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Sample records for network routing protocol

  1. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  2. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  3. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime. PMID:22666045

  4. Detailed analysis of routing protocols with different network limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Mohsin; Abuhelala, Mohamed; Glesk, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    In network communication field, routing protocols have got a significant role which are not only used in networks to handle the user data but also to monitor the different network environments. Dynamic routing protocols such as OSPF, EIGRP and RIP are used for forwarding user data to its destination by instantly detecting the dynamic changes across the network. The dynamic changes in the network can be in the form of topological changes, congestions, links failure etc. Therefore, it becomes a challenge to develop and implement dynamic routing protocols that fulfills the network requirements. Hence, each routing protocol has its own characteristics such as convergence activity, routing metric, routing table etc. and will perform differently in various network environments. This paper presents a comprehensive study of static and dynamic routing, along with dynamic routing protocols. Experiments that are conducted under various network limitations are presented using the OPNET tool. The performance of each of dynamic routing protocols are monitored and explained in the form of simulated results using network parameters. The results are analyzed, in order to provide a clear understanding of each protocol performance for the selection of the proper protocol for a given network environment.

  5. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  6. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  7. A double candidate survivable routing protocol for HAP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Panfeng; Li, Chunyue; Ni, Shuyan

    2016-11-01

    To improve HAP network invulnerability, and at the same time considering the quasi-dynamic topology in HAP network, a simple and reliable routing protocol is proposed in the paper. The protocol firstly uses a double-candidate strategy for the next-node select to provide better robustness. Then during the maintenance stage, short hello packets instead of long routing packets are used only to check link connectivity in the quasi-dynamic HAP network. The route maintenance scheme based on short hello packets can greatly reduce link spending. Simulation results based on OPNET demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed routing protocol.

  8. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  9. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  10. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  11. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  12. SDL design of MPLS routing protocol in the private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang

    2005-02-01

    Nowadays multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) technology has achieved great popularity in the world. Because MPLS adopts the scheme of "route once and switch many", routing is the key element to ensure packets are transmitted to destinations. Though there are many designs of MPLS routing protocol for public networks, they can hardly fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents the design of MPLS routing protocol in the private network using the specification and description language (SDL), which is an object-oriented formal language and mainly used in communications area. In our design the whole autonomous system (AS) is regarded as a single area to reduce the number of protocol packets. The SDL module of MPLS routing protocol consists of four kinds of processes, namely Management, Checking, NeigSession and LSADbase. Simulations of the SDL design are run in many scenarios, the results of which indicate that the SDL module is manageable and the overall performance is satisfying. From our design and simulation experience, we find that the software development cycle can be drastically reduced by the use of SDL, and the code is easy to maintain and reuse.

  13. Pheromone routing protocol on a scale-free network.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiang; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Ruili; Cao, Xian-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a routing strategy for network systems based on the local information of "pheromone." The overall traffic capacity of a network system can be evaluated by the critical packet generating rate R(c). Under this critical generating rate, the total packet number in the system first increases and then decreases to reach a balance state. The system behaves differently from that with a local routing strategy based on the node degree or shortest path routing strategy. Moreover, the pheromone routing strategy performs much better than the local routing strategy, which is demonstrated by a larger value of the critical generating rate. This protocol can be an alternation for superlarge networks, in which the global topology may not be available.

  14. Reconfigurable Routing Protocol for Free Space Optical Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rong; Yang, Won-Hyuk; Kim, Young-Chon

    2012-01-01

    Recently, free space optical sensor networks (FSOSNs), which are based on free space optics (FSO) instead of radio frequency (RF), have gained increasing visibility over traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to their advantages such as larger capacity, higher security, and lower cost. However, the performance of FSOSNs is restricted to the requirement of a direct line-of-sight (LOS) path between a sender and a receiver pair. Once a node dies of energy depletion, the network would probably suffer from a dramatic decrease of connectivity, resulting in a huge loss of data packets. Thus, this paper proposes a reconfigurable routing protocol (RRP) to overcome this problem by dynamically reconfiguring the network virtual topology. The RRP works in three phases: (1) virtual topology construction, (2) routing establishment, and (3) reconfigurable routing. When data transmission begins, the data packets are first routed through the shortest hop paths. Then a reconfiguration is initiated by the node whose residual energy falls below a threshold. Nodes affected by this dying node are classified into two types, namely maintenance nodes and adjustment nodes, and they are reconfigured according to the types. An energy model is designed to evaluate the performance of RRP through OPNET simulation. Our simulation results indicate that the RRP achieves better performance compared with the simple-link protocol and a direct reconfiguration scheme in terms of connectivity, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and the number of living nodes. PMID:22666061

  15. Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Yang, Won-Hyuk; Kim, Young-Chon

    2012-01-01

    Recently, free space optical sensor networks (FSOSNs), which are based on free space optics (FSO) instead of radio frequency (RF), have gained increasing visibility over traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to their advantages such as larger capacity, higher security, and lower cost. However, the performance of FSOSNs is restricted to the requirement of a direct line-of-sight (LOS) path between a sender and a receiver pair. Once a node dies of energy depletion, the network would probably suffer from a dramatic decrease of connectivity, resulting in a huge loss of data packets. Thus, this paper proposes a reconfigurable routing protocol (RRP) to overcome this problem by dynamically reconfiguring the network virtual topology. The RRP works in three phases: (1) virtual topology construction, (2) routing establishment, and (3) reconfigurable routing. When data transmission begins, the data packets are first routed through the shortest hop paths. Then a reconfiguration is initiated by the node whose residual energy falls below a threshold. Nodes affected by this dying node are classified into two types, namely maintenance nodes and adjustment nodes, and they are reconfigured according to the types. An energy model is designed to evaluate the performance of RRP through OPNET simulation. Our simulation results indicate that the RRP achieves better performance compared with the simple-link protocol and a direct reconfiguration scheme in terms of connectivity, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and the number of living nodes.

  16. Zone-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswarlu Kumaramangalam, Muni; Adiyapatham, Kandasamy; Kandasamy, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research happening across the globe witnessed the importance of Wireless Sensor Network in the present day application world. In the recent past, various routing algorithms have been proposed to elevate WSN network lifetime. Clustering mechanism is highly successful in conserving energy resources for network activities and has become promising field for researches. However, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption is still open because the cluster head activities are tightly coupled with role and location of a particular node in the network. Several unequal clustering algorithms are proposed to solve this wireless sensor network multihop hot spot problem. Current unequal clustering mechanisms consider only intra- and intercluster communication cost. Proper organization of wireless sensor network into clusters enables efficient utilization of limited resources and enhances lifetime of deployed sensor nodes. This paper considers a novel network organization scheme, energy-efficient edge-based network partitioning scheme, to organize sensor nodes into clusters of equal size. Also, it proposes a cluster-based routing algorithm, called zone-based routing protocol (ZBRP), for elevating sensor network lifetime. Experimental results show that ZBRP out-performs interims of network lifetime and energy conservation with its uniform energy consumption among the cluster heads. PMID:27437455

  17. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  18. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  19. Routing Protocol of Sparse Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huxiong

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an application of mobile ad hoc technology in transportation systems, it has become an important part of ITS. Since multi-hop link is hard to set up in sparse VANET, a traffic-aware routing (TAR) protocol is proposed which estimates vehicle average neighbors (VAN) of roads by exchanging beacon messages between encounter vehicles. Road with high VAN is preferred to be selected as part of forwarding path at intersection. Packets are forwarded to the next intersection in road in a greedy manner. Simulations show that TAR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of both packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  20. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Networks," in Ad hoc Networking, Chapter 5, C. E. Perkins, Eds. Addison...Project Report: 09/23/2008 to 09/22/2009 W911NF-08-2-0061 References [I] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. C. Hu and J. Jetcheva, "A...and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, pp. 723 - 726, Sept. 2005. [4] D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz and J. Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for

  1. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  2. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  3. Multiple Path Static Routing Protocols for Packet Switched Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    has not yet been used in routing schemes implemented in operating networks, although there are plans to incorporate this procedure in future routing...rules and procedures used to develop loop-frea! routing scheses, are extensions of techniques used in network graph theory and flow pattern analysis. The...parameters of interest, of a process that resembles the actual bahavior of a specific ’ system. Thus an evaluation of its performance and other important

  4. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  5. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  6. A novel Smart Routing Protocol for remote health monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, T V P; Sumithra, M G; Maheswar, R

    2014-01-01

    In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN), sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP) selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  7. A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.

  8. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  9. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  10. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in micro-electronics, wireless sensor devices have been made much smaller and more integrated, and large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based the cooperation among the significant amount of nodes have become a hot topic. “Large-scale” means mainly large area or high density of a network. Accordingly the routing protocols must scale well to the network scope extension and node density increases. A sensor node is normally energy-limited and cannot be recharged, and thus its energy consumption has a quite significant effect on the scalability of the protocol. To the best of our knowledge, currently the mainstream methods to solve the energy problem in large-scale WSNs are the hierarchical routing protocols. In a hierarchical routing protocol, all the nodes are divided into several groups with different assignment levels. The nodes within the high level are responsible for data aggregation and management work, and the low level nodes for sensing their surroundings and collecting information. The hierarchical routing protocols are proved to be more energy-efficient than flat ones in which all the nodes play the same role, especially in terms of the data aggregation and the flooding of the control packets. With focus on the hierarchical structure, in this paper we provide an insight into routing protocols designed specifically for large-scale WSNs. According to the different objectives, the protocols are generally classified based on different criteria such as control overhead reduction, energy consumption mitigation and energy balance. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of each protocol, we highlight their innovative ideas, describe the underlying principles in detail and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover a comparison of each routing protocol is conducted to demonstrate the differences between the protocols in terms of message complexity, memory requirements, localization, data aggregation, clustering manner

  11. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET. PMID:25136697

  12. Data-Centric Multiobjective QoS-Aware Routing Protocol for Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address Quality-of-Service (QoS)-aware routing issue for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in delay and reliability domains. We propose a data-centric multiobjective QoS-Aware routing protocol, called DMQoS, which facilitates the system to achieve customized QoS services for each traffic category differentiated according to the generated data types. It uses modular design architecture wherein different units operate in coordination to provide multiple QoS services. Their operation exploits geographic locations and QoS performance of the neighbor nodes and implements a localized hop-by-hop routing. Moreover, the protocol ensures (almost) a homogeneous energy dissipation rate for all routing nodes in the network through a multiobjective Lexicographic Optimization-based geographic forwarding. We have performed extensive simulations of the proposed protocol, and the results show that DMQoS has significant performance improvements over several state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:22346611

  13. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rahayu, Triana Mugia; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both. PMID:26131669

  14. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols

  15. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  16. On the Routing Protocol Influence on the Resilience of Wireless Sensor Networks to Jamming Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Monroy, Raul; Nolazco-Flores, Juan Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we compare a recently proposed routing protocol, the multi-parent hierarchical (MPH) protocol, with two well-known protocols, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). For this purpose, we have developed a simulator, which faithfully reifies the workings of a given protocol, considering a fixed, reconfigurable ad hoc network given by the number and location of participants, and general network conditions. We consider a scenario that can be found in a large number of wireless sensor network applications, a single sink node that collects all of the information generated by the sensors. The metrics used to compare the protocols were the number of packet retransmissions, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) inner loop retries, the number of nodes answering the queries from the coordinator (sink) node and the energy consumption. We tested the network under ordinary (without attacks) conditions (and combinations thereof) and when it is subject to different types of jamming attacks (in particular, random and reactive jamming attacks), considering several positions for the jammer. Our results report that MPH has a greater ability to tolerate such attacks than DSR and AODV, since it minimizes and encapsulates the network segment under attack. The self-configuring capabilities of MPH derived from a combination of a proactive routes update, on a periodic-time basis, and a reactive behavior provide higher resilience while offering a better performance (overhead and energy consumption) than AODV and DSR, as shown in our simulation results. PMID:25825979

  17. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  18. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Routing Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    process of establishing the DAG is similar to the query and reply process as proposed in a light-weight mobile routing (LMR) [ Corson 1995]. Upon link...2004. [RIP RFC] RIP Version 2 RFC Website. http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2453.html accessed on 1 October 2004. [Royer 1999] Elizabeth M. Royer & C

  19. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  20. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  1. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  2. Privacy Preserved and Secured Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks.

    PubMed

    Meganathan, Navamani Thandava; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation and security provision against internal attacks in wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are more demanding than in wired networks due to the open nature and mobility of certain nodes in the network. Several schemes have been proposed to preserve privacy and provide security in WMNs. To provide complete privacy protection in WMNs, the properties of unobservability, unlinkability, and anonymity are to be ensured during route discovery. These properties can be achieved by implementing group signature and ID-based encryption schemes during route discovery. Due to the characteristics of WMNs, it is more vulnerable to many network layer attacks. Hence, a strong protection is needed to avoid these attacks and this can be achieved by introducing a new Cross-Layer and Subject Logic based Dynamic Reputation (CLSL-DR) mechanism during route discovery. In this paper, we propose a new Privacy preserved and Secured Reliable Routing (PSRR) protocol for WMNs. This protocol incorporates group signature, ID-based encryption schemes, and CLSL-DR mechanism to ensure strong privacy, security, and reliability in WMNs. Simulation results prove this by showing better performance in terms of most of the chosen parameters than the existing protocols.

  3. Privacy Preserved and Secured Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Thandava Meganathan, Navamani; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation and security provision against internal attacks in wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are more demanding than in wired networks due to the open nature and mobility of certain nodes in the network. Several schemes have been proposed to preserve privacy and provide security in WMNs. To provide complete privacy protection in WMNs, the properties of unobservability, unlinkability, and anonymity are to be ensured during route discovery. These properties can be achieved by implementing group signature and ID-based encryption schemes during route discovery. Due to the characteristics of WMNs, it is more vulnerable to many network layer attacks. Hence, a strong protection is needed to avoid these attacks and this can be achieved by introducing a new Cross-Layer and Subject Logic based Dynamic Reputation (CLSL-DR) mechanism during route discovery. In this paper, we propose a new Privacy preserved and Secured Reliable Routing (PSRR) protocol for WMNs. This protocol incorporates group signature, ID-based encryption schemes, and CLSL-DR mechanism to ensure strong privacy, security, and reliability in WMNs. Simulation results prove this by showing better performance in terms of most of the chosen parameters than the existing protocols. PMID:26484361

  4. Novel distributed control protocol in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pin-Han; Mouftah, Hussein T.

    2002-07-01

    This paper solves the problem of path selection for WDM mesh networks with a special focus on the implementation in middle-sized networks, such as metropolitan-area networks (MANs). A novel routing and signaling protocol, called Asynchronous Criticality Avoidance (ACA), is proposed to improve the network performance. With the ACA protocol, a specific set of wavelength channels are defined as critical links between a node pair according to dynamic link-state. Criticality information is defined as the critical links and the associated information, which is coordinated and disseminated by each source node to every other source node as an inter-arrival planning. Routing and wavelength assignment is performed along with the criticality avoidance mechanism, in which path selection process is devised to take the criticality information into consideration. Simulation is conducted in 22- and 30-node networks to examine the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the ACA protocol significantly outperforms the Fixed-Path Least-Congested (FPLC) scheme under the Fixed Alternate Routing architecture with various patterns of alternate paths assigned to each source-destination pair in the networks.

  5. A survey on the taxonomy of cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  6. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  7. SEAODV: A Security Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Celia; Wang, Zhuang; Yang, Cungang

    In this paper, we propose a Security Enhanced AODV routing protocol (SEAODV) for wireless mesh networks (WMN). SEAODV employs Blom's key pre-distribution scheme to compute the pairwise transient key (PTK) through the flooding of enhanced HELLO message and subsequently uses the established PTK to distribute the group transient key (GTK). PTK and GTK authenticate unicast and broadcast routing messages respectively. In WMN, a unique PTK is shared by each pair of nodes, while GTK is shared secretly between the node and all its one-hop neighbours. A message authentication code (MAC) is attached as the extension to the original AODV routing message to guarantee the message's authenticity and integrity in a hop-by-hop fashion. Security analysis and performance evaluation show that SEAODV is more effective in preventing identified routing attacks and outperforms ARAN and SAODV in terms of computation cost and route acquisition latency.

  8. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ilyas, Naveed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Alrajeh, Nabil; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Liaqat, Tayyaba; Khan, Majid Iqbal

    2015-11-17

    Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS) to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG) routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT) algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS) to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  9. A Comprehensive Performance Comparison of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jahangir; Hayder, Syed Irfan

    Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves on a fly. In this paper we focus on the performance of the on-demand routing protocols such as DSR and AODV in ad-hoc networks. We have observed the performance change of each protocol through simulation with varying the data in intermediate nodes and to compare data throughput in each mobile modes of each protocol to analyze the packet fraction for application data. The objective of this work is to evaluate two routing protocols such as On-demand behavior, namely, Ad hoc Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), for wireless ad hoc networks based on performance of intermediate nodes for the delivery of data form source to destination and vice versa in order to compare the efficiency of throughput in the neighbors nodes. To overcome we have proposed OPNET simulator for performance comparison of hop to hop delivery of data packet in autonomous system.

  10. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Hasan Farooq, Low Tang Jung,

    2013-06-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  11. Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches.

  12. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  13. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  14. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-06-05

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

  15. On the MAC/Network/Energy Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M.; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR. PMID:25474377

  16. On the MAC/network/energy performance evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-12-02

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  17. Fundamental lifetime mechanisms in routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-10-09

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues.

  18. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  19. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  20. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Baoguo

    2010-01-01

    For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a multipath routing protocol (MRP) based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length) were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH) is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively. PMID:22399890

  1. Design of Intelligent Cross-Layer Routing Protocols for Airborne Wireless Networks Under Dynamic Spectrum Access Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    manet-aodv-11.txt 107 17. D. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and J. Broch , “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IETF Internet...multipath distance vector routing,” Wireless Communications And Mobile Computing, vol. 6, pp. 969–988, 2006. 51. J. Broch , D. Maltz, D. Johnson, Y. Hu...wireless networks,” Proc. INFOCOM’97, pp. 1405–1413, April 1997. 55. J. Broch , D. Johnson, and D.Maltz, “The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad

  2. VehiHealth: An Emergency Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to Support Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, S K; Khilar, P M

    2016-03-01

    Survival of a patient depends on effective data communication in healthcare system. In this paper, an emergency routing protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is proposed to quickly forward the current patient status information from the ambulance to the hospital to provide pre-medical treatment. As the ambulance takes time to reach the hospital, ambulance doctor can provide sudden treatment to the patient in emergency by sending patient status information to the hospital through the vehicles using vehicular communication. Secondly, the experienced doctors respond to the information by quickly sending a treatment information to the ambulance. In this protocol, data is forwarded through that path which has less link breakage problem between the vehicles. This is done by calculating an intersection value I v a l u e for the neighboring intersections by using the current traffic information. Then the data is forwarded through that intersection which has minimum I v a l u e . Simulation results show VehiHealth performs better than P-GEDIR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR routing protocols in terms of average end-to-end delay, number of link breakage, path length, and average response time.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols. PMID:26495426

  4. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Madhumathy; Dhandapani, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN) using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS). This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a "splitting tree" technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the "Biased Random Walk" model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS) is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR) protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  5. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  6. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  7. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  8. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  9. AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K.; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

  10. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  11. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xu; Chen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zeng, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP) strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks. PMID:27916917

  12. Towards a hybrid energy efficient multi-tree-based optimized routing protocol for wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Nathalie; Razafindralambo, Tahiry; Simplot-Ryl, David; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2012-12-13

    This paper considers the problem of designing power efficient routing with guaranteed delivery for sensor networks with unknown geographic locations. We propose HECTOR, a hybrid energy efficient tree-based optimized routing protocol, based on two sets of virtual coordinates. One set is based on rooted tree coordinates, and the other is based on hop distances toward several landmarks. In HECTOR, the node currently holding the packet forwards it to its neighbor that optimizes ratio of power cost over distance progress with landmark coordinates, among nodes that reduce landmark coordinates and do not increase distance in tree coordinates. If such a node does not exist, then forwarding is made to the neighbor that reduces tree-based distance only and optimizes power cost over tree distance progress ratio. We theoretically prove the packet delivery and propose an extension based on the use of multiple trees. Our simulations show the superiority of our algorithm over existing alternatives while guaranteeing delivery, and only up to 30% additional power compared to centralized shortest weighted path algorithm.

  13. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds. PMID:26266411

  14. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-08-10

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.

  15. An empirical evaluation of lightweight random walk based routing protocol in duty cycle aware wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mian, Adnan Noor; Fatima, Mehwish; Khan, Raees; Prakash, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs.

  16. An Empirical Evaluation of Lightweight Random Walk Based Routing Protocol in Duty Cycle Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Mehwish

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs. PMID:24696667

  17. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  18. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors' best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well.

  19. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors’ best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well. PMID:27809285

  20. Highly Scalable, UDP-Based Network Transport Protocols for Lambda Grids and 10 GE Routed Networks

    SciTech Connect

    PI: Robert Grossman Co-PI: Stephen Eick

    2009-08-04

    Summary of Report In work prior to this grant, NCDM developed a high performance data transport protocol called SABUL. During this grant, we refined SABUL’s functionality, and then extended both the capabilities and functionality and incorporated them into a new protocol called UDP-based Data transport Protocol, or UDT. We also began preliminary work on Composable UDT, a version of UDT that allows the user to choose among different congestion control algorithms and implement the algorithm of his choice at the time he compiles the code. Specifically, we: · Investigated the theoretical foundations of protocols similar to SABUL and UDT. · Performed design and development work of UDT, a protocol that uses UDP in both the data and control channels. · Began design and development work of Composable UDT, a protocol that supports the use of different congestion control algorithms by simply including the appropriate library when compiling the code. · Performed experimental studies using UDT and Composable UDT using real world applications such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomical data sets. · Released several versions of UDT and Composable, the most recent being v3.1.

  1. A Performance Comparison of On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-15

    33–44, October 2001. [10] L. Ji and M. S. Corson . A Lightweight Adaptive Multicast Algorithm. In Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM ’98, pages 1036–1042...December 1998. [11] L. Ji and M. S. Corson . Differential Destination Multicast (DDM) Specification. Internet- Draft, draft-ietf-manet-ddm-00.txt, July... Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins. Multicast Operation of the Ad-hoc On- Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. In Proceedings of the Fifth

  2. Traffic dynamics based on local routing protocol on a scale-free network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yin, Chuan-Yang; Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Tao

    2006-02-01

    We propose a packet routing strategy with a tunable parameter based on the local structural information of a scale-free network. As free traffic flow on the communication networks is key to their normal and efficient functioning, we focus on the network capacity that can be measured by the critical point of phase transition from free flow to congestion. Simulations show that the maximal capacity corresponds to alpha= -1 in the case of identical nodes' delivering ability. To explain this, we investigate the number of packets of each node depending on its degree in the free flow state and observe the power law behavior. Other dynamic properties including average packets traveling time and traffic load are also studied. Inspiringly, our results indicate that some fundamental relationships exist between the dynamics of synchronization and traffic on the scale-free networks.

  3. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  4. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  5. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  6. Investigations into the Performance of a Distributed Routing Protocol for Packet Switching Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    SWITCHING :-ONCEPr The purpose of aiy communicitions network is to provide paths for the transmission of iaformation. It is desirable that the process ...pa.e switchin; concept requires that each station (rode) iLn the network be capable of processing cer-tainT data corcerning the structare of tha...network. rhis is necessary so --hat the correct :cuti-ng ca.2 be assigned to each packet as it is released oy the nole into the network. T~ process can be

  7. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  8. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei

    2016-07-30

    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network's performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks.

  9. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network’s performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks. PMID:27483282

  10. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  11. A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    mostly attributed to the unfairness of node usage. References [1] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. C. Hu and J. Jetcheva, “A Performance...Wireless Networks & Mobile Computing, pp. 71 – 78, April 2000. [5] D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and J. Broch , “DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing

  12. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Segarra, Esteve Pallarès; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Gargallo, Emilio Sanvicente

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic.Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs. PMID:25897496

  13. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Sanvicente Gargallo, Emilio

    2015-04-17

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  14. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  15. A novel end-to-end fault detection and localization protocol for wavelength-routed WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hongqing; Vukovic, Alex; Huang, Changcheng

    2005-09-01

    Recently the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are becoming prevalent for telecommunication networks. However, even a very short disruption of service caused by network faults may lead to high data loss in such networks due to the high date rates, increased wavelength numbers and density. Therefore, the network survivability is critical and has been intensively studied, where fault detection and localization is the vital part but has received disproportional attentions. In this paper we describe and analyze an end-to-end lightpath fault detection scheme in data plane with the fault notification in control plane. The endeavor is focused on reducing the fault detection time. In this protocol, the source node of each lightpath keeps sending hello packets to the destination node exactly following the path for data traffic. The destination node generates an alarm once a certain number of consecutive hello packets are missed within a given time period. Then the network management unit collects all alarms and locates the faulty source based on the network topology, as well as sends fault notification messages via control plane to either the source node or all upstream nodes along the lightpath. The performance evaluation shows such a protocol can achieve fast fault detection, and at the same time, the overhead brought to the user data by hello packets is negligible.

  16. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  17. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Approved: L1 FEB 12.. Maj Todd R . Andel, PhD (Chairman) Date ~~ Rb 12 Date Date Abstract Secure mobile ad hoc network (MANET) routing protocols are...topology, T=5. 17 Listing 2.1: MPR Selection Algorithm [16]. 1 s e t N2 [ n ] , n e i g h b o r ; 2 3 s e t MPR Selec t ion ( s e t ans , i n t s r c...4 s e l e c t e e = ∅ ; / ∗ ( i ) Remove a l l e n t r i e s from s e l e c t e e ∗ / 5 ans = ans \\ i d ; / ∗ ( i i ) Exc lude y o u r s e l f from

  18. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  19. A native Bayesian classifier based routing protocol for VANETS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhenshan; Zhou, Keqin; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    Geographic routing protocols are one of the most hot research areas in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network). However, there are few routing protocols can take both the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio into account. As we have noticed, different messages in VANET may ask different quality of service. So we raised a Native Bayesian Classifier based routing protocol (Naive Bayesian Classifier-Greedy, NBC-Greedy), which can classify and transmit different messages by its emergency degree. As a result, we can balance the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio with this protocol. Based on Matlab simulation, we can draw a conclusion that NBC-Greedy is more efficient and stable than LR-Greedy and GPSR.

  20. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Bajaber, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s), and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26083228

  1. Analysis of location-aware QoS-routing protocols based on partial temporal and spatial topology for real-time multimedia in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2004-08-01

    In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocol layers in the transport of service packets between source and destination nodes. Quality of service (QoS) requirements are specified for multimedia service classes by the application layer. Due to node mobility, knowledge of their locations is inherently incomplete. Network topology is thus only partially known in time and in space. Cross-layer interactions in the protocol are modeled in terms of a set of concatenated design parameters, updates on node positions and associated energy costs. Functional dependencies of the QoS metrics on the concatenated parameters are described. An analytical framework is established for development of new cross-layer designs that optimize layer interdependencies to achieve the "best" QoS available in the MANET given a partially known, time-varying topology. The designs, based on a reactive MANET protocol, adapt provisioned QoS to dynamic network conditions and residual energy capacities. Cross-layer optimization, given partially known topology, is based on stochastic dynamic programming and predictive estimation conditions derived from time-dependent models of MANET behavior. Models of real-time behavior are based on the control of conditional rates of multivariate point processes (MVPPs). These rates depend on the concatenated protocol and resource parameters. The analytical framework supports predictive models to estimate node mobility in addition to measurement-based estimates of probability distributions for voice, video, data, and other Internet traffic. Estimates of QoS metrics are given in terms of recursive stochastic filters of the network state, based on complete or partial observations of topology and events.

  2. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  3. Analysis of a Rumor Routing Protocol with Limited Packet Lifetimes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    modified rumor routing protocol system................................................... 29 Figure 3: A MORRP node modeled in OPNET ...41 Table 4: Parameters for OPNET model verification simulations...packet-related parameters can be modeled by an arbitrary distribution. 2. Uses OPNET , a discrete-time network simulator, to analyze the effect each

  4. A novel wavelength availability advertisement based ASON routing protocol implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

    2005-11-01

    A novel wavelength availability advertisement based ASON routing protocol implementation is proposed in this paper which is derived from Open Shortest Path First protocol (OSPF) version 2. It can be applied to ASON network with a single control domain and can be easily extended to support routing in the multi-domain scenarios. Two new types of link state advertisement (LSA) are suggested for disseminating wavelength availability and network topology information. The OSPF mechanisms are inherited to ensure that the routing messages are delivered more reliably and converged more quickly while with fewer overheads. The topology auto discovery is realized through LSA flooding interacting with auto neighbor discovery using Link Management Protocol. The new LSA formats are given and how the link state database (LSD) is comprised is described. The new data structures proposed include topology resource list, adjacency list and route table. Then we analyze the differences of ASON in link state exchange, routing information flooding procedure, flushing procedure and new resources participating, i.e. new links or nodes join in an existing ASON. The link or node failure and recovery effect and how to deal with them are settled as well. In order to adopt different Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithms, a standard and efficient interface is designed. After extensive simulation we give the numerical analysis and come to the following conclusions: wavelength availability information flooding Convergence Time is about 30 milliseconds and it is not affected by RWA algorithms and the call traffic load; routing Protocol Average Overhead rises linearly with the increase of traffic load; Average Connection Setup Time decreases with the increase of traffic load because of the decrease of Average Routing Distance of the successfully lightpaths; Wavelength availability advertisement can greatly promote the blocking performance of ASON in relatively low traffic load; ASON

  5. The improvement and simulation for LEACH clustering routing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ai-guo; Zhao, Jun-xiang

    2017-01-01

    An energy-balanced unequal multi-hop clustering routing protocol LEACH-EUMC is proposed in this paper. The candidate cluster head nodes are elected firstly, then they compete to be formal cluster head nodes by adding energy and distance factors, finally the date are transferred to sink through multi-hop. The results of simulation show that the improved algorithm is better than LEACH in network lifetime, energy consumption and the amount of data transmission.

  6. A Performance Analysis of the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Using Voice Traffic Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    audio codec is best suited for MANETS. The MANET simulation environment is established using OPNET . Varying combinations of workloads are submitted...Appendix A. OPNET Simulation Setup .......................................................................... 69 A.1 Scenario Creation and Setup...6. OPNET Ad Hoc Node Wireless Suite Configuration ................................................. 44 7. OPNET OLSR Protocol Configuration

  7. An Authenticated On-Demand Routing Protocol with Key Exchange for Secure MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In the meantime, most secure ad hoc routing protocols based on cryptography just have assumed that pair-wise secret keys or public keys were distributed among nodes before running a routing protocol. In this paper, we raise a question about key management related to existing secure routing protocols, and then we propose an authenticated on-demand ad hoc routing protocol with key exchange by applying the ID-based keyed authenticator. In particular, we focus on providing an authentication mechanism to Dynamic Source Routing protocol combined with Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol, and then we demonstrate simulated performance evaluations. The main contribution of our work is to provide a concurrent establishment of a route and a session key in a secure manner between source and destination nodes in ad hoc networks.

  8. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  9. WDM network and multicasting protocol strategies.

    PubMed

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  10. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  11. Protocols for multisatellite military networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavennu, V. R.; Aronson, M. H.; Sites, M. J.

    The performance of a number of network control protocols applicable to multisatellite networks using single and multiple antenna beams is evaluated. The protocols analyzed include: token passing, polled TDMA, adaptive TDMA, and a reservation assignment with TDMA orderwire. The effects of varying the number of network terminals in the system, message arrival rates and length, propagation delay, and interleaver span-times on the performance of the protocols are investigated. The capabilities of a reservation assignment protocol with slotted-Aloha orderwire and an in-band network control protocol with congestion control and multiple user priorities are examined. It is observed that the token passing protocol is most applicable to an EHF tactical network; the reservation assignment protocol is suited to networks with many terminals requiring short, bursty data communication capability; and the in-band network control protocol is useful for tactical networks that require interoperability.

  12. Routing to preserve energy in wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frederick J., IV

    Many applications for wireless radio networks require that some or all radios in the network rely on batteries as energy sources. In many cases, battery replacement is infeasible, expensive, or impossible. Communication protocols for such networks should be designed to preserve limited energy supplies. Because the choice of a route to a traffic sink influences how often radios must transmit and receive, poor route selection can quickly deplete the batteries of certain nodes. Previous work has shown that a network's lifetime can be extended by assigning higher routing costs to nodes with little remaining energy and nodes that must use high transmitter power to reach neighbor radios. Although using remaining energy levels in routing metrics can increase network lifetime, in practice, there may be significant error in a node's estimate of its battery level. The effect of battery level uncertainty on routing is examined. Routing metrics are presented that are designed to explicitly account for uncertainty in remaining energy. Simulation results using several statistical models for this uncertainty show that the proposed metrics perform well. In addition to knowledge of current battery levels, estimates of how quickly radios are consuming energy may be helpful in extending network lifetime. We present a family of routing metrics that incorporate a radio's rate of energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed family of metrics performs well under a variety of traffic models and network topologies. Route selection can also be complicated by time-varying link conditions. Radios may be subject to interference from other nearby communication systems, hostile jammers, and other, non-communication sources of noise. A route that first appears to have only a small cost may later require much greater energy expenditure when transmitting packets. Frequent route selection can help radios avoid using links with interference, but additional routing control messages

  13. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  14. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  15. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  16. ZERO: probabilistic routing for deploy and forget Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Vilajosana, Xavier; Llosa, Jordi; Pacho, Jose Carlos; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Juan, Angel A; Vicario, Jose Lopez; Morell, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    As Wireless Sensor Networks are being adopted by industry and agriculture for large-scale and unattended deployments, the need for reliable and energy-conservative protocols become critical. Physical and Link layer efforts for energy conservation are not mostly considered by routing protocols that put their efforts on maintaining reliability and throughput. Gradient-based routing protocols route data through most reliable links aiming to ensure 99% packet delivery. However, they suffer from the so-called "hot spot" problem. Most reliable routes waste their energy fast, thus partitioning the network and reducing the area monitored. To cope with this "hot spot" problem we propose ZERO a combined approach at Network and Link layers to increase network lifespan while conserving reliability levels by means of probabilistic load balancing techniques.

  17. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms. PMID:27058539

  18. VANET Clustering Based Routing Protocol Suitable for Deserts.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen Mohammed; Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Shen, Lian-Feng

    2016-04-06

    In recent years, there has emerged applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards security, safety, rescue, exploration, military and communication redundancy systems in non-populated areas, besides its ordinary use in urban environments as an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the process of organizing a cluster structure and cluster head election (CHE) suitable for VANETs. Moreover, it presents a robust clustering-based routing protocol, which is appropriate for deserts and can achieve high communication efficiency, ensuring reliable information delivery and optimal exploitation of the equipment on each vehicle. A comprehensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed CHE and routing algorithms.

  19. Celestial data routing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordetsky, Alex

    2000-11-01

    Imagine that information processing human-machine network is threatened in a particular part of the world. Suppose that an anticipated threat of physical attacks could lead to disruption of telecommunications network management infrastructure and access capabilities for small geographically distributed groups engaged in collaborative operations. Suppose that small group of astronauts are exploring the solar planet and need to quickly configure orbital information network to support their collaborative work and local communications. The critical need in both scenarios would be a set of low-cost means of small team celestial networking. To the geographically distributed mobile collaborating groups such means would allow to maintain collaborative multipoint work, set up orbital local area network, and provide orbital intranet communications. This would be accomplished by dynamically assembling the network enabling infrastructure of the small satellite based router, satellite based Codec, and set of satellite based intelligent management agents. Cooperating single function pico satellites, acting as agents and personal switching devices together would represent self-organizing intelligent orbital network of cooperating mobile management nodes. Cooperative behavior of the pico satellite based agents would be achieved by comprising a small orbital artificial neural network capable of learning and restructing the networking resources in response to the anticipated threat.

  20. Network-wide BGP route prediction for traffic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feamster, Nick; Rexford, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The Internet consists of about 13,000 Autonomous Systems (AS's) that exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The operators of each AS must have control over the flow of traffic through their network and between neighboring AS's. However, BGP is a complicated, policy-based protocol that does not include any direct support for traffic engineering. In previous work, we have demonstrated that network operators can adapt the flow of traffic in an efficient and predictable fashion through careful adjustments to the BGP policies running on their edge routers. Nevertheless, many details of the BGP protocol and decision process make predicting the effects of these policy changes difficult. In this paper, we describe a tool that predicts traffic flow at network exit points based on the network topology, the import policy associated with each BGP session, and the routing advertisements received from neighboring AS's. We present a linear-time algorithm that computes a network-wide view of the best BGP routes for each destination prefix given a static snapshot of the network state, without simulating the complex details of BGP message passing. We describe how to construct this snapshot using the BGP routing tables and router configuration files available from operational routers. We verify the accuracy of our algorithm by applying our tool to routing and configuration data from AT&T's commercial IP network. Our route prediction techniques help support the operation of large IP backbone networks, where interdomain routing is an important aspect of traffic engineering.

  1. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  2. Transmission Scheduling and Routing Algorithms for Delay Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Raible, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of data processing, transmission scheduling and routing within a space network present a multi-criteria optimization problem. Long delays, intermittent connectivity, asymmetric data rates and potentially high error rates make traditional networking approaches unsuitable. The delay tolerant networking architecture and protocols attempt to mitigate many of these issues, yet transmission scheduling is largely manually configured and routes are determined by a static contact routing graph. A high level of variability exists among the requirements and environmental characteristics of different missions, some of which may allow for the use of more opportunistic routing methods. In all cases, resource allocation and constraints must be balanced with the optimization of data throughput and quality of service. Much work has been done researching routing techniques for terrestrial-based challenged networks in an attempt to optimize contact opportunities and resource usage. This paper examines several popular methods to determine their potential applicability to space networks.

  3. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  4. Improved efficient routing strategy on two-layer complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Zhihao

    2016-10-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has become a hot research topic since many networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the traditional shortest path routing (SPR) protocol is susceptible to congestion on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing strategy named improved global awareness routing (IGAR) strategy which is based on the betweenness centrality of nodes in the two layers. With the proposed strategy, the routing paths can bypass hub nodes of both layers to enhance the transport efficiency. Simulation results show that the IGAR strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than the SPR and the global awareness routing (GAR) strategies. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this study is helpful to alleviate congestion of the two-layer complex networks.

  5. An adaptive routing scheme in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Haddou, Nora; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2015-05-01

    We suggest an optimal form of traffic awareness already introduced as a routing protocol which combines structural and local dynamic properties of the network to determine the followed path between source and destination of the packet. Instead of using the shortest path, we incorporate the "efficient path" in the protocol and we propose a new parameter α that controls the contribution of the queue in the routing process. Compared to the original model, the capacity of the network can be improved more than twice when using the optimal conditions of our model. Moreover, the adjustment of the proposed parameter allows the minimization of the travel time.

  6. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  7. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  8. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  9. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  10. Internet protocol network mapper

    DOEpatents

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  11. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  12. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    PubMed

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  13. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    PubMed Central

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  14. Distributed multiple path routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Wang, San-Xiu; Wu, Ling-Wei; Mei, Pan; Yang, Xu-Hua; Wen, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Routing in complex transmission networks is an important problem that has garnered extensive research interest in the recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel routing strategy called the distributed multiple path (DMP) routing strategy. For each of the O-D node pairs in a given network, the DMP routing strategy computes and stores multiple short-length paths that overlap less with each other in advance. And during the transmission stage, it rapidly selects an actual routing path which provides low transmission cost from the pre-computed paths for each transmission task, according to the real-time network transmission status information. Computer simulation results obtained for the lattice, ER random, and scale-free networks indicate that the strategy can significantly improve the anti-congestion ability of transmission networks, as well as provide favorable routing robustness against partial network failures.

  15. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  16. Performance Improvement in Geographic Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D. K.; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-01-01

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed. PMID:25429415

  17. Performance improvement in geographic routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D K; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-11-25

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed.

  18. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-03-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how information may be specifically communicated and dynamically routed in these systems is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that collective dynamical states systematically control patterns of information sharing and transfer in networks, as measured by delayed mutual information and transfer entropies between activities of a network's units. For oscillatory networks we analyze how individual unit properties, the connectivity structure and external inputs all provide means to flexibly control information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve communication patterns at all levels and show how local interventions within one sub-network may remotely control the non-local network-wide routing of information. This theory helps understanding information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  19. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  20. A time-slotted on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc unmanned vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsmann, J. Hope; Hiromoto, Robert E.; Svoboda, John

    2007-04-01

    Successful deployment of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) in military operations has increased their popularity and utility. The ability to sustain reliable mobile ad hoc formations dramatically enhances the usefulness and performance of UVS. Formation movement increases the amount of ground coverage in less time, decreases fuel consumption of the individual nodes, and provides an avenue for mission expansion through cooperative maneuvers such as refueling. In this paper, we study the wireless communication demands that arise from formation and maintenance of UVS within the context of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). A MANET in formation is typically characterized by tradeoffs between network congestion and the ability to maintain useable communication bandwidth. Maintenance of UVS formations requires each node in the network to be peer-aware, which places a heavy demand on inner node communication. In order to mitigate the inner node network congestion, we introduce a time-slotted communication protocol. The protocol assigns time-slots and allows the designated nodes to communicate directly with other peer-nodes. This approach has been introduced within the context of the Time-Slotted Aloha protocol for station-to-station communication. The approach taken here is to embed the time-slotted reservation protocol into a standard on-demand routing protocol to also address the need to reactively and proactively respond to formation maintenance. The time-slotted on-demand routing protocol is shown to eliminate collisions due to route determination and, therefore, enhance quality of service as well as ensure necessary support for formation movement. A worst-case scenario is described and simulations performed to comparatively demonstrate the advantages of the new protocol.

  1. DTN routing in body sensor networks with dynamic postural partitioning.

    PubMed

    Quwaider, Muhannad; Biswas, Subir

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents novel store-and-forward packet routing algorithms for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) with frequent postural partitioning. A prototype WBAN has been constructed for experimentally characterizing on-body topology disconnections in the presence of ultra short range radio links, unpredictable RF attenuation, and human postural mobility. On-body DTN routing protocols are then developed using a stochastic link cost formulation, capturing multi-scale topological localities in human postural movements. Performance of the proposed protocols are evaluated experimentally and via simulation, and are compared with a number of existing single-copy DTN routing protocols and an on-body packet flooding mechanism that serves as a performance benchmark with delay lower-bound. It is shown that via multi-scale modeling of the spatio-temporal locality of on-body link disconnection patterns, the proposed algorithms can provide better routing performance compared to a number of existing probabilistic, opportunistic, and utility-based DTN routing protocols in the literature.

  2. Protocol for a Delay-Tolerant Data-Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Jordan; Hooke, Adrian; Burleigh, Scott; Fall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As its name partly indicates, the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol is a protocol for delay-tolerant transmission of data via communication networks. This protocol was conceived as a result of studies of how to adapt Internet protocols so that Internet-like services could be provided across interplanetary distances in support of deep-space exploration. The protocol, and software to implement the protocol, is being developed in collaboration among experts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other institutions. No current Internet protocols can accommodate long transmission delay times or intermittent link connectivity. The DTN Bundle Protocol represents a departure from the standard Internet assumption that a continuous path is available from a host computer to a client computer: It provides for routing of data through networks that may be disjointed and may be characterized by long transmission delays. In addition to networks that include deepspace communication links, examples of such networks include terrestrial ones within which branches are temporarily disconnected. The protocol is based partly on the definition of a message-based overlay above the transport layers of the networks on which it is hosted.

  3. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    PubMed

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  4. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Kassio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.; Neto, Augusto; de Souza, José Neuman

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare,environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. PMID:23385410

  5. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D.; Rao, D. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network. PMID:26167529

  6. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  7. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  8. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in City Scenario for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sanjoy; Raw, Ram Shringar; Das, Indrani

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, performance analysis of Location Aided Routing (LAR), AODV and DSR protocol in city scenarios has been done. The mobility model considered is Manhattan model. This mobility model used to emulate the movement pattern of nodes i.e., vehicles on streets defined by maps. Our objective is to provide a comparative analysis among LAR, AODV and DSR protocol in city scenarios in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. The simulation work has been conducted using the Glomosim 2.03 simulator. The results show that LAR1 protocol achieves maximum packet delivery ratio is 100% in the sparsely populated network. The delay is maximum in AODV 121.88 ms when the number of node is 10 in the network. The results show that LAR1 outperform DSR and AODV in term of packet delivery ratio and end to end delay.

  9. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  10. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services.

    PubMed

    Bhoi, Sourav Kumar; Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  11. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services

    PubMed Central

    Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops. PMID:27433485

  12. A Multimetric, Map-Aware Routing Protocol for VANETs in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery. PMID:24476683

  13. A multimetric, map-aware routing protocol for VANETs in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-28

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery.

  14. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-01-01

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results. PMID:26610495

  15. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-11-19

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  16. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  17. A distributed geo-routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Kim, Sung Won

    2009-01-01

    Geographic wireless sensor networks use position information for greedy routing. Greedy routing works well in dense networks, whereas in sparse networks it may fail and require a recovery algorithm. Recovery algorithms help the packet to get out of the communication void. However, these algorithms are generally costly for resource constrained position-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose a void avoidance algorithm (VAA), a novel idea based on upgrading virtual distance. VAA allows wireless sensor nodes to remove all stuck nodes by transforming the routing graph and forwarding packets using only greedy routing. In VAA, the stuck node upgrades distance unless it finds a next hop node that is closer to the destination than it is. VAA guarantees packet delivery if there is a topologically valid path. Further, it is completely distributed, immediately responds to node failure or topology changes and does not require planarization of the network. NS-2 is used to evaluate the performance and correctness of VAA and we compare its performance to other protocols. Simulations show our proposed algorithm consumes less energy, has an efficient path and substantially less control overheads.

  18. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  19. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  20. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  1. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-22

    frequency-hop wireless networks," International Journal of Wireless Information Networks , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 147-159, July 2004. [PRW04c] M. B. Pursley...efficient routing of multimedia traffic in frequency-hop packet radio networks," submitted for publication in the International Journal of Wireless Information Networks , August

  2. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast. PMID:28335494

  3. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  4. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  5. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  6. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks without Geographic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Broch et. al. provide a survey of several ad hoc routing protocols[6], including DSDV[26], TORA[22], DSR[16][17], and AODV[27]. Data Dissemination... Broch , David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu, and Jorjeta Jetcheva. A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing

  7. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  8. On increasing network lifetime in body area networks using global routing with energy consumption balancing.

    PubMed

    Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-09-26

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.

  9. Analysis of a distributed algorithm to determine multiple routes with path diversity in ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Dipak; Mueller, Stephen Ng

    2005-04-01

    With multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source can establish multiple routes to a destination for routing data. In MANETs, mulitpath routing can be used to provide route resilience, smaller end-to-end delay, and better load balancing. However, when the multiple paths are close together, transmissions of different paths may interfere with each other, causing degradation in performance. Besides interference, the physical diversity of paths also improves fault tolerance. We present a purely distributed multipath protocol based on the AODV-Multipath (AODVM) protocol called AODVM with Path Diversity (AODVM/PD) that finds multiple paths with a desired degree of correlation between paths specified as an input parameter to the algorithm. We demonstrate through detailed simulation analysis that multiple paths with low degree of correlation determined by AODVM/PD provides both smaller end-to-end delay than AODVM in networks with low mobility and better route resilience in the presence of correlated node failures.

  10. A novel load-balanced fixed routing (LBFR) algorithm for wavelength routed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangxiang; Li, Yongcheng; Peng, Limei

    2011-11-01

    In the wavelength-routed optical transport networks, fixed shortest path routing is one of major lightpath service provisioning strategies, which shows simplicity in network control and operation. Specifically, once a shortest route is found for a node pair, the route is always used for any future lightpath service provisioning, which therefore does not require network control and management system to maintain any active network-wide link state database. On the other hand, the fixed shortest path routing strategy suffers from the disadvantage of unbalanced network traffic load distribution and network congestion because it keeps on employing the same fixed shortest route between each pair of nodes. To avoid the network congestion and meanwhile retain the operational simplicity, in this study we develop a Load-Balanced Fixed Routing (LBFR) algorithm. Through a training process based on a forecasted network traffic load matrix, the proposed algorithm finds a fixed (or few) route(s) for each node pair and employs the fixed route(s) for lightpath service provisioning. Different from the fixed shortest path routes between node pairs, these routes can well balance traffic load within the network when they are used for lightpath service provisioning. Compared to the traditional fixed shortest path routing algorithm, the LBFR algorithm can achieve much better lightpath blocking performance according to our simulation and analytical studies. Moreover, the performance improvement is more significant with the increase of network nodal degree.

  11. A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    table of node K is a matrix containing, for each destination L and each neighbor of K (say M ), the distance to L ( NEOPRQ ) and the predecessor ( S OP Q...identifier T The distance to the destination ( N OP ) T The predecessor of the shortest path chosen toward L ( S OP ) T The successor ( U OP ) of the shortest...P and the predecessor is updated as S OP À ¾ S Q P . Thus, a node can determine whether or not an update received from M affects its other distance

  12. An Adaptive Jitter Mechanism for Reactive Route Discovery in Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Juan Antonio; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of jitter when applied to route discovery in reactive (on-demand) routing protocols. In multi-hop non-synchronized wireless networks, jitter—a small, random variation in the timing of message emission—is commonly employed, as a means to avoid collisions of simultaneous transmissions by adjacent routers over the same channel. In a reactive routing protocol for sensor and ad hoc networks, jitter is recommended during the route discovery process, specifically, during the network-wide flooding of route request messages, in order to avoid collisions. Commonly, a simple uniform jitter is recommended. Alas, this is not without drawbacks: when applying uniform jitter to the route discovery process, an effect called delay inversion is observed. This paper, first, studies and quantifies this delay inversion effect. Second, this paper proposes an adaptive jitter mechanism, designed to alleviate the delay inversion effect and thereby to reduce the route discovery overhead and (ultimately) allow the routing protocol to find more optimal paths, as compared to uniform jitter. This paper presents both analytical and simulation studies, showing that the proposed adaptive jitter can effectively decrease the cost of route discovery and increase the path quality. PMID:25111238

  13. An adaptive jitter mechanism for reactive route discovery in sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Juan Antonio; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-08-08

    This paper analyses the impact of jitter when applied to route discovery in reactive (on-demand) routing protocols. In multi-hop non-synchronized wireless networks, jitter--a small, random variation in the timing of message emission--is commonly employed, as a means to avoid collisions of simultaneous transmissions by adjacent routers over the same channel. In a reactive routing protocol for sensor and ad hoc networks, jitter is recommended during the route discovery process, specifically, during the network-wide flooding of route request messages, in order to avoid collisions. Commonly, a simple uniform jitter is recommended. Alas, this is not without drawbacks: when applying uniform jitter to the route discovery process, an effect called delay inversion is observed. This paper, first, studies and quantifies this delay inversion effect. Second, this paper proposes an adaptive jitter mechanism, designed to alleviate the delay inversion effect and thereby to reduce the route discovery overhead and (ultimately) allow the routing protocol to find more optimal paths, as compared to uniform jitter. This paper presents both analytical and simulation studies, showing that the proposed adaptive jitter can effectively decrease the cost of route discovery and increase the path quality.

  14. Adaptive routing in wireless communication networks using swarm intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Gray, A.; Kassabalidis, I.; Das, A.; Narayanan, S.; Sharkawi, M. El; Marks, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the network routing problem, and survey swarm intelligent approaches for its efficient solution, after a brief overview of power-aware routing schemes, which are important in the network examples outlined above.

  15. A Differential Evolution-Based Routing Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofang; Xu, Lizhong; Wang, Huibin; Song, Jie; Yang, Simon X.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is a clustering-based protocol. The uneven selection of cluster heads results in premature death of cluster heads and premature blind nodes inside the clusters, thus reducing the overall lifetime of the network. With a full consideration of information on energy and distance distribution of neighboring nodes inside the clusters, this paper proposes a new routing algorithm based on differential evolution (DE) to improve the LEACH routing protocol. To meet the requirements of monitoring applications in outdoor environments such as the meteorological, hydrological and wetland ecological environments, the proposed algorithm uses the simple and fast search features of DE to optimize the multi-objective selection of cluster heads and prevent blind nodes for improved energy efficiency and system stability. Simulation results show that the proposed new LEACH routing algorithm has better performance, effectively extends the working lifetime of the system, and improves the quality of the wireless sensor networks. PMID:22219670

  16. A differential evolution-based routing algorithm for environmental monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Xu, Lizhong; Wang, Huibin; Song, Jie; Yang, Simon X

    2010-01-01

    The traditional Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is a clustering-based protocol. The uneven selection of cluster heads results in premature death of cluster heads and premature blind nodes inside the clusters, thus reducing the overall lifetime of the network. With a full consideration of information on energy and distance distribution of neighboring nodes inside the clusters, this paper proposes a new routing algorithm based on differential evolution (DE) to improve the LEACH routing protocol. To meet the requirements of monitoring applications in outdoor environments such as the meteorological, hydrological and wetland ecological environments, the proposed algorithm uses the simple and fast search features of DE to optimize the multi-objective selection of cluster heads and prevent blind nodes for improved energy efficiency and system stability. Simulation results show that the proposed new LEACH routing algorithm has better performance, effectively extends the working lifetime of the system, and improves the quality of the wireless sensor networks.

  17. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Timothy J. Carbino, Captain...ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer... Thesis 20 Aug 10 – 14 Jun 12 Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network 12629PCarbino, Timothy J, Captain, USAF Air Force Institute of

  18. Effective Route Maintenance and Restoration Schemes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. PMID:22315570

  19. Reliable Asynchronous Image Transfer Protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joa-Hyoung; Jung, In-Bum

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we propose a reliable asynchronous image transfer protocol, RAIT. RAIT applies a double sliding window method to node-to-node transfer, with one sliding window for the receiving queue, which is used to prevent packet loss caused by communication failure between nodes, and another sliding window for the sending queue, which prevents packet loss caused by network congestion. The routing node prevents packet loss between nodes by preemptive scheduling of multiple packets for a given image. RAIT implements a double sliding window method by means of a cross-layer design between the RAIT layer, routing layer, and queue layer. We demonstrate that RAIT guarantees a higher reliability of image transmission compared to the existing protocols. PMID:22294883

  20. Theory and New Primitives for Safely Connecting Routing Protocol Instances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    reliability, and load. The current route redistribution procedure handles this incompatibility in a crude fashion. It resets the metric of a redis ...routing instances can also be performed in a link-state manner whereby one routing instance passes on its entire link state database to another...routers B and A, respectively. However, route redis - tribution at multiple points can easily result in routing anomalies [8]. Hence, to support

  1. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes’ collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance. PMID:26927118

  2. A Time-Slotted On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hope Forsmann; Robert Hiromoto; John Svoboda

    2007-04-01

    The popularity of UAVs has increased dramatically because of their successful deployment in military operations, their ability to preserve human life, and the continual improvements in wireless communication that serves to increase their capabilities. We believe the usefulness of UAVs would be dramatically increased if formation flight were added to the list of capabilities. Currently, sustained formation flight with a cluster of UAVs has only been achieved with two nodes by the Multi-UAV Testbed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Park, 2004) Formation flight is a complex operation requiring the ability to adjust the flight patterns on the fly and correct for wind gusts, terrain, and differences in node equipment. All of which increases the amount of inner node communication. Since one of the problems with MANET communication is network congestion, we believe a first step towards formation flight can be made through improved inner node communication. We have investigated current communication routing protocols and developed an altered hybrid routing protocol in order to provide communication with less network congestion.

  3. Retrieving and routing quantum information in a quantum network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazim, S.; Chiranjeevi, V.; Chakrabarty, I.; Srinathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network ( qnet) it cannot be retrieved, even if the dealer wishes that his/her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of the two qnets, say {{Q}}_1 and {{Q}}_2 and he/she subsequently finds that {{Q}}_2 is more reliable than {{Q}}_1, he/she may wish to transfer all her secrets from {{Q}}_1 to {{Q}}_2. Known protocols are inadequate to address such a revocation. In this work we address this problem by designing a protocol that enables the source/dealer to bring back the information shared in the network, if desired. Unlike classical revocation, the no-cloning theorem automatically ensures that the secret is no longer shared in the network. The implications of our results are multi-fold. One interesting implication of our technique is the possibility of routing qubits in asynchronous qnets. By asynchrony we mean that the requisite data/resources are intermittently available (but not necessarily simultaneously) in the qnet. For example, we show that a source S can send quantum information to a destination R even though (a) S and R share no quantum resource, (b) R's identity is unknown to S at the time of sending the message, but is subsequently decided, (c) S herself can be R at a later date and/or in a different location to bequeath her information (`backed-up' in the qnet) and (d) importantly, the path chosen for routing the secret may hit a dead end due to resource constraints, congestion, etc., (therefore the information needs to be back-tracked and sent along an alternate path). Another implication of our technique is the possibility of using insecure resources. For instance, if the quantum memory within an organization is insufficient, it may safely store (using our protocol) its private information with a neighboring organization without (a) revealing critical data to the host and (b) losing control over retrieving the data. Putting the

  4. Reliable on-demand multicast routing with congestion control in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ken; Gerla, Mario

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we address the congestion control multicast routing problem in wireless ad hoc networks through the medium access control (MAC) layer. We first introduce the Broadcast Medium Window (BMW) MAC protocol, which provides reliable delivery to broadcast packets at the MAC layer. We then extend the wireless On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) to facilitate congestion control in ad hoc networks using BMW. Through simulation, we show that ODMRP with congestion control adapts well to multicast sources that are aggressive in data transmissions.

  5. An Autonomous Self-Aware and Adaptive Fault Tolerant Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Sani; Lee, Jeong-A

    2015-01-01

    We propose an autonomous self-aware and adaptive fault-tolerant routing technique (ASAART) for wireless sensor networks. We address the limitations of self-healing routing (SHR) and self-selective routing (SSR) techniques for routing sensor data. We also examine the integration of autonomic self-aware and adaptive fault detection and resiliency techniques for route formation and route repair to provide resilience to errors and failures. We achieved this by using a combined continuous and slotted prioritized transmission back-off delay to obtain local and global network state information, as well as multiple random functions for attaining faster routing convergence and reliable route repair despite transient and permanent node failure rates and efficient adaptation to instantaneous network topology changes. The results of simulations based on a comparison of the ASAART with the SHR and SSR protocols for five different simulated scenarios in the presence of transient and permanent node failure rates exhibit a greater resiliency to errors and failure and better routing performance in terms of the number of successfully delivered network packets, end-to-end delay, delivered MAC layer packets, packet error rate, as well as efficient energy conservation in a highly congested, faulty, and scalable sensor network. PMID:26295236

  6. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  7. An efficient coordination protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paruchuri, Vamsi; Durresi, Arjan; Durresi, Mimoza; Barolli, Leonard

    2005-10-01

    Backbones infrastructures in wireless sensor networks reduce the communication overhead and energy consumption. In this paper, we present BackBone Routing (BBR), a fully distributed protocol for construction and rotation of backbone networks. BBR reduces energy consumption without significantly diminishing the capacity or connectivity of the network. Another key feature of BBR is its energy balancing nature by distributing the role of being Backbone Node among all the nodes. BBR builds on the observation that when a region of a shared-channel wireless network has a sufficient density of nodes, only a small number of them need be on at any time to forward traffic for active connections. Improvement in system lifetime due to BBR increases as the ratio of idle-to-sleep energy consumption increases, and increases as the density of the network increases. Our experiments show that BBR is more efficient in saving energy and extending network life without deteriorating network performance when compared with geographical shortest path routing.

  8. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  9. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  10. The research of a new adaptive on-demand routing protocol in WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongjie; Cui, Gang; Huang, Junheng; Zhang, Zhaoxing

    2013-03-01

    As an important part of the Internet of Things, WSN also has routing strategies which plays a critical role as well as it does in Ad hoc. After the introduction of some distinct traits of WSN, a detailed analysis is performed for a typical ondemand routing protocol in Ad hoc AODV, which then is transplanted into WSN. Furthermore, a transition method of adaptive clustering routing is proposed, based on which, a new adaptive hierarchical routing transition protocol (BCRP) is put forward. Finally, simulations and comparisons of BCRP are performed which lead to a conclusion that BCRP has been greatly improved concerning adaptability and extensibility.

  11. Using Reputation Systems and Non-Deterministic Routing to Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moya, José M.; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Fraga, David; Araujo, Álvaro; Villanueva, Daniel; de Goyeneche, Juan-Mariano

    2009-01-01

    Security in wireless sensor networks is difficult to achieve because of the resource limitations of the sensor nodes. We propose a trust-based decision framework for wireless sensor networks coupled with a non-deterministic routing protocol. Both provide a mechanism to effectively detect and confine common attacks, and, unlike previous approaches, allow bad reputation feedback to the network. This approach has been extensively simulated, obtaining good results, even for unrealistically complex attack scenarios. PMID:22412345

  12. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  13. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  14. Adaptivity in Agent-Based Routing for Data Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Kirshner, Sergey; Merz, Chris J.; Turner, Kagan

    2000-01-01

    Adaptivity, both of the individual agents and of the interaction structure among the agents, seems indispensable for scaling up multi-agent systems (MAS s) in noisy environments. One important consideration in designing adaptive agents is choosing their action spaces to be as amenable as possible to machine learning techniques, especially to reinforcement learning (RL) techniques. One important way to have the interaction structure connecting agents itself be adaptive is to have the intentions and/or actions of the agents be in the input spaces of the other agents, much as in Stackelberg games. We consider both kinds of adaptivity in the design of a MAS to control network packet routing. We demonstrate on the OPNET event-driven network simulator the perhaps surprising fact that simply changing the action space of the agents to be better suited to RL can result in very large improvements in their potential performance: at their best settings, our learning-amenable router agents achieve throughputs up to three and one half times better than that of the standard Bellman-Ford routing algorithm, even when the Bellman-Ford protocol traffic is maintained. We then demonstrate that much of that potential improvement can be realized by having the agents learn their settings when the agent interaction structure is itself adaptive.

  15. Enhancing space data exploitation through advanced data routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Rontogiannis, A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Sykioti, O.; Balasis, G.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Paronis, D.; Tsaoussidis, V.; Diamantopoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Data sharing and access are major issues in space sciences, as they influence the degree of data exploitation. The project "Space-Data Routers", which was initiated recently, has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to share space-data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of "Space-Data Routers" relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project has started with defining limitations currently imposed by typical space mission scenarios, in which the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) is currently involved, including space exploration, planetary exploration and Earth observation missions. Here we are presenting the mission scenarios and the associated major scientific objectives of "Space-Data Routers", with an emphasis on the Sun-Earth connection and the Mars hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy scenarios. In the case of the Sun-Earth connection scenario, we plan to test and validate the capabilities of Space-Data Routers in providing: a) Simultaneous real- time sampling of space plasmas from multiple points with cost-effective means and measuring of phenomena with higher resolution and better coverage to address outstanding science questions and b) Successful data transmission even in hostile communication conditions. In the case of the Mars hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy scenario we plan to test and validate the capabilities of Space-Data Routers in augmenting the data volume received from Mars Express, through the increase of Mars Express connectivity with ground stations and through the increase of access speed to the hyperspectral data depository.

  16. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K.; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70–90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  17. K-BRiR: An Efficient and Self-organized Routing Mechanism for Structured Peer-to-Peer Service Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhenhua; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Zhiliang; Cheng, Wei; Chang, Guiran

    Peer-to-Peer service network takes an important role in the internet technology. The routing mechanism is the core technology for P2P service network. In this paper, an efficient and self-organized routing mechanism named K-BRiR for structured P2P service network is presented. K-BRiR includes a basic routing protocol BRiR which is based on ring topology. The definitions and algorithms are discussed. Our experimental results confirm that K-BRiR is stable and efficient in P2P service network.

  18. Identity-Based Internet Protocol Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    remaining part of the IP address can be a standard (/48) network prefix or support a (/32) prefix and a 16-bit group tag . A registration process...bits to represent a group tag . This group tag can then be used to identify a higher level organizational abstraction for which group access policies...IP address). We currently use the low order bit of the group tag to encode if this IP address is to be routed or not. The proxy then enforces

  19. Routing in circuit and Packet Switched Networks: An Annotated Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    papers. These reviews focus on parts of the papers relevant to the DSN. 2. INDEX TO SELECTED TOPICS 2.1 Circuit-Switched Networks 2.1.1 Routing Bernas and...engineering - Bell System. 2.1.3 Event-by-Event Simulations Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID vs. adaptive vs. flood search routing - AUTOVON simula- tion...Enhance Survivability Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID, adaptive and flood search routing. Gafni and Bertsekas (1981) Distributed routing for packet radio

  20. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  1. On Alarm Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichoń, Jacek; Kapelko, Rafał; Lemiesz, Jakub; Zawada, Marcin

    We consider the problem of efficient alarm protocol for ad-hoc radio networks consisting of devices that try to gain access for transmission through a shared radio communication channel. The problem arise in tasks that sensors have to quickly inform the target user about an alert situation such as presence of fire, dangerous radiation, seismic vibrations, and more. In this paper, we present a protocol which uses O(logn) time slots and show that Ω(logn/loglogn) is a lower bound for used time slots.

  2. KHIP - A Scalable Protocol for Secure Multicast Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    communication between hosts and routers. Today, hosts communicate with their designated multicast router using IGMP . For secure multicast, a secure...version of IGMP needs to be developed [3]. A host could then authenticate with its router using the same four way authentication mechanism described...members and to distribute en- 3Internet Group Management Protocol ( IGMP ) [10] is the protocol that a hosts uses to communicate with an attached router

  3. Comparison of Two Hierarchical Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous MANET

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    révèlent que le protocole H-OLSR est d’un rendement supérieur au protocole H-LANMAR pour la plupart des scénarios de mobilité de groupe qui portent...bien à une topologie de MANET hétérogène du domaine tactique. Nous recourons à des scénarios de mobilité de groupe qui caractérisent l’exploitation

  4. Dynamic Routing for Delay-Tolerant Networking in Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology composed of scheduled, bounded communication contacts in a network built on the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture. It is designed to support operations in a space network based on DTN, but it also could be used in terrestrial applications where operation according to a predefined schedule is preferable to opportunistic communication, as in a low-power sensor network. This paper will describe the operation of the CGR system and explain how it can enable data delivery over scheduled transmission opportunities, fully utilizing the available transmission capacity, without knowing the current state of any bundle protocol node (other than the local node itself) and without exhausting processing resources at any bundle router.

  5. Effects of target routing model on the occurrence of extreme events in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xiang; Hu, Mao-Bin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qing; Jiang, Rui

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of routing protocol on the occurrence of extreme events (EE) in complex networks, as an extension of [V. Kishore, M.S. Santhanam, R.E. Amritkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 188701 (2011)]. The target routing model [W.X. Wang, B.H. Wang, C.Y. Yin, Y.B. Xie, T. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026111 (2006)] is considered. In the model, a tunable power parameter α controls the packets' preference of forwarding direction. We derive exact expressions for the stationary distribution probability of packets and estimate the occurrence probability of EE on the nodes. The occurrence of EE strongly depends on the routing parameter. For Barabási-Albert scale-free network, Erdös-Rényi random network and Newman-Watts small-world network, it is shown that the minimal occurrence of EE is achieved at α = -1.

  6. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.; Marathe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility models. It is

  7. An improved least cost routing approach for WDM optical network without wavelength converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonani, Luiz H.; Forghani-elahabad, Majid

    2016-12-01

    Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem has been an attractive problem in optical networks, and consequently several algorithms have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. The most known techniques for the dynamic routing subproblem are fixed routing, fixed-alternate routing, and adaptive routing methods. The first one leads to a high blocking probability (BP) and the last one includes a high computational complexity and requires immense backing from the control and management protocols. The second one suggests a trade-off between performance and complexity, and hence we consider it to improve in our work. In fact, considering the RWA problem in a wavelength routed optical network with no wavelength converter, an improved technique is proposed for the routing subproblem in order to decrease the BP of the network. Based on fixed-alternate approach, the first k shortest paths (SPs) between each node pair is determined. We then rearrange the SPs according to a newly defined cost for the links and paths. Upon arriving a connection request, the sorted paths are consecutively checked for an available wavelength according to the most-used technique. We implement our proposed algorithm and the least-hop fixed-alternate algorithm to show how the rearrangement of SPs contributes to a lower BP in the network. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in comparison with the others, considering different number of available wavelengths.

  8. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  9. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  10. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  11. Optimal routing in general finite multi-server queueing networks.

    PubMed

    van Woensel, Tom; Cruz, Frederico R B

    2014-01-01

    The design of general finite multi-server queueing networks is a challenging problem that arises in many real-life situations, including computer networks, manufacturing systems, and telecommunication networks. In this paper, we examine the optimal routing problem in arbitrary configured acyclic queueing networks. The performance of the finite queueing network is evaluated with a known approximate performance evaluation method and the optimization is done by means of a heuristics based on the Powell algorithm. The proposed methodology is then applied to determine the optimal routing probability vector that maximizes the throughput of the queueing network. We show numerical results for some networks to quantify the quality of the routing vector approximations obtained.

  12. An Overview of Data Routing Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Razak, Shukor Abd; Ngadi, Md. Asri

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in deploying large populations of microsensors that collaborate in a distributed manner to gather and process sensory data and deliver them to a sink node through wireless communications systems. Currently, there is a lot of interest in data routing for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to their unique challenges compared to conventional routing in wired networks. In WSNs, each data routing approach follows a specific goal (goals) according to the application. Although the general goal of every data routing approach in WSNs is to extend the network lifetime and every approach should be aware of the energy level of the nodes, data routing approaches may focus on one (or some) specific goal(s) depending on the application. Thus, existing approaches can be categorized according to their routing goals. In this paper, the main goals of data routing approaches in sensor networks are described. Then, the best known and most recent data routing approaches in WSNs are classified and studied according to their specific goals. PMID:22666013

  13. I/O routing in a multidimensional torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip

    2017-02-07

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for routing data packet in a computing system comprising a multidimensional torus compute node network including a multitude of compute nodes, and an I/O node network including a plurality of I/O nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises assigning to each of the data packets a destination address identifying one of the compute nodes; providing each of the data packets with a toio value; routing the data packets through the compute node network to the destination addresses of the data packets; and when each of the data packets reaches the destination address assigned to said each data packet, routing said each data packet to one of the I/O nodes if the toio value of said each data packet is a specified value. In one embodiment, each of the data packets is also provided with an ioreturn value used to route the data packets through the compute node network.

  14. Reinforcement learning for routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawi, Hasan A A; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin; Mohamad, Hafizal; Ramli, Nordin; Hashim, Wahidah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs.

  15. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rawi, Hasan A. A.; Mohamad, Hafizal; Hashim, Wahidah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs. PMID:25140350

  16. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Routing Algorithms for IP-Over-WDM Networks With Stochastic Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Andrew; Modiano, Eytan

    2005-10-01

    We develop algorithms for joint IP-layer routing and WDM logical topology reconfiguration in IP-over-WDM networks experiencing stochastic traffic. At the wavelenght division multiplexing (WDM) layer, we associate a nonnegligible overhead with WDM reconfiguration, during which time tuned transceivers cannot service backlogged data. The Internet Protocol (IP) layer is modeled as a queueing system. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithms achieve asymptotic throughput optimality by using frame-based maximum weight scheduling decisions. We study both fixed and variable frame durations. In addition to dynamically triggering WDM reconfiguration, our algorithms specify precisely how to route packets over the IP layer during the phases in which the WDM layer remains fixed. We demonstrate that optical-layer constraints do not affect the results, and provide an analysis of the specific case of WDM networks with multiple ports per node. In order to gauge the delay properties of our algorithms, we conduct a simulation study and demonstrate an important tradeoff between WDM reconfiguration and IP-layer routing. We find that multihop routing is extremely beneficial at low-throughput levels, while single-hop routing achieves improved delay at high-throughput levels. For a simple access network, we demonstrate through simulation the benefit of employing multihop IP-layer routes.

  17. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  18. SLEA: A Novel Scheme for Routing in Overlay IP/WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong; Su, Yikai; Zhu, Keyao; Leng, Lufeng; Zeng, Qingji; Jin, Yaohui

    2005-10-01

    This paper studies the routing problems in Internet protocol/wavelength-division-multiplexing (IP/WDM) networks based on the overlay routing algorithm (ORA) and the integrated routing algorithm (IRA), respectively. Although IRA usually outperforms ORA in terms of blocking performance, IRA exhibits disadvantages in control information exchange, network privacy issue, and wavelength port efficiency. In this paper, a new mechanism called the short lightpath establishment approach (SLEA) is proposed for ORA in order to tackle the problems in IRA and achieve similar (or even better) network performance at the same time. The main idea of SLEA is to ensure that each new lightpath created by ORA is restricted by an optical hop constraint when a subwavelength-granularity connection is routed in the optical layer. It follows that SLEA essentially avoids per-connection-based greedy treatment and improves network wide resource utilization by eliminating inefficient long optical bypasses. To implement SLEA in ORA, the Dijsktra's algorithm has been modified based on an extended layered graph model. SLEA does not introduce any additional signaling and computational complexity. The analysis and simulation in this paper show that there exists an optimal optical hop constraint for each particular network configuration such that SLEA-based ORA (SLEA-ORA) can efficiently utilize the network resource of concern. As a result, with the optimal optical hop constraint, SLEA-ORA could outperform ORA and IRA in terms of the bandwidth-blocking ratio (BBR) and the average number of IP hops of label-switched paths (LSPs).

  19. Internet Protocol Enhanced over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive research conducted by the Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center led to an experimental change to the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that will increase performance over satellite channels. The change raises the size of the initial burst of data TCP can send from 1 packet to 4 packets or roughly 4 kilobytes (kB), whichever is less. TCP is used daily by everyone on the Internet for e-mail and World Wide Web access, as well as other services. TCP is one of the feature protocols used in computer communications for reliable data delivery and file transfer. Increasing TCP's initial data burst from the previously specified single segment to approximately 4 kB may improve data transfer rates by up to 27 percent for very small files. This is significant because most file transfers in wide-area networks today are small files, 4 kilobytes or less. In addition, because data transfers over geostationary satellites can take 5 to 20 times longer than over typical terrestrial connections, increasing the initial burst of data that can be sent is extremely important. This research along with research from other institutions has led to the release of two new Request for Comments from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF, the international body that sets Internet standards). In addition, two studies of the implications of this mechanism were also funded by NASA Lewis.

  20. A Dirichlet reputation system in reliable routing of wireless ad hoc network

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dr. Li; Cui, Xiaohui; Cemerlic, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are very helpful in situations when no fixed network infrastructure is available, such as natural disasters and military conflicts. In such a network, all wireless nodes are equal peers simultaneously serving as both senders and routers for other nodes. Therefore, how to route packets through reliable paths becomes a fundamental problems when behaviors of certain nodes deviate from wireless ad hoc routing protocols. We proposed a novel Dirichlet reputation model based on Bayesian inference theory which evaluates reliability of each node in terms of packet delivery. Our system offers a way to predict and select a reliable path through combination of first-hand observation and second-hand reputation reports. We also proposed moving window mechanism which helps to adjust ours responsiveness of our system to changes of node behaviors. We integrated the Dirichlet reputation into routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks. Our extensive simulation indicates that our proposed reputation system can improve good throughput of the network and reduce negative impacts caused by misbehaving nodes.

  1. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  2. Alternative Route Graphs in Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Roland; Dees, Jonathan; Geisberger, Robert; Sanders, Peter

    Every human likes choices. But today's fast route planning algorithms usually compute just a single route between source and target. There are beginnings to compute alternative routes, but there is a gap between the intuition of humans what makes a good alternative and mathematical definitions needed for grasping these concepts algorithmically. In this paper we make several steps towards closing this gap: Based on the concept of an alternative graph that can compactly encode many alternatives, we define and motivate several attributes quantifying the quality of the alternative graph. We show that it is already NP-hard to optimize a simple objective function combining two of these attributes and therefore turn to heuristics. The combination of the refined penalty based iterative shortest path routine and the previously proposed Plateau heuristics yields best results. A user study confirms these results.

  3. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  4. Reservation information sharing enhancement for deflection routing in OBS network.

    PubMed

    Gao, Donghui; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2005-03-07

    The resource contention problem is critical in Just-Enough-Time (JET) based optical burst switching (OBS) networks. Although deflection routing (DR) reduces the contention probability in some degree, it does not give much improvement under heavy traffic load. This paper analyzed the inducement causing contention in OBS networks, and proposed Resource Information Sharing Enhancement (RISE) scheme. Theoretical analysis shows that this scheme achieves shorter length of the detour path than normal DR. We simulated this scheme on both full mesh network and practical 14-node NSFNET. The simulation results show that it gives at best 2 orders magnitude improvement in reducing the burst contention probability over its previous routing approaches.

  5. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters’ dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively. PMID:26266412

  6. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente

    2015-08-10

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters' dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively.

  7. Phenology monitoring protocol: Northeast Temperate Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tierney, Geri; Mitchell, Brian; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Katz, Jonathan; Denny, Ellen; Brauer, Corinne; Donovan, Therese; Richardson, Andrew D.; Toomey, Michael; Kozlowski, Adam; Weltzin, Jake F.; Gerst, Kathy; Sharron, Ed; Sonnentag, Oliver; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2013-01-01

    historical parks and national historic sites in the northeastern US. This protocol was developed in collaboration with and relies upon the procedures and infrastructure of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), including Nature’s Notebook, USA-NPN’s online plant and animal phenology observation program (www.nn.usanpn.org). Organized in 2007, USA-NPN is a nation-wide partnership among federal agencies, schools and universities, citizen volunteers, and others to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the nation’s biological resources. The overall goal of NETN’s phenology monitoring program is to determine trends in the phenology of key species in order to assist park managers with the detection and mitigation of the effects of climate change on park resources. An additional programmatic goal is to interest and educate park visitors and staff, as well as a cadre of volunteer monitors.

  8. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    research in mobile, ad hoc routing protocols. Broch , et al. performed a simulation comparison of the DSDV, DSR, AODV and Temporally-Ordered...July 6, 2005. [Bel58] R. Bellman, “On a Routing Problem,” in Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 16(1), pp.87-90, 1958. [BJM04] J. Broch , D. B...vol. AD- A404703, 2002. [BMJ98] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. Hu and J. Jetcheva, “A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc

  10. An immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm for routing recovery of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifan; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong; Ren, Lihong; Han, Hua

    2014-03-01

    The growth of mobile handheld devices promotes sink mobility in an increasing number of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applications. The movement of the sink may lead to the breakage of existing routes of WSNs, thus the routing recovery problem is a critical challenge. In order to maintain the available route from each source node to the sink, we propose an immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm (IOLPSOA) to provide fast routing recovery from path failure due to the sink movement, and construct the efficient alternative path to repair the route. Due to its efficient bio-heuristic routing recovery mechanism in the algorithm, the orthogonal learning strategy can guide particles to fly on better directions by constructing a much promising and efficient exemplar, and the immune mechanism can maintain the diversity of the particles. We discuss the implementation of the IOLPSOA-based routing protocol and present the performance evaluation through several simulation experiments. The results demonstrate that the IOLPSOA-based protocol outperforms the other three protocols, which can efficiently repair the routing topology changed by the sink movement, reduce the communication overhead and prolong the lifetime of WSNs with mobile sink.

  11. A Priority Protocol for Token-Ring Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    New priority protocol controls access to token-ring local-area network (LAN) of digital-communication stations over widely ranging mix of low- and high-priority traffic. Protocol, called round-robin priority scheme (RRPS), introduces only small overhead and therefore degrades system performance only minimally. Key messages guaranteed access to local-area network during peak loads.

  12. Analysis of the traffic running cost under random route choice behavior in a network with two routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Kai

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is used to study each driver's three running costs in a network with two routes under the random route choice behavior. The numerical results indicate that each driver's three running costs and the corresponding total cost are relevant to the gap of the time the driver enters the network. The results can help us to further explore each driver's trip cost in a more complex network under other route choice behavior.

  13. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-09

    increases the overall data integrity and reliability of wireless sensor networks. Due to battery limitations of individual sensor nodes, many WSN...commanders in real time, reducing risk and saving lives. 2 Introduction A wireless sensor network, or WSN, refers to a group of small battery powered...a battery . Additionally, a sensor node can be fitted with actuators that allow it to generate power, move about its environment, or perform some

  14. BGP-Based Routing Configuration Management for Multidomain Mobile Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    routers, mostly by hand, knowing peering associations. It is because the BGP uses the TCP protocol in order to reliably carry the routing messages...SSH session [16]. In the second case, when the systems have been already connected via another link, the managers already know the parameters of...thesis, supervisor: J. Krygier, MUT , Warsaw 2010, [14] RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6), 1998 [15] RFC 2710: Multicast Listener

  15. Efficient and Stable Routing Algorithm Based on User Mobility and Node Density in Urban Vehicular Network

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayouf, Yusor Rafid Bahar; Ismail, Mahamod; Abdullah, Nor Fadzilah; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Mahdi, Omar Adil; Khan, Suleman; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead. PMID:27855165

  16. Efficient and Stable Routing Algorithm Based on User Mobility and Node Density in Urban Vehicular Network.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayouf, Yusor Rafid Bahar; Ismail, Mahamod; Abdullah, Nor Fadzilah; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Mahdi, Omar Adil; Khan, Suleman; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead.

  17. Dynamic route choice model of large-scale traffic network

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, D.W.; Lee, D.H.; Janson, B.N.; Berka, S.

    1997-08-01

    Application and extensions of a dynamic network equilibrium model to the Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept (ADVANCE) Network are described in this paper. ADVANCE is a dynamic route guidance field test designed for 800 km{sup 2} in the northwestern suburbs of Chicago. The dynamic route choice model employed in this paper is solved efficiently by a modified version of Janson`s DYMOD algorithm. Realistic traffic engineering-based link delay functions, instead of the simplistic Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function, are used to estimate link travel times and intersection delays for most types of links and intersections. Further, an expanded intersection representation is utilized, resulting in a network of nearly 23,000 links and 10,000 nodes. Time-dependent link flows, travel times, speeds and queue spillbacks are generated for the ADVANCE Network. The model was solved on a CONVEX-C3880. Convergence and computational results are presented and analyzed.

  18. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  19. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  20. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-12-03

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  1. Response Routing in Selcuk Networks and Lashley's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Kenan E.

    1973-01-01

    A discussion of the Selcuk Network, a scheme which achieves response routing on the basis of strictly local information, pursuant to the broadcast of a general message, it has applicability to content-based addressing and to computor-to-computer communication nets. (Author)

  2. Optimized routing strategy for complex network with multiple priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Bao; Sun, Zong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Hang; Chen, Hai-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Different loads in the network require distinct QoS standard, while present routing strategies for complex networks ignored this fact. To solve this problem, we designed a routing strategy RS-MP with multiple priorities by which packets are classified into privileged-packets and common-packets. In RS-MP, privileged-packets route by the Shortest Path Algorithm, and do not need to queue up. Common-packets’ routes are determined by a new factor BJ max of the network. The BJ max stands for the largest betweenness centrality. By minimizing BJ max, the throughout capacity of the network can be maximized. The simulation results show that RS-MP can guarantee privileged-packets with the shortest path length and smallest delay, and maximized throughout capacity for common packets in the no-congestion state. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University, China (Grant Nos. 24720152047A and 15CX05025A), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2014FM017), the Science and Technology Development Plan of Huangdao District, Qingdao, China (Grant No. 2014-1-45).

  3. Assessing Routing Strategies for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila; Baguda, Yakubu S.; Saleem, Kashif

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) paradigm has gradually grown among researchers. This concept seeks to fuse the benefits of dynamic spectrum access into the sensor network, making it a potential player in the next generation (NextGen) network, which is characterized by ubiquity. Notwithstanding its massive potential, little research activity has been dedicated to the network layer. By contrast, we find recent research trends focusing on the physical layer, the link layer and the transport layers. The fact that the cross-layer approach is imperative, due to the resource-constrained nature of CRSNs, can make the design of unique solutions non-trivial in this respect. This paper seeks to explore possible design opportunities with wireless sensor networks (WSNs), cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cross-layer considerations for implementing viable CRSN routing solutions. Additionally, a detailed performance evaluation of WSN routing strategies in a cognitive radio environment is performed to expose research gaps. With this work, we intend to lay a foundation for developing CRSN routing solutions and to establish a basis for future work in this area. PMID:24077319

  4. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland J.; Markstrom, Steve L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function - unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  5. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  6. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivan, B.; Kaliappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986

  7. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  8. Prediction of Links and Weights in Networks by Reliable Routes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Lili; Yang, Jian; Fang, Haiyang; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Min; Holme, Petter; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Link prediction aims to uncover missing links or predict the emergence of future relationships from the current network structure. Plenty of algorithms have been developed for link prediction in unweighted networks, but only a few have been extended to weighted networks. In this paper, we present what we call a “reliable-route method” to extend unweighted local similarity indices to weighted ones. Using these indices, we can predict both the existence of links and their weights. Experiments on various real-world networks suggest that our reliable-route weighted resource-allocation index performs noticeably better than others with respect to weight prediction. For existence prediction it is either the highest or very close to the highest. Further analysis shows a strong positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and prediction accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to the prediction of missing protein-protein interactions and their confidence scores from known PPI networks. Once again, our reliable-route method shows the highest accuracy. PMID:26198206

  9. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  10. Protocol Interoperability Between DDN and ISO (Defense Data Network and International Organization for Standardization) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Service 44 Network Layer: DIS 8208 X.25 Packet Level Protocol for Data Terminal Equipment DIS 8348 Network Service Definition IS 8473 Protocol for...established One TC established for collision (one way) given pair of socket Addressing Any possible structure Static length Expedited data Yes, negotiable by...Explicit or implicit Explicit jReloas Phase: Orderly release No Yes Abrupt release Yes Yes 68 15.3.1 TC Establish Phase Connection Collision . In TCP, if the

  11. Delay Tolerant Networking - Bundle Protocol Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SeGui, John; Jenning, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the addition of MACHETE models needed to support DTN, namely: the Bundle Protocol (BP) model. To illustrate the useof MACHETE with the additional DTN model, we provide an example simulation to benchmark its performance. We demonstrate the use of the DTN protocol and discuss statistics gathered concerning the total time needed to simulate numerous bundle transmissions.

  12. A cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol supporting a pipeline feature for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  13. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency. PMID:22163895

  14. Efficient shortest-path-tree computation in network routing based on pulse-coupled neural networks.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hong; Yi, Zhang; Yang, Simon X

    2013-06-01

    Shortest path tree (SPT) computation is a critical issue for routers using link-state routing protocols, such as the most commonly used open shortest path first and intermediate system to intermediate system. Each router needs to recompute a new SPT rooted from itself whenever a change happens in the link state. Most commercial routers do this computation by deleting the current SPT and building a new one using static algorithms such as the Dijkstra algorithm at the beginning. Such recomputation of an entire SPT is inefficient, which may consume a considerable amount of CPU time and result in a time delay in the network. Some dynamic updating methods using the information in the updated SPT have been proposed in recent years. However, there are still many limitations in those dynamic algorithms. In this paper, a new modified model of pulse-coupled neural networks (M-PCNNs) is proposed for the SPT computation. It is rigorously proved that the proposed model is capable of solving some optimization problems, such as the SPT. A static algorithm is proposed based on the M-PCNNs to compute the SPT efficiently for large-scale problems. In addition, a dynamic algorithm that makes use of the structure of the previously computed SPT is proposed, which significantly improves the efficiency of the algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effective and efficient performance of the proposed approach.

  15. On Reliable and Efficient Data Gathering Based Routing in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liaqat, Tayyaba; Akbar, Mariam; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Javaid, Qaisar; Alghamdi, Turki Ali; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents cooperative routing scheme to improve data reliability. The proposed protocol achieves its objective, however, at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Thus sink mobility is introduced to minimize the energy consumption cost of nodes as it directly collects data from the network nodes at minimized communication distance. We also present delay and energy optimized versions of our proposed RE-AEDG to further enhance its performance. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of our proposed RE-AEDG in terms of the selected performance matrics. PMID:27589750

  16. Efficient model checking of network authentication protocol based on SPIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-hua; Zhang, Da-fang; Miao, Li; Zhao, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Model checking is a very useful technique for verifying the network authentication protocols. In order to improve the efficiency of modeling and verification on the protocols with the model checking technology, this paper first proposes a universal formalization description method of the protocol. Combined with the model checker SPIN, the method can expediently verify the properties of the protocol. By some modeling simplified strategies, this paper can model several protocols efficiently, and reduce the states space of the model. Compared with the previous literature, this paper achieves higher degree of automation, and better efficiency of verification. Finally based on the method described in the paper, we model and verify the Privacy and Key Management (PKM) authentication protocol. The experimental results show that the method of model checking is effective, which is useful for the other authentication protocols.

  17. Network Routing Using the Network Tasking Order, a Chron Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    utilization when computing routes. AODV uses hello messages for nodes to gain knowledge of neighbors. When a request to pass traffic is initiated...limited to a subset of neighbors providing better scalability in a much more populated MANET environment. Furthermore, hello packets are transmitted

  18. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

  19. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art.

  20. A novel unicast routing algorithm for LEO satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuegui; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Lianzhen

    2005-11-01

    One of research challenges in low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks is to develop specialized and efficient routing algorithms. In this paper, a dynamic source routing algorithm (DSRA) for LEO satellite networks is presented to achieve short end-to-end delay and low computation overhead under the condition that a logical location concept is adopted to hide satellite mobility. In this algorithm, the path between source and destination with minimum propagation delay is designated by source satellite in packet header by an efficient metric < D0, n0; D1, n1; D2, n2 >. Then the packet is forwarded to its destination by intermediate nodes according to the metric. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated through simulation and its computation complexity is analyzed to validate algorithm efficiency.

  1. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  2. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  3. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Sampson, K.; Nijssen, B.; Mao, Y.; McMillan, H.; Viger, R. J.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L. E.; Woods, R.; Arnold, J. R.; Brekke, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute, which post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data, which includes river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. The first is hillslope routing, which uses a gamma distribution to construct a unit-hydrograph that represents the transport of runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function-unit hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute system also includes tools to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities with spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) dataset, which contains over 54 000 river segments across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  4. A Distance-Aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering Protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node’s limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes. PMID:22163839

  5. Effects of Route Guidance Systems on Small-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Jun; Sun, Hui-Jun; Gao, Zi-You; Li, Shu-Bin

    The route guidance systems (RGS) are efficient in alleviating traffic congestion and reducing transit time of transportation networks. This paper studies the effects of RGS on performance of variably weighted small-world networks. The properties of the average shortest path length, the maximum degree, and the largest betweenness, as important indices for characterizing the network structure in complex networks, are simulated. Results show that there is an optimal guided rate of RGS to minimize the total system cost and the average shortest path length, and proper RGS can reduce the load of the node with maximum degree or largest betweenness. In addition, we found that the load distribution of nodes guided by RGS decay as the power laws which is very important for us to understand and control traffic congestion feasible.

  6. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  7. Packet Drop Avoidance for High-speed network transmission protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun

    2004-05-01

    As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.

  8. Exploration of α1-antitrypsin treatment protocol for islet transplantation: dosing plan and route of administration.

    PubMed

    Baranovski, Boris M; Ozeri, Eyal; Shahaf, Galit; Ochayon, David E; Schuster, Ronen; Bahar, Nofar; Kalay, Noa; Cal, Pablo; Mizrahi, Mark I; Nisim, Omer; Strauss, Pnina; Schenker, Eran; Lewis, Eli C

    2016-11-07

    Life-long weekly infusions of human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) are currently administered as augmentation therapy for patients with genetic AAT deficiency (AATD). Several recent clinical trials attempt to extend hAAT therapy to conditions outside AATD, including type 1 diabetes. Since the endpoint for AATD is primarily the reduction of risk for pulmonary emphysema, the present study explores hAAT dose protocols and routes of administration in attempt to optimize hAAT therapy for islet-related injury. Islet-grafted mice were treated with hAAT (Glassia™; i.p. or s.c.) under an array of clinically relevant dosing plans. Serum hAAT and immunocyte cell membrane association were examined, as well as parameters of islet survival. Results indicate that dividing the commonly prescribed 60 mg/kg i.p. dose to three 20 mg/kg injections is superior in affording islet graft survival; in addition, a short dynamic descending dose protocol (240→120→60→60 mg/kg i.p.) is comparable in outcomes to indefinite 60 mg/kg injections. While hAAT pharmacokinetics after i.p. administration in mice resembles exogenous hAAT treatment in humans, s.c. administration better imitated the physiological progressive rise of hAAT during acute phase responses; nonetheless, only the 60 mg/kg dose depicted an advantage using the s.c. route. Taken together, this study provides a platform for extrapolating an islet-relevant clinical protocol from animal models that use hAAT to protect islets. In addition, the study places emphasis on outcome-oriented analyses of drug efficacy, particularly important when considering that hAAT is presently at an era of drug-repurposing towards an extended list of clinical indications outside genetic AATD.

  9. Exploration of α1-Antitrypsin Treatment Protocol for Islet Transplantation: Dosing Plan and Route of Administration

    PubMed Central

    Baranovski, Boris M.; Ozeri, Eyal; Shahaf, Galit; Ochayon, David E.; Schuster, Ronen; Bahar, Nofar; Kalay, Noa; Cal, Pablo; Mizrahi, Mark I.; Nisim, Omer; Strauss, Pnina; Schenker, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong weekly infusions of human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) are currently administered as augmentation therapy for patients with genetic AAT deficiency (AATD). Several recent clinical trials attempt to extend hAAT therapy to conditions outside AATD, including type 1 diabetes. Because the endpoint for AATD is primarily the reduction of risk for pulmonary emphysema, the present study explores hAAT dose protocols and routes of administration in attempt to optimize hAAT therapy for islet-related injury. Islet-grafted mice were treated with hAAT (Glassia; intraperitoneally or subcutaneously) under an array of clinically relevant dosing plans. Serum hAAT and immunocyte cell membrane association were examined, as well as parameters of islet survival. Results indicate that dividing the commonly prescribed 60 mg/kg i.p. dose to three 20 mg/kg injections is superior in affording islet graft survival; in addition, a short dynamic descending dose protocol (240→120→60→60 mg/kg i.p.) is comparable in outcomes to indefinite 60 mg/kg injections. Although pharmacokinetics after intraperitoneal administration in mice resembles exogenous hAAT treatment in humans, subcutaneous administration better imitated the physiologic progressive rise of hAAT during acute phase responses; nonetheless, only the 60 mg/kg dose depicted an advantage using the subcutaneous route. Taken together, this study provides a platform for extrapolating an islet-relevant clinical protocol from animal models that use hAAT to protect islets. In addition, the study places emphasis on outcome-oriented analyses of drug efficacy, particularly important when considering that hAAT is presently at an era of drug-repurposing toward an extended list of clinical indications outside genetic AATD. PMID:27821710

  10. Enhanced reliable transmission control protocol for spatial information networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhihong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Junfeng

    2009-12-01

    Satellites channels are generally featured by high bit error rate (BER), long propagation delay, large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) and so on. This tends to make the traditional TCP suffer from serious performance degradation in satellite networks. Therefore, a TCP-compatible reliable transmission protocol (i.e., TCP-AX) for spatial information networks is proposed in this paper. And a bandwidth probing mechanism is designed to distinguish network congestion and link error. Simulation results show that TCP-AX has better performance than some popular enhanced TCP protocols.

  11. Just Right Vehicle Network (Data Bus) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    this network to research; however, I shall concentrate on defining a precise method to define and assist in properly selecting the network (data bus...recommended – Simple Mathematical selection method used Vehicle Network Selection Conducted 2003-2005 – CAN Data Bus recommended for lower speed hard...real time control – IEEE 1394b Data Bus recommended for high speed hard real time control – Formal Trade Study Process w/ software assisted method used

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    sense and monitor a variety of environmental conditions using un-tethered sensors offers a significant change over traditional sensing systems that...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT The ability to sense and monitor a variety of environmental conditions using un- tethered...sensors offers a significant change over traditional sensing systems that need to be strategically positioned and have topologies engineered. Recent

  13. A network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangxin; Zhang, Lingcui; Zhou, Shuguang; Li, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    With the explosive growth of harmful Internet information such as pornography, violence, and hate messages, network monitoring is essential. Traditional network monitors is based mainly on bypass monitoring. However, we can't filter network traffic using bypass monitoring. Meanwhile, only few studies focus on the network monitoring for HTTPS protocol. That is because HTTPS data is in the encrypted traffic, which makes it difficult to monitor. This paper proposes a network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy. We adopt OpenSSL to establish TLS secure tunes between clients and servers. Epoll is used to handle a large number of concurrent client connections. We also adopt Knuth- Morris-Pratt string searching algorithm (or KMP algorithm) to speed up the search process. Besides, we modify request packets to reduce the risk of errors and modify response packets to improve security. Experiments show that our proxy can monitor the content of all tested HTTPS websites efficiently with little loss of network performance.

  14. Dynamic behavior of shortest path routing algorithms for communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsekas, D. P.

    1980-06-01

    Several proposed routing algorithms for store and forward communication networks, including one currently in operation in the ARPANET, route messages along shortest paths computed by using some set of link lengths. When these lengths depend on current traffic conditions as they must in an adaptive algorithm, dynamic behavior questions such as stability convergence, and speed of convergence are of interest. This paper is the first attempt to analyze systematically these issues. It is shown that minimum queuing delay path algorithms tend to exhibit violent oscillatory behavior in the absence of a damping mechanism. The oscillations can be damped by means of several types of schemes, two of which are analyzed in this paper. In the first scheme a constant bias is added to the queuing delay thereby providing a preference towards paths with a small number of links. In the second scheme the effects of several past routings are averaged as, for example, when the link lengths are computed and communicated asynchronously throughout the network.

  15. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I.; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology. PMID:27775571

  16. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G

    2016-10-19

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology.

  17. An improved global dynamic routing strategy for scale-free network with tunable clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lina; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Yue; Bai, Yannan

    2016-08-01

    An efficient routing strategy can deliver packets quickly to improve the network capacity. Node congestion and transmission path length are inevitable real-time factors for a good routing strategy. Existing dynamic global routing strategies only consider the congestion of neighbor nodes and the shortest path, which ignores other key nodes’ congestion on the path. With the development of detection methods and techniques, global traffic information is readily available and important for the routing choice. Reasonable use of this information can effectively improve the network routing. So, an improved global dynamic routing strategy is proposed, which considers the congestion of all nodes on the shortest path and incorporates the waiting time of the most congested node into the path. We investigate the effectiveness of the proposed routing for scale-free network with different clustering coefficients. The shortest path routing strategy and the traffic awareness routing strategy only considering the waiting time of neighbor node are analyzed comparatively. Simulation results show that network capacity is greatly enhanced compared with the shortest path; congestion state increase is relatively slow compared with the traffic awareness routing strategy. Clustering coefficient increase will not only reduce the network throughput, but also result in transmission average path length increase for scale-free network with tunable clustering. The proposed routing is favorable to ease network congestion and network routing strategy design.

  18. Research of differentiated QoS routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YiYun; Zeng, QingJi; Cao, JunWen

    2004-04-01

    At this point in technology's evolution, the simplicity, elegance, extensibility, and broad compatibility of the Internet protocol suite has made it the automatic choice for most forms of communication. The attempts at resolution of this apparent dichotomy consist of a collection of technologies and philosophies known as Quality of Service. In an IP network, QoS defines the ability to compensate for traffic characteristics without compromising average throughput. Clearly, optimizing QoS performance for all traffic types on an IP network presents a daunting challenge. To partially address this challenge, several Internet Engineering Task Force groups have been working on standardized approaches for IP-based QoS technologies. The IETF"s approaches fall into four categories: prioritization using differentiated services, reservation using integrated services, label switching using multi-protocol label switching, bandwidth management using the subnet bandwidth manager. Differentiated services classify per-hop behaviors on the basis of a Diffserv code point attached to the type of service byte in each packet"s IP header. This DSCP approach represents a form of soft QoS that rather coarsely classifies services through packet marking. The differentiated QoS routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM Networks are a promising candidate for the next generation optical Internet networks. By using a unified control plane, such networks make more efficient usage of network resources both at the IP layer and the WDM optical layer. In this paper, we consider prioritized routing of bandwidth-guaranteed Label Switched paths (LSPs) providing service differentiation between classes of high and normal priority traffic. The QoS delay requirements are assumed to be translated into bandwidth and O-E-O conversion requirements. We present a graphical representation of the integrated network state which is different from other conventional graphical representations in that it models the cost of usage of

  19. GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    use sim- ulation parameters identical to a subset of those used by Broch et al. [4]. Our simulations are for networks of 50, 112, and 200 nodes with...as they are the most demanding of a routing algorithm. Broch at al. also simu- lated 300-, 600-, and 900-second pause times, perhaps in large part...sending nodes. Each CBR flow sends at 2 Kbps, and uses 64-byte packets. Broch et al. simulated a wider range of flow counts (10, 20, and 30 flows); we

  20. CSMA/RN: A universal protocol for gigabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael; Khanna, S.; Paterra, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Networks must provide intelligent access for nodes to share the communications resources. In the range of 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps, the demand access class of protocols were studied extensively. Many use some form of slot or reservation system and many the concept of attempt and defer to determine the presence or absence of incoming information. The random access class of protocols like shared channel systems (Ethernet), also use the concept of attempt and defer in the form of carrier sensing to alleviate the damaging effects of collisions. In CSMA/CD, the sensing of interference is on a global basis. All systems discussed above have one aspect in common, they examine activity on the network either locally or globally and react in an attempt and whatever mechanism. Of the attempt + mechanisms discussed, one is obviously missing; that is attempt and truncate. Attempt and truncate was studied in a ring configuration called the Carrier Sensed Multiple Access Ring Network (CSMA/RN). The system features of CSMA/RN are described including a discussion of the node operations for inserting and removing messages and for handling integrated traffic. The performance and operational features based on analytical and simulation studies which indicate that CSMA/RN is a useful and adaptable protocol over a wide range of network conditions are discussed. Finally, the research and development activities necessary to demonstrate and realize the potential of CSMA/RN as a universal, gigabit network protocol is outlined.

  1. Mobility based multicast routing in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Tripathi, Vijay S.; Tiwari, Sudarshan

    2013-01-01

    There exist two fundamental approaches to multicast routing namely minimum cost trees and shortest path trees. The (MCT's) minimum cost tree is one which connects receiver and sources by providing a minimum number of transmissions (MNTs) the MNTs approach is generally used for energy constraint sensor and mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we have considered node mobility and try to find out simulation based comparison of the (SPT's) shortest path tree, (MST's) minimum steiner trees and minimum number of transmission trees in wireless mesh networks by using the performance metrics like as an end to end delay, average jitter, throughput and packet delivery ratio, average unicast packet delivery ratio, etc. We have also evaluated multicast performance in the small and large wireless mesh networks. In case of multicast performance in the small networks we have found that when the traffic load is moderate or high the SPTs outperform the MSTs and MNTs in all cases. The SPTs have lowest end to end delay and average jitter in almost all cases. In case of multicast performance in the large network we have seen that the MSTs provide minimum total edge cost and minimum number of transmissions. We have also found that the one drawback of SPTs, when the group size is large and rate of multicast sending is high SPTs causes more packet losses to other flows as MCTs.

  2. A computational study of routing algorithms for realistic transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.V.; Nagel, K.

    1998-12-01

    The authors carry out an experimental analysis of a number of shortest path (routing) algorithms investigated in the context of the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and Simulation System) project. The main focus of the paper is to study how various heuristic and exact solutions, associated data structures affected the computational performance of the software developed especially for realistic transportation networks. For this purpose the authors have used Dallas Fort-Worth road network with very high degree of resolution. The following general results are obtained: (1) they discuss and experimentally analyze various one-one shortest path algorithms, which include classical exact algorithms studied in the literature as well as heuristic solutions that are designed to take into account the geometric structure of the input instances; (2) they describe a number of extensions to the basic shortest path algorithm. These extensions were primarily motivated by practical problems arising in TRANSIMS and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) related technologies. Extensions discussed include--(i) time dependent networks, (ii) multi-modal networks, (iii) networks with public transportation and associated schedules. Computational results are provided to empirically compare the efficiency of various algorithms. The studies indicate that a modified Dijkstra`s algorithm is computationally fast and an excellent candidate for use in various transportation planning applications as well as ITS related technologies.

  3. Analysis of the Chinese air route network as a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kai-Quan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-02-01

    The air route network, which supports all the flight activities of the civil aviation, is the most fundamental infrastructure of air traffic management system. In this paper, we study the Chinese air route network (CARN) within the framework of complex networks. We find that CARN is a geographical network possessing exponential degree distribution, low clustering coefficient, large shortest path length and exponential spatial distance distribution that is obviously different from that of the Chinese airport network (CAN). Besides, via investigating the flight data from 2002 to 2010, we demonstrate that the topology structure of CARN is homogeneous, howbeit the distribution of flight flow on CARN is rather heterogeneous. In addition, the traffic on CARN keeps growing in an exponential form and the increasing speed of west China is remarkably larger than that of east China. Our work will be helpful to better understand Chinese air traffic systems.

  4. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.

  5. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  6. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  7. Performance evaluation of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network for network-on-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaelpoor, Jamal; Ghafouri, Abdollah

    2015-12-01

    Network on chip (NoC) has emerged as a solution to overcome the system on chip growing complexity and design challenges. A proper routing algorithm is a key issue of an NoC design. An appropriate routing method balances load across the network channels and keeps path length as short as possible. This survey investigates the performance of a routing algorithm based on Hopfield Neural Network. It is a dynamic programming to provide optimal path and network monitoring in real time. The aim of this article is to analyse the possibility of using a neural network as a router. The algorithm takes into account the path with the lowest delay (cost) form source to destination. In other words, the path a message takes from source to destination depends on network traffic situation at the time and it is the fastest one. The simulation results show that the proposed approach improves average delay, throughput and network congestion efficiently. At the same time, the increase in power consumption is almost negligible.

  8. An Energy Efficient Stable Election-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongqi; Xia, Feng; Yuan, Weiwei; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-01-01

    Sensor nodes usually have limited energy supply and they are impractical to recharge. How to balance traffic load in sensors in order to increase network lifetime is a very challenging research issue. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed recently for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, sensor networks with one fixed sink node often suffer from a hot spots problem since nodes near sinks have more traffic burden to forward during a multi-hop transmission process. The use of mobile sinks has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance network performance features such as latency, energy efficiency, network lifetime, etc. In this paper, a modified Stable Election Protocol (SEP), which employs a mobile sink, has been proposed for WSNs with non-uniform node distribution. The decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the minimization of the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the nearest cluster head. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH and SEP. PMID:24284767

  9. Robustness of predictive sensor network routing in fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraleedharan, Rajani; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2005-06-01

    Sensors have varied constraints, which make the network challenging for communicating with peers. In this paper, an extension, to the physical layer of the previous predictive sensor network model using the ant system is proposed. The tiny and low-cost sensor nodes are made of RF wireless links, where the states of the nodes vary with respect to time and environment. The ant system is a learning algorithm, that can be used to solve any NP hard communication problem and possesses characteristics such as robustness and versatility. The ant system possesses unique features that keep the network functional by detecting weak links and re-routing the agents. The swarm agents are distributed along the network, where the agent communicates with its neighbors (agents) by means of pheromone deposition and tabu list. The transition probability in the ant system includes an objective function, which is influenced by the poset weights. The poset weights on each of the orthogonal communication parameters greatly affects the decisions made by ant system. The agents carry updated information of its previous nodes, which helps in monitoring the strength of the communication links. Through simulation, comparison between DSSS-BPSK and Bluetooth-GFSK signals are shown. This paper demonstrates the robustness of the model under slow/fast fading, and energy loss at node during transmission. Implementation of this algorithm should be able to handle hostile environmental conditions and human tampering of data. The performance of the network is evaluated based on accuracy and response time of the agents within the network.

  10. A self-optimizing scheme for energy balanced routing in Wireless Sensor Networks using SensorAnt.

    PubMed

    Shamsan Saleh, Ahmed M; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Ismail, Alyani

    2012-01-01

    Planning of energy-efficient protocols is critical for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because of the constraints on the sensor nodes' energy. The routing protocol should be able to provide uniform power dissipation during transmission to the sink node. In this paper, we present a self-optimization scheme for WSNs which is able to utilize and optimize the sensor nodes' resources, especially the batteries, to achieve balanced energy consumption across all sensor nodes. This method is based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic which is adopted to enhance the paths with the best quality function. The assessment of this function depends on multi-criteria metrics such as the minimum residual battery power, hop count and average energy of both route and network. This method also distributes the traffic load of sensor nodes throughout the WSN leading to reduced energy usage, extended network life time and reduced packet loss. Simulation results show that our scheme performs much better than the Energy Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR) in terms of energy consumption, balancing and efficiency.

  11. Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    partitions. SIAM Review, January 2010. Submitted Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 31 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: sample...Control Conference, Hollywood, CA, October 2009 Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 32 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: analysis...Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms Francesco Bullo Center for Control, Dynamical Systems

  12. Performance Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimization Based Routing Algorithm in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Rui; Yu, Junle

    2011-12-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) has been regarded as the next generation optical switching technology. In this paper, the routing problem based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in OBS has been studies and analyzed. Simulation results indicate that, the PSO based routing algorithm will optimal than the conversional shortest path first algorithm in space cost and calculation cost. Conclusions have certain theoretical significances for the improvement of OBS routing protocols.

  13. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Akram, Sana; Javaid, Nadeem; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Imran, Muhammad; Guizani, Mohsen; Hayat, Amir; Ilahi, Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue. Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves about 68 % link efficiency. Simulation results show better performance of the proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected metrics.

  14. Basic limits on protocol information in data communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallager, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers basic limitations on the amount of protocol information that must be transmitted in a data communication network to keep track of source and receiver addresses and of the starting and stopping of messages. Assuming Poisson message arrivals between each communicating source-receiver pair, a lower bound is found on the required protocol information for message. This lower bound is the sum of two terms, one for the message-length information, which depends only on the distribution of message lengths, and the other for the message-start information, which depends only on the product of the source-receiver pair arrival rate and the expected delay for transmitting the message. Two strategies are developed which, in the limit of large numbers of sources and receivers, almost meet the lower bound on protocol information.

  15. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  16. An Improved Mobility-Based Control Protocol for Tolerating Clone Failures in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuping; Xiong, Naixue; Tan, Mingxin; Huang, Rufeng; Kleonbet, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, with the ubiquitous presence of the Internet of Things industry, the application of emerging sensor networks has become a focus of public attention. Unattended sensor nodes can be comprised and cloned to destroy the network topology. This paper proposes a novel distributed protocol and management technique for the detection of mobile replicas to tolerate node failures. In our scheme, sensors’ location claims are forwarded to obtain samples only when the corresponding witnesses meet. Meanwhile, sequential tests of statistical hypotheses are applied to further detect the cloned node by witnesses. The combination of randomized detection based on encountering and sequential tests drastically reduces the routing overhead and false positive/negative rate for detection. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show the detection efficiency and reasonable overhead of the proposed method. PMID:27886054

  17. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Xuan; Canh, Ngo Trong; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    2008-01-01

    For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks) to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1) Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2) The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3) The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4) Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5) No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully. PMID:27873956

  18. Recent Research in Artificial Intelligence, Heuristic Programming, and Network Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    and Joshua Lederberg , Co-principal Investigators NETWORK PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Vinton Cerf, Principal Investigator ABSTRACT This is a...by Edward Feigenbaum, Professor of Computer Science, and Joshua Lederberg , Professor of Genetics, and was initially an element of the Artificial...Quam, J. Lederberg , E. Levinthal. R. Tucker, B. Eros». J. Pollack. Variable Features on Mars II: Mariner 9 Global Results, Journal of Geophysical

  19. Evaluating the Multicast Control Protocol on a Multicasting Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, E.; Meletiou, G.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper a reliable multicasting architecture presented. This architecture operates using a Multicasting Firewall over the Multicast Control Protocol (MCP). Our aim was to evaluate the transition times of specific packets such as the IGMPv2 reports in the proposed multicasting network. In our study, multicasting experiments presented and analyzed. The obtained results of our experiments clearly show that the average validation times of IGMP reports on the Multicast Control Server smoothly increase versus the number of clients.

  20. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  1. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  2. An energy efficient MAC protocol for multi-hop swallowable body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chengfeng; Wong, Kai Juan; Yan, Hao; Shen, Junwen; Phee, Soo Jay

    2014-10-17

    Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios.

  3. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A.; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A.

    2016-01-01

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol’s semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. PMID:27338411

  4. Traffic-engineering-aware shortest-path routing and its application in IP-over-WDM networks [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngseok; Mukherjee, Biswanath

    2004-03-01

    Single shortest-path routing is known to perform poorly for Internet traffic engineering (TE) where the typical optimization objective is to minimize the maximum link load. Splitting traffic uniformly over equal-cost multiple shortest paths in open shortest path first and intermediate system-intermediate system protocols does not always minimize the maximum link load when multiple paths are not carefully selected for the global traffic demand matrix. However, a TE-aware shortest path among all the equal-cost multiple shortest paths between each ingress-egress pair can be selected such that the maximum link load is significantly reduced. IP routers can use the globally optimal TE-aware shortest path without any change to existing routing protocols and without any serious configuration overhead. While calculating TE-aware shortest paths, the destination-based forwarding constraint at a node should be satisfied, because an IP router will forward a packet to the next hop toward the destination by looking up the destination prefix. We present a mathematical problem formulation for finding a set of TE-aware shortest paths for the given network as an integer linear program, and we propose a simple heuristic for solving large instances of the problem. Then we explore the usage of our proposed algorithm for the integrated TE method in IP-over-WDM networks. The proposed algorithm is evaluated through simulations in IP networks as well as in IP-over-WDM networks.

  5. Using Trust to Establish a Secure Routing Model in Cognitive Radio Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanghua; Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Zhang, Dongwen

    2015-01-01

    Specific to the selective forwarding attack on routing in cognitive radio network, this paper proposes a trust-based secure routing model. Through monitoring nodes’ forwarding behaviors, trusts of nodes are constructed to identify malicious nodes. In consideration of that routing selection-based model must be closely collaborative with spectrum allocation, a route request piggybacking available spectrum opportunities is sent to non-malicious nodes. In the routing decision phase, nodes’ trusts are used to construct available path trusts and delay measurement is combined for making routing decisions. At the same time, according to the trust classification, different responses are made specific to their service requests. By adopting stricter punishment on malicious behaviors from non-trusted nodes, the cooperation of nodes in routing can be stimulated. Simulation results and analysis indicate that this model has good performance in network throughput and end-to-end delay under the selective forwarding attack. PMID:26421843

  6. Using Trust to Establish a Secure Routing Model in Cognitive Radio Network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanghua; Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Zhang, Dongwen

    2015-01-01

    Specific to the selective forwarding attack on routing in cognitive radio network, this paper proposes a trust-based secure routing model. Through monitoring nodes' forwarding behaviors, trusts of nodes are constructed to identify malicious nodes. In consideration of that routing selection-based model must be closely collaborative with spectrum allocation, a route request piggybacking available spectrum opportunities is sent to non-malicious nodes. In the routing decision phase, nodes' trusts are used to construct available path trusts and delay measurement is combined for making routing decisions. At the same time, according to the trust classification, different responses are made specific to their service requests. By adopting stricter punishment on malicious behaviors from non-trusted nodes, the cooperation of nodes in routing can be stimulated. Simulation results and analysis indicate that this model has good performance in network throughput and end-to-end delay under the selective forwarding attack.

  7. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  8. A methodology for detecting routing events in discrete flow networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, H. E.; Yoo, T.; Nuclear Technology

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical framework for formulating and implementing model-based monitoring of discrete flow networks is discussed. Possible flows of items are described as the sequence of discrete-event (DE) traces. Each trace defines the DE sequence(s) that are triggered when an entity follows a given flow-path and visits tracking locations distributed within the monitored system. Given the set of possible discrete flows, a possible-behavior model - an interacting set of automata - is constructed, where each automaton models the discrete flow of items at each tracking location. Event labels or symbols contain all the information required to unambiguously distinguish each discrete flow. Within the possible behavior, there is a special sub-behavior whose occurrence is required to be detected. The special behavior may be specified by the occurrence of routing events, such as faults. These intermittent or non-persistent events may occur repeatedly. An observation mask is then defined, characterizing the actual observation configuration available for collecting item tracking data. The analysis task is then to determine whether this observation configuration is capable of detecting the identified special behavior. The assessment is accomplished by evaluating several observability notions, such as detectability and diagnosability. If the corresponding property is satisfied, associated formal observers are constructed to perform the monitoring task at hand. The synthesis of an optimal observation mask may also be conducted to suggest an appropriate observation configuration guaranteeing the detection of the special events and to construct associated monitoring agents. The proposed framework, modeling methodology, and supporting techniques for discrete flow networks monitoring are presented and illustrated with an example.

  9. Dynamic multicast routing scheme in WDM optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Dong, Zhiling; Yao, Hong; Yang, Jianyong; Liu, Yibin

    2007-11-01

    During the information era, the Internet and the service of World Wide Web develop rapidly. Therefore, the wider and wider bandwidth is required with the lower and lower cost. The demand of operation turns out to be diversified. Data, images, videos and other special transmission demands share the challenge and opportunity with the service providers. Simultaneously, the electrical equipment has approached their limit. So the optical communication based on the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and the optical cross-connects (OXCs) shows great potentials and brilliant future to build an optical network based on the unique technical advantage and multi-wavelength characteristic. In this paper, we propose a multi-layered graph model with inter-path between layers to solve the problem of multicast routing wavelength assignment (RWA) contemporarily by employing an efficient graph theoretic formulation. And at the same time, an efficient dynamic multicast algorithm named Distributed Message Copying Multicast (DMCM) mechanism is also proposed. The multicast tree with minimum hops can be constructed dynamically according to this proposed scheme.

  10. STARMAP: protocol for high-speed fiber optic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine-Halliday, Dave; Fapojuwo, Abraham O.; Pye, S. G.

    1993-02-01

    STARMAP is a new, active star-configured, multiple access protocol designed particularly for very high-speed fiber optic LANs but equally applicable to lower speed copper based systems. The main features include: collision-free operation; no packet retransmissions; bounded access delay time; high degree of service fairness; no back-off algorithm required; an integrated data/voice transmission capability; a Universal, a Selective and a Local (Global & Selective) Broadcast capability; very high security; Local Selective Broadcast packets never leave the local hub; a relative insensitivity to `Master' hub failure; preemptive and nonpreemptive priority packet service scheme; novel variable delay register in the hubs; excellent natural diagnostic capability; Loop Creating Links significantly improve network performance; true parallel transmissions. Computer simulations of example STARMAP networks show that at typical values of the offered traffic load, the network throughput exceeds the link bit rate and in the limit, approaches a value equal to the product of the link bit rate and the number of hubs in the network. The useful life of twisted wire pair and coaxial cable based networks may be significantly extended due to the substantial increases in network throughput achievable.

  11. A new routing enhancement scheme based on node blocking state advertisement in wavelength-routed WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peigang; Jin, Yaohui; Zhang, Chunlei; He, Hao; Hu, WeiSheng

    2005-02-01

    The increasing switching capacity brings the optical node with considerable complexity. Due to the limitation in cost and technology, an optical node is often designed with partial switching capability and partial resource sharing. It means that the node is of blocking to some extent, for example multi-granularity switching node, which in fact is a structure using pass wavelength to reduce the dimension of OXC, and partial sharing wavelength converter (WC) OXC. It is conceivable that these blocking nodes will have great effects on the problem of routing and wavelength assignment. Some previous works studied the blocking case, partial WC OXC, using complicated wavelength assignment algorithm. But the complexities of these schemes decide them to be not in practice in real networks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme based on the node blocking state advertisement to reduce the retry or rerouting probability and improve the efficiency of routing in the networks with blocking nodes. In the scheme, node blocking state are advertised to the other nodes in networks, which will be used for subsequent route calculation to find a path with lowest blocking probability. The performance of the scheme is evaluated using discrete event model in 14-node NSFNET, all the nodes of which employ a kind of partial sharing WC OXC structure. In the simulation, a simple First-Fit wavelength assignment algorithm is used. The simulation results demonstrate that the new scheme considerably reduces the retry or rerouting probability in routing process.

  12. Check-in based routing strategy in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng; Shen, Yu-Long

    2017-02-01

    In many real complex artificial networks, a navigation route between a pair of source and destination is often desired to pass through at least a specified node called check-in node for doing check-in like services, such as gas fuel supplement for vehicles, GPS recording for express packages and so on. However, currently, there is a lack of routing study for complex networks equipped with check-in nodes. In this work, we first propose a general routing mechanism called check-in based routing (CBR) which can guarantee that every efficient path must include at least one check-in node. With a finite fraction of check-in nodes in the network, it can be observed that the higher the degrees of check-in nodes, the higher the network traffic capacity will be by employing the shortest path routing into CBR (namely CBR-SP). It is a great challenge on routing optimization for a network with a fraction of check-in nodes of the lowest degrees. We then employ the degree-based efficient routing (ER) into the CBR to efficiently redistribute heavy traffic from hub nodes to non-hub nodes. Under the CBR-ER, the traffic capacity can be significantly enhanced at the cost of a little network diameter and average path lengthening. The extensive simulations in scale-free networks can well confirm the effectiveness of CBR-ER.

  13. Dynamic autonomous routing technology for IP-based satellite ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Jing; Kostas, Theresa; Rajappan, Gowri

    2014-06-01

    IP-based routing for military LEO/MEO satellite ad hoc networks is very challenging due to network and traffic heterogeneity, network topology and traffic dynamics. In this paper, we describe a traffic priority-aware routing scheme for such networks, namely Dynamic Autonomous Routing Technology (DART) for satellite ad hoc networks. DART has a cross-layer design, and conducts routing and resource reservation concurrently for optimal performance in the fluid but predictable satellite ad hoc networks. DART ensures end-to-end data delivery with QoS assurances by only choosing routing paths that have sufficient resources, supporting different packet priority levels. In order to do so, DART incorporates several resource management and innovative routing mechanisms, which dynamically adapt to best fit the prevailing conditions. In particular, DART integrates a resource reservation mechanism to reserve network bandwidth resources; a proactive routing mechanism to set up non-overlapping spanning trees to segregate high priority traffic flows from lower priority flows so that the high priority flows do not face contention from low priority flows; a reactive routing mechanism to arbitrate resources between various traffic priorities when needed; a predictive routing mechanism to set up routes for scheduled missions and for anticipated topology changes for QoS assurance. We present simulation results showing the performance of DART. We have conducted these simulations using the Iridium constellation and trajectories as well as realistic military communications scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate DART's ability to discriminate between high-priority and low-priority traffic flows and ensure disparate QoS requirements of these traffic flows.

  14. Dynamic routing control in heterogeneous tactical networks with multiple traffic priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil

    2012-05-01

    To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.

  15. Hybrid Evolutionary Approaches to Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Efficiency in Sensor Mesh Networks.

    PubMed

    Rahat, Alma A M; Everson, Richard M; Fieldsend, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Mesh network topologies are becoming increasingly popular in battery-powered wireless sensor networks, primarily because of the extension of network range. However, multihop mesh networks suffer from higher energy costs, and the routing strategy employed directly affects the lifetime of nodes with limited energy resources. Hence when planning routes there are trade-offs to be considered between individual and system-wide battery lifetimes. We present a multiobjective routing optimisation approach using hybrid evolutionary algorithms to approximate the optimal trade-off between the minimum lifetime and the average lifetime of nodes in the network. In order to accomplish this combinatorial optimisation rapidly, our approach prunes the search space using k-shortest path pruning and a graph reduction method that finds candidate routes promoting long minimum lifetimes. When arbitrarily many routes from a node to the base station are permitted, optimal routes may be found as the solution to a well-known linear program. We present an evolutionary algorithm that finds good routes when each node is allowed only a small number of paths to the base station. On a real network deployed in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, these solutions, using only three paths per node, are able to achieve minimum lifetimes of over 99% of the optimum linear program solution's time to first sensor battery failure.

  16. Children's Pedestrian Route Selection: Efficacy of a Video and Internet Training Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial examined one aspect of child pedestrian behavior, route selection across intersections, to evaluate whether a combination of widely-available videos and websites effectively train children in safe pedestrian route selection compared to active pedestrian safety control training and a no-contact control group. Methods A sample of 231 seven- and eight-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of four groups: training with videos and internet websites, active control groups of individualized streetside training or training within a virtual pedestrian environment, or a no-contact control group. All training groups received six 30-minute training sessions. Pedestrian route selection was assessed using two strategies, vignettes accompanied by illustrations and tabletop models of intersections, on three occasions: prior to intervention group assignment, immediately post-training, and six months after training. Results Although there were differences in route selection over time, no time by condition interaction effects were significant (ps > .05), suggesting children in the video/internet training group did not learn pedestrian route selection skills at a rate different from those in the other training groups or those in the no-contact control group. Conclusion Safe route selection is a critical component of pedestrian safety. Our results suggest children may not learn route selection from widely-available videos or websites. Explanations for the null finding and implications for both research and future practice are discussed. PMID:25170289

  17. Herd-Based Target Tracking Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiaofei; Wang, Guojun; Wu, Jie

    Target tracking is a killer application in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficiency is one of the most important design goals for target tracking. In this paper, we propose a herd-based target tracking protocol (HTTP) with the notions of node state transition and herd-based node group for target tracking. A sensor node has three states, namely, sleeping state, sensing state, and tracking state. Each sensor node is associated with a weight to be used to make a state transition among the three states. When a target moves into a monitoring area, a cluster node is selected as the herd head that is responsible for reporting the target information to the sink in the network. The sensor node can adjust the frequency of data reporting according to the velocity of the target. Simulation results show that HTTP not only improves the energy efficiency, but also enhances the tracking accuracy.

  18. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  19. Space-Data Routers: Advanced data routing protocols for enhancing data exploitation for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Balasis, George; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Tsaoussidis, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-05-01

    Data sharing and access are major issues in space sciences, as they influence the degree of data exploitation. The availability of multi-spacecraft distributed observation methods and adaptive mission architectures require computationally intensive analysis methods. Moreover, accurate space weather forecasting and future space exploration far from Earth will be in need of real-time data distribution and assimilation technologies. The FP7-Space collaborative research project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) relies on space internetworking and in particular on Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications. SDR unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The main goal is to allow space agencies, academic institutes and research centers to share space-data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. Here we are presenting the architecture and basic functionality of a DTN-based application specifically designed in the framework of the SDR project, for data query, retrieval and administration that will enable addressing outstanding science questions related to space weather, through the provision of simultaneous real-time data sampling at multiple points in space. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  20. A Hybrid Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carlos M. S.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Routing is a basic function in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For these networks, routing algorithms depend on the characteristics of the applications and, consequently, there is no self-contained algorithm suitable for every case. In some scenarios, the network behavior (traffic load) may vary a lot, such as an event-driven application, favoring different algorithms at different instants. This work presents a hybrid and adaptive algorithm for routing in WSNs, called Multi-MAF, that adapts its behavior autonomously in response to the variation of network conditions. In particular, the proposed algorithm applies both reactive and proactive strategies for routing infrastructure creation, and uses an event-detection estimation model to change between the strategies and save energy. To show the advantages of the proposed approach, it is evaluated through simulations. Comparisons with independent reactive and proactive algorithms show improvements on energy consumption. PMID:22423207

  1. Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: How Do Acoustic Propagation Models Impact the Performance of Higher-Level Protocols?

    PubMed Central

    Llor, Jesús; Malumbres, Manuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Several Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to model the acoustic propagation in the underwater environment. In this paper we analyze the evolution of underwater acoustic prediction models from a simple approach to more detailed and accurate models. Then, different high layer network protocols are tested with different acoustic propagation models in order to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the obtained results. After several experiments, we can conclude that higher-level protocols are sensitive to both: (a) physical layer parameters related to the network scenario and (b) the acoustic propagation model. Conditions like ocean surface activity, scenario location, bathymetry or floor sediment composition, may change the signal propagation behavior. So, when designing network architectures for UWSNs, the role of the physical layer should be seriously taken into account in order to assert that the obtained simulation results will be close to the ones obtained in real network scenarios. PMID:22438712

  2. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh; Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu

    2010-10-01

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as "Occurrence Index (Oi)". With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  3. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  4. Self-Organized Link State Aware Routing for Multiple Mobile Agents in Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akihiro; Nishi, Hiroaki

    Recently, the importance of data sharing structures in autonomous distributed networks has been increasing. A wireless sensor network is used for managing distributed data. This type of distributed network requires effective information exchanging methods for data sharing. To reduce the traffic of broadcasted messages, reduction of the amount of redundant information is indispensable. In order to reduce packet loss in mobile ad-hoc networks, QoS-sensitive routing algorithm have been frequently discussed. The topology of a wireless network is likely to change frequently according to the movement of mobile nodes, radio disturbance, or fading due to the continuous changes in the environment. Therefore, a packet routing algorithm should guarantee QoS by using some quality indicators of the wireless network. In this paper, a novel information exchanging algorithm developed using a hash function and a Boolean operation is proposed. This algorithm achieves efficient information exchanges by reducing the overhead of broadcasting messages, and it can guarantee QoS in a wireless network environment. It can be applied to a routing algorithm in a mobile ad-hoc network. In the proposed routing algorithm, a routing table is constructed by using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), and the neighborhood information is periodically broadcasted depending on this table. The proposed hash-based routing entry management by using an extended MAC address can eliminate the overhead of message flooding. An analysis of the collision of hash values contributes to the determination of the length of the hash values, which is minimally required. Based on the verification of a mathematical theory, an optimum hash function for determining the length of hash values can be given. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and to validate the theory in a general wireless network routing algorithm.

  5. Key management schemes using routing information frames in secure wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaev, V. A.; Finogeev, A. G.; Finogeev, A. A.; Parygin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problems and objectives of key management for data encryption in wireless sensor networks (WSN) of SCADA systems. The structure of the key information in the ZigBee network and methods of keys obtaining are discussed. The use of a hybrid key management schemes is most suitable for WSN. The session symmetric key is used to encrypt the sensor data, asymmetric keys are used to encrypt the session key transmitted from the routing information. Three algorithms of hybrid key management using routing information frames determined by routing methods and the WSN topology are presented.

  6. Integrating Local Dynamic and Global Static Information for Routing Traffic on Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yong; Shi, Dong-Mei; Du, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    Congestion in communication networks is a topic of theoretical interest and practical importance. In this work, we propose a mixed routing strategy by considering the global static information (topology of the network) and local dynamic information (queue length of neighbor nodes). Under this routing strategy, the traffic capacity can be remarkably promoted compared with that by former efficient routing strategy [G. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 046108 (2006)]. Besides, the traffic capacity, the average packet number as well as the travel time are almost independent of a time delay in updating the local dynamic information.

  7. Valiant load-balanced robust routing under hose model for WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we propose Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for WDM mesh networks under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose model), and the proposed routing scheme is implemented with traffic grooming approach. Our Objective is to maximize the hose model throughput. A mathematic formulation of Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing is presented and three fast heuristic algorithms are also proposed. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimizing hop first) is proposed. We compare the three heuristic algorithms with the VPN tree under the hose model. Finally we demonstrate in the simulation results that MHF with Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme outperforms the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm in terms of the throughput for the uniform/non-uniform traffic matrix under the hose model.

  8. Traffic routing for multicomputer networks with virtual cut-through capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandlur, Dilip D.; Shin, Kang G.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of selecting routes for interprocess communication in a network with virtual cut-through capability, while balancing the network load and minimizing the number of times that a message gets buffered. An approach is proposed that formulates the route selection problem as a minimization problem with a link cost function that depends upon the traffic through the link. The form of this cost function is derived using the probability of establishing a virtual cut-through route. The route selection problem is shown to be NP-hard, and an algorithm is developed to incrementally reduce the cost by rerouting the traffic. The performance of this algorithm is exemplified by two network topologies: the hypercube and the C-wrapped hexagonal mesh.

  9. Efficient path routing strategy for flows with multiple priorities on scale-free networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhili; Cheng, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In real networks, traffic flows are different in amount as well as their priorities. However, the latter priority has rarely been examined in routing strategy studies. In this paper, a novel routing algorithm, which is based on the efficient path routing strategy (EP), is proposed to overcome network congestion problem caused by large amount of traffic flows with different priorities. In this scheme, traffic flows with different priorities are transmitted through different routing paths, which are based on EP with different parameters. Simulation results show that the traffic capacity for flows with different priorities can be enhanced by 12% with this method, compared with EP. In addition, the new method contributes to more balanced network traffic load distribution and reduces average transmission jump and delay of packets. PMID:28199382

  10. A Network-Coding Based Event Diffusion Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldi, Roberto; Alnuweiri, Hussein

    Publish/subscribe is a well know and powerful distributed programming paradigm with many potential applications. In this paper we consider the central problem of any pub/sub implementation, namely the problem of event dissemination, in the case of a Wireless Mesh Network. We propose a protocol based on non-trivial forwarding mechanisms that employ network coding as a central tool for supporting adaptive event dissemination while exploiting the broadcast nature of wireless transmissions. Our results show that network coding provides significant improvements to event diffusion compared to standard blind dissemination solutions, namely flooding and gossiping.

  11. Improvements to the NIST network time protocol servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Judah

    2008-12-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) operates 22 network time servers at various locations. These servers respond to requests for time in a number of different formats and provide time stamps that are directly traceable to the NIST atomic clock ensemble in Boulder. The link between the servers at locations outside of the NIST Boulder Laboratories and the atomic clock ensemble is provided by the Automated Computer Time Service (ACTS) system, which has a direct connection to the clock ensemble and which transmits time information over dial-up telephone lines with a two-way protocol to measure the transmission delay. I will discuss improvements to the ACTS servers and to the time servers themselves. These improvements have resulted in an improvement of almost an order of magnitude in the performance of the system.

  12. Prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks interconnected to fixed network using hierarchical energy tree based routing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, M; Dhanalakshmi, R; Parthiban, P

    2014-01-01

    This research work proposes a mathematical model for the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSN). It also proposes an energy efficient routing algorithm for WSN called hierarchical energy tree based routing algorithm (HETRA) based on hierarchical energy tree constructed using the available energy in each node. The energy efficiency is further augmented by reducing the packet drops using exponential congestion control algorithm (TCP/EXP). The algorithms are evaluated in WSNs interconnected to fixed network with seven distribution patterns, simulated in ns2 and compared with the existing algorithms based on the parameters such as number of data packets, throughput, network lifetime, and data packets average network lifetime product. Evaluation and simulation results show that the combination of HETRA and TCP/EXP maximizes longer network lifetime in all the patterns. The lifetime of the network with HETRA algorithm has increased approximately 3.2 times that of the network implemented with AODV.

  13. Location and Routing of the Defense Courier Service Aerial Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    12 Coefficient Determinatior .................... . .15 Heuristic Solution Techniques ................... 16 Space Filling Curves ...178 V List of Figures Figure Page I. Space Filling Curves ............................. 2. The Sweep Heuristic...frequency associated with the most served site within a given depot’s route system (18). Approach to the Problem The research involves several phases . In

  14. Effective Mobile Routing Through Dynamic Addressing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    WIRELESS BATTLEFIELD NETWORKS USING UAVS,” 2001. [7] Elizabeth . M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile...Wireless Networks,” IEEE personal Communications, April 1999. [8] S. Corson , J. Macker, “Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) : Routing Protocol...Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer, “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,”wmcsa, p.90, Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer System and

  15. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  16. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  17. A Multi-Agent Framework for Packet Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dayon; Zhang, Minji; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely investigated in recent years. One of the fundamental issues in WSNs is packet routing, because in many application domains, packets have to be routed from source nodes to destination nodes as soon and as energy efficiently as possible. To address this issue, a large number of routing approaches have been proposed. Although every existing routing approach has advantages, they also have some disadvantages. In this paper, a multi-agent framework is proposed that can assist existing routing approaches to improve their routing performance. This framework enables each sensor node to build a cooperative neighbour set based on past routing experience. Such cooperative neighbours, in turn, can help the sensor to effectively relay packets in the future. This framework is independent of existing routing approaches and can be used to assist many existing routing approaches. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of this framework in terms of four metrics: average delivery latency, successful delivery ratio, number of live nodes and total sensing coverage. PMID:25928063

  18. Adaptive Bio-Inspired Wireless Network Routing for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard I.; Lee, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Wireless mobile networks suffer connectivity loss when used in a terrain that has hills, and valleys when line of sight is interrupted or range is exceeded. To resolve this problem and achieve acceptable network performance, we have designed an adaptive, configurable, hybrid system to automatically route network packets along the best path between multiple geographically dispersed modules. This is very useful in planetary surface exploration, especially for ad-hoc mobile networks, where computational devices take an active part in creating a network infrastructure, and can actually be used to route data dynamically and even store data for later transmission between networks. Using inspiration from biological systems, this research proposes to use ant trail algorithms with multi-layered information maps (topographic maps, RF coverage maps) to determine the best route through ad-hoc network at real time. The determination of best route is a complex one, and requires research into the appropriate metrics, best method to identify the best path, optimizing traffic capacity, network performance, reliability, processing capabilities and cost. Real ants are capable of finding the shortest path from their nest to a food source without visual sensing through the use of pheromones. They are also able to adapt to changes in the environment using subtle clues. To use ant trail algorithms, we need to define the probability function. The artificial ant is, in this case, a software agent that moves from node to node on a network graph. The function to calculate the fitness (evaluate the better path) includes: length of the network edge, the coverage index, topology graph index, and pheromone trail left behind by other ant agents. Each agent modifies the environment in two different ways: 1) Local trail updating: As the ant moves between nodes it updates the amount of pheromone on the edge; and 2) Global trail updating: When all ants have completed a tour the ant that found the

  19. DARAL: A Dynamic and Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Francisco José; Glösekötter, Peter; González, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Smart City projects is pushing researchers and companies to develop more efficient embedded hardware and also more efficient communication technologies. These communication technologies are the focus of this work, presenting a new routing algorithm based on dynamically-allocated sub-networks and node roles. Among these features, our algorithm presents a fast set-up time, a reduced overhead and a hierarchical organization, which allows for the application of complex management techniques. This work presents a routing algorithm based on a dynamically-allocated hierarchical clustering, which uses the link quality indicator as a reference parameter, maximizing the network coverage and minimizing the control message overhead and the convergence time. The present work based its test scenario and analysis in the density measure, considered as a node degree. The routing algorithm is compared with some of the most well known routing algorithms for different scenario densities. PMID:27347962

  20. Improvements in Routing for Packet-Switched Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-18

    the routing table at X is then updated by a simple averaging process. 2.3.6 Negative Reinfafccrnent Negative reinforcement is a class of techniques...is to reduce the "ping-pong" effect. 2.3.7 Bi-adaptive Bi-adaptivc is still a further synthesis of backwards learning and negative reinforcement , where...table en- tries can only be increased by negative reinforcement and decreased by backward learning. 2 .-.8 Superposition Superposition is

  1. A Principled Approach to Managing Routing in Large ISP Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    interface to a migration-aware data-plane hypervisor. Our prototype presents a rudimentary data-plane hypervi- sor implementation which only supports...INFOCOM, March 2005. [20] C.-K. Chau. Policy-based routing with non-strict preferences. In Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2006. [21] E. Chen, R. Fernando , J...Hoffman, J. Snell, and T. Anderson. The end-to-end effects of Internet path selection. In Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 1999. [88] J. Scudder, R. Fernando , and S

  2. An Implementation of the SNR High Speed Network Communication Protocol (Receiver Part).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    This thesis work is to implement the receiver pan of the SNR high speed network transport protocol. The approach was to use the Systems of...the SCM specification itself. The result was a correctly functioning program which implemented the SNR protocol. The system was tested using different...part of the SNR high speed transport protocol; (2) testing and integration with the transmitter part of the SNR transport protocol on an FDDI data

  3. A location-routing-inventory model for designing multisource distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi-Javid, Amir; Seddighi, Amir Hossein

    2012-06-01

    This article studies a ternary-integration problem that incorporates location, inventory and routing decisions in designing a multisource distribution network. The objective of the problem is to minimize the total cost of location, routing and inventory. A mixed-integer programming formulation is first presented, and then a three-phase heuristic is developed to solve large-sized instances of the problem. The numerical study indicates that the proposed heuristic is both effective and efficient.

  4. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay. PMID:27618044

  5. Distance-Based and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Abdullah; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Ab Hamid, Siti Hafizah; Akhunzada, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises small sensor nodes with limited energy capabilities. The power constraints of WSNs necessitate efficient energy utilization to extend the overall network lifetime of these networks. We propose a distance-based and low-energy adaptive clustering (DISCPLN) protocol to streamline the green issue of efficient energy utilization in WSNs. We also enhance our proposed protocol into the multi-hop-DISCPLN protocol to increase the lifetime of the network in terms of high throughput with minimum delay time and packet loss. We also propose the mobile-DISCPLN protocol to maintain the stability of the network. The modelling and comparison of these protocols with their corresponding benchmarks exhibit promising results. PMID:27658194

  6. Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Router Chip.

    PubMed

    Okdem, Selcuk; Karaboga, Dervis

    2009-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks consisting of nodes with limited power are deployed to gather useful information from the field. In WSNs it is critical to collect the information in an energy efficient manner. Ant Colony Optimization, a swarm intelligence based optimization technique, is widely used in network routing. A novel routing approach using an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm is proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks consisting of stable nodes. Illustrative examples, detailed descriptions and comparative performance test results of the proposed approach are included. The approach is also implemented to a small sized hardware component as a router chip. Simulation results show that proposed algorithm provides promising solutions allowing node designers to efficiently operate routing tasks.

  7. Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm in LEO/MEO Double-layered Optical Satellite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjun; Zhao, Shanghong

    2016-09-01

    A novel routing algorithm (Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm, HSARA) for LEO/MEO (low earth orbit/medium earth orbit) double-layered optical satellite network is brought forward. The so-called supervisor (MEO satellite) is designed for failure recovery and network management. LEO satellites are grouped according to the virtual managed field of MEO which is different from coverage area of MEO satellite in RF satellite network. In each LEO group, one LEO satellite which has maximal persistent link with its supervisor is called the agent. A LEO group is updated when this optical inter-orbit links between agent LEO satellite and the corresponding MEO satellite supervisor cuts off. In this way, computations of topology changes and LEO group updating can be decreased. Expense of routing is integration of delay and wavelength utilization. HSARA algorithm simulations are implemented and the results are as follows: average network delay of HSARA can reduce 21 ms and 31.2 ms compared with traditional multilayered satellite routing and single-layer LEO satellite respectively; LEO/MEO double-layered optical satellite network can cover polar region which cannot be covered by single-layered LEO satellite and throughput is 1% more than that of single-layered LEO satellite averagely. Therefore, exact global coverage can be achieved with this double-layered optical satellite network.

  8. Routing strategy on a two-dimensional small-world network model.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Liu, Feng; Ren, Feng-Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Based on a two-dimensional small-world network model, we propose an efficient routing strategy that enhances the network capacity while keeping the average packet travel time low. We deterministically increase the weight of the links attached to the "congestible nodes" and compute the effective distance of a path by summing up the weight of the links belong to that path. The routing cost of a node is a linear combination of the minimum effective distance from the node to the target and its queue length. The weight assignment reduces the maximum load of the network, while the incorporation of dynamic information further balances the traffic on the network. Simulation results show that the network capacity is much improved compared with the reference strategies, while the average packet travel time is relatively small.

  9. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  10. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  11. Allergen immunotherapy, routes of administration and cytokine networks: an update.

    PubMed

    Cuppari, Caterina; Leonardi, Salvatore; Manti, Sara; Filippelli, Martina; Alterio, Tommaso; Spicuzza, Lucia; Rigoli, Luciana; Arrigo, Teresa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Salpietro, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a disease-modifying therapy, effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis or stinging insect allergy. Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of increasing doses of allergens with the aim of ameliorating the allergic response. Although precise underlying mechanisms of the induction of immune tolerance remain unclear, immunotherapy has been associated with the induction of distinct subsets of Tregs that eventually lead to peripheral tolerance by inducing a deviation from Th2 to Th1 immune responses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of immunotherapy in relationship to different routes of administration and also provides a unifying view.

  12. The ventral-hypothalamic input route: a common neural network for abstract cognition and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2014-02-01

    Classically, external receptors of the body transmit information from the environment to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus. This review explains and argues that only concrete external information is transmitted from peripheral receptors to the cortex via a thalamic route, while abstract and sexual external information are actually transmitted from peripheral receptors to the cortex through a cognitive hypothalamic route. Sexual function typically implies participation of two distinct partners, ensuring reproduction in many species including humans. Human sexual response involves participation of multiple (environmental, biological, psychological) kinds of stimuli and processing, so the understanding of sexual control and response supposes integration between the classical physiological mechanisms with the more complex processes of our 'mind'. Cognition and sexuality are two relational functions, which are dependent on concrete (colours, sounds, etc.) and/or abstract (gestures, facial expression, how you move, the way you say something seemingly trivial, etc.) environmental cues. Abstract cues are encoded independent of the specific object features of the stimuli, suggesting that such cues should be transmitted and interpreted within the brain through a system different than the classical thalamo-cortical network that operates on concrete (material) information. Indeed, data show that the cerebral cortex is capable of interpreting two distinct (concrete and abstract) formats of information via distinct and non-compatible brain areas. We expand upon this abstract-concrete dichotomy of the brain, positing that the two distinct cortical networks should be uploaded with distinct information from the environment via two distinct informational input routes. These two routes would be represented by the two distinct routes of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), namely the classical/dorsal thalamic input route for concrete information and the ventral

  13. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS UTILIZING REACTIVE PROTOCOLS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate...EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA EXFILTRATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS UTILIZING REACTIVE PROTOCOLS THESIS Corey T. Willinger, Captain, USAF AFIT...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-035 EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA EXFILTRATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

  14. Scalable Wrap-Around Shuffle Exchange Network with Deflection Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention in one embodiment is a communication network including plural non-blocking crossbar nodes, first apparatus for connecting the nodes in a first layer of connecting links, and second apparatus for connecting links independent of the first layer, whereby each layer is connected to the other layer at each point of the nodes. Preferably, each one of the layers of connecting links corresponds to one recirculating network topology that closes in on itself.

  15. An Efficient Metaheuristic for Dynamic Network Design and Message Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Global Information Grid. In many cases, the amount of information requested will exceed the capabilities of the network. One challenge is to...Technology (AU)). Guéret, C., Prins, C., & Sevaux, M. (2000). Applications of optimization with xpress -MP [Electronic version]. Editions Eyrolles...critical information across the Global Information Grid. In many cases, the amount of information requested will exceed the capabilities of the network

  16. Information routing driven by background chatter in a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Domedel-Puig, Núria; Rué, Pau; Pons, Antonio J; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity -or chatter- that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

  17. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  18. River network routing in all rivers of the Texas Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Maidment, D. R.; Hong, S.; Niu, G.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The mapped rivers and streams of the contiguous United States are available in a high resolution geographic information system (GIS) dataset called NHDPlus. This hydrographic dataset has about 3 million river and water body reaches along with information on how they are connected into networks. A river network model called RAPID is developed for the NHDPlus river network and applied to the 68,143 river reaches of the entire Texas Gulf, whose lateral inflow to the river network is calculated by a land surface model. RAPID allows for a matrix-based calculation of flow and volume of water in all reaches of a river network, with many thousands of reaches. Gages from the USGS National Water Information System are used to assess the quality of model calculations and to automatically determine optimal model parameters with about 1 gage available for each 160 reaches simulated. RAPID is adapted for parallel computing and has been tested on the Lonestar supercomputer (http://www.tacc.utexas.edu/resources/hpcsystems/) although challenges related to parallel computing are significant. The first author was awarded the 2008 Horton (Hydrology) Research Grant for this work.

  19. An energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sinks for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Bin; Xia, Feng; Kim, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Uk

    2014-08-18

    Traffic patterns in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually follow a many-to-one model. Sensor nodes close to static sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sink for WSNs, where sink nodes will move with a certain speed along the network boundary to collect monitored data. We study the influence of multiple mobile sink nodes on energy consumption and network lifetime, and we mainly focus on the selection of mobile sink node number and the selection of parking positions, as well as their impact on performance metrics above. We can see that both mobile sink node number and the selection of parking position have important influence on network performance. Simulation results show that our proposed routing algorithm has better performance than traditional routing ones in terms of energy consumption.

  20. Multiobjective optimization of evacuation routes in stadium using superposed potential field network based ACO.

    PubMed

    Kou, Jialiang; Xiong, Shengwu; Fang, Zhixiang; Zong, Xinlu; Chen, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Multiobjective evacuation routes optimization problem is defined to find out optimal evacuation routes for a group of evacuees under multiple evacuation objectives. For improving the evacuation efficiency, we abstracted the evacuation zone as a superposed potential field network (SPFN), and we presented SPFN-based ACO algorithm (SPFN-ACO) to solve this problem based on the proposed model. In Wuhan Sports Center case, we compared SPFN-ACO algorithm with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm under three evacuation objectives, namely, total evacuation time, total evacuation route length, and cumulative congestion degree. The experimental results show that SPFN-ACO algorithm has a better performance while comparing with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm for solving multi-objective evacuation routes optimization problem.

  1. Hybrid routing technique for a fault-tolerant, integrated information network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the space station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated, local area networks capable of supporting data, voice, and video communications. In addition, fault-tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard the space station of time-critical data system repair tasks. A key issue for the design of the fault-tolerant, integrated network is the development of a robust routing algorithm which dynamically selects the optimum communication paths through the net. A routing technique is described that adapts to topological changes in the network to support fault-tolerant operation and system evolvability.

  2. Stability-Aware Geographic Routing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hieu, Tran Dinh; Dung, Le The; Kim, Byung-Seo

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of wireless sensor networks that harvest energy from environmental sources such as solar, vibration, and thermoelectric to power sensor nodes is emerging to solve the problem of energy limitation. Based on the photo-voltaic model, this research proposes a stability-aware geographic routing for reliable data transmissions in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs) to provide a reliable routes selection method and potentially achieve an unlimited network lifetime. Specifically, the influences of link quality, represented by the estimated packet reception rate, on network performance is investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms an energy-harvesting-aware method in terms of energy consumption, the average number of hops, and the packet delivery ratio. PMID:27187414

  3. Stability-Aware Geographic Routing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Dinh; Dung, Le The; Kim, Byung-Seo

    2016-05-14

    A new generation of wireless sensor networks that harvest energy from environmental sources such as solar, vibration, and thermoelectric to power sensor nodes is emerging to solve the problem of energy limitation. Based on the photo-voltaic model, this research proposes a stability-aware geographic routing for reliable data transmissions in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs) to provide a reliable routes selection method and potentially achieve an unlimited network lifetime. Specifically, the influences of link quality, represented by the estimated packet reception rate, on network performance is investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms an energy-harvesting-aware method in terms of energy consumption, the average number of hops, and the packet delivery ratio.

  4. GAPR2: A DTN Routing Protocol for Communications in Challenged, Degraded, and Denied Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    techniques. One such project was recently proposed to track the movements of whitetail deer in Ontario, Canada. Under this proposal, a DTN sensor network...would be deployed that tracks the number of whitetail deer observed over a sustained period of time. A series of mobile ‘collector nodes’ would be...invading southward as illustrated by the red box and arrows. Bold Alligator Beach Landing Figure 3.4: Overview of Military Scenario Garnetian forces have

  5. A Maximal Flow Approach to Dynamic Routing in Communication Networks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    of nodes. In Appendix B we provide a computer program in Fortran for finding the maximal flow in these networks, based on the algorithm of Edmons and... Edmons and Karp is implemented by a Fortran Subroutine called MAXFL. The algorithm finds the shortest path between source and destination on which an

  6. Context Aware Routing Management Architecture for Airborne Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    21 MBps Megabytes per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 RF Radio Frequency...collection of mobile nodes that generate a network automatically by creating several short-lived radio frequency links based on node proximity and mutual...can be lost due to to blocking , obstacles or other types of interference. Two nodes can establish communication directly in a MANET if the recipient is

  7. On Channel-Discontinuity-Constraint Routing in Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Swaminathan; Efrat, Alon; Ramasubramanian, Srinivasan; Agarwal, Pankaj K

    2014-02-01

    Multi-channel wireless networks are increasingly deployed as infrastructure networks, e.g. in metro areas. Network nodes frequently employ directional antennas to improve spatial throughput. In such networks, between two nodes, it is of interest to compute a path with a channel assignment for the links such that the path and link bandwidths are the same. This is achieved when any two consecutive links are assigned different channels, termed as "Channel-Discontinuity-Constraint" (CDC). CDC-paths are also useful in TDMA systems, where, preferably, consecutive links are assigned different time-slots. In the first part of this paper, we develop a t-spanner for CDC-paths using spatial properties; a sub-network containing O(n/θ) links, for any θ > 0, such that CDC-paths increase in cost by at most a factor t = (1-2 sin (θ/2))(-2). We propose a novel distributed algorithm to compute the spanner using an expected number of O(n log n) fixed-size messages. In the second part, we present a distributed algorithm to find minimum-cost CDC-paths between two nodes using O(n(2)) fixed-size messages, by developing an extension of Edmonds' algorithm for minimum-cost perfect matching. In a centralized implementation, our algorithm runs in O(n(2)) time improving the previous best algorithm which requires O(n(3)) running time. Moreover, this running time improves to O(n/θ) when used in conjunction with the spanner developed.

  8. A Fault Tolerant Self-Routing Computer Network Topology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    analog, and predominately electromechanical . Before 1962 (when pulse code mmdulation was introduced), the transmission facilities for the telephone...loop, the local switch, the metro or interoffice facility, the tandem switch and the intercity facility. In addition to these, signaling is the "glue...Evolution 3. Metro /Interoffice Evolution 4. Tandem Switching Evolution 5. Intercity Facilities Evolution 6. Signaling Network Evolution 7. Interworklng of

  9. Self-organizing sensor sub-network protocol for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaraj, Sibila; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Rao, Vittal

    2006-03-01

    A novel self-organizing sub-network (SOS) protocol that improves the lifetime, scalability, and reduces the overall energy consumption is proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). In SOS protocol, the nodes are usually in idle or sleep mode but when an event is detected; the nodes near the event become active and form sub-networks. Subsequently, cluster heads (CHs) are selected within each sub-network, and the nodes are grouped into clusters. Nodes in the cluster send data to their respective CH, which in turn aggregates the data. This method of forming sub-networks reduces the amount of energy used, because only a part of the network closer to the unexpected event is active, when compared to the other existing methods. The results of SOS protocol obtained using GloMoSim demonstrate that the protocol minimizes the energy consumed, lowers the end-to-end delay, increases the lifetime of the network, and ensures scalability when compared to LEACH protocol. The applicability of SOS protocols for structural heath monitoring is investigated.

  10. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes. PMID:28304367

  11. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-03-17

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes.

  12. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum secure communication network protocol with entangled photons for mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a communication protocol called controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication for mobile networks was proposed by Chou et al (2014 Mobile Netw. Appl. 19 121). We study the security of the proposed communication protocol and find that it is not secure. The controller, Telecom Company, may eavesdrop secret messages from mobile devices without being detected. Finally, we give a possible improvement of the communication protocol.

  13. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  14. Ecological networks to unravel the routes to horizontal transposon transfers

    PubMed Central

    Venner, Samuel; Miele, Vincent; Biémont, Christian; Daubin, Vincent; Feschotte, Cédric; Pontier, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) represent the single largest component of numerous eukaryotic genomes, and their activity and dispersal constitute an important force fostering evolutionary innovation. The horizontal transfer of TEs (HTT) between eukaryotic species is a common and widespread phenomenon that has had a profound impact on TE dynamics and, consequently, on the evolutionary trajectory of many species' lineages. However, the mechanisms promoting HTT remain largely unknown. In this article, we argue that network theory combined with functional ecology provides a robust conceptual framework and tools to delineate how complex interactions between diverse organisms may act in synergy to promote HTTs. PMID:28199335

  15. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  16. Flash freezing route to mesoporous polymer nanofibre networks

    PubMed Central

    Samitsu, Sadaki; Zhang, Rui; Peng, Xinsheng; Krishnan, Mohan Raj; Fujii, Yoshihisa; Ichinose, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing requirements worldwide for advanced separation materials with applications in environmental protection processes. Various mesoporous polymeric materials have been developed and they are considered as potential candidates. It is still challenging, however, to develop economically viable and durable separation materials from low-cost, mass-produced materials. Here we report the fabrication of a nanofibrous network structure from common polymers, based on a microphase separation technique from frozen polymer solutions. The resulting polymer nanofibre networks exhibit large free surface areas, exceeding 300 m2 g−1, as well as small pore radii as low as 1.9 nm. These mesoporous polymer materials are able to rapidly adsorb and desorb a large amount of carbon dioxide and are also capable of condensing organic vapours. Furthermore, the nanofibres made of engineering plastics with high glass transition temperatures over 200 °C exhibit surprisingly high, temperature-dependent adsorption of organic solvents from aqueous solution. PMID:24145702

  17. Improved Results for Route Planning in Stochastic Transportation Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyan, Justin; Mitzenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In the bus network problem, the goal is to generate a plan for getting from point X to point Y within a city using buses in the smallest expected time. Because bus arrival times are not determined by a fixed schedule but instead may be random. the problem requires more than standard shortest path techniques. In recent work, Datar and Ranade provide algorithms in the case where bus arrivals are assumed to be independent and exponentially distributed. We offer solutions to two important generalizations of the problem, answering open questions posed by Datar and Ranade. First, we provide a polynomial time algorithm for a much wider class of arrival distributions, namely those with increasing failure rate. This class includes not only exponential distributions but also uniform, normal, and gamma distributions. Second, in the case where bus arrival times are independent and geometric discrete random variable,. we provide an algorithm for transportation networks of buses and trains, where trains run according to a fixed schedule.

  18. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  19. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-03-08

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes' reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes' communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service.

  20. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-01-01

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service. PMID:28282894

  1. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y. Harold; Rajaram, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. PMID:26819966

  2. A burst segmentation-deflection routing contention resolution mechanism in OBS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ai-hong; Wang, Bo-yun

    2012-01-01

    One of the key problems to hinder the realization of optical burst switching (OBS) technology in the core networks is the losses due to the contention among the bursts at the core nodes. Burst segmentation is an effective contention resolution technique used to reduce the number of packets lost due to the burst losses. In our work, a burst segmentation-deflection routing contention resolution mechanism in OBS networks is proposed. When the contention occurs, the bursts are segmented according to the lowest packet loss probability of networks firstly, and then the segmented burst is deflected on the optimum routing. An analytical model is proposed to evaluate the contention resolution mechanism. Simulation results show that high-priority bursts have significantly lower packet loss probability and transmission delay than the low-priority. And the performance of the burst lengths, in which the number of segments per burst distributes geometrically, is more effective than that of the deterministically distributed burst lengths.

  3. Analysis on Imai-Shin's LR-AKE Protocol for Wireless Network Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjie; Luo, Wei; Shen, Changxiang

    In 2005 Imai and Shin proposed a leakage-resilient authenticated key exchange protocol(LR-AKE) for wireless network security. For simplicity, the protocol is based on password authentication plus additional secrets to fit wireless environment (e.g., computation constraint). In this paper we show that Imai-Shin’s scheme is vulnerable to both client and server impersonation attacks and needs to be improved to provide strong security for wireless network.

  4. The “Path” Not Taken: Exploring Structural Differences in Mapped- Versus Shortest-Network-Path School Travel Routes

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kristian; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Stone, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. School route measurement often involves estimating the shortest network path. We challenged the relatively uncritical adoption of this method in school travel research and tested the route discordance hypothesis that several types of difference exist between shortest network paths and reported school routes. Methods. We constructed the mapped and shortest path through network routes for a sample of 759 children aged 9 to 13 years in grades 5 and 6 (boys = 45%, girls = 54%, unreported gender = 1%), in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare reported with shortest-path route measures including distance, route directness, intersection crossings, and route overlap. Measurement difference was explored by mode and location. Results. We found statistical evidence of route discordance for walkers and children who were driven and detected it more often for inner suburban cases. Evidence of route discordance varied by mode and school location. Conclusions. We found statistically significant differences for route structure and built environment variables measured along reported and geographic information systems–based shortest-path school routes. Uncertainty produced by the shortest-path approach challenges its conceptual and empirical validity in school travel research. PMID:23865648

  5. Self-Learning Intelligent Agents for Dynamic Traffic Routing on Transportation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Add; Basha, Nagi

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are designed to take advantage of recent advances in communications, electronics, and Information Technology in improving the efficiency and safety of transportation systems. Among the several ITS applications is the notion of Dynamic Traffic Routing (DTR), which involves generating "optimal" routing recommendations to drivers with the aim of maximizing network utilizing. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a self-learning intelligent agent to solve the DTR problem to achieve traffic user equilibrium in a transportation network. The core idea is to deploy an agent to a simulation model of a highway. The agent then learns by itself by interacting with the simulation model. Once the agent reaches a satisfactory level of performance, it can then be deployed to the real-world, where it would continue to learn how to refine its control policies over time. To test this concept in this paper, the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) developed by Carlos Daganzo of the University of California at Berkeley is used to simulate a simple highway with two main alternative routes. With the model developed, a Reinforcement Learning Agent (RLA) is developed to learn how to best dynamically route traffic, so as to maximize the utilization of existing capacity. Preliminary results obtained from our experiments are promising. RL, being an adaptive online learning technique, appears to have a great potential for controlling a stochastic dynamic systems such as a transportation system. Furthermore, the approach is highly scalable and applicable to a variety of networks and roadways.

  6. IPV6 Mobile Network Protocol Weaknesses and a Cryptosystem Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    This paper reviews some of the improvements associated with the new Internet protocol version 6, an emphasis on its security-related functionality particularly in its authentication and concludes with a hybrid cryptosystem for its authentication issue. Since new generation of Internet protocol is on its way to solve the growth of IP address depletion. It is in a process that may take several years to complete. Thus, as a step to effective solution and efficient implementation this review has been made.

  7. Network architectures and protocols for the integration of ACTS and ISDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, D. M.; Lowry, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A close integration of satellite networks and the integrated services digital network (ISDN) is essential for satellite networks to carry ISDN traffic effectively. This also shows how a given (pre-ISDN) satellite network architecture can be enhanced to handle ISDN signaling and provide ISDN services. It also describes the functional architecture and high-level protocols that could be implemented in the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) low burst rate communications system to provide ISDN services.

  8. Secure and lightweight network admission and transmission protocol for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Zhang, Pingxin

    2013-05-01

    A body sensor network (BSN) is a wireless network of biosensors and a local processing unit, which is commonly referred to as the personal wireless hub (PWH). Personal health information (PHI) is collected by biosensors and delivered to the PWH before it is forwarded to the remote healthcare center for further processing. In a BSN, it is critical to only admit eligible biosensors and PWH into the network. Also, securing the transmission from each biosensor to PWH is essential not only for ensuring safety of PHI delivery, but also for preserving the privacy of PHI. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a secure network admission and transmission subsystem based on a polynomial-based authentication scheme. The procedures in this subsystem to establish keys for each biosensor are communication efficient and energy efficient. Moreover, based on the observation that an adversary eavesdropping in a BSN faces inevitable channel errors, we propose to exploit the adversary's uncertainty regarding the PHI transmission to update the individual key dynamically and improve key secrecy. In addition to the theoretical analysis that demonstrates the security properties of our system, this paper also reports the experimental results of the proposed protocol on resource-limited sensor platforms, which show the efficiency of our system in practice.

  9. A Protocol for Topology-Dependent Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    problems of CSMA, many collision-avoidance MAC protocols have been proposed, which include MACA [4], MACAW [5], IEEE802.11 [6] and FAMA [7]. These protocols...traffic makes it much more attractive than such collision-avoidance MAC protocols as IEEE802.11, MACA, MACAW , and FAMA. REFERENCES [1] B. M. Leiner, D. L...Amateur Radio 9th Comput. Networking Conf., 1990. [5] V. Bharghavan et al., “ MACAW : A media access protocol for wireless LAN’s,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM

  10. A cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanzhi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Rui; Fang, Ruochen; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To solve performance degradation caused by channel fading, we propose a cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks in this paper. In the protocol, the transmission error of data packet caused by channel fading are considered in order to achieve the best cooperative gain in the poor quality channel. In the relay selection process, potential relay nodes satisfying corresponding requirement can compete to sever as final relay node by means of priority selection and collision resolution process. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other protocol in terms of packet error rate and the saturation throughput.

  11. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms in Resource-Limited Wireless Multi-Hop Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    provid- ing fully distributed schemes for channel access. Protocols such as MACA [26] and MACAW [27] were based on Request-to-Send (RTS), Clear-to-Send...Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference, Septem- ber 1990. [27] V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang. Macaw : A media access

  12. Protocol Support for a New Satellite-Based Airspace Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, Yadong; Hadjitheodosiou, Michael; Baras, John

    2004-01-01

    We recommend suitable transport protocols for an aeronautical network supporting Internet and data services via satellite. We study the characteristics of an aeronautical satellite hybrid network and focus on the problems that cause dramatically degraded performance of the Transport Protocol. We discuss various extensions to standard TCP that alleviate some of these performance problems. Through simulation, we identify those TCP implementations that can be expected to perform well. Based on the observation that it is difficult for an end-to-end solution to solve these problems effectively, we propose a new TCP-splitting protocol, termed Aeronautical Transport Control Protocol (AeroTCP). The main idea of this protocol is to use a fixed window for flow control and one duplicated acknowledgement (ACK) for fast recovery. Our simulation results show that AeroTCP can maintain higher utilization for the satellite link than end-to-end TCP, especially in high BER environment.

  13. Deadlock-free class routes for collective communications embedded in a multi-dimensional torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A computer implemented method and a system for routing data packets in a multi-dimensional computer network. The method comprises routing a data packet among nodes along one dimension towards a root node, each node having input and output communication links, said root node not having any outgoing uplinks, and determining at each node if the data packet has reached a predefined coordinate for the dimension or an edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, and if the data packet has reached the predefined coordinate for the dimension or the edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, determining if the data packet has reached the root node, and if the data packet has not reached the root node, routing the data packet among nodes along another dimension towards the root node.

  14. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  15. DCPVP: Distributed Clustering Protocol Using Voting and Priority for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hematkhah, Hooman; Kavian, Yousef S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new clustering protocol for designing energy-efficient hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by dividing the distributed sensor network into virtual sensor groups to satisfy the scalability and prolong the network lifetime in large-scale applications. The proposed approach is a distributed clustering protocol called DCPVP, which is based on voting and priority ideas. In the DCPVP protocol, the size of clusters is based on the distance of nodes from the data link such as base station (BS) and the local node density. The cluster heads are elected based on the mean distance from neighbors, remaining energy and the times of being elected as cluster head. The performance of the DCPVP protocol is compared with some well-known clustering protocols in literature such as the LEACH, HEED, WCA, GCMRA and TCAC protocols. The simulation results confirm that the prioritizing- and voting-based election ideas decrease the construction time and the energy consumption of clustering progress in sensor networks and consequently improve the lifetime of networks with limited resources and battery powered nodes in harsh and inaccessible environments. PMID:25763646

  16. Differential recruitment of brain networks following route and cartographic map learning of spatial environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Copara, Milagros; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2012-01-01

    An extensive neuroimaging literature has helped characterize the brain regions involved in navigating a spatial environment. Far less is known, however, about the brain networks involved when learning a spatial layout from a cartographic map. To compare the two means of acquiring a spatial representation, participants learned spatial environments either by directly navigating them or learning them from an aerial-view map. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants then performed two different tasks to assess knowledge of the spatial environment: a scene and orientation dependent perceptual (SOP) pointing task and a judgment of relative direction (JRD) of landmarks pointing task. We found three brain regions showing significant effects of route vs. map learning during the two tasks. Parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex showed greater activation following route compared to map learning during the JRD but not SOP task while inferior frontal gyrus showed greater activation following map compared to route learning during the SOP but not JRD task. We interpret our results to suggest that parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex were involved in translating scene and orientation dependent coordinate information acquired during route learning to a landmark-referenced representation while inferior frontal gyrus played a role in converting primarily landmark-referenced coordinates acquired during map learning to a scene and orientation dependent coordinate system. Together, our results provide novel insight into the different brain networks underlying spatial representations formed during navigation vs. cartographic map learning and provide additional constraints on theoretical models of the neural basis of human spatial representation.

  17. DDN (Defense Data Network) Protocol Handbook. Volume 1. DoD Military Standard Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    development of O-M standards and strengthening the feedback from field users to t’*j standards development process. Otta Protocol Standarte ...interface are definei in this document. 1.3 The following terminology will be used in this document. Units of information at the link level will...69 Background and terminology - 69 Sequence numbers- 69 Numbering scheue 70 Connection sequence variables ------ 70 Send variables 70

  18. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  19. A Scheme to Optimize Flow Routing and Polling Switch Selection of Software Defined Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Li, Lemin; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Yangming; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at minimizing the communication cost for collecting flow information in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Since flow-based information collecting method requires too much communication cost, and switch-based method proposed recently cannot benefit from controlling flow routing, jointly optimize flow routing and polling switch selection is proposed to reduce the communication cost. To this end, joint optimization problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model firstly. Since the ILP model is intractable in large size network, we also design an optimal algorithm for the multi-rooted tree topology and an efficient heuristic algorithm for general topology. According to extensive simulations, it is found that our method can save up to 55.76% communication cost compared with the state-of-the-art switch-based scheme. PMID:26690571

  20. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  1. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  2. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.

  3. A Secured Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das’ protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs. PMID:22163874

  4. A Reinforcement Routing Algorithm with Access Selection in the Multi-Hop Multi-Interface Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Amir Hosein; Shahhoseini, Hadi Shahriar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a routing algorithm is proposed for access selection in a network to find the optimal paths among intermediate nodes with multiple interfaces. Markov Decision Process is applied in each node to find optimal policy and select proper paths to the best access point in a dynamic environment. A reward function is defined as environment feedback to optimize and adapt routing behavior of nodes based on the local information. Selection metrics in each node are interface load, link quality and destination condition. It is shown, by using the proposed algorithm, there are better management in the node which decreases interference and collision and selects links with better quality toward the best possible destination. The performance of the method is exemplified and it is shown how the throughput and average delay of the network with more interface in its nodes, improved while packet loss degrades. As an example a two-interface and a one-interface network are studied. It is shown when network load is increased, interface management will improve the throughput, in the network with two-interface nodes. Also, by considering the link quality factor in the reward function, packet dropping becomes less but average delay increases.

  5. Design and Test of the Cross-Format Schema Protocol (XFSP) for Networked Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Internet traffic . Nevertheless, problems are common. The growing interest in multimedia applications had huge impact both on telecommunication networks ...entities. In order to solve that problem, Canterbury refined the existing DIS protocol and optimized the form and content of DIS network traffic ...California by using commercial Internet Service Providers ( ISPs ) on V.98 modem as well as on Ethernet. The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) network

  6. DDN (Defense Data Network) Protocol Implementations and Vendors Guide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Communications System (DCA DCS) Office "ider contract number DCA-200-84-C-0024, CDRLs E009 and E009A. The Guide was compiled with the assistance of many people ...and SMTPSV. NETSRV is based on a similar program for the old NCP protocols. DOCUMENTATION: Online included with package -. CPU: DECSYSTEM-20 O/S: TOPS... Old Connecticut Path Framingham, MA 01701 CONTACT: PRIME Custom Systems Group, (617) 626-1700 ext. 3869 ..- I ORDERING-PROCEDURE: Contact Prime Custom

  7. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? Methods We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and ‘social network’ and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. Discussion This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring

  8. An Efficient Authentication Protocol for WLAN Mesh Networks in Trusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhuo; Ma, Jianfeng; Moon, Sangjae; Li, Xinghua

    Trusted Network Connect provides the functionality of the platform authentication and integrity verification which is crucial for enhancing the security of authentication protocols. However, applying this functionality directly to concrete authentications is susceptible to unknown attacks and efficiency degradation. In this paper, we propose TWMAP, a novel authentication protocol for WLAN Mesh networks in a trusted environment which completed the platform authentication and integrity verification during the user authentication. And, the Schnorr asymmetric signature scheme is utilized to reduce the overhead of the client. The security properties of the new protocol are examined using the Universally Composable Security model. The analytic comparisons and simulation results show that the new protocol is very efficient in both computing and communication costs.

  9. Performance Evaluation of a SLA Negotiation Control Protocol for Grid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cergol, Igor; Mirchandani, Vinod; Verchere, Dominique

    A framework for an autonomous negotiation control protocol for service delivery is crucial to enable the support of heterogeneous service level agreements (SLAs) that will exist in distributed environments. We have first given a gist of our augmented service negotiation protocol to support distinct service elements. The augmentations also encompass related composition of the services and negotiation with several service providers simultaneously. All the incorporated augmentations will enable to consolidate the service negotiation operations for telecom networks, which are evolving towards Grid networks. Furthermore, our autonomous negotiation protocol is based on a distributed multi-agent framework to create an open market for Grid services. Second, we have concisely presented key simulation results of our work in progress. The results exhibit the usefulness of our negotiation protocol for realistic scenarios that involves different background traffic loading, message sizes and traffic flow asymmetry between background and negotiation traffics.

  10. Ensuring Data Storage Security in Tree cast Routing Architecture for Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Sagar, U. Vidya; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul

    2010-10-01

    In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In contrast to traditional solutions, where the IT services are under proper physical, logical and personnel controls, this routing architecture moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique attribute, however, poses many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In this paper, we focus on data storage security, which has always been an important aspect of quality of service. To ensure the correctness of users' data in this architecture, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with two salient features, opposing to its predecessors. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness insurance and data error localization, i.e., the identification of misbehaving server(s). Unlike most prior works, the new scheme further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks, including: data update, delete and append. Extensive security and performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server

  11. Development of the Digital Engineering Laboratory Computer Network: Host-to-Node/Host-to-Host Protocols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    HOST-TO-HOST PROTOCOLS THESIS AFIT,’GCS/EE/8lD-8 John W. Geist Capt USAF Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. AFIT/GCS/EE/81D-8...DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIGITAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY COMPUTER NETWORK: HOST-TO-NODE/HOST-TO-HOST PROTOCOLS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of...development and operational implementation. I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. Gary B. Lamont, my thesis advisor, for his valued support and

  12. Rapid Network Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    packet- switched networks are extremely prone to human design faults, which can adversely affect the reliability of the network. This thesis proposes an...network devices and create a functioning packet- switch network. network design , network topology, packet- switching networks, routing protocols, data... switched networks are extremely prone to human design faults, which can adversely affect the reliability of the network. This thesis proposes an

  13. OpenIGTLink: an open network protocol for image-guided therapy environment

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Fischer, Gregory S.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Yaniv, Ziv; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Liu, Haiying; Blevins, Jack; Arata, Jumpei; Golby, Alexandra J.; Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Burdette, Everette C.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Background With increasing research on system integration for image-guided therapy (IGT), there has been a strong demand for standardized communication among devices and software to share data such as target positions, images and device status. Method We propose a new, open, simple and extensible network communication protocol for IGT, named OpenIGTLink, to transfer transform, image and status messages. We conducted performance tests and use-case evaluations in five clinical and engineering scenarios. Results The protocol was able to transfer position data with submillisecond latency up to 1024 fps and images with latency of <10 ms at 32 fps. The use-case tests demonstrated that the protocol is feasible for integrating devices and software. Conclusion The protocol proved capable of handling data required in the IGT setting with sufficient time resolution and latency. The protocol not only improves the interoperability of devices and software but also promotes transitions of research prototypes to clinical applications.. PMID:19621334

  14. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  15. Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

  16. Cluster Size Optimization in Sensor Networks with Decentralized Cluster-Based Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Navid; Vahdatpour, Alireza; Xu, Wenyao; Gerla, Mario; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Network lifetime and energy-efficiency are viewed as the dominating considerations in designing cluster-based communication protocols for wireless sensor networks. This paper analytically provides the optimal cluster size that minimizes the total energy expenditure in such networks, where all sensors communicate data through their elected cluster heads to the base station in a decentralized fashion. LEACH, LEACH-Coverage, and DBS comprise three cluster-based protocols investigated in this paper that do not require any centralized support from a certain node. The analytical outcomes are given in the form of closed-form expressions for various widely-used network configurations. Extensive simulations on different networks are used to confirm the expectations based on the analytical results. To obtain a thorough understanding of the results, cluster number variability problem is identified and inspected from the energy consumption point of view. PMID:22267882

  17. Dynamic aftereffects in supplementary motor network following inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Yu, Fengqiong; Liao, Wei; Wang, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key node of the motor network. Inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the SMA can potentially improve movement disorders. However, the aftereffects of inhibitory rTMS on brain function remain largely unknown. Using a single-blind, crossover within-subject design, we investigated the role of aftereffects with two inhibitory rTMS protocols [1800 pulses of either 1-Hz repetitive stimulation or continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)] on the left SMA. A total of 19 healthy volunteers participated in the rTMS sessions on 2 separate days. Firstly, short-term aftereffects were estimated at three levels (functional connectivity, local activity, and network properties) by comparing the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets (9min) acquired before and after each rTMS session. Local activity and network properties were not significantly altered by either protocol. Functional connectivity within the SMA network was increased (in the left paracentral gyrus) by 1-Hz stimulation and decreased (in the left inferior frontal gyrus and SMA/middle cingulate cortex) by cTBS. The subsequent three-way analysis of variance (site×time×protocol) did not show a significant interaction effect or "protocol" main effect, suggesting that the two protocols share an underlying mechanism. Secondly, sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate the dynamic features of aftereffects in the ~29min after the end of stimulation. Aftereffects were maintained for a maximum of 9.8 and 6.6min after the 1-Hz and cTBS protocols, respectively. In summary, this study revealed topographical and temporal aftereffects in the SMA network following inhibitory rTMS protocols, providing valuable information for their application in future neuroscience and clinical studies.

  18. Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

    Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

  19. Optimal design of mixed-media packet-switching networks - Routing and capacity assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, D.; Kuo, F. F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a mixed-media packet-switched computer communication network which consists of a low-delay terrestrial store-and-forward subnet combined with a low-cost high-bandwidth satellite subnet. We show how to route traffic via ground and/or satellite links by means of static, deterministic procedures and assign capacities to channels subject to a given linear cost such that the network average delay is minimized. Two operational schemes for this network model are investigated: one is a scheme in which the satellite channel is used as a slotted ALOHA channel; the other is a new multiaccess scheme we propose in which whenever a channel collision occurs, retransmission of the involved packets will route through ground links to their destinations. The performance of both schemes is evaluated and compared in terms of cost and average packet delay tradeoffs for some examples. The results offer guidelines for the design and optimal utilization of mixed-media networks.

  20. A simple, effective media access protocol system for integrated, high data rate networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Khanna, S.; Zhang, L.

    1992-01-01

    The operation and performance of a dual media access protocol for integrated, gigabit networks are described. Unlike other dual protocols, each protocol supports a different class of traffic. The Carrier Sensed Multiple Access-Ring Network (CSMA/RN) protocol and the Circulating Reservation Packet (CRP) protocol support asynchronous and synchronous traffic, respectively. The two protocols operate with minimal impact upon each other. Performance information demonstrates that they support a complete range of integrated traffic loads, do not require call setup/termination or a special node for synchronous traffic control, and provide effective pre-use and recovery. The CRP also provides guaranteed access and fairness control for the asynchronous system. The paper demonstrates that the CSMA-CRP system fulfills many of the requirements for gigabit LAN-MAN networks most effectively and simply. To accomplish this, CSMA-CRP features are compared against similar ring and bus systems, such as Cambridge Fast Ring, Metaring, Cyclic Reservation Multiple Access, and Distributed Dual Queue Data Bus (DQDB).

  1. An improved lookup protocol model for peer-to-peer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Ye, Dongfen

    2011-12-01

    With the development of the peer-to-peer (P2P) technology, file sharing is becoming the hottest, fastest growing application on the Internet. Although we can benefit from different protocols separately, our research shows that if there exists a proper model, most of the seemingly different protocols can be classified to a same framework. In this paper, we propose an improved Chord arithmetic based on the binary tree for P2P networks. We perform extensive simulations to study our proposed protocol. The results show that the improved Chord reduces the average lookup path length without increasing the joining and departing complexity.

  2. A carrier sensed multiple access protocol for high data base rate ring networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael; Khanna, S.; Paterra, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study of a simple but effective media access protocol for high data rate networks are presented. The protocol is based on the fact that at high data rates networks can contain multiple messages simultaneously over their span, and that in a ring, nodes used to detect the presence of a message arriving from the immediate upstream neighbor. When an incoming signal is detected, the node must either abort or truncate a message it is presently sending. Thus, the protocol with local carrier sensing and multiple access is designated CSMA/RN. The performance of CSMA/RN with TTattempt and truncate is studied using analytic and simulation models. Three performance factors, wait or access time, service time and response or end-to-end travel time are presented. The service time is basically a function of the network rate, it changes by a factor of 1 between no load and full load. Wait time, which is zero for no load, remains small for load factors up to 70 percent of full load. Response time, which adds travel time while on the network to wait and service time, is mainly a function of network length, especially for longer distance networks. Simulation results are shown for CSMA/RN where messages are removed at the destination. A wide range of local and metropolitan area network parameters including variations in message size, network length, and node count are studied. Finally, a scaling factor based upon the ratio of message to network length demonstrates that the results, and hence, the CSMA/RN protocol, are applicable to wide area networks.

  3. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  4. Space Link Extension Protocol Emulation for High-Throughput, High-Latency Network Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchorowski, Nicole; Murawski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    New space missions require higher data rates and new protocols to meet these requirements. These high data rate space communication links push the limitations of not only the space communication links, but of the ground communication networks and protocols which forward user data to remote ground stations (GS) for transmission. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) standard protocol is one protocol that has been proposed for use by the NASA Space Network (SN) Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) program. New protocol implementations must be carefully tested to ensure that they provide the required functionality, especially because of the remote nature of spacecraft. The SLE protocol standard has been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's SCENIC Emulation Lab in order to observe its operation under realistic network delay conditions. More specifically, the delay between then NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) and spacecraft has been emulated. The round trip time (RTT) delay for the continental NISN network has been shown to be up to 120ms; as such the SLE protocol was tested with network delays ranging from 0ms to 200ms. Both a base network condition and an SLE connection were tested with these RTT delays, and the reaction of both network tests to the delay conditions were recorded. Throughput for both of these links was set at 1.2Gbps. The results will show that, in the presence of realistic network delay, the SLE link throughput is significantly reduced while the base network throughput however remained at the 1.2Gbps specification. The decrease in SLE throughput has been attributed to the implementation's use of blocking calls. The decrease in throughput is not acceptable for high data rate links, as the link requires constant data a flow in order for spacecraft and ground radios to stay synchronized, unless significant data is queued a the ground station. In cases where queuing the data is not an option

  5. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  6. Criteria for Evaluating Alternative Network and Link Layer Protocols for the NASA Constellation Program Communication Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benbenek, Daniel; Soloff, Jason; Lieb, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Selecting a communications and network architecture for future manned space flight requires an evaluation of the varying goals and objectives of the program, development of communications and network architecture evaluation criteria, and assessment of critical architecture trades. This paper uses Cx Program proposed exploration activities as a guideline; lunar sortie, outpost, Mars, and flexible path options are described. A set of proposed communications network architecture criteria are proposed and described. They include: interoperability, security, reliability, and ease of automating topology changes. Finally a key set of architecture options are traded including (1) multiplexing data at a common network layer vs. at the data link layer, (2) implementing multiple network layers vs. a single network layer, and (3) the use of a particular network layer protocol, primarily IPv6 vs. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). In summary, the protocol options are evaluated against the proposed exploration activities and their relative performance with respect to the criteria are assessed. An architectural approach which includes (a) the capability of multiplexing at both the network layer and the data link layer and (b) a single network layer for operations at each program phase, as these solutions are best suited to respond to the widest array of program needs and meet each of the evaluation criteria.

  7. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  8. A novel routing algorithm of multi-priority label switch path in MPLS over WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang; Xu, Zhanqi; Liu, Zengji

    2005-11-01

    An extended layered graph of MPLS over WDM mesh networks is proposed in this paper, in which the label switch path (LSP) with various wavelengths and the limitation of optical transceivers at a routing node are both involved. Label switch paths are classified into different priorities according to each quality of service. The corresponding routing algorithm, differentiating integrated routing algorithm (DIRA), is proposed and studied. The quality of service (QoS) of a label switch path and the optimization of network resources utilization are taken into account comprehensively in DIRA. A comparison of DIRA with the representative optical routing algorithms via simulation shows that it can reduce the blocking probability of delay-constraint LSP and improve the network throughput.

  9. Mitigation of time-spatial influence in free-space optical networks utilizing route diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libich, J.; Zvanovec, S.; Mudroch, M.

    2012-02-01

    New communication systems are emerging with growing demand on the data traffic. Fiber optics allow us to transfer data of rates higher than hundreds gigabits per second. These systems are usually used for backbone networks, although using of these systems is appearing in last mile connections. Wireless communication systems are still more and more popular owing to fast and cheaper deployment contrary to wire or fiber communication systems. On the other hand, wireless communication systems including free-space optics (FSO) are affected by weather conditions. In order to mitigate these effects, several mitigation techniques were investigated. For instance spatial diversity using more than one transmitter or receiver, auto-tracking of an optical beam, wavelength diversity utilizing radio band links as a backup etc. FSO links may be used in FSO networks to connect several building of a corporation, hospital or university campus. In case of proper network topology, route diversity can contribute to availability enhancement. In this paper, mitigation technique based on the route diversity is presented. Results are compared with hybrid FSO link.

  10. An energy efficient and dynamic time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anran; Bai, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    Time synchronization is an important support technology of WSN(Wireless Sensor Network), and plays an irreplaceable role in the development of WSN. In view of the disadvantage of the traditional timing sync protocol for sensor networks (TPSN), we present a Physical Timing-sync Protocol (PTPSN) that aims at reducing the energy consumption of the synchronization process and realizes a dynamic Network. The algorithm broadcasts reference message to select some nodes in specific area. The receiver calculate offset of every selected node, and then calculate the average of offset to compensate for clock skew . At the same time ,we add time-filter process to ensure the security of the algorithm for time synchronization. The experiment results show that our algorithm is efficient in both saving energy consumption and dynamic network, and it can effectively resist attacks.

  11. Processors, Pipelines, and Protocols for Advanced Modeling Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, Joseph; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Predictive capabilities arise from our understanding of natural processes and our ability to construct models that accurately reproduce these processes. Although our modeling state-of-the-art is primarily limited by existing computational capabilities, other technical areas will soon present obstacles to the development and deployment of future predictive capabilities. Advancement of our modeling capabilities will require not only faster processors, but new processing algorithms, high-speed data pipelines, and a common software engineering framework that allows networking of diverse models that represent the many components of Earth's climate and weather system. Development and integration of these new capabilities will pose serious challenges to the Information Systems (IS) technology community. Designers of future IS infrastructures must deal with issues that include performance, reliability, interoperability, portability of data and software, and ultimately, the full integration of various ES model systems into a unified ES modeling network.

  12. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  13. Analytical Modeling of Medium Access Control Protocols in Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    provide the basic functionalities that are common to any com - puter network. The proposed modeling framework focuses on the interactions between the...colleagues I had the pleasure to meet at the Computer Com - munication Research Group (CCRG). In particular, I would like to thank Marco Spohn, Re- nato...Brazil), the Baskin Chair of Com - puter Engineering at UCSC, the National Science Foundation under Grant CNS-0435522, the UCOP CLC under Grant SC-05

  14. Adaptive Probabilistic Protocols for Advanced Networks/Assuring the Integrity of Highly Decentralized Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    on work done in our effort, and the IPTO Situation-Aware Protocols In Edge Network Technologies ( SAPIENT ) program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks to...of our work: The IPTO SRS program, under Lee Badger, builds 3 on work done in our effort, and the IPTO SAPIENT program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks...Jonathan Smith’s SAPIENT program reflects some of the ideas and successes of our compositional networking approach. SAPIENT will apply similar 11

  15. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  16. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  17. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  18. Energy-efficient low duty cycle MAC protocol for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Stevan Jovica; Popovici, Emanuel Mihai; Spagnol, Christian; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient medium access control protocol suitable for communication in a wireless body area network for remote monitoring of physiological signals such as EEG and ECG. The protocol takes advantage of the static nature of the body area network to implement the effective time-division multiple access (TDMA) strategy with very little amount of overhead and almost no idle listening (by static, we refer to the fixed topology of the network investigated). The main goal is to develop energy-efficient and reliable communication protocol to support streaming of large amount of data. TDMA synchronization problems are discussed and solutions are presented. Equations for duty cycle calculation are also derived for power consumption and battery life predictions. The power consumption model was also validated through measurements. Our results show that the protocol is energy efficient for streaming communication as well as sending short bursts of data, and thus can be used for different types of physiological signals with different sample rates. The protocol is implemented on the analog devices ADF7020 RF transceivers.

  19. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  20. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  1. Traffic-Aware Channel Allocation and Routing in Multichannel, Multi-Radio Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    of the channel (2 MHz) is used. Accordingly, the maximum data rate of 54 Mbps achieved using a 64- QAM modulation using a 3/4 coding rate on a 20 MHz...ABSTRACT Modern day wireless network applications exhibit varying service demands to satisfy user requirements, while di ering in the nature of tra c... applications , such as VoIP and interactive gaming. To address this, we propose SHORT (Static-Hybrid approach for rOuting Real Time applications ), a joint

  2. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  3. Designing of routing algorithms in autonomous distributed data transmission system for mobile computing devices with ‘WiFi-Direct’ technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, I. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.; Sherstneva, A. I.; Botygin, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    The results of the research of existent routing protocols in wireless networks and their main features are discussed in the paper. Basing on the protocol data, the routing protocols in wireless networks, including search routing algorithms and phone directory exchange algorithms, are designed with the ‘WiFi-Direct’ technology. Algorithms without IP-protocol were designed, and that enabled one to increase the efficiency of the algorithms while working only with the MAC-addresses of the devices. The developed algorithms are expected to be used in the mobile software engineering with the Android platform taken as base. Easier algorithms and formats of the well-known route protocols, rejection of the IP-protocols enables to use the developed protocols on more primitive mobile devices. Implementation of the protocols to the engineering industry enables to create data transmission networks among working places and mobile robots without any access points.

  4. An Evaluation of the Network Efficiency Required in Order to Support Multicast and Synchronous Distributed Learning Network Traffic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Learning, Network Protocol, PIM, DVMRP, IGMP , SAP/SDP, IGMP Snooping, Dense Mode, Sparse Mode 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Announcement Protocol (SAP) ..........28 2. Session Description Protocol (SDP) ...........30 B. INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL ( IGMP ) .........31 1...38 4. IGMP Snooping ................................40 C. DISTANCE VECTOR MULTICASTING ROUTING PROTOCOL (DVMRP

  5. An Energy-Efficient Mobility-Supporting MAC Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Chan; Lee, Jang-Won

    In this paper, we design an adaptive mobility-supporting MAC (AM-MAC) protocol for mobile sensor networks. In our protocol, as in S-MAC [1], each virtual cluster that consists of a subset of sensor nodes has its own listen-sleep schedule. Hence, when a mobile sensor node moves into a new virtual cluster, it needs to adapt to the listen-sleep schedule of the corresponding virtual cluster in a timely and energy efficient manner. To this end, in our protocol, we utilize schedule information on border nodes between virtual clusters. This allows us to implement fast and energy efficient listen-sleep schedule adaptation for mobile nodes, which consists of two main functions: energy efficient secondary listen period and smart scheduling adaptation. Simulation results show that our protocol can provide fast schedule adaptation while achieving energy efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  7. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  8. Use of the Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William D.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; daSilvaCuriel, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Survey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multisatellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network where captured image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is currently unique in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation's UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IPbased high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UKDMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. This is the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment. We use our practical experience to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Bundle Protocol for DTN use, paying attention to fragmentation, custody transfer, and reliability issues.

  9. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs. PMID:24919012

  10. Policy Gradient SMDP for Resource Allocation and Routing in Integrated Services Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, Ngo Anh; Viet, Nguyen Hoang; Lee, Seunggwan; Chung, Taechoong

    In this paper, we solve the call admission control (CAC) and routing problem in an integrated network that handles several classes of calls of different values and with different resource requirements. The problem of maximizing the average reward (or cost) of admitted calls per unit time is naturally formulated as a semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) problem, but is too complex to allow for an exact solution. Thus in this paper, a policy gradient algorithm, together with a decomposition approach, is proposed to find the dynamic (state-dependent) optimal CAC and routing policy among a parameterized policy space. To implement that gradient algorithm, we approximate the gradient of the average reward. Then, we present a simulation-based algorithm to estimate the approximate gradient of the average reward (called GSMDP algorithm), using only a single sample path of the underlying Markov chain for the SMDP of CAC and routing problem. The algorithm enhances performance in terms of convergence speed, rejection probability, robustness to the changing arrival statistics and an overall received average revenue. The experimental simulations will compare our method's performance with other existing methods and show the robustness of our method.

  11. A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption.

  12. S-TSP: a novel routing algorithm for In-network processing of recursive computation in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingfang; Guo, Peng; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-10-01

    In-network processing is an efficient way to reduce the transmission cost in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The in-network processing of many domain-specific computation tasks in WSNs usually requires to losslessly distribute the computation of the tasks into the sensor nodes, which is however usually not easy. In this paper we are concerned with such kind of tasks whose computation can only be partitioned into recursive computation mode. To distribute the recursive computations into WSNs, it is required to design an appropriate single in-network processing path, along which the intermediate data is forwarded and updated in the WSNs. We address the recursive computation with constant size of computation result, e.g., distributed least square estimation (D-LSE). Finding the optimal in-network processing path to minimize the total transmission cost in WSNs, is a new problem and seldom studied before. To solve it, we propose a novel routing algorithm called as S-TSP, and compare it with some other greedy algorithms. Extensive simulations are conducted, and the results show the good performance of the proposed S-TSP algorithm.

  13. The Loss of Efficiency Caused by Agents’ Uncoordinated Routing in Transport Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale daily commuting data were combined with detailed geographical information system (GIS) data to analyze the loss of transport efficiency caused by drivers’ uncoordinated routing in urban road networks. We used Price of Anarchy (POA) to quantify the loss of transport efficiency and found that both volume and distribution of human mobility demand determine the POA. In order to reduce POA, a small number of highways require considerable decreases in traffic, and their neighboring arterial roads need to attract more traffic. The magnitude of the adjustment in traffic flow can be estimated using the fundamental measure traffic flow only, which is widely available and easy to collect. Surprisingly, the most congested roads or the roads with largest traffic flow were not those requiring the most reduction of traffic. This study can offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic and facilitate improvements in the efficiency of transport networks. PMID:25349995

  14. The loss of efficiency caused by agents' uncoordinated routing in transport networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongzhi; Sun, Li; Wang, Junjie; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale daily commuting data were combined with detailed geographical information system (GIS) data to analyze the loss of transport efficiency caused by drivers' uncoordinated routing in urban road networks. We used Price of Anarchy (POA) to quantify the loss of transport efficiency and found that both volume and distribution of human mobility demand determine the POA. In order to reduce POA, a small number of highways require considerable decreases in traffic, and their neighboring arterial roads need to attract more traffic. The magnitude of the adjustment in traffic flow can be estimated using the fundamental measure traffic flow only, which is widely available and easy to collect. Surprisingly, the most congested roads or the roads with largest traffic flow were not those requiring the most reduction of traffic. This study can offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic and facilitate improvements in the efficiency of transport networks.

  15. A facile route to reassemble titania nanoparticles into ordered chain-like networks on substrate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Jun; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Bumbu, Gina-Gabriela; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2012-02-13

    A facile route to reassemble titania nanoparticles within the titania-block copolymer composite films has been developed. The titania nanoparticles templated by the amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(styrene)-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) were frozen in the continuous PS matrix. Upon UV exposure, the PS matrix was partially degraded, allowing the titania nanoparticles to rearrange into chain-like networks exhibiting a closer packing. The local structures of the Titania chain-like networks were investigated by both AFM and SEM; the lateral structures and vertical structures of the films were studied by GISAXS and X-ray reflectivity respectively. Both the image analysis and X-ray scattering characterization prove the reassembly of the titania nanoparticles after UV exposure. The mechanism of the nanoparticle assembly is discussed.

  16. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  17. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. PMID:26907277

  18. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices.

  19. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency. PMID:26840311

  20. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-29

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  1. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-02-19

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.

  2. A low power medium access control protocol for wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a wireless integrated network of sensors, already applied in several sectors of our everyday life, such as security, transportation and environment monitoring, can as well provide an advanced monitor and control resource for healthcare services. By networking medical sensors wirelessly, attaching them in patient's body, we create the appropriate infrastructure for continuous and real-time monitoring of patient without discomforting him. This infrastructure can improve healthcare by providing the means for flexible acquisition of vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Given the type of wireless network, traditional medium access control (MAC) protocols cannot take advantage of the application specific requirements and information characteristics occurring in medical sensor networks, such as the demand for low power consumption and the rather limited and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we present the architecture of a low power MAC protocol, designated to support wireless networks of medical sensors. This protocol aims to improve energy efficiency by exploiting the inherent application features and requirements. It is oriented towards the avoidance of main energy wastage sources, such as idle listening, collision and power outspending.

  3. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  4. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

  5. HIMIPv6: An Efficient IP Mobility Management Protocol for Broadband Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunku; Maeng, Seungryoul; Chae, Youngsu

    With the increasing deployment of mobile devices and the advent of broadband wireless access systems such as WiBro, mWiMAX, and HSDPA, an efficient IP mobility management protocol becomes one of the most important technical issues for the successful deployment of the broadband wireless data networking service. IETF has proposed the Mobile IPv6 as the basic mobility management protocol for IPv6 networks. To enhance the performance of the basic MIPv6, researchers have been actively working on HMIPv6 and FMIPv6 protocols. In this paper, we propose a new mobility management protocol, HIMIPv6 (Highly Integrated MIPv6), which tightly integrates the hierarchical mobility management mechanism of the HMIPv6 and the proactive handover support of the FMIPv6 to enhance the handover performance especially for the cellular networking environment with high frequent handover activities. We have performed extensive simulation study using ns2 and the results show that the proposed HIMIPv6 outperforms FMIPv6 and HMIPv6. There is no packet loss and consequent service interruption caused by IP handover in HIMIP.

  6. Throughput and energy efficiency of a cooperative hybrid ARQ protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arindam; Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2013-11-08

    Due to its efficiency, reliability and better channel and resource utilization, cooperative transmission technologies have been attractive options in underwater as well as terrestrial sensor networks. Their performance can be further improved if merged with forward error correction (FEC) techniques. In this paper, we propose and analyze a retransmission protocol named Cooperative-Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (C-HARQ) for underwater acoustic sensor networks, which exploits both the reliability of cooperative ARQ (CARQ) and the efficiency of incremental redundancy-hybrid ARQ (IR-HARQ) using rate-compatible punctured convolution (RCPC) codes. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to investigate the performance of the protocol, in terms of both throughput and energy efficiency. The results clearly reveal the enhancement in performance achieved by the C-HARQ protocol, which outperforms both CARQ and conventional stop and wait ARQ (S&W ARQ). Further, using computer simulations, optimum values of various network parameters are estimated so as to extract the best performance out of the C-HARQ protocol.

  7. A robust and energy-efficient transport protocol for cognitive radio sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2014-10-20

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. CRSNs benefit from cognitive radio capabilities such as dynamic spectrum access and transmission parameters reconfigurability; but cognitive radio also brings additional challenges and leads to higher energy consumption. Motivated to improve the energy efficiency in CRSNs, we propose a robust and energy-efficient transport protocol (RETP). The novelties of RETP are two-fold: (I) it combines distributed channel sensing and channel decision with centralized schedule-based data transmission; and (II) it differentiates the types of data transmission on the basis of data content and adopts different acknowledgment methods for different transmission types. To the best of our knowledge, no transport layer protocols have yet been designed for CRSNs. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves remarkably longer network lifetime and shorter event-detection delay compared to those achieved with a conventional transport protocol, while simultaneously preserving event-detection reliability.

  8. Optimization-based channel constrained data aggregation routing algorithms in multi-radio wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Hsu

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, data aggregation routing could reduce the number of data transmissions so as to achieve energy efficient transmission. However, data aggregation introduces data retransmission that is caused by co-channel interference from neighboring sensor nodes. This kind of co-channel interference could result in extra energy consumption and significant latency from retransmission. This will jeopardize the benefits of data aggregation. One possible solution to circumvent data retransmission caused by co-channel interference is to assign different channels to every sensor node that is within each other's interference range on the data aggregation tree. By associating each radio with a different channel, a sensor node could receive data from all the children nodes on the data aggregation tree simultaneously. This could reduce the latency from the data source nodes back to the sink so as to meet the user's delay QoS. Since the number of radios on each sensor node and the number of non-overlapping channels are all limited resources in wireless sensor networks, a challenging question here is to minimize the total transmission cost under limited number of non-overlapping channels in multi-radio wireless sensor networks. This channel constrained data aggregation routing problem in multi-radio wireless sensor networks is an NP-hard problem. I first model this problem as a mixed integer and linear programming problem where the objective is to minimize the total transmission subject to the data aggregation routing, channel and radio resources constraints. The solution approach is based on the Lagrangean relaxation technique to relax some constraints into the objective function and then to derive a set of independent subproblems. By optimally solving these subproblems, it can not only calculate the lower bound of the original primal problem but also provide useful information to get the primal feasible solutions. By incorporating these Lagrangean multipliers

  9. Signal-quality consideration for dynamic connection provisioning in all-optical wavelength-routed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yurong R.; Wen, Wushao; Heritage, Jonathan P.; Mukherjee, Biswanath

    2003-10-01

    We investigate new connection-provisioning algorithms to efficiently provide signal-quality-guaranteed connections in an all-optical WDM mesh network. In the all-optical network, signal degradations incurred by non-ideal transmission medium accumulate along a lightpath. When the signal degradation reaches a certain level, the connection is not usable and is blocked due to transmission impairments in the physical layer. To ensure high service quality of provisioned connections, it is essential to develop intelligent routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms which can combat the effects of impairments when setting up a connection. For this purpose, we propose two impairment-aware RWA algorithms, namely impairment-aware best-path (IABP) algorithm and impairment-aware first-fit (IAFF) algorithm. The optical signal-to-noise raito (OSNR) requirement and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) effect are used as signal-quality constraints to avoid setting up a connection with unacceptable quality due to the effects of transmission impairments. With the signal-quality consideration, as compared to algorithms that are not impairment aware in a realistic optical network, our proposed impairment-aware algorithms efficiently provide signal-quality-guaranteed connection while significantly reducing connection-blocking probability, better utilizing network resources, and having a reasonable computational requirement. Also, the effect of channel bit rate is studied in this paper.

  10. Privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs. PMID:22399893

  12. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-06-14

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  13. LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

    1985-03-01

    The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

  14. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-01-01

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network. PMID:27314351

  15. A new Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network protocol to reduce cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Douglas Cochrane, D; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jerry Oakes, W; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Rozzelle, Curtis; Simon, Tamara D; Walker, Marion L; Wellons, John C; Browd, Samuel R; Drake, James M; Shannon, Chevis N; Tamber, Mandeep S; Whitehead, William E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT In a previous report by the same research group (Kestle et al., 2011), compliance with an 11-step protocol was shown to reduce CSF shunt infection at Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) centers (from 8.7% to 5.7%). Antibiotic-impregnated catheters (AICs) were not part of the protocol but were used off protocol by some surgeons. The authors therefore began using a new protocol that included AICs in an effort to reduce the infection rate further. METHODS The new protocol was implemented at HCRN centers on January 1, 2012, for all shunt procedures (excluding external ventricular drains [EVDs], ventricular reservoirs, and subgaleal shunts). Procedures performed up to September 30, 2013, were included (21 months). Compliance with the protocol and outcome events up to March 30, 2014, were recorded. The definition of infection was unchanged from the authors' previous report. RESULTS A total of 1935 procedures were performed on 1670 patients at 8 HCRN centers. The overall infection rate was 6.0% (95% CI 5.1%-7.2%). Procedure-specific infection rates varied (insertion 5.0%, revision 5.4%, insertion after EVD 8.3%, and insertion after treatment of infection 12.6%). Full compliance with the protocol occurred in 77% of procedures. The infection rate was 5.0% after compliant procedures and 8.7% after noncompliant procedures (p = 0.005). The infection rate when using this new protocol (6.0%, 95% CI 5.1%-7.2%) was similar to the infection rate observed using the authors' old protocol (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6%-7.0%). CONCLUSIONS CSF shunt procedures performed in compliance with a new infection prevention protocol at HCRN centers had a lower infection rate than noncompliant procedures. Implementation of the new protocol (including AICs) was associated with a 6.0% infection rate, similar to the infection rate of 5.7% from the authors' previously reported protocol. Based on the current data, the role of AICs compared with other infection prevention measures is unclear.

  16. Use of subcarrier multiplexing for self-routing of data packets in a high-performance system area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Sanjay

    1998-10-01

    In self-routing packet networks, the state of intermediate nodes (switches) is set or reset on the basis of the information present in the packet header. Subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) modulates a number of frequency-separated RF sub-carriers onto a common laser at a single wavelength. SCM has the advantage of high data throughput. It also requires fewer opto-electronic components and avoids walk- off between header and payload due to fiber dispersion. In this paper we describe a novel use of sub-carrier multiplexing for self-routing of data packet within the switching fabric of a high performance system area network. Using SCM data packets are routed optically to the destination without being converted to the electrical domain at the intermediate stages within the network.

  17. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  18. Impairments Computation for Routing Purposes in a Transparent-Access Optical Network Based on Optical CDMA and WDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Optical access networks are becoming more widespread and the use of multiple services might require a transparent optical network (TON). Multiplexing and privacy could benefit from the combination of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical coding (OC) and wavelength conversion in optical switches. The routing process needs to be cognizant of different resource types and characteristics such as fiber types, fiber linear impairments such as attenuation, dispersion, etc. as well as fiber nonlinear impairments such as four-wave mixing, cross-phase modulation, etc. Other types of impairments, generated by optical nodes or photonic switches, also affect the signal quality (Q) or the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), which is related to the bit error rate (BER). Therefore, both link and switch impairments must be addressed and somehow incorporated into the routing algorithm. However, it is not practical to fully integrate all photonic-specific attributes in the routing process. In this study, new routing parameters and constraints are defined that reflect the distinct characteristics of photonic networking. These constraints are applied to the design phase of TON and expressed as a cost or metric form that will be used in the network routing algorithm.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  20. Cross-layer active predictive congestion control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiangwen; Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Renjian; Wu, Yinfeng

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC) for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node's neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  1. Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, L.A.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1998-09-01

    This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated.

  2. A routing path construction method for key dissemination messages in sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo Young; Cho, Tae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Authentication is an important security mechanism for detecting forged messages in a sensor network. Each cluster head (CH) in dynamic key distribution schemes forwards a key dissemination message that contains encrypted authentication keys within its cluster to next-hop nodes for the purpose of authentication. The forwarding path of the key dissemination message strongly affects the number of nodes to which the authentication keys in the message are actually distributed. We propose a routing method for the key dissemination messages to increase the number of nodes that obtain the authentication keys. In the proposed method, each node selects next-hop nodes to which the key dissemination message will be forwarded based on secret key indexes, the distance to the sink node, and the energy consumption of its neighbor nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed method can increase by 50-70% the number of nodes to which authentication keys in each cluster are distributed compared to geographic and energy-aware routing (GEAR). In addition, the proposed method can detect false reports earlier by using the distributed authentication keys, and it consumes less energy than GEAR when the false traffic ratio (FTR) is ≥ 10%.

  3. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Ma, Maode

    2014-01-01

    Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock. PMID:25120163

  4. Grating-assisted vertical couplers for signal routing in multilayer integrated optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, Giovanna; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Grating-assisted vertical couplers, which behave as add-drop filters, are proposed for wavelength routing of the signal among the different layers of on-chip multilayer optical networks. The device implements a 2×2 wavelength router which can be assembled into higher-order three-dimensional matrices. In particular, simple design criteria are found through a rapid and efficient optimization approach based on the mode analysis and demonstrated by the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations. The proposed numerical method is valid either for in-plane or for vertical grating-assisted couplers and it requires negligible computational effort. Different configurations of grating-assisted vertical couplers are designed and their spectral behavior is analyzed by the FDTD. The proposed devices achieve low values of the crosstalk between the different ports (below -20 dB) and of the input reflection (below -15 dB).

  5. Internet Group Management Protocol for IPTV Services in Passive Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunjo; Park, Sungkwon

    We propose a new Internet group management protocol (IGMP) which can be used in passive optical network (PON) especially for IPTV services which dramatically reduces the channel change response time caused by traditional IGMP. In this paper, the newly proposed IGMP is introduced in detail and performance analysis is also included. Simulation results demonstrated the performance of the newly proposed IGMP, whereby, viewers can watch the shared IPTV channels without the channel change response time when channel request reaches a threshold.

  6. Performance Analysis of the AeroTP Transport Protocol for Highly-Dynamic Airborne Telemetry Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-03

    Acknowledgment Options.” RFC 2018 (Proposed Standard ), Oct. 1996. [11] “The ns- 3 network simulator.” http://www.nsnam.org, July 2009. [12] M. AL-Enazi, S. A. Gogi...AFFTC-PA- 11146 Performance Analysis of the AeroTP Transport Protocol for Highly-Dynamic Airborne Telemetry Networks James P.G. Sterbenz...Kamakshi Sirisha Pathapati, Truc Anh N. Nguyen, Justin P. Rohrer AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA JUNE 3 , 2011 A F F T C

  7. Telemetry Transmission over Internet Protocol (TMoIP) Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Protocol ( IGMP ). The IGMP provides support mechanisms to support efficient transport of multicast traffic in IP networks (see Chapter 4). c. When...transport at network level, functions include routing Null layer IP IGMP Layer 2 - Data Link Data transfer between network entities, detect...Management Protocol ( IGMP ). Multicast addresses are identified by the pattern 񓑶" in the first four bits, which corresponds to a first octet of

  8. A survey on investigating the need for intelligent power-aware load balanced routing protocols for handling critical links in MANETs.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, B; Bhalaji, N; Sivakumar, D

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  9. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, B.; Bhalaji, N.; Sivakumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing. PMID:24790546

  10. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jayakumari, R Beulah; Senthilkumar, V Jawahar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol.

  11. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Beulah Jayakumari, R.; Jawahar Senthilkumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  12. On protocols and measures for the validation of supervised methods for the inference of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Schrynemackers, Marie; Küffner, Robert; Geurts, Pierre

    2013-12-03

    Networks provide a natural representation of molecular biology knowledge, in particular to model relationships between biological entities such as genes, proteins, drugs, or diseases. Because of the effort, the cost, or the lack of the experiments necessary for the elucidation of these networks, computational approaches for network inference have been frequently investigated in the literature. In this paper, we examine the assessment of supervised network inference. Supervised inference is based on machine learning techniques that infer the network from a training sample of known interacting and possibly non-interacting entities and additional measurement data. While these methods are very effective, their reliable validation in silico poses a challenge, since both prediction and validation need to be performed on the basis of the same partially known network. Cross-validation techniques need to be specifically adapted to classification problems on pairs of objects. We perform a critical review and assessment of protocols and measures proposed in the literature and derive specific guidelines how to best exploit and evaluate machine learning techniques for network inference. Through theoretical considerations and in silico experiments, we analyze in depth how important factors influence the outcome of performance estimation. These factors include the amount of information available for the interacting entities, the sparsity and topology of biological networks, and the lack of experimentally verified non-interacting pairs.

  13. A protocol to convert spatial polyline data to network formats and applications to world urban road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karduni, Alireza; Kermanshah, Amirhassan; Derrible, Sybil

    2016-06-01

    The study of geographical systems as graphs, and networks has gained significant momentum in the academic literature as these systems possess measurable and relevant network properties. Crowd-based sources of data such as OpenStreetMaps (OSM) have created a wealth of worldwide geographic information including on transportation systems (e.g., road networks). In this work, we offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) protocol to transfer polyline data into a workable network format in the form of; a node layer, an edge layer, and a list of nodes/edges with relevant geographic information (e.g., length). Moreover, we have developed an ArcGIS tool to perform this protocol on OSM data, which we have applied to 80 urban areas in the world and made the results freely available. The tool accounts for crossover roads such as ramps and bridges. A separate tool is also made available for planar data and can be applied to any line features in ArcGIS.

  14. A protocol to convert spatial polyline data to network formats and applications to world urban road networks

    PubMed Central

    Karduni, Alireza; Kermanshah, Amirhassan; Derrible, Sybil

    2016-01-01

    The study of geographical systems as graphs, and networks has gained significant momentum in the academic literature as these systems possess measurable and relevant network properties. Crowd-based sources of data such as OpenStreetMaps (OSM) have created a wealth of worldwide geographic information including on transportation systems (e.g., road networks). In this work, we offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) protocol to transfer polyline data into a workable network format in the form of; a node layer, an edge layer, and a list of nodes/edges with relevant geographic information (e.g., length). Moreover, we have developed an ArcGIS tool to perform this protocol on OSM data, which we have applied to 80 urban areas in the world and made the results freely available. The tool accounts for crossover roads such as ramps and bridges. A separate tool is also made available for planar data and can be applied to any line features in ArcGIS. PMID:27327129

  15. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  16. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  17. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  18. Modelling the impact of liner shipping network perturbations on container cargo routing: Southeast Asia to Europe application.

    PubMed

    Achurra-Gonzalez, Pablo E; Novati, Matteo; Foulser-Piggott, Roxane; Graham, Daniel J; Bowman, Gary; Bell, Michael G H; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-03

    Understanding how container routing stands to be impacted by different scenarios of liner shipping network perturbations such as natural disasters or new major infrastructure developments is of key importance for decision-making in the liner shipping industry. The variety of actors and processes within modern supply chains and the complexity of their relationships have previously led to the development of simulation-based models, whose application has been largely compromised by their dependency on extensive and often confidential sets of data. This study proposes the application of optimisation techniques less dependent on complex data sets in order to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impacts of disruptive events on liner shipping networks. We provide a categorization of liner network perturbations, differentiating between systemic and external and formulate a container assignment model that minimises routing costs extending previous implementations to allow feasible solutions when routing capacity is reduced below transport demand. We develop a base case network for the Southeast Asia to Europe liner shipping trade and review of accidents related to port disruptions for two scenarios of seismic and political conflict hazards. Numerical results identify alternative routing