage certificates to assess whether there was a positive effect of occupational class on divorce in Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. Their results for the Netherlands show a positive association between social class and divorce, particularly among the higher cultural groups. In Flanders, the authors do not find this, but they observe a negative association between illiteracy and divorce, an observation pointing in the same direction.

  2. Viral diseases of wild and farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla with particular reference to the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Engelsma, Marc Y; Roozenburg, Ineke; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; van Tulden, Peter W; Kerkhoff, Sonja; van Nieuwstadt, Anton P; Davidse, Aart; Haenen, Olga L M

    2012-10-10

    Diseases are an important cause of losses and decreased production rates in freshwater eel farming, and have been suggested to play a contributory role in the worldwide decline in wild freshwater eel stocks. Three commonly detected pathogenic viruses of European eel Anguilla anguilla are the aquabirnavirus eel virus European (EVE), the rhabdovirus eel virus European X (EVEX), and the alloherpesvirus anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1). In general, all 3 viruses cause a nonspecific haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality rates. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the aetiology, prevalence, clinical signs and gross pathology of these 3 viruses. Reported experimental infections showed the temperature dependency and potential pathogenicity of these viruses for eels and other fish species. In addition to the published literature, an overview of the isolation of pathogenic viruses from wild and farmed A. anguilla in the Netherlands during the past 2 decades is given. A total of 249 wild A. anguilla, 39 batches of glass eels intended for farming purposes, and 239 batches of farmed European eels were necropsied and examined virologically. AngHV1 was isolated from wild yellow and silver A. anguilla from the Netherlands from 1998 until the present, while EVEX was only found sporadically, and EVE was never isolated. In farmed A. anguilla AngHV1 was also the most commonly isolated virus, followed by EVE and EVEX.

  3. A Values-Affirmation Intervention Does Not Benefit Negatively Stereotyped Immigrant Students in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Elisabeth M.; Jellesma, Francine C.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; de Jong, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed that a values-affirmation intervention can help reduce the achievement gap between African American and European American students in the US. In the present study, it was examined if these results would generalize to ethnic minority students in a country outside the US, namely the Netherlands, where there is also an achievement gap between native and ethnic minority students. This type of intervention was tested in two separate studies, the first among first-year pre-vocational students (n = 361, 84% ethnic minority), and the second among sixth grade students (n = 290, 96% ethnic minority). Most minority participants had a Turkish-Dutch or Moroccan-Dutch immigrant background. In the second study, a third condition was added to the original paradigm, in which students elaborated on either their affirmation- or a control exercise with the help of a teaching assistant. We also examined whether values affirmation affected the level of problem behavior of negatively stereotyped ethnic minority youth. Contrary to what was expected, multilevel analyses revealed that the intervention had no effect on the school achievement or the problem behavior of the ethnic minority students. Possible explanations for these findings, mainly related to contextual and cultural differences between the Netherlands and the US, are discussed. PMID:27242604

  4. The transmission potential of Rift Valley fever virus among livestock in the Netherlands: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic vector-borne infection and causes a potentially severe disease. Many mammals are susceptible to infection including important livestock species. Although currently confined to Africa and the near-East, this disease causes concern in countries in temperate climates where both hosts and potential vectors are present, such as the Netherlands. Currently, an assessment of the probability of an outbreak occurring in this country is missing. To evaluate the transmission potential of RVFV, a mathematical model was developed and used to determine the initial growth and the Floquet ratio, which are indicators of the probability of an outbreak and of persistence in a periodic changing environment caused by seasonality. We show that several areas of the Netherlands have a high transmission potential and risk of persistence of the infection. Counter-intuitively, these are the sparsely populated livestock areas, due to the high vector-host ratios in these areas. Culex pipiens s.l. is found to be the main driver of the spread and persistence, because it is by far the most abundant mosquito. Our investigation underscores the importance to determine the vector competence of this mosquito species for RVFV and its host preference. PMID:23876054

  5. Potential nitrate removal in a coastal freshwater sediment (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands) and response to salinization.

    PubMed

    Laverman, Anniet M; Canavan, Richard W; Slomp, Caroline P; Cappellen, Philippe Van

    2007-07-01

    Nitrogen transformations and their response to salinization were studied in bottom sediment of a coastal freshwater lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). The lake was formed as the result of a river impoundment along the south-western coast of the Netherlands, and is currently targeted for restoration of estuarine conditions. Nitrate porewater profiles indicate complete removal of NO(3)(-) within the upper few millimeters of sediment. Rapid NO(3)(-) consumption is consistent with the high potential rates of nitrate reduction (up to 200 nmol N cm(-3) h(-1)) measured with flow-through reactors (FTRs) on intact sediment slices. Acetylene-block FTR experiments indicate that complete denitrification accounts for approximately half of the nitrate reducing activity. The remaining NO(3)(-) reduction is due to incomplete denitrification and alternative reaction pathways, most likely dissimilatory nitrate reduction to NH(4)(+) (DNRA). Results of FTR experiments further indicate that increasing bottom water salinity may lead to a transient release of NH(4)(+) and dissolved organic carbon from the sediment, and enhance the rates of nitrate reduction and nitrite production. Increased salinity may thus, at least temporarily, increase the efflux of NH(4)(+) from the sediment to the surface water. This work shows that salinity affects the relative importance of denitrification compared to alternative nitrate reduction pathways, limiting the ability of denitrification to remove bioavailable nitrogen from aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Wetlands in The Netherlands and New Zealand: optimising biodiversity and carbon sequestration during urbanisation.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Marjorie R

    2012-06-30

    The halting of biodiversity decline of wetlands necessitates ecosystem protection, restoration and re-creation of all wetland types preferably in all suitable landscapes. As peat wetlands (bogs and fens) are superior as carbon stores, and because of their rarity they have a higher biodiversity value relative to other wetland types, they need to be prioritised for protection and restoration. The hydrological, pH, and nutrient conditions essential to each type of wetland that need to be understood and provided for during development are discussed for The Netherlands' and New Zealand. Case studies describe freshwater wetland management and challenges during urbanisation in the Stad van de Zon and Blauwestad in The Netherlands, and in the Styx valley and Pegasus in Christchurch, New Zealand. A summary of the history of urbanisation and wetland destruction, and of biodiversity management for each country provides a context for the case studies. These case studies demonstrate the degree to which the relative values of bogs, fens and swamps, with respect to biodiversity and carbon sequestration, are understood and managed using diverse protection measures, within the boundaries of new urban developments and in adjacent ecological corridors.

  7. Survey of the crayfish plague pathogen presence in the Netherlands reveals a new Aphanomyces astaci carrier.

    PubMed

    Tilmans, M; Mrugała, A; Svoboda, J; Engelsma, M Y; Petie, M; Soes, D M; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S; Oidtmann, B; Roessink, I; Petrusek, A

    2014-07-01

    North American crayfish species as hosts for the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci contribute to the decline of native European crayfish populations. At least six American crayfish species have been reported in the Netherlands but the presence of this pathogenic oomycete with substantial conservational impact has not yet been confirmed in the country. We evaluated A. astaci prevalence in Dutch populations of six alien crustaceans using species-specific quantitative PCR. These included three confirmed crayfish carriers (Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii), two recently introduced but yet unstudied crayfish (Orconectes cf. virilis, Procambarus cf. acutus), and a catadromous crab Eriocheir sinensis. Moderate levels of infection were observed in some populations of O. limosus and P. leniusculus. Positive results were also obtained for E. sinensis and two Dutch populations of O. cf. virilis. English population of the latter species was also found infected, confirming this taxon as another A. astaci carrier in European waters. In contrast, Dutch P. clarkii seem only sporadically infected, and the pathogen was not yet detected in P. cf. acutus. Our study is the first confirmation of crayfish plague infections in the Netherlands and demonstrates substantial variation in A. astaci prevalence among potential hosts within a single region, a pattern possibly linked to their introduction history and coexistence.

  8. Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands*

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies consistently work to prevent and undermine smoke-free laws. The tobacco industry and its allies have funded hospitality associations and other third parties to oppose smoke-free laws, argue that smoke-free laws will economically damage hospitality venues, promote ventilation and voluntary smoker ‘accommodation’ as an alternative to smoke-free laws, and to challenge smoke-free laws in court. In 2008, the Netherlands extended its smoke-free law to hospitality venues. Methods: We triangulated news articles, government documents, scientific papers, statistical reports and interviews to construct this case study. Results: Despite widespread public support for smoke-free hospitality venues, opponents successfully represented these laws as unpopular and damaging to small bars. These challenges and related smokers’ rights activities resulted in non-compliance among all bars and reinstating an exemption for small, owner-run venues. This policy reversal was the result of a weak implementing media campaign (which failed to present the law as protecting nonsmokers), smoking room exemptions and reactive (vs. proactive) measures by the Ministry of Health and civil society. Conclusion: The policy failure in the Netherlands is the result of poor implementation efforts and the failure to anticipate and deal with opposition to the law. When implementing smoke-free laws it is important to anticipate opposition, used the media to target non-smokers to reinforce public support, and actively enforce the law. PMID:22143826

  9. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gocsik, É; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks.

  10. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae among Travelers from the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Vlot, Jessica A.; Kraakman, Margriet E.M.; Mesman, Romy; Bruijning, Marguerite L.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Visser, Leo G.; Veldkamp, Karin Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed among travelers from the Netherlands to investigate the acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CP-E) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and associated risk factors. Questionnaires were administered and rectal swab samples were collected and tested before and after traveler return. Of 370 travelers, 32 (8.6%) were colonized with ESBL-E before trave,; 113 (30.5%) acquired an ESBL-E during travel, and 26 were still colonized 6 months after return. No CP-E were found. Independent risk factors for ESBL-E acquisition were travel to South and East Asia. Multilocus sequence typing showed extensive genetic diversity among Escherichia coli. Predominant ESBLs were CTX-M enzymes. The acquisition rate, 30.5%, of ESBL-E in travelers from the Netherlands to all destinations studied was high. Active surveillance for ESBL-E and CP-E and contact isolation precautions may be recommended at admission to medical facilities for patients who traveled to Asia during the previous 6 months. PMID:23885972

  11. The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands: a meaningful, ritual place for commemoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faro, Laurie M. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online in 2005. This monument has been dedicated to preserve the memory of "all the men, women and children who were persecuted as Jews during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, and did not survive the Shoah". In 2010 the Jewish Monument Community was linked to this virtual monument, this website Community offers the possibility to contribute additional information about individual victims remembered in the Digital Monument. The results of this research show that in comparison with commemoration at a traditional material monument, in particular the individual features of this new concept regarding commemoration are valued. Each individual victim may be commemorated and remembered in a very personal manner by telling who the victim was, and how he or she lived on the eve of deportation. The conclusion is that cyberspace may offer a significant and relevant place for, in this case, commemoration practices. Both Digital Monument and Community offer a meaningful place of commemoration of Dutch victims of the Shoah.

  12. The Trade-Off between Female Fertility and Longevity during the Epidemiological Transition in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Van Poppel, Frans; Van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the relationship between women's fertility and their post-reproductive longevity. In this study, we focus on the disposable soma theory, which posits that a negative relationship between women's fertility and longevity can be understood as an evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and survival. We examine the relationship between fertility and longevity during the epidemiological transition in the Netherlands. This period of rapid decline in mortality from infectious diseases offers a good opportunity to study the relationship between fertility and longevity, using registry data from 6,359 women born in The Netherlands between 1850 and 1910. We hypothesize that an initially negative relationship between women's fertility and their longevity gradually turns less negative during the epidemiological transition, because of decreasing costs of higher parities. An initially inversed U-shaped association between fertility and longevity changes to zero during the epidemiological transition. This does suggest a diminishing environmental pressure on fertility. However, we find no evidence of an initial linear trade-off between fertility and post-reproductive survival. PMID:26680211

  13. [Street doctors warn of epidemic of uninsured homeless persons in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Slockers, Marcel T; van Laere, Igor R A L; Smit, Ronald B J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, the Netherlands Street Doctors Group, a national network of doctors and nurses providing outreach primary care to homeless people in the Netherlands, has observed a growing number of homeless patients who do not have health insurance resulting in their access to healthcare services and medication being limited. In this article we raise the alarm about the epidemic of uninsured Dutch homeless. We explain and comment on the reasons why people are no longer insured and elaborate on the regulations and obligations related to homelessness and the characteristics of consumers and providers of social and medical services. We describe how difficult it is for homeless people to become re-insured as in order to follow a complex set of requirements commitment and patience are necessary. For most homeless patients, the re-insurance process requires the personal guidance and support of a motivated case manager. Consequently, we suggest that policy makers and service providers should have a better understanding of factors contributing to being uninsured and more compassion for those who are.

  14. Hospital merger control in Germany, the Netherlands and England: Experiences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas; Varkevisser, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the efficiency enhancing and quality improving effects of competition, various steps have been undertaken to foster competition in hospital markets. For these mechanisms to work, robust competition policy needs to be enacted and enforced. We compare the hospital markets in Germany, the Netherlands and England regarding their experience with competition and put a special focus on merger control and the stringency of its implementation. Elaborating on the differences in merger control practice we find that despite very similar goals the respective agencies apply very different approaches and take fundamentally different routes when balancing proclaimed benefits of mergers with potential risks of consolidated markets. While the German competition authority has a strong focus on maintaining the preconditions for competition, in the Netherlands we find over the past decade a much stronger focus on hypothesized countervailing buyer power, accepting in turn highly concentrated markets. In England we find the currently most comprehensive analysis of proposed mergers in combination with a clearly positive assessment of the effects of patient choice and competition on prices and quality. All agencies are still reluctant to implement merger simulation models or similarly advanced econometric methods in their appraisal. One very likely reason is a lack of country specific empirical evidence on these matters. PMID:26643437

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of uncertainties in the Netherlands greenhouse gas emission inventory for 1990-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Andrea; de Keizer, Corry; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Olivier, Jos; Brandes, Laurens

    This paper presents an assessment of the value added of a Monte Carlo analysis of the uncertainties in the Netherlands inventory of greenhouse gases over a Tier 1 analysis. It also examines which parameters contributed the most to the total emission uncertainty and identified areas of high priority for the further improvement of the accuracy and quality of the inventory. The Monte Carlo analysis resulted in an uncertainty range in total GHG emissions of 4.1% in 2004 and 5.4% in 1990 (with LUCF) and 5.3% (in 1990) and 3.9% (in 2004) for GHG emissions without LUCF. Uncertainty in the trend was estimated at 4.5%. The values are in the same order of magnitude as those estimated in the Tier 1. The results show that accounting for correlation among parameters is important, and for the Netherlands inventory it has a larger impact on the uncertainty in the trend than on the uncertainty in the total GHG emissions. The main contributors to overall uncertainty are found to be related to N 2O emissions from agricultural soils, the N 2O implied emission factors of Nitric Acid Production, CH 4 from managed solid waste disposal on land, and the implied emission factor of CH 4 from manure management from cattle.

  16. Modelling elemental carbon at regional, urban and traffic locations in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Zandveld, P.; Jonkers, S.; Moerman, M.; Jedynska, A. D.; Verbeek, R.; Visschedijk, A.; Elshout van den, S.; Panteliadis, P.; Velders, G. J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The annual concentration of elemental carbon (EC) has been derived for The Netherlands in 2011. National emissions contribute 55% to the average EC concentration in the Netherlands. About 65% of the national contribution comes from emissions from road traffic and about 35% from other mobile sources (15%), households (14%), shipping (4%) and other combustion sources (2%). Conversion factors were established to compare different methods of EC measurement such as Black Smoke, Black Carbon and thermal analysis. The measured regional and urban background concentrations and variability were 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.9 ± 0.1 μg EC per m3, respectively. The ratios between modelled and measured regional and urban background concentrations were 1.6 ± 0.5 and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively. The modelled values are likely to be overestimated. The modelled and measured traffic contributions to EC concentrations near motorways and in street canyons were in the range 1.1-1.3 μg m-3 with total EC concentrations of 2.0 and 2.2 μg m-3, respectively. Our study showed that EC concentrations near intense traffic are increased with a factor 2-4 as compared to the urban and regional background, respectively. Consequently there is a similar variation in exposure and potential health effects in the population. More measurements of EC are required to improve modelling of EC concentrations in particular at urban background and near traffic locations.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance.

  18. Policy development for the reduction of pollution caused by traffic experiences from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Berbee, R; Vermij, P; van de Laak, W J

    2004-01-01

    Road traffic is a diffuse source of heavy metals and oil that leads to pollution of verges and surface water in areas immediately surrounding roads. The Commission for Integrated Water Management (CIW) has drawn up a policy document addressing methods for managing this type of pollution. The document is based on results from numerous studies in The Netherlands targeting pollution caused by traffic. The Commission concludes that measures at the source are the only way to realise sustainable solutions. For example, attention should be devoted to the issue of zinc emissions from car tyres and crash barriers. The concept of controlled infiltration is recommended for combating pollution caused by spray and runoff from roads. This includes periodic chemical inspection of verge pollution and, where necessary, replacement of the verge's top layer. The application of porous asphalt on highways in The Netherlands has also proven highly effective in limiting pollution caused by traffic, with far less pollution caused by spray from the highway and runoff as compared to traditional asphalt. PMID:15053114

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance. PMID:27259820

  20. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    PubMed

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.

  1. Descriptive modelling to predict deoxynivalenol in winter wheat in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Der Fels-Klerx, H J; Burgers, S L G E; Booij, C J H

    2010-05-01

    Predictions of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in wheat at harvest can be useful for decision-making by stakeholders of the wheat feed and food supply chain. The objective of the current research was to develop quantitative predictive models for DON in mature winter wheat in the Netherlands for two specific groups of end-users. One model was developed for use by farmers in underpinning Fusarium spp. disease management, specifically the application of fungicides around wheat flowering (model A). The second model was developed for industry and food safety authorities, and considered the entire wheat cultivation period (model B). Model development was based on observational data collected from 425 fields throughout the Netherlands between 2001 and 2008. For each field, agronomical information, climatic data and DON levels in mature wheat were collected. Using multiple regression analyses, the set of biological relevant variables that provided the highest statistical performance was selected. The two final models include the following variables: region, wheat resistance level, spraying, flowering date, several climatic variables in the different stages of wheat growing, and length of the period between flowering and harvesting (model B only). The percentages of variance accounted for were 64.4% and 65.6% for models A and B, respectively. Model validation showed high correlation between the predicted and observed DON levels. The two models may be applied by various groups of end-users to reduce DON contamination in wheat-derived feed and food products and, ultimately, reduce animal and consumer health risks.

  2. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particular attention. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can play an important role in solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at transmission voltages are numerous: more transmittable power together with less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, lower ac loss, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, less magnetic field emissions, etc. The main obstacle at present is the relatively high price of HTS conductor. However as the price goes down, initial market penetration of several HTS components (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters) is expected by year 2015. In the full paper we present selected ways to integrate EHV AC HTS cables depending on a particular future grid scenario in the Netherlands.

  3. Market competition in health care markets in the Netherlands: some lessons for England?

    PubMed

    den Exter, André P; Guy, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to establish what lessons might be available to the English health care sector following enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 from the Dutch experience of introducing market competition into health care via a mandatory health insurance scheme implemented by for-profit insurance companies. The existence of the Beveridge NHS model in England, and a Bismarckian insurance system in The Netherlands perhaps suggest that a comparison of the two countries is at best limited, and reinforced by the different Enthoven-inspired competitive models each has adopted. However, we contend that there are positive and negative issues arising from introducing competition into health care-, e.g. concerns about equity and benefits of efficiencies-which go beyond national boundaries and different systems and reflect the global paradigm shift towards the use of market forces in previously non-market areas such as health. The article examines the situation in England following the HSCA 2012 and The Netherlands following the 2006 reforms before analysing two areas of common ground: the focus in both countries on competition on quality (as opposed to price) and integrated care, which is assuming ever greater significance. We suggest that our combined insights (as a health lawyer and competition lawyer respectively) coupled with a comparative approach create a novel contribution to current calls for a wider public debate about the real role of markets in health care over and above simple characterisation as a force for good or bad.

  4. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and OSL dating of terrestrial Eemian deposits in the southeastern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokker, Jeroen; Cleveringa, Piet; Murray, Andrew S.

    2004-02-01

    The Roer Valley Graben in the southeastern Netherlands is a subsiding area situated just south of the maximum extent of the Pleistocene glaciations. In this area, Eemian (marine isotope stage 5e) clastic and organic deposits have been preserved in a terrestrial sedimentary environment. Deposition took place in the early Eemian (regional pollen zones E2-E3) and late Eemian (E5-E6A-E6B). The sedimentary sequence contains a hiatus during the E4A-E4B-E5 regional pollen zones. Sedimentary and palynological data reveal that both the presence and extent of the Eemian deposits are intimately linked to the local groundwater-level history and clastic sediment flux. Changes in these environmental factors are likely to be related to changes in the global climate. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to provide an absolute time frame for the Late Quaternary deposits in the area. This study is thereby the first to present a reliable quartz OSL dating (114+/-12 ka) for terrestrial Eemian deposits in The Netherlands. Copyright

  5. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, Jarl K; Brackenridge, Celia H; Rhind, Daniel J A; Neels, Karel; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed with respect to their experiences with childhood psychological, physical, and sexual violence while playing sports. Being the first of its kind in the Netherlands and Belgium, our study has a sufficiently large sample taken from the general population, with a balanced gender ratio and wide variety in socio-demographic characteristics. The survey showed that 38% of all respondents reported experiences with psychological violence, 11% with physical violence, and 14% with sexual violence. Ethnic minority, lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) and disabled athletes, and those competing at the international level report significantly more experiences of interpersonal violence in sport. The results are consistent with rates obtained outside sport, underscoring the need for more research on interventions and systematic follow-ups, to minimize these negative experiences in youth sport.

  6. The Trade-Off between Female Fertility and Longevity during the Epidemiological Transition in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Van Poppel, Frans; Van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the relationship between women's fertility and their post-reproductive longevity. In this study, we focus on the disposable soma theory, which posits that a negative relationship between women's fertility and longevity can be understood as an evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and survival. We examine the relationship between fertility and longevity during the epidemiological transition in the Netherlands. This period of rapid decline in mortality from infectious diseases offers a good opportunity to study the relationship between fertility and longevity, using registry data from 6,359 women born in The Netherlands between 1850 and 1910. We hypothesize that an initially negative relationship between women's fertility and their longevity gradually turns less negative during the epidemiological transition, because of decreasing costs of higher parities. An initially inversed U-shaped association between fertility and longevity changes to zero during the epidemiological transition. This does suggest a diminishing environmental pressure on fertility. However, we find no evidence of an initial linear trade-off between fertility and post-reproductive survival.

  7. Large outbreak of Salmonella Thompson related to smoked salmon in the Netherlands, August to December 2012.

    PubMed

    Friesema, I; de Jong, A; Hofhuis, A; Heck, M; van den Kerkhof, H; de Jonge, R; Hameryck, D; Nagel, K; van Vilsteren, G; van Beek, P; Notermans, D; van Pelt, W

    2014-10-02

    On 15 August 2012, an increase in the number of Salmonella Thompson cases was noticed by the Salmonella surveillance in the Netherlands. A case–control study was performed, followed by a food investigation. In total 1,149 cases were laboratory-confirmed between August and December 2012 of which four elderly (76–91 years) were reported to have died due to the infection. The cause of the outbreak was smoked salmon processed at a single site. The smoked salmon had been continuously contaminated in the processing lines through reusable dishes, which turned out to be porous and had become loaded with bacteria. This is the largest outbreak of salmonellosis ever recorded in the Netherlands. The temporary closure of the processing site and recall of the smoked salmon stopped the outbreak. An estimated four to six million Dutch residents were possibly exposed to the contaminated smoked salmon and an estimated 23,000 persons would have had acute gastroenteritis with S. Thompson during this outbreak. This outbreak showed that close collaboration between diagnostic laboratories, regional public health services, the national institute for public health and the food safety authorities is essential in outbreak investigations.

  8. Development of teaching and tuition in the specialty of neurology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keyser, A

    2003-07-01

    After a short survey of the early history of neurology and psychiatry in the Netherlands, the development of the specialty of neurology is discussed. During the 20th century the training of neurologists and the certification of specialists evolved from an informal master-fellow organization towards a strongly reglemented and legally based procedure. A nationwide Specialist Registration Commission supervises the quality of the training of specialists. Registered neurologists in the Netherlands are subject to a re-certification programme that controls the requirements to be fulfilled by the specialists such as their active involvement in patient care (for at least 16 h a week), attendance of the annual postgraduate courses in neurology (5-year cycle) and regular participation in international congresses of neurology. The undergraduate training in neurology, the neurology clerkship and the postgraduate training in neurosciences are described. Measures taken in order to maintain the balance between the supply of and the demand for neurological care in the near future are reported.

  9. Fresh Air and Good Food: Children and the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign in the Netherlands c.1900-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Western world, between 1900 and 1940 the anti-tuberculosis campaign in the Netherlands produced a wide range of initiatives to promote child health. In each of these the social and the medical were linked, as the hygienic "mood" was encouraged by a child-saving ethos that focused upon the poor. In this article the author…

  10. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  11. Same Voyage, Different Routes? The Course of the Netherlands and Denmark to a "European Model" of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Marike; Huisman, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The European dimension in quality assurance grows and glows. In this article, we try to relate the European objectives, as stated in the various European initiatives, to the national quality assurance systems of The Netherlands and Denmark. This will be done by looking closer at the objectives regarding quality assurance and internationalisation,…

  12. Internationalization of Curricula in Higher Education Institutions in Comparative Perspectives: Case Studies of China, Japan and The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the major issues and character of internationalization of curricula in higher education institutions in recent years in three non-English-speaking countries--China, Japan and The Netherlands. By making a comparative analysis of curricula provided for international students and curricula with international subjects,…

  13. Independent Living & Disability Policy in the Netherlands: Three Models of Residential Care & Independent Living. Monograph Number Twenty-Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gerben

    The monograph examines the way in which the Netherlands' three-part system of residential care and independent living (IL) for people with physical disabilities interacts with the country's health and social welfare systems. The three-part system comprises: the residential center model, the clustered housing model, and the independent housing…

  14. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors.

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  16. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space: The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials. They place meaningful objects at the place of…

  17. Sunshine as Medicine: Health Colonies and the Medicalization of Childhood in the Netherlands c.1900-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2007-01-01

    As in other Western countries in the Netherlands during the first half of the twentieth century, large numbers of school children were sent to holiday camps or "health colonies" to gain weight and recover strength. At first this large-scale hygienic enterprise was led by teachers, who wanted to "save" poor, undernourished children by providing a…

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  19. Life Satisfaction among Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands: The Role of Absolute and Relative Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokdemir, Ozge; Dumludag, Devrim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of several socio-economic and non-economic factors such as absolute and relative income, education and religion to explain the differences of happiness levels of Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in the Netherlands by using ordered logit model. We focus on members of the Moroccan and Turkish communities, as…

  20. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  1. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in the Netherlands. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmerdam, John; And Others

    Training in the motor vehicle repair and sales sector in the Netherlands was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional and social context, employment practices, changing conditions, and available education and training; in-depth case studies of four auto repair shops…

  2. Self-Esteem and the Evaluation of Ethnic Identity among Turkish and Dutch Adolescents in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1990-01-01

    Reports results from a nationwide sample in the Netherlands examining effects of minority status on Turkish adolescents. Finds that Turkish ethnicity did not significantly lower self-esteem. Reveals that (for both groups) body image had the greatest impact on self-esteem. Reports ethnic identity was more salient to Turks' self-concept than to…

  3. Children of Turkish Immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands: The Impact of Differences in Vocational and Academic Tracking Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice; Schneider, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Much research is being done on Turkish immigrants and their children in Germany and the Netherlands, but almost always from a national perspective. To compare the situation, for example, regarding educational outcomes across the two countries has proved to be very difficult because of different sets, selection criteria, and…

  4. From Parent to Child: Early Labor Market Experiences of Second-Generation Immigrants in the Netherlands. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ours, Jan C.; Veenman, Justus

    This study investigated the early labor market experiences of second generation immigrants in the Netherlands, focusing on Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antilleans. Researchers examined those leaving school and their job experiences. Data came from a 1998 nationwide survey involving the four minority groups and a Dutch reference group in 13…

  5. Educational Innovation between Freedom and Fixation: The Cultural-Political Construction of Innovations in Early Childhood Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    2013-01-01

    As in many countries, in the Netherlands, governmental policy regulates the decisions of schools and care providers that concern and the control of the quality of education and care. Article 23 of the Dutch Constitution defines a fundamental right of freedom in matters of education within the context of institutions such as schools and other…

  6. Forced Marriages in the Netherlands: A Macrosociological Approach to Marriages Contracted as a Consequence of Unintended Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooy, Gerrit A.; Cramwinckel-Weeda, Iteke

    1975-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the relationship between "enforced" marriage and church affiliation, degree of urbanization and level of education are tested with data from the Netherlands pertaining to the periods 1959-1961 and 1969-1971. Differences between the first and the second time period are attributed to sexual permissiveness during the last decade.…

  7. Speaking of Belonging: Learning to Be "Good Citizens" in the Context of Voluntary Language Coaching Projects in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Rhiannon

    2015-01-01

    This article explores citizenship education for adult immigrants through informal language education in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on data collected over thirteen months of ethnographic research among volunteer Dutch language coaches in Amsterdam, the primary methods used in this study were in-depth semi-structured interviews and…

  8. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B.S.; Leyten, Eliane M.S.; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Koopmans, Marion P.

    2015-01-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  9. Dissolution of Associational Life? Testing the Individualization and Informalization Hypotheses on Leisure Activities in the Netherlands between 1975 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ingen, Erik; Dekker, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether individualization and informalization processes have occurred in the field of leisure in The Netherlands, by analyzing the social context of a wide range of activities between 1975 and 2005. We find that the choice of a particular leisure context is dependent on education, gender, year of birth, age and time…

  10. CoSN Senior Delegation to Scotland and Netherlands: Real Investment/Real Innovation (November 6-14, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Irene, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    In November, 2009 The Consortium of School Networking (CoSN) led a United States (US) "Senior Delegation" to the Netherlands and Scotland as part of its ongoing efforts to facilitate a global conversation on the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in education. Building upon the experiences of three previous…

  11. Generic versus Specific Competencies of Entry-Level Public Health Graduates: Employers' Perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesma, Regien G.; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G.; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of…

  12. The Attributive Possessive in Moroccan Arabic Spoken by Young Bilinguals in the Netherlands and Their Peers in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Moroccan Arabic has two competing syntactic constructions for possessive marking: a synthetic one and an analytic one. The distribution of these constructions is investigated in semi-spontaneous narratives (frog stories) from four Moroccan cities and from the diaspora community in the Netherlands. This distribution is found to depend very much on…

  13. Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design--Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Brouns, Francis; Pannekeet, Kees; Janssen, Jose; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the Open University of the Netherlands as an instructive case for the introduction of e-learning based on the IMS Learning Design specification (IMS LD). The IMS LD specification, as approved by the IMS Global Learning Consortium in 2003, enables the specification and encoding of learning scenarios that describe any design of a…

  14. Towards Intercultural Education. A Comparative Study of the Education of Migrant Children in Belgium, England, France, and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boos-Nunning, Ursula; And Others

    This study, originally published in German in 1983, describes results of a comparative evaluation of Commission of the European Communities projects for migrant children's education in four countries (Belgium, England, France, and the Netherlands). The report begins with a discussion of the European Communities' 1970 directive on the teaching of…

  15. A comparison of burial, maturity and temperature histories of selected wells from sedimentary basins in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelskamp, S.; David, P.; Littke, R.

    2008-09-01

    Sedimentary basins in The Netherlands contain significant amounts of hydrocarbon resources, which developed in response to temperature and pressure history during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Quantification and modelling of burial, maturity and temperature histories are the major goals of this study, allowing for a better understanding of the general geological evolution of the different basins as well as petroleum generation. All major basins in The Netherlands encountered at least one time of inversion and therefore moderate to high amounts of erosion. In order to determine the amount of inversion the basins have experienced, a 1D study was performed on 20 wells within three basins (West Netherlands, Central Netherlands and Lower Saxony Basins). New vitrinite reflectance values were obtained and existing data re-evaluated to gain a good data base. The burial histories of six wells, two for each studied basin, are presented here, to demonstrate the differences in basin evolution that led to their present shape and petroleum potential. The Permo-Triassic subsidence phase can be recognized in all three basins, but with varying intensity. In the Jurassic, the basins experienced different relative movements that culminated in the Cretaceous when the influence of the inversion caused erosion of up to 2,500 m. Most wells show deepest burial at present-day, whereas the timing of maximum temperature differs significantly.

  16. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex…

  17. Mixed Signals: Combining Linguistic and Affective Functions of Eyebrows in Questions in Sign Language of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vos, Connie; van der Kooij, Els; Crasborn, Onno

    2009-01-01

    The eyebrows are used as conversational signals in face-to-face spoken interaction (Ekman, 1979). In Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT), the eyebrows are typically furrowed in content questions, and raised in polar questions (Coerts, 1992). On the other hand, these eyebrow positions are also associated with anger and surprise, respectively, in…

  18. Inhibiting Factors in the Prevention of Overweight in Infants: An Explorative Qualitative Study among Child Healthcare Practitioners in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dera de Bie, Eveliene; Jansen, Maria; Gerver, Willem Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore inhibiting factors in the prevention of overweight in infants younger than one year, among practitioners working for municipal child healthcare organisations in the Netherlands. Twelve in-depth interviews with child healthcare physicians and nurses were conducted. All interviews were tape-recorded, after which…

  19. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  20. Digitising the Past: The Beginning of a New Future at the Royal Tropical Institute of The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a project to digitise maps at the Royal Tropical Institute, or Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen (KIT), of The Netherlands. KIT has an extensive collection of maps and nautical charts of (sub-) tropical regions, including general maps and topographical map series, city maps, thematic maps and…

  1. Knowledge Transfer between SMEs and Higher Education Institutions: Differences between Universities and Colleges of Higher Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfmann, Heike; Koster, Sierdjan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge transfer (KT) between higher education institutions (HEIs) and businesses is seen as a key element of innovation in knowledge-driven economies: HEIs generate knowledge that can be adopted in the regional economy. This process of valorization has been studied extensively, mainly with a focus on universities. In the Netherlands, there is a…

  2. A new and alien species of ``oyster leech'' (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Stylochidae) from the brackish North Sea Canal, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluys, Ronald; Faubel, Anno; Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Velde, Gerard Van Der

    2005-11-01

    A new species of polyclad flatworm, Imogine necopinata Sluys, sp. nov., is described from a brackish habitat in The Netherlands. Taxonomic affinities with Asian species and the ecology of the animals suggest that the species is an introduced, exotic component of the Dutch fauna. The new species belongs to a group of worms with species that are known to predate on oysters.

  3. Crossing Borders in Educational Innovation: Framing Foreign Examples in Discussing Comprehensive Education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of comprehensive schooling to convince their audiences.…

  4. Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology. Report on a WHO Working Group (The Hague, The Netherlands, December 6-8, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The 1978 report of the Working Group of Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the government of The Netherlands, is presented. The groups analyzed models of postgraduate training in clinical oncology and evaluated their suitability in relation to…

  5. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  6. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  7. The mental health of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents attending a clinic in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Elizabeth Batista Pinto; Burhorst, Ingrid

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry service in the Netherlands. Children with families and unaccompanied minors were compared. Unaccompanied minors had significantly higher frequencies of symptoms and psychiatric disorders than the children with families, both considered a high-risk population for mental health problems. PMID:18089641

  8. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  9. Programmes in Social Care: A Comparison between the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Ireland. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallstedt, Pelle; Hogstrom, Mats

    This comparative study of social care programs at four European colleges in Nijmegen (Netherlands), Malmo (Sweden), Sligo (Ireland), and Lillehammer (Norway) looks at whether graduates from one country would be qualified to work in social care in the other countries. The report is based on analysis of data from official documents, questionnaires…

  10. Chapter 4: Short-Cycle Higher Education in the Netherlands--Adoption and Implementation of the New Associate Degree Qualification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daale, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, the Netherlands has been actively engaged in a process of developing, piloting, and institutionalizing a new 2-year, short-cycle higher education degree, titled the "associate degree". This initiative evolved as a collaborative grassroots effort spearheaded by several Dutch national higher education and business organizations and…

  11. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  12. The Evaluation of a National Research Plan To Support the Implementation of Computers in Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonen, Jef; And Others

    This paper describes the evolution of a national research plan for computers and education, an approach which was initiated in the Netherlands in 1983. Two phases can be recognized in the Dutch experience: one from 1984 until 1988 and one from 1989 until 1992. Building upon the experiences of the first phase, research plans for the second phase…

  13. The Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction to Explain Technology Use in Post-Graduate Teacher Education Programs in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Lockhorst, Ditte; Smit, Ben; Weijers, Sanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined technology in post-graduate teacher training programs in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was completed by 111 teacher educators from 12 Dutch universities with a post-graduate teacher training program. The general view of the use of technology in Dutch post-graduate teacher education was quite conventional. Basic technology…

  14. Childcare and Education for Children between the Ages of Two and Seven in the Netherlands. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, The Hague (Netherlands).

    In the Netherlands, there is growing interest in the day care and education of young children, stemming from the increase in culturally different, multilingual pupils in recent years and the understanding that the first 2 years of primary education form the basis for a successful school career. This position paper of the Ministry of Education,…

  15. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  16. Risk-based testing of imported animals: A case study for bovine tuberculosis in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Clazien J; van der Goot, Jeanet A; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Swanenburg, Manon; Elbers, Armin R W

    2015-09-01

    In intra-EU trade, the health status of animals is warranted by issuing a health certificate after clinical inspection in the exporting country. This certificate cannot provide guarantee of absence of infection, especially not for diseases with a long incubation period and no overt clinical signs such as bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The Netherlands are officially free from bTB since 1999. However, frequent reintroductions occurred in the past 15 years through importation of infected cattle. Additional testing (AT) of imported cattle could enhance the probability of detecting an imported bTB infection in an early stage. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk-based AT for bTB in cattle imported into The Netherlands. A generic stochastic import risk model was developed that simulates introduction of infection into an importing country through importation of live animals. Main output parameters are the number of infected animals that is imported (Ninf), the number of infected animals that is detected by testing (Ndet), and the economic losses incurred by importing infected animals (loss). The model was parameterized for bTB. Model calculations were optimized to either maximize Ndet or to minimize loss. Model results indicate that the risk of bTB introduction into The Netherlands is very high. For the current situation in which Dutch health checks on imported cattle are limited to a clinical inspection of a random sample of 5-10% of imported animals, the calculated annual Ninf=99 (median value). Random AT of 8% of all imported cattle results in Ndet=7 (median value), while the median Ndet=75 if the sampling strategy for AT is optimized to maximize Ndet. However, in the latter scenario, loss is more than twice as large as in the current situation, because only calves are tested for which cost of detection is higher than the expected gain of preventing a possible outbreak. When optimizing the sampling strategy for AT to minimize loss, only breeding

  17. Fossil and modern sources of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands - A year-long radiocarbon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Ulrike; Monaco, Mattia; Kappetijn, Arthur; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Szidat, Sönke; Röckmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C in aerosols can provide a direct estimate of the contribution of fossil fuel sources to aerosol carbon. In aerosol science, measurements of 14C/12C ratios are usually reported as fraction modern (fm). The radiocarbon signature gives a clear distinction between 'modern' carbon sources (fm around 1.1-1.2 for biomass burning and around 1.05 for biogenic secondary organic aerosol) and 'fossil' carbon sources (fm =0 for primary and secondary formation from fossil fuel combustion). Due to the high cost of 14C analyses very few long-term studies have been conducted to date. The data that will be presented offer a unique insight into the seasonal variation of source contributions to the carbonaceous aerosol in a highly industrialized region. High volume filter samples have been collected roughly twice per month from February 2011 - July 2012 at Cabauw, a rural location in the Netherlands surrounded by major urban centers and highways. This site provides a regional background aerosol contamination in the Netherlands. We report measurements of fm for total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), water insoluble OC (WIOC) and thermally refractory carbon (RC) as a proxy for elemental carbon. The fraction modern of OC lies between 0.65 - 1 and shows only a moderate seasonal variation with highest values in the spring and lowest values in the summer. Elemental carbon is generally dominated by fossil fuel emissions, but shows a distinct seasonal variation with higher contribution of modern sources from November - Mai. This contribution is attributed to wood combustion. It is low when air masses arrive from the ocean and high for air masses with European continental origin, pointing to a main source outside the Netherlands. Water soluble organic carbon is dominated by modern sources throughout the year. For TC concentrations between 1.2 and 8 μg/m3, fm(TC) increases with TC concentration. A Keeling plot implies that synoptic scale

  18. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  19. A national scale monitoring network for nutrients in agriculture dominated headwaters in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broers, H. P.; Rozemeijer, J.; Klein, J.

    2012-04-01

    Although specific monitoring networks exist in the Netherlands which assess the leaching of nutrients to surface waters and groundwater, none of them was capable to quantify the effects of nutrient reduction schemes to agriculture dominated headwaters. Thus, an important link was missing which relates the nutrient concentrations measured in shallow groundwater at farm scale to nutrient concentrations measured at the scale of Water Framework Directive water bodies. A new network was composed using existing monitoring locations and water quality time series owned by the 24 water boards in the Netherlands. Only monitoring locations were selected where no other pollution sources , such as water sewage treatment plants were influencing water quality. Eventually, 168 monitoring locations were selected to assess compliance to environmental standards and 80 for trend analysis. Compliance was tested applying environmental quality standards (EQS) based on summer averaged concentrations, which are set by the water boards and which are water type and location dependent. Compliance was strongly weather dependent, and only 24% of the locations complied for N and P under all weather conditions. Trends were assessed using a combination of seasonal Mann-Kendall tests and Theil-Sen robust lines for individual time series, and aggregating those trends to acquire median and average trend slopes for the sand, clay and peat regions in the Netherlands. Significant downward trends were demonstrated for N and P over the whole period (slopes between -0,55 mgN/l and -0.015 and 0.02 mg P/l per 10 year). Slopes were even more pronounced for winter concentrations of N (-0.89 mg N/l per 10 year). The slopes were relevant and environmentally significant in relation to the height of the EQS and were attributed to the effective reduction of nutrient leaching as the result of adapted farming practices. The presentation will highlight and evaluate choices in the design of the newly composed network

  20. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  1. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  2. Incidence and Predictors of Maternal Cardiovascular Mortality and Severe Morbidity in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Claartje M.; Zwart, Joost J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess incidence and possible risk factors of severe maternal morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Netherlands. Design A prospective population based cohort study. Setting All 98 maternity units in the Netherlands. Population All women delivering in the Netherlands between August 2004 and August 2006 (n = 371,021) Methods Cases of severe maternal morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease were prospectively collected during a two-year period in the Netherlands. Women with cardiovascular complications during pregnancy or postpartum who were admitted to the ward, intensive care or coronary care unit were included. Cardiovascular morbidity was defined as cardiomyopathy, valvular disease, ischaemic heart disease, arrhythmias or aortic dissection. All women delivering in the same period served as a reference cohort. Main outcome measures Incidence, case fatality rates and possible risk factors. Results Incidence of severe maternal morbidity due to cardiovascular disease was 2.3 per 10,000 deliveries (84/358,874). Maternal mortality rate from cardiovascular disease was 3.0 per 100,000 deliveries (11/358,874). Case fatality rate in women with severe maternal morbidity due to cardiovascular disease was 13% (11/84). Case fatality rate was highest in aortic dissection (83%). Pre-existing acquired or congenital heart disease was identified in 34% of women. Thirty-one percent of women were of advanced maternal age (>35 years of age) and 5 percent above 40 years of age. Possible risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity were caesarean section (either resulting in or as a result of cardiovascular disease), multiple pregnancy, prior caesarean section, non-Western ethnicity and obesity. Conclusions In the Netherlands cardiovascular disease is a rare cause of severe maternal morbidity with an incidence of 2.3 per 10,000 deliveries and a high case fatality rate of 13%. Cardiovascular complications develop mostly in women not known with

  3. A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at a flower show, the Netherlands, 1999.

    PubMed

    Den Boer, Jeroen W; Yzerman, Ed P F; Schellekens, Joop; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Van Steenbergen, Jim E; Bosman, Arnold; Van den Hof, Susan; Van Vliet, Hans A; Peeters, Marcel F; Van Ketel, Ruud J; Speelman, Peter; Kool, Jacob L; Conyn-Van Spaendonck, Marina A E

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill (133 confirmed and 55 probable cases), for an attack rate of 0.23% for visitors and 0.61% for exhibitors. Two whirlpool spas in halls 3 and 4 of the exhibition and a sprinkler in hall 8 were culture positive for Legionella pneumophila. One of three genotypes found in both whirlpool spas was identical to the isolates from 28 of 29 culture-positive patients. Persons who paused at the whirlpool spa in hall 3 were at increased risk for becoming ill. This study illustrates that whirlpool spas may be an important health hazard if disinfection fails.

  4. Travel-related Dengue Virus Infection, the Netherlands, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Sonder, Gerard J.B.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; van Gool, Tom; Kint, Joan A.P.C.M.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2011-01-01

    To assess the incidence of and risk factors for clinical and subclinical dengue virus (DENV) infection, we prospectively studied 1,207 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to dengue-endemic areas. Participants donated blood samples for serologic testing before and after travel. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against DENV. Seroconversion occurred in 14 (1.2%) travelers at risk. The incidence rate was 14.6 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate was significantly higher for travel during the rainy months. Dengue-like illness occurred in 5 of the 14 travelers who seroconverted. Seroconversion was significantly related to fever, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and skin rash. The risk for DENV infection for short-term travelers to dengue-endemic areas is substantial. The incidence rate for this study is comparable with that in 2 other serology-based prospective studies conducted in the 1990s. PMID:21529390

  5. Reemergence of pertussis in the highly vaccinated population of the Netherlands: observations on surveillance data.

    PubMed Central

    de Melker, H. E.; Schellekens, J. F.; Neppelenbroek, S. E.; Mooi, F. R.; Rümke, H. C.; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed pertussis reporting, death, hospitalization, and serodiagnostic data from 1976 to 1998 to help explain the cause of the 1996 pertussis outbreak in the Netherlands. The unexpected outbreak was detected by an increase in pertussis reporting and by other surveillance methods. In 1996, according to reporting and serologic data, the increase in pertussis incidence among (mostly unvaccinated) children less than 1 year of age was similar to the increase in hospital admissions. Among older (mostly vaccinated) persons, the increase in hospital admissions was relatively small. The increase in pertussis incidence was higher among vaccinated than among unvaccinated persons of all ages. This resulted in lower estimates of vaccine effectiveness. The proportion of pertussis infections resulting in recognizable symptoms may have increased among vaccinated persons because of a mismatch of the vaccine strain and circulating Bordetella pertussis strains. The small immunogenicity profile of the Dutch vaccine may have resulted in greater vulnerability to antigenic changes in B. pertussis. PMID:10905967

  6. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in The Netherlands after 32 years of high vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Smits, Gaby; Mollema, Liesbeth; Hahné, Susan; de Melker, Hester; Tcherniaeva, Irina; van der Klis, Fiona; Berbers, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Here we present rubella virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in The Netherlands in 2006/2007. In the nationwide sample, seroprevalence was high (95%). Higher levels of rubella specific antibodies were observed in the naturally infected cohorts compared with the vaccinated cohorts. After both vaccinations, the geometric mean concentration of rubella specific antibodies remained well above the protective level. However, antibody concentrations decreased faster after one than after two vaccinations. Infants too young to be vaccinated were a risk group in the nationwide sample. In the orthodox protestant group, individuals younger than 6 years of age were at risk for an infection with rubella, consistent with a small local outbreak that recently occurred at an orthodox protestant primary school. The general Dutch population is well protected against an infection with rubella virus. However, monitoring the rubella specific seroprevalence remains an important surveillance tool to assess possible groups at risk.

  7. A growth model of the cockle ( Cerastoderma edule L.) tested in the Oosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Jose L.; Smaal, Aad C.; Scholten, Huub

    2005-11-01

    We present an ecophysiological model of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule that simulates individual growth and reproduction under ambient conditions in temperature and food availability in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. The model contains feedback loops in the uptake and metabolism of food and in the partitioning of carbon to the internal state variables: somatic tissue, storage, organic shell matrix and gametes. The model was calibrated for 24 parameters, based on random distributions of parameter values. This procedure includes an estimate of confidence intervals of the output variables. The simulated growth of shell length and animal wet and dry weight reflected the observed values of growth in the field for the period 1993 - 1997. The model is a tool for the integration of ecophysiological knowledge of this species and also for carrying-capacity studies of shellfish culture and for environmental management of populations in estuarine and coastal areas.

  8. Depressive disorder among Turkish women in the Netherlands: a qualitative study of idioms of distress.

    PubMed

    Borra, Ria

    2011-11-01

    The provision of mental health services to immigrants in the Netherlands is hampered by difficulty in establishing valid diagnoses of psychiatric disorders. To improve the process of diagnosing depressive disorder among Turkish women in Dutch mental healthcare, we conducted a qualitative study of women with depression in Rotterdam. A bilingual Turkish-Dutch diagnostic interview was developed to explore Turkish women's idioms of distress. Interviews were conducted with 20 women with a disputed diagnosis of depression. Results showed that distress among the Turkish women was characterized by a wide range of somatic complaints, with anxiety and agitation occurring as frequently as depressive complaints. Because the range of complaints is so varied, major depression may be underdiagnosed in the Turkish immigrant population.

  9. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs.

  10. 22nd European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Leiden, The Netherlands, 28 February–3 March 2002

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Andrew P; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    The European Workshop for Rheumatology Research met this year in Leiden, The Netherlands. The Workshop provided a platform to feast on new technologies and how they have taken research programmes forward. While there will be the inevitable delay during which mechanisms are devised for analysing the huge amount of information generated by these technologies, there is a lot already to look forward to. Highlights included genomic, reverse genomic and proteomic approaches to understanding disease pathogenesis and to identifying new therapeutic targets. Opportunities for exploring whether pharmacogenomics has a place in the clinic are now a reality, and phage display technology has been applied to in vivo arthritis models to identify human synovial microvascular 'post codes'. PMID:12106499

  11. Explaining emigration intentions and behaviour in the Netherlands, 2005-10.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Hendrik P; Henkens, Kène

    2013-07-01

    We examined the emigration intentions of native-born Dutch residents and their subsequent emigration behaviour from 2005 to 2010. Data were collected from two surveys on emigration intentions, one conducted locally and one nationally. A number of novel results stand out. First, intentions were good predictors of future emigration: 34 per cent of those who had stated an intention to emigrate actually emigrated within the 5-year follow-up period. Second, the personality of potential migrants and their discontent with the quality of the public domain in the Netherlands (e.g., crowded space and inadequate access to unspoilt nature, pollution, crime level, mentality of people) were the strongest contributors to the motivation to move abroad. Third, the main difference between movers and those who stated intentions to emigrate but had not (yet) followed through was their state of health: healthy people were more likely to follow through with their migration intentions than those in poorer health.

  12. Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hefting, Mariet; Beltman, Boudewijn; Karssenberg, Derek; Rebel, Karin; van Riessen, Mirjam; Spijker, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    Riparian zones are known to function as buffers, reducing non-point source pollution from agricultural land to streams. In the Netherlands, riparian zones are subject to high nitrogen inputs. We combined hydrological, chemical and soil profile data with groundwater modelling to evaluate whether chronically N loaded riparian zones were still mitigating diffuse nitrate fluxes. Hydraulic parameters and water quality were monitored over 2 years in 50 piezometres in a forested and grassland riparian zone. Average nitrate loadings were high in the forested zone with 87 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1) and significantly lower in the grassland zone with 15 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1). Groundwater from a second aquifer diluted the nitrate loaded agricultural runoff. Biological N removal however occurred in both riparian zones, the grassland zone removed about 63% of the incoming nitrate load, whereas in the forested zone clear symptoms of saturation were visible and only 38% of the nitrate load was removed.

  13. Experiments with Zeolites at the Secondary School Level: Experience from The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Eric N.; Davis, Pamela J.; Kerkstra, Aonne; van Bekkum, Herman

    1999-10-01

    This article describes a number of experiments that involve zeolites and are suitable for secondary-school chemistry laboratories. The experiments have been introduced successfully into secondary schools in The Netherlands. Zeolites are used in enormous quantities as builders (water softeners) in laundry detergents; they account for 15-30 wt % of most laundry detergents currently on the European market. In a series of experiments, students test the hardness of tap water before and after treatment with some zeolite and perform tests with a range of commercial laundry detergents containing zeolites. Zeolites are also used as catalysts in numerous industrial processes; another experiment described here highlights the use of zeolites as recyclable catalysts in an esterification reaction. A duplicate reaction is carried out in parallel, but using the conventional sulfuric acid catalyst instead of the zeolite. This experiment provides a good example of the benefit of a recyclable, heterogeneous catalyst over the conventional homogeneous one that is discarded as waste material.

  14. Environmental risk assessment of phosphonates, used in domestic laundry and cleaning agents in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna; Van Genderen-Takken, Helen; Hanstveit, Arnbjorn; van de Plassche, Erik; Feijtel, Tom

    2002-05-01

    In the long-term cooperative project Voluntary Plan of Action (1990) between the Dutch Soap and Detergent Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) environmental risk assessments of several main components of laundry cleaning formulations were completed. As a part of that project the environmental risk assessment of HEDP, ATMP, EDTMP and DTPMP phosphonates used in detergent applications has been carried out according to the EU Technical Guidance Document for Environmental Risk Assessment for New and Existing Chemicals. All PEC/PNEC ratios were well below 1. Results of this assessment based on the total industry volumes from 1995 and 1998 indicate that the environmental risk of these phosphonates is low in The Netherlands with properly functioning sewage treatment plants.

  15. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  16. The classical swine fever epidemic 1997-1998 in The Netherlands: descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Elber, A R; Stegeman, A; Moser, H; Ekker, H M; Smak, J A; Pluimers, F H

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the severe epidemic of classical swine fever (CSF) in The Netherlands in 1997-1998 under a policy of non-vaccination, intensive surveillance, pre-emptive slaughter and stamping out in an area which has one of the highest pig and herd densities in Europe. The primary outbreak was detected on 4 February 1997 on a mixed sow and finishing pig herd. A total of 429 outbreaks was observed during the epidemic, and approximately 700,000 pigs from these herds were slaughtered. Among these outbreaks were two artificial insemination centres, which resulted in a CSF-suspect declaration of 1680 pig herds (mainly located in the southern part of The Netherlands). The time between introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) into the country and diagnosis of CSF in the primary outbreak was estimated to be approximately 6 weeks. It is presumed that CSFV was spread from The Netherlands to Italy and Spain via shipment of infected piglets in the beginning of February 1997, before the establishment of a total stand-still of transportation. In June 1997, CSFV is presumed to be introduced into Belgium from The Netherlands. Pre-emptive slaughter of herds that had been in contact with infected herds or were located in close vicinity of infected herds, was carried out around the first two outbreaks. However, this policy was not further exercised till mid-April 1997, when pre-emptive slaughter became a standard operational procedure for the rest of the epidemic. In total, 1286 pig herds were pre-emptively slaughtered. (approximately 1.1 million pigs). A total of 44 outbreaks (10%) was detected via pre-emptive slaughter. When there were clinical signs, the observed symptoms in infected herds were mainly atypical: fever, apathy, ataxia or a combination of these signs. In 322 out of 429 outbreaks (75%), detection was bases on clinical signs observed: 32% was detected by the farmer, 25% by the veterinary practitioner, 10% of the outbreaks by tracing teams and 8% by

  17. Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Biesmeijer, J C; Roberts, S P M; Reemer, M; Ohlemüller, R; Edwards, M; Peeters, T; Schaffers, A P; Potts, S G; Kleukers, R; Thomas, C D; Settele, J; Kunin, W E

    2006-07-21

    Despite widespread concern about declines in pollination services, little is known about the patterns of change in most pollinator assemblages. By studying bee and hoverfly assemblages in Britain and the Netherlands, we found evidence of declines (pre-versus post-1980) in local bee diversity in both countries; however, divergent trends were observed in hoverflies. Depending on the assemblage and location, pollinator declines were most frequent in habitat and flower specialists, in univoltine species, and/or in nonmigrants. In conjunction with this evidence, outcrossing plant species that are reliant on the declining pollinators have themselves declined relative to other plant species. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest a causal connection between local extinctions of functionally linked plant and pollinator species.

  18. Introducing a standard of legal insanity: The case of Sweden compared to The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Susanna; Meynen, Gerben; Bennet, Tova

    2015-01-01

    A recent governmental report has suggested that the notion of insanity, which has not been a relevant concept in Swedish criminal law for the last 50years, should be reintroduced into the criminal justice system. This move has generated a debate over the most appropriate criteria to be included in a legal standard for insanity. We consider the fundamental question of whether a legal standard is required when introducing insanity, by looking at a legal system in which legal insanity is available but where no standard is used: The Netherlands. Overall, a review of advantages and disadvantages leads to the conclusion that such a standard is necessary. What exactly should that standard be? Is the development of different "grades" of insanity desirable? Legal considerations concerning what is essentially a legal notion should predominate in making these determinations-informed by psychiatric and other relevant scientific findings.

  19. Over my dead body: body donation and the rise in donor registrations in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sophie; Eisinga, Rob; Altena, Marga; Venbrux, Eric; Gerrits, Peter O

    In The Netherlands, the number of body donor registrations has been increasing for several years. Body donors are people who register at an anatomical institute to donate their entire body, after death, for scientific education and research. Although only 0.1% of the Dutch population is registered as a body donor, this is sufficient to realize the anatomical demand of about 650 bodies annually. Due to the recent rise of registrations many anatomical institutes have (temporarily) stopped registering new donors to prevent a surplus of bodies. Based on a large body donor survey (n=759) and in-depth anthropological interviews with 20 body donors, we try to give an explanation for the rising registration numbers. We argue that the choice for body donation in contemporary, individualized Dutch society is an autonomous way to give meaning and sense to life and death outside the framework of institutionalized religion. PMID:23495537

  20. Detection of novel divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with inclusion body disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Kik, M J L; Raj, V Stalin; Schapendonk, C M E; Haagmans, B L; Smits, S L; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2013-06-01

    Arenaviruses are bi-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses, which were until recently only detected in rodents and humans. Now highly divergent arenaviruses have been identified in boid snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). Here, we describe the identification of a new species and variants of the highly divergent arenaviruses, which were detected in tissues of captive boid snakes with IBD in The Netherlands by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence of the open reading frames of the four predicted proteins of one of the detected viruses revealed that this virus was most closely related to the recently identified Golden Gate virus, while considerable sequence differences were observed between the highly divergent arenaviruses detected in this study. These findings add to the recent identification of the highly divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with IBD in the United States and indicate that these viruses also circulate among boid snakes in Europe.

  1. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. A Large Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease at a Flower Show, the Netherlands, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Yzerman, Ed P.F.; Schellekens, Joop; Lettinga, Kamilla D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Bosman, Arnold; Van den Hof, Susan; Van Vliet, Hans A.; Peeters, Marcel F.; Van Ketel, Ruud J.; Speelman, Peter; Kool, Jacob L.; Van Spaendonck, Marina A.E. Conyn

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill (133 confirmed and 55 probable cases), for an attack rate of 0.23% for visitors and 0.61% for exhibitors. Two whirlpool spas in halls 3 and 4 of the exhibition and a sprinkler in hall 8 were culture positive for Legionella pneumophila. One of three genotypes found in both whirlpool spas was identical to the isolates from 28 of 29 culture-positive patients. Persons who paused at the whirlpool spa in hall 3 were at increased risk for becoming ill. This study illustrates that whirlpool spas may be an important health hazard if disinfection fails. PMID:11749746

  3. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Euser, Sjoerd M.; Brandsema, Petra; Reijnen, Linda; Bruin, Jacob P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). During 2002–2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002–2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil). PMID:26079594

  4. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26336303

  5. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Den Boer, Jeroen W; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra; Reijnen, Linda; Bruin, Jacob P

    2015-07-01

    In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). During 2002-2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002-2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil).

  6. Underdiagnosis of foodborne hepatitis A, The Netherlands, 2008-2010(1.).

    PubMed

    Petrignani, Mariska; Verhoef, Linda; Vennema, Harry; van Hunen, Rianne; Baas, Dominique; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2014-04-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne hepatitis A are rarely recognized as such. Detection of these infections is challenging because of the infection's long incubation period and patients' recall bias. Nevertheless, the complex food market might lead to reemergence of hepatitis A virus outside of disease-endemic areas. To assess the role of food as a source of infection, we combined routine surveillance with real-time strain sequencing in the Netherlands during 2008-2010. Virus RNA from serum of 248 (59%) of 421 reported case-patients could be sequenced. Without typing, foodborne transmission was suspected for only 4% of reported case-patients. With typing, foodborne transmission increased to being the most probable source of infection for 16%. We recommend routine implementation of an enhanced surveillance system that includes prompt forwarding and typing of hepatitis A virus RNA isolated from serum, standard use of questionnaires, data sharing, and centralized interpretation of data.

  7. [Ethical review of biobanks in The Netherlands: lessons from the String of Pearls Initiative].

    PubMed

    Boeckhout, Martin; van Dijk, Jet; Legemate, Dink A

    2011-01-01

    Ethical and legal aspects of biobanking continue to be a topic of concern. The String of Pearls Initiative (PSI) helped establish new norms for biobank governance in The Netherlands. This article gives an overview of issues that emerged from the medical-ethical review processes of PSI. The criteria applied to biobanking projects by Ethical Review Boards were derived from the legally prescribed criteria for medical research. However, these criteria were interpreted in radically diverging ways. Key issues included the legal status of prospective research-dedicated biobanks, informed consent, monitoring of the use of biobanks, and alignment of biobanking policies both within and between research departments. The article calls on all actors involved in biobanking to continue to strive for the harmonization of biobanking policies. A certain degree of central coordination is crucial in order to improve on collaborative biobanking initiatives. PMID:21767425

  8. A lifetime of professional singing: Voice parameters and age in the Netherlands Radio Choir.

    PubMed

    Berghs, Geert; Creylman, Nena; Avaux, Marianne; Decoster, Wivine; de Jong, Felix

    2013-07-01

    In professional choirs one would like to identify the incidence and severity of vocal problems due to ageing, and know how to influence them. The aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent easily obtainable voice parameters were age-related. From 47 singers of the Netherlands Radio Choir the Voice Range Profile parameters and the vibrato characteristics were measured. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) was calculated. We found that the age of male and female singers correlated negatively to the highest fundamental frequency and the Dysphonia Severity Index. No signs of slower and wider vibrato were found. These findings can lead to identifying adequate parameters e.g. for the ageing voice, useful in larger groups of professional singers. PMID:23116370

  9. [Repetitive strain injury (RSI); a report from the Health Council of the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Willems, J H B M

    2002-10-19

    The Health Council of the Netherlands has published its advisory report on Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). The report provides clear information on the state of this syndrome, including the definition of the problem, the epidemiology, various hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms, occupational and personal risk factors, and possible methods of treatment. The council states that with regard to the last aspect, too few data are available to draw any conclusion as to the most promising therapy. Nevertheless, patients should get consistent advice from their GP or company doctor. The council emphasises that encouraging physical exercise and eliminating any possible causative strain should be part of an integrated approach, embracing work-related psychosocial and personal issues. Of particular interest is the council's advice to prevent RSI by improving the physical condition and by selective training of muscle function. The report recommends that more research be carried out in order to provide insight into the effectiveness of the treatment of RSI.

  10. Quality assurance of medical education in the Netherlands: programme or systems accreditation?

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, Harry F. P.

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation is an instrument that is used worldwide to monitor, maintain and improve the quality of medical education. International standards have been defined to be used in reviewing and evaluating the quality of education. The organization and the process of accreditation of medical education programmes in the Netherlands and in Flanders are described in some detail. Accreditation can be based on the results of a detailed assessment of an educational programme or on an evaluation of the educational system and the organization of the institution in question. The Flemish-Dutch accreditation organization (NAO) is moving from programme accreditation towards a combination of programme and systems accreditation. The pros and cons of these two approaches are discussed. PMID:21818192

  11. In the Netherlands, rich interaction among professionals conducting disease management led to better chronic care.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-11-01

    Disease management programs based on the Chronic Care Model are expected to improve the quality of chronic care delivery. However, evidence to date for such improvement and how it is achieved is scarce. In 2010 and again in 2011, we surveyed professionals in twenty-two primary care practices in the Netherlands that had implemented the Chronic Care Model of disease management beginning in 2009. The responses showed that, over time, chronic illness care delivery improved to advanced levels. The gains were attributed primarily to improved relational coordination-that is, raising the quality of communication and task integration among professionals from diverse disciplines who share common objectives. These findings may have implications for other disease management efforts by collaborative care teams, in that they suggest that diverse health care professionals must be strongly connected to provide effective, holistic care.

  12. The effects of new ways of work in the Netherlands: national data and a case study.

    PubMed

    Vink, P; Blok, M; Formanoy, M; de Korte, E; Groenesteijn, L

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 15.2% of the work force in the Netherlands works with a computer at another location than at the office or at the clients' location. 27% of the Dutch working population is not satisfied about the possibility to work at home and 18% is not satisfied on the possibility to plan your own working time. The case control study affirms what has been reported as effects of new ways of work: the experienced productivity by communication and the representativeness of the office interior are improved and attention is needed for workers that need concentration space and need to personalize their work environment. In implementing new ways of work these issues need attention.

  13. Dutch perspectives on the British Medical Association's critique of euthanasia in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, R

    2001-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on the euthanasia policy were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: The British Medical Association, in its memorandum before the House of Lords, held that in regard to Holland, "all seem to agree that the so-called rules of careful conduct (official guidelines for euthanasia) are disregarded in some cases. Breaches of rules range from the practice of involuntary euthanasia to failure to consult another practitioner before carrying out euthanasia and to certifying the cause of death as natural". What do you think? Most of the interviewees conceded that this assertion is, indeed, correct. Two interviewees didn't pay much notice to the issue and three others said that the British critique is both true and untrue. PMID:11817393

  14. The cost-utility of rotavirus vaccination with Rotarix (RIX4414) in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lucas M A; Standaert, Baudouin; Hartwig, Nico; Hövels, Anke M; Al, Maiwenn J

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-utility of mass vaccination of 0-4-year-old children with Rotarix in the Netherlands. We used a Markov process with Dutch data on incidence, resource use and costs (GP, hospitalisation, productivity loss and household costs) to compare vaccination to conventional treatment from a societal perspective. Utility loss due to rotavirus-induced diarrhoea was measured using EQ5D, with GPs and paediatricians serving as proxies to fill out the questions. As the costs of a vaccination course ranged from 90 euro to 100 euro per child, the cost-utility ratio varied from 21,900 euro to 35,076 euro per QALY gained. Based on the current study, it is clear that mass vaccination with Rotarix against rotavirus gastroenteritis can be attractive, from an economic and a health care perspective.

  15. The prevalence of Isospora suis and Strongyloides ransomi in suckling piglets in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Eysker, M; Boerdam, G A; Hollanders, W; Verheijden, J H

    1994-12-01

    Faecal samples from suckling piglets from 113 litters on 25 farms in the Netherlands were examined to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, in particular Strongyloides ransomi and Isospora suis. S. ransomi was not found but I. suis was demonstrated in 17 of the 25 farms and in 41 out of 77 litters of these farms (53%). No other parasites were found. On the basis of these results, a longitudinal study on the incidence and significance of I. suis was performed on 10 farms (5 litters/farm). I. suis was found on 9 out of 10 farms and in 56% of the litters. Farms differed in infection levels, measured as the numbers of patent litters, and in the onset of patency. Other parasites were only found in faecal samples from the sows and from farrowing pens. These were, in order of prevalence, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, Eimeria spinosa, E. debliecki and E. suis. PMID:7740744

  16. Emotional suppression and well-being in immigrants and majority group members in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stupar, Snežana; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Fontaine, Johnny R J

    2014-12-01

    We were interested in interethnic differences in emotional suppression. We propose a model in which suppression of specific emotional experiences (suppressive behaviours during interactions with others) mediates the relationship between emotional suppression tendency (intention to suppress emotions) and well-being, operationalised as mood disturbance, life dissatisfaction and depressive and physical symptoms. The sample consisted of 427 majority group members and 344 non-Western and 465 Western immigrants in the Netherlands. Non-Western immigrants scored higher on emotional suppression tendency and lower on well-being than the other groups. We did not find interethnic differences in suppression of specific emotional experiences. The full mediation model was supported in all groups. Interethnic differences in well-being could not be accounted for by differences in emotional suppression.

  17. Travel-related dengue virus infection, The Netherlands, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Baaten, Gijs G G; Sonder, Gerard J B; Zaaijer, Hans L; van Gool, Tom; Kint, Joan A P C M; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2011-05-01

    To assess the incidence of and risk factors for clinical and subclinical dengue virus (DENV) infection, we prospectively studied 1,207 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to dengue-endemic areas. Participants donated blood samples for serologic testing before and after travel. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against DENV. Seroconversion occurred in 14 (1.2%) travelers at risk. The incidence rate was 14.6 per 1,000 person-months. The incidence rate was significantly higher for travel during the rainy months. Dengue-like illness occurred in 5 of the 14 travelers who seroconverted. Seroconversion was significantly related to fever, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and skin rash. The risk for DENV infection for short-term travelers to dengue-endemic areas is substantial. The incidence rate for this study is comparable with that in 2 other serology-based prospective studies conducted in the 1990s.

  18. Limiting solidarity in the Netherlands: a two-tier system on the way.

    PubMed

    Ter Meulen, R H

    1995-12-01

    Health care policy in the Netherlands has long been guided by the values of solidarity and equality. As a result of several forces, particularly the scarcity of resources, the retreat of the Welfare State and the introduction of market forces in health care, both values are increasingly under strain. Next to solidarity and equality, freedom of choice and financial responsibility are playing an important role in Dutch health care. Consequently, there is a growing division in Dutch health care between two tiers, one basic tier giving access to a basic package of services and a luxury tier giving access to a higher quality of care and to services not included in the basic package. The main thesis of the article is that a two-tier system is morally justified on the condition that the basic tier is universally accessible and is based on the value of humanitarian solidarity. PMID:11608826

  19. Over my dead body: body donation and the rise in donor registrations in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sophie; Eisinga, Rob; Altena, Marga; Venbrux, Eric; Gerrits, Peter O

    In The Netherlands, the number of body donor registrations has been increasing for several years. Body donors are people who register at an anatomical institute to donate their entire body, after death, for scientific education and research. Although only 0.1% of the Dutch population is registered as a body donor, this is sufficient to realize the anatomical demand of about 650 bodies annually. Due to the recent rise of registrations many anatomical institutes have (temporarily) stopped registering new donors to prevent a surplus of bodies. Based on a large body donor survey (n=759) and in-depth anthropological interviews with 20 body donors, we try to give an explanation for the rising registration numbers. We argue that the choice for body donation in contemporary, individualized Dutch society is an autonomous way to give meaning and sense to life and death outside the framework of institutionalized religion.

  20. The development of anthropology and colonial policy in the Netherlands: 1800-1960.

    PubMed

    Ellen, R F

    1976-10-01

    Although there have been studies of both Dutch colonial policy in the Indies and the development of anthropology in the Netherlands, there has been no systematic examination of the historical relations between them. This paper attempts this for a period of 160 years from the collapse of the Dutch East India Company to the birth of an independent Indonesian state. During this time, the need of successive governments for information on subject peoples was matched by the requirements of scholars for suitable conditions and locations for their work. As Dutch anthropology emerged in the nineteenth century and developed in the twentieth it was closely related to the prevailing political climate--state capitalism, liberal, and ethical policies. The analysis shows how there is a 'fit' between these and certain dominant anthropological styles and interests, principally in the form of empiricism, customy law studies, "Leiden" structuralism, and functionalism. PMID:797707

  1. Introducing a standard of legal insanity: The case of Sweden compared to The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Susanna; Meynen, Gerben; Bennet, Tova

    2015-01-01

    A recent governmental report has suggested that the notion of insanity, which has not been a relevant concept in Swedish criminal law for the last 50years, should be reintroduced into the criminal justice system. This move has generated a debate over the most appropriate criteria to be included in a legal standard for insanity. We consider the fundamental question of whether a legal standard is required when introducing insanity, by looking at a legal system in which legal insanity is available but where no standard is used: The Netherlands. Overall, a review of advantages and disadvantages leads to the conclusion that such a standard is necessary. What exactly should that standard be? Is the development of different "grades" of insanity desirable? Legal considerations concerning what is essentially a legal notion should predominate in making these determinations-informed by psychiatric and other relevant scientific findings. PMID:26003234

  2. [Health Council of the Netherlands follows the ecological trail: a new venture].

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The Health Council of the Netherlands' report 'Guidelines for a healthy diet: the ecological perspective' only partially succeeds in its objectives. The main conclusions are correct: less calories for the obese and replacement of animal protein by plant-based foods are good for both health and the environment, and consumption of fish twice a week is good for health, but not for the environment. However, the Health Council's report does not discuss regulatory measures such as internalization of external costs and the introduction of good manufacturing practices, which can be conducive to implementing a more environmentally friendly healthy diet. Also more could have been done with existing scientific literature, which provides support for eating fresh seasonal produce and lowering the average Dutch protein intake by about one third as contributions to an environmentally friendly healthy diet, and for further research in the field of algae-based fish substitutes. PMID:21771374

  3. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, Karin; Strand, Tanja M; Verkerk, Monique; Reusken, Chantal; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; van de Goot, Frank; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe. PMID:25656468

  4. Decision-making and evacuation planning for flood risk management in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kolen, Bas; Helsloot, Ira

    2014-07-01

    A traditional view of decision-making for evacuation planning is that, given an uncertain threat, there is a deterministic way of defining the best decision. In other words, there is a linear relation between threat, decision, and execution consequences. Alternatives and the impact of uncertainties are not taken into account. This study considers the 'top strategic decision-making' for mass evacuation owing to flooding in the Netherlands. It reveals that the top strategic decision-making process itself is probabilistic because of the decision-makers involved and their crisis managers (as advisers). The paper concludes that deterministic planning is not sufficient, and it recommends probabilistic planning that considers uncertainties in the decision-making process itself as well as other uncertainties, such as forecasts, citizens responses, and the capacity of infrastructure. This results in less optimistic, but more realistic, strategies and a need to pay attention to alternative strategies.

  5. Novel optoelectronic devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on novel optoelectronics discusses topics in the state-of-the-art in this field in the Netherlands, quantum wells, integrated optics, nonlinear optical devices and fiber-optic-based devices, ultrafast optics, and nonlinear optics and optical bistability. Attention is given to the production of fiber-optics for telecommunications by means of PCVD, lifetime broadening in quantum wells, nonlinear multiple quantum well waveguide devices, tunable single-wavelength lasers, an Si integrated waveguiding polarimeter, and an electrooptic light modulator using long-range surface plasmons. Also discussed are backward-wave couplers and reflectors, a wavelength-selective all-fiber switching matrix, the impact of ultrafast optics in high-speed electronics, the physics of low energy optical switching, and all-optical logical elements for optical processing.

  6. Think regionally, act locally: metals in honeybee workers in the Netherlands (surveillance study 2008).

    PubMed

    van der Steen, J J M; Cornelissen, B; Blacquière, T; Pijnenburg, J E M L; Severijnen, M

    2016-08-01

    In June 2008, a surveillance study for metals in honeybees was performed in the Netherlands. Randomly, 150 apiaries were selected. In each apiary, five colonies were sampled. Per apiary, the hive samples were pooled. The apiary sample was analysed for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. All metals could be detected in all apiaries. As, Li, Sb, Sn and V were detected in part of the apiaries. The overall picture showed a regional pattern. In apiaries in the east of the Netherlands, Al, Ba, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Ti are found in higher concentrations compared to the west. In-region variation was demonstrated, indicating local effects. The vicinity of the apiaries was mapped afterwards and characterised as land uses of >50 % agricultural area, >50 % wooded area, >50 % urban area and mixed land use within a circle of 28 km(2) around the apiary. The results indicated that in apiaries located in >50 % wooded areas, significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, Ti and Zn were found compared to agricultural, urban and mixed land use areas. We conclude that (1) the ratio between metal concentrations varies per region, demonstrating spatial differences, and (2) there is in-region local variation per metal. The results indicate the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. For qualitative bioindication studies, regional, local and land use effects should be taken into account. PMID:27406208

  7. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2015-11-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries.

  8. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E; Van Tassell, James L; Hoetjes, Paul; Toller, Wes; Etnoyer, Peter; Smith, Michael

    2010-05-21

    Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are indicated in the annotated

  9. Integrated dementia care in The Netherlands: a multiple case study of case management programmes.

    PubMed

    Minkman, Mirella M N; Ligthart, Suzanne A; Huijsman, Robbert

    2009-09-01

    The number of dementia patients is growing, and they require a variety of services, making integrated care essential for the ability to continue living in the community. Many healthcare systems in developed countries are exploring new approaches for delivering health and social care. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse a new approach in extensive case management programmes concerned with long-term dementia care in The Netherlands. The focus is on the characteristics, and success and failure factors of these programmes.A multiple case study was conducted in eight regional dementia care provider networks in The Netherlands. Based on a literature study, a questionnaire was developed for the responsible managers and case managers of the eight case management programmes. During 16 semistructured face-to-face interviews with both respondent groups, a deeper insight into the dementia care programmes was provided. Project documentation for all the cases was studied. The eight programmes were developed independently to improve the quality and continuity of long-term dementia care. The programmes show overlap in terms of their vision, tasks of case managers, case management process and the participating partners in the local dementia care networks. Differences concern the targeted dementia patient groups as well as the background of the case managers and their position in the local dementia care provider network. Factors for success concern the expert knowledge of case managers, investment in a strong provider network and coherent conditions for effective inter-organizational cooperation to deliver integrated care. When explored, caregiver and patient satisfaction was high. Further research into the effects on client outcomes, service use and costs is recommended in order to further analyse the impact of this approach in long-term care. To facilitate implementation, with a focus on joint responsibilities of the involved care providers, policy

  10. Experience from practice: compound storm surge and high precipitation in a coastal area in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Hurk, Bart; van Heeringen, Klaas Jan; Gooijer, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In Januari 2012 a near-flooding occurred in Northern Netherlands by compound occurrence of a high soil moisture saturation degree due to past long term precipitation, a strong 1/10 year precipitation event and a coinciding storm surge that prevented the area to drain water to the Northsea for 5 days. The situation was nearly critical: reserved floodplains were used to reduce the water level in the populated areas, and evacuation plans were standby. After 5 days, the end of the storm surge allowed to discharge large water volumes, restoring the situation to normal conditions. The event has triggered the awareness in both the arenas of water management and science. Are the current standards adequate when these compound events occur more frequently than expected from random correlation? And do weather and climate modellers pay adequate attention to the output of their models that is truly meaningful to society, like combinations of strong winds over sea and high precipitation volumes in land? Preliminary analyses with observed records show that safety standards are sensitive to the assumed correlation between storm surge and local precipitation. Output from high resolution climate model projections for future conditions (with increased winter time precipitation and increased sea level) has been analysed particularly for climate induced chnages in the probability of simultaneous occurrence of these relevant events. Sea level rise is shown to give a pronounced contribution to an increased occurrence of adverse conditions, while increases in precipitation intensity weakly enhance this occurrence. The paper is concluded by a summary of required model experiments and analyses needed to address the influence of current and future compound events on safety standards in the coastal areas in the Netherlands.

  11. Regional structural styles in the northeast Netherlands as expressed on 3-D data

    SciTech Connect

    Goeyenbier, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The northeast Netherlands areas is a highly prospective gas province, containing the Groningen gas field and a multitude of smaller fields. Some 40 three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys have been acquired over the last 10 yr. covering a major part of this 15,000-km[sup 2] area. These surveys have been combined for the first time on a Landmark workstation to produce time, depth, and horizon attribute maps from six important (overburden and reservoir) levels: base Tertiary, base Chalk, base Cretaceous, base Jurassic, top Zechstein and base Zechstein. The structural history was reconstructed by analyzing isopach maps of the various units in combination with dip extractions along the mapped horizons to outline the active fault trends. Isopach maps of the Tertiary, Chalk, and Lower Cretaceous sediments reveal the salt movement during this interval with depocenters in the Lauwerszee trough as a result of salt withdrawal and salt diapirism in the areas of structural weakness near existing fault trends. The dip maps at the base of these units show the en-echelon fault pattern and the presence of crestal collapse systems above the salt domes. A comparison between base Cretaceous and base Chalk isopach maps also highlights the presence of inverted Lower Cretaceous basins. By comparing the overburden fault trends with the pre-Zechstein pattern, late faults can be separated from older trends, which has helped the prediction of sealing faults. The regional 3-D data provide a powerful and unambiguous tool to unravel the structural history in the northeast Netherlands.

  12. Mixed care networks of community-dwelling older adults with physical health impairments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Broese van Groenou, Marjolein; Jacobs, Marianne; Zwart-Olde, Ilse; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-01-01

    As part of long-term care reforms, home-care organisations in the Netherlands are required to strengthen the linkage between formal and informal caregivers of home-dwelling older adults. Information on the variety in mixed care networks may help home-care organisations to develop network type-dependent strategies to connect with informal caregivers. This study first explores how structural (size, composition) and functional features (contact and task overlap between formal and informal caregivers) contribute to different types of mixed care networks. Second, it examines to what degree these network types are associated with the care recipients' characteristics. Through home-care organisations in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we selected 74 frail home-dwelling clients who were receiving care in 2011-2012 from both informal and formal caregivers. The care networks of these older adults were identified by listing all persons providing help with five different types of tasks. This resulted in care networks comprising an average of 9.7 caregivers, of whom 67% were formal caregivers. On average, there was contact between caregivers within 34% of the formal-informal dyads, and both caregivers carried out at least one similar type of task in 29% of these dyads. A principal component analysis of size, composition, contact and task overlap showed two distinct network dimensions from which four network types were constructed: a small mixed care network, a small formal network, a large mixed network and a large formal network. Bivariate analyses showed that the care recipients' activities of daily living level, memory problems, social network, perceived control of care and level of mastery differed significantly between these four types. The results imply that different network types require different actions from formal home-care organisations, such as mobilising the social network in small formal networks, decreasing task differentiation in large formal networks and assigning

  13. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Huijts, Susanne M.; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Postma, Douwe F.; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M.M.; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Vissink, Conrad E.; Bonten, Marc J.M.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2015-01-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65–74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750–17 100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65–74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65–74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100. PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. PMID:26160871

  14. Biodiversity Assessment of the Fishes of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeffrey T.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Van Tassell, James L.; Hoetjes, Paul; Toller, Wes; Etnoyer, Peter; Smith, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites. A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are indicated in the

  15. Treatment outcome of intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in the Netherlands and Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intravenous (IV) artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, however, no GMP-manufactured product is available and treatment data in European travellers are scarce. Fortunately, artesunate became available in the Netherlands and Belgium through a named patient programme. This is the largest case series of artesunate treated patients with severe malaria in Europe. Methods Hospitalized patients treated with IV artesunate between November 2007 and December 2010 in the Netherlands and Belgium were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, treatment and clinical outcome were recorded on a standardized form and mortality, parasite clearance times and the occurrence of adverse events were evaluated. Results Of the 68 treated patients, including 55 with severe malaria, two patients died (2/55 = 3.6%). The mean time to 50% parasite clearance (PCT50), 90% and 99% were 4.4 hours (3.9 - 5.2), 14.8 hours (13.0 - 17.2), and 29.5 hours (25.9 - 34.4) respectively. Artesunate was well tolerated. However, an unusual form of haemolytic anaemia was observed in seven patients. The relationship with artesunate remains uncertain. Conclusions Data from the named patient programme demonstrate that IV artesunate is effective and well-tolerated in European travellers lacking immunity. However, increased attention needs to be paid to the possible development of haemolytic anaemia 2-3 weeks after start of treatment. Treatment of IV artesunate should be limited to the period that IV treatment is required and should be followed by a full oral course of an appropriate anti-malarial drug. PMID:22462806

  16. A decade of molecular genetic testing for MODY: a retrospective study of utilization in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; Bosma, Astrid; Henneman, Lidewij; Rigter, Tessel; Spruijt, Carla MJ; Grimbergen, Anneliese JEMA; Breuning, Martijn H; de Koning, Eelco JP; Losekoot, Monique; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) may be relevant for treatment and prognosis in patients with usually early-onset, non-ketotic, insulin-sensitive diabetes and for monitoring strategies in non-diabetic mutation carriers. This study describes the first 10 years of genetic testing for MODY in The Netherlands in terms of volume and test positive rate, medical setting, purpose of the test and age of patients tested. Some analyses focus on the most prevalent subtype, HNF1A MODY. Data were retrospectively extracted from a laboratory database. In total, 502 individuals were identified with a pathogenic mutation in HNF4A, GCK or HNF1A between 2001 and 2010. Although mutation scanning for MODY was used at an increasing rate, cascade testing was only used for one relative, on average, per positive index patient. Testing for HNF1A MODY was mostly requested by internists and paediatricians, often from regional hospitals. Primary care physicians and clinical geneticists rarely requested genetic testing for HNF1A MODY. Clinical geneticists requested cascade testing relatively more often than other health professionals. A substantial proportion (currently 29%) of HNF1A MODY probands was at least 40 years old at the time of testing. In conclusion, the number of individuals genetically tested for MODY so far in The Netherlands is low compared with previously predicted numbers of patients. Doctors' valuation of the test and patients' and family members' response to (an offer of) genetic testing on the other hand need to be investigated. Efforts may be needed to develop and implement translational guidelines. PMID:24736738

  17. A decade of molecular genetic testing for MODY: a retrospective study of utilization in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; Bosma, Astrid; Henneman, Lidewij; Rigter, Tessel; Spruijt, Carla M J; Grimbergen, Anneliese J E M A; Breuning, Martijn H; de Koning, Eelco J P; Losekoot, Monique; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) may be relevant for treatment and prognosis in patients with usually early-onset, non-ketotic, insulin-sensitive diabetes and for monitoring strategies in non-diabetic mutation carriers. This study describes the first 10 years of genetic testing for MODY in The Netherlands in terms of volume and test positive rate, medical setting, purpose of the test and age of patients tested. Some analyses focus on the most prevalent subtype, HNF1A MODY. Data were retrospectively extracted from a laboratory database. In total, 502 individuals were identified with a pathogenic mutation in HNF4A, GCK or HNF1A between 2001 and 2010. Although mutation scanning for MODY was used at an increasing rate, cascade testing was only used for one relative, on average, per positive index patient. Testing for HNF1A MODY was mostly requested by internists and paediatricians, often from regional hospitals. Primary care physicians and clinical geneticists rarely requested genetic testing for HNF1A MODY. Clinical geneticists requested cascade testing relatively more often than other health professionals. A substantial proportion (currently 29%) of HNF1A MODY probands was at least 40 years old at the time of testing. In conclusion, the number of individuals genetically tested for MODY so far in The Netherlands is low compared with previously predicted numbers of patients. Doctors' valuation of the test and patients' and family members' response to (an offer of) genetic testing on the other hand need to be investigated. Efforts may be needed to develop and implement translational guidelines.

  18. Workload, capacity for coping and psychological and physical outcomes amongst home helps in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Arts, S. E. J.; Kerkstra, A.; van Der Zee, J.; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    1999-03-01

    Owing to many developments and changes in home care in the Netherlands, a national study was carried out. One of the aims was to examine the differences between the six categories of home help in the Netherlands regarding workload, pressure of work and capacity for coping. A total of 474 home helps from six categories participated in the study. A structured questionnaire, based on the components of the research model, was used, which consisted of existing scales regarding workload (organizational and job characteristics, working conditions), psychological and physical outcomes (job satisfaction, burnout, health) and capacity for coping (social support, leadership style, coping strategies). Workload, specifically organizational and job characteristics are scored low by alpha helps and, to a lesser degree, by A home helps. The higher categories of home help experienced relatively bad working conditions. Home helps, except for alpha helps, are, on the whole, quite satisfied with their work, which is one of the psychological and physical outcomes. The higher categories of home help (C, D and E carers) experienced high feelings of emotional exhaustion. Health, absenteeism and back problems did not differ significantly amongst home helps. When looking at capacity for coping, traditional home helps (A to E) received more social support. The subordinate categories of home help dealt less actively with their problems and sought less social support than the other categories. Alpha helps are not employed by the organization and this might cause low organizational and job characteristics, and little social support. Their satisfaction scores suggest that they would like to see their low organizational involvement changed. The higher categories of home help, who carry out many psychosocial tasks, have higher emotional and mental workload and high burnout scores. B, C and D carers, who perform personal care and have to adhere to strict planning, experience extreme time pressure

  19. Hydrology and water quality aspects of rhine bank groundwater in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, P. J.

    1989-04-01

    In deltaic areas with deep polders and in valleys or deltas with heavy groundwater exploitation, bank infiltration is a rapidly expanding mechanism of groundwater recharge. Rhine bank filtrate can be distinguished best from autochthonous groundwater in The Netherlands by way of its natural lower 18O content. Tritium is a good measure of the portion of water younger than 25 years, at least in well mixed Rhine bank filtrate. This portion carries the bulk of the contaminations originating from the Rhine, as evidenced by strong positive correlations between 3H and e.g. halogenated hydrocarbons, taste and mutagenic activity according to the Ames test. The composition of Rhine bank filtrate is further governed by the redox level of the hydrogeochemical system, varying in The Netherlands from suboxic to anoxic with fermentation, and by the underground distance to the influent Rhine branch. Anoxic bank filtrate with strong SO 4-reduction and CH 4 > 1 mg l -1 exhibited a significantly different composition from anoxic bank filtrate without fermentation and without SO 4-reduction. The following parameters are involved: HCO 3, total dissolved solids, SiO 2; KMnO 4-consumption, NH 4, siderite, baryte and vivianite saturation indices, I, total hardness, total PO 4, Fe, dissolved organic carbon, Ba, pH, dichloroethane, Mo, VOCl, Mn, V, dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloroethane, in order of decreasing significance. A longer underground detention time or travel distance, leads to a small decrease in the share of bank filtrate, and a rather strong decrease in K, Li, F, temperature, Mo (only in anoxic, SO 4-(meta)stable bank filtrate), UV-extinction, AOCl, X 7OCl and mutagenic activity. Coli bacteria and viruses could not be detected, not even in samples from wells at 50 m distance from the Rhine, with a minimum travel time of 30 days.

  20. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E; Van Tassell, James L; Hoetjes, Paul; Toller, Wes; Etnoyer, Peter; Smith, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are indicated in the annotated