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  1. “&ldots;how the right technique emerged at the right time” Zur Geschichte der fotografischen Methode im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Silke

    Die Frühgeschichte der fotografischen Methode, die als Nachweisinstrument kernphysikalischer und kosmischer Strahlung in den 1950er Jahren zur Blüte kam, hat das Interesse vieler Wissenschaftshistoriker gefunden. Peter Galison hat gezeigt, wie fragil das Experimentalsystem lange Zeit war, das sich um die Methode bildete, und wie prekär die mit ihr aufgezeichneten Ergebnisse.

  2. Effiziente Verfahren zur Parallelisierung von EMV-Simulationen für den Entwurfsprozess integrierter Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barke, M.; Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird mit einer parallelisierten Version des PCG-Verfahrens (preconditioned conjugate gradient method) eine effiziente Technik zur numerischen Lösung großer Gleichungssysteme vorgestellt. Der Anwendungsbereich ist dabei die Simulation numerischer Feldberechnungen (beispielsweise durch die Finite-Elemente-Methode). Es wird ferner auf eine Datenstruktur eingegangen, die für die spezielle Struktur der auftretenden Koeffizientenmatrizen geeignet ist.

  3. Ansätze zur Ordnungsreduktion von nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen zur Anwendung im Schaltungsentwurf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reit, M.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.; Stoop, R.

    2010-10-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein Konzept zur Ordnungsreduktion von höherdimensionalen nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen vorgestellt. Hierbei werden zwei wesentliche Ziele verfolgt. Zum einen wird eine höherdimensionale Modellierung der Oszillatorschaltung verwendet. Hierdurch lassen sich die Einflüsse parasitärer Effekte sowie struktureller Erweiterungen auf das dynamische Verhalten des Systems berücksichtigen. Zum anderen wird durch eine anschließende Ordnungsreduktion über die Methode der Zentrumsmannigfaltigkeit eine zweidimensionale Systembeschreibung erzeugt, deren wesentliche Dynamik derjenigen des höherdimensionalen Systems entspricht. Durch diese, in der Ordnung reduzierte, nichtlineare und parameterabhängige Systembeschreibung wird die Anwendbarkeit nichtlinearer Analysemethoden ermöglicht bzw. vereinfacht. Mit der Anwendung der Andronov-Hopf-Bifurkationsanalyse auf das reduzierte System lässt sich eine Stabilitätsuntersuchung durchführen sowie die Amplitude und Frequenz aller Zustandsgrößen approximieren. Das vorgestellte Konzept wird anhand des Beispielsystems eines LC-Tank-VCOs durchgeführt. In this paper, an order reduction technique for higher-dimensional nonlinear oscillator models, based on a center manifold approach, is presented. By modeling the oscillator circuit in the higher-dimensional state space, influences of parasitic elements and of structural extensions of the oscillator architecture on the dynamical system behavior can be examined. Using the proposed order reduction technique, a generalized second order model will be derived, which includes selected design parameters of the higher order model. By using an Andronov-Hopf bifurcation analysis, the reduced system can be studied with respect to stability as well as the amplitude and frequency of the individual state variables. The concept is applied to the design of LC-tank VCOs.

  4. Ein mehrstufiger Algorithmus zur Diagnose seltener Genodermatosen.

    PubMed

    Tantcheva-Poór, Iliana; Oji, Vinzenz; Has, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Jüngste Fortschritte der Genforschung haben ihren Weg in die klinische Dermatologie gefunden. Nahezu ein Drittel aller Erbkrankheiten zeigt charakteristische Hautveränderungen. Zudem können Proben menschlicher Haut als Untersuchungsmaterial zur Detektion genetischer Mosaike und der zu Grunde liegenden Defekte eingesetzt werden. Die Diagnose von Genodermatosen bleibt jedoch aufgrund ihrer unterschiedlich ausgeprägten und überlappenden Phänotypen sowie ihrer Seltenheit und Vielzahl neuer Informationen wegen eine Herausforderung für die Kliniker. Um das Interesse für dieses, sich schnell entwickelnde Feld der Dermatologie zu wecken und den Blick für einige seltene Erbkrankheiten zu schärfen, stellen wir in der hiesigen Übersicht einen Algorithmus für die Diagnostik und Evaluierung von Patienten mit fraglichen Genodermatosen vor.

  5. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  6. Regulation and activity of a zinc uptake regulator, Zur, in Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelsy F; Bibb, Lori A; Schmitt, Michael P; Oram, Diana M

    2009-03-01

    Regulation of metal ion homeostasis is essential to bacterial cell survival, and in most species it is controlled by metal-dependent transcriptional regulators. In this study, we describe a Corynebacterium diphtheriae ferric uptake regulator-family protein, Zur, that controls expression of genes involved in zinc uptake. By measuring promoter activities and mRNA levels, we demonstrate that Zur represses transcription of three genes (zrg, cmrA, and troA) in zinc-replete conditions. All three of these genes have similarity to genes involved in zinc uptake. Transcription of zrg and cmrA was also shown to be regulated in response to iron and manganese, respectively, by mechanisms that are independent of Zur. We demonstrate that the activity of the zur promoter is slightly decreased under low zinc conditions in a process that is dependent on Zur itself. This regulation of zur transcription is distinctive and has not yet been described for any other zur. An adjacent gene, predicted to encode a metal-dependent transcriptional regulator in the ArsR/SmtB family, is transcribed from a separate promoter whose activity is unaffected by Zur. A C. diphtheriae zur mutant was more sensitive to peroxide stress, which suggests that zur has a role in protecting the bacterium from oxidative damage. Our studies provide the first evidence of a zinc specific transcriptional regulator in C. diphtheriae and give new insights into the intricate regulatory network responsible for regulating metal ion concentrations in this toxigenic human pathogen.

  7. Acinetobacter baumannii Response to Host-Mediated Zinc Limitation Requires the Transcriptional Regulator Zur

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Brittany L.; Rathi, Subodh; Chazin, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units, and the increasing rates of antibiotic resistance make treating these infections challenging. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobials to treat A. baumannii infections. One potential therapeutic option is to target bacterial systems involved in maintaining appropriate metal homeostasis, processes that are critical for the growth of pathogens within the host. The A. baumannii inner membrane zinc transporter ZnuABC is required for growth under low-zinc conditions and for A. baumannii pathogenesis. The expression of znuABC is regulated by the transcriptional repressor Zur. To investigate the role of Zur during the A. baumannii response to zinc limitation, a zur deletion mutant was generated, and transcriptional changes were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A number of Zur-regulated genes were identified that exhibit increased expression both when zur is absent and under low-zinc conditions, and Zur binds to predicted Zur box sequences of several genes affected by zinc levels or the zur mutation. Furthermore, the zur mutant is impaired for growth in the presence of both high and low zinc levels compared to wild-type A. baumannii. Finally, the zur mutant exhibits a defect in dissemination in a mouse model of A. baumannii pneumonia, establishing zinc sensing as a critical process during A. baumannii infection. These results define Zur-regulated genes within A. baumannii and demonstrate a requirement for Zur in the A. baumannii response to the various zinc levels experienced within the vertebrate host. PMID:24816603

  8. Vom Referat bis zur Examensarbeit: Naturwissenschaftliche Texte perfekt verfassen und gestalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Bruno P.

    Welches Thema eignet sich für mein Referat oder meine Seminararbeit? Wie sammle ich Stoff? Wie gliedere ich den Text? Bruno P. Kremer beantwortet auf nur 200 Seiten alle wichtigen Fragen zur wissenschaftlichen Arbeit in den naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern. Dabei beschränkt er sich auf das für Studenten und Schüler wirklich notwendige Wissen und lässt jeglichen unnützen Ballast beiseite. Dieser praktische Ratgeber verhilft Ihnen zur erfolgreichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeit - vom Referat bis zur Examensarbeit.

  9. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen.

  10. Molecular logic of the Zur-regulated zinc deprivation response in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Ho; Helmann, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria respond dynamically to the changes in zinc availability. Repression by the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor Zur requires Zn(II), which binds with negative cooperativity to two regulatory sites per dimer to form, sequentially, Zur2:Zn3 and Zur2:Zn4 forms of the repressor. Here we show that, as cells transition from zinc sufficiency to deficiency, operons regulated by Zur are derepressed in three distinct waves. The first includes the alternative RpmEB(L31*) and RpmGC(L33*) ribosomal proteins, which mobilize zinc from the ribosome, whereas the second includes the ZnuACB uptake system and the YciC metallochaperone. Finally, as zinc levels decrease further, the Zur2:Zn3 form loses Zn(II) leading to derepression of RpsNB(S14*) and FolE2, which allow continued ribosome assembly and folate synthesis, respectively. We infer that zinc mobilization from intracellular zinc stores takes priority over energy-dependent import, and our results link the biochemistry of zinc sensing by Zur to the molecular logic of the zinc deprivation response. PMID:27561249

  11. Ein Organic Computing Ansatz zur Steuerung einer sechsbeinigen Laufmaschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auf, Adam El Sayed; Larionova, Svetlana; Mösch, Florian; Litza, Marek; Jakimovski, Bojan; Maehle, Erik

    Obwohl die Rechengeschwindigkeit von Computern und die Komplexität unserer Systeme ständig zunimmt, sind die heutigen Laufmaschinen nicht in der Lage, sich mit den Fähigkeiten von Landtieren wie zum Beispiel Insekten zu messen. Das Verständnis biologischer Konzepte und das Lernen von der Natur könnten zur Verbesserung der heutigen Maschinen beitragen und sie ein wenig “lebensähnlicher“ machen. Dieser Artikel stellt einen Kontrollarchitekturansatz basierend auf “Organic Computing“-Prinzipien vor, der die Nutzung von Dezentralisierung und Selbstorganisation an einer sechsbeinigen Laufmaschine demonstriert. Die vorliegende Arbeit erklärt die elementaren Mechanismen für das gerade Laufen, das Kurvenlaufen sowie das Drehen auf der Stelle und den Umgang mit strukturellen körperlichen Änderungen wie einer Beinamputation und stellt die Ergebnisse experimenteller Versuche vor.

  12. Ein routine-integrierbares Planungswerkzeug zur operativen Rekonstruktion der Orbita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Melanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Pit Jakob; Deserno, Thomas M.

    Bei Frakturen des Orbitabodens kann ein Titangitter zur Rekonstruktion operativ eingesetzt werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Planungswerkzeug entwickelt, welches mit Hilfe eines aktiven Konturmodells die Orbita in CT Daten segmentiert, ihr Volumen berechnet und visualisiert. Neben den technischen Integrationsstufen der Funktions- und Präsentationsintegration, welche durch den Einsatz des Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) erreicht werden, sowie der Daten-, und Kontextintegration ist vor allem die Stabilität der eingesetzten Algorithmik für die Routine-Integrierbarkeit wichtig. Erste Stabilitätsuntersuchungen basieren auf 3 von 100 zufällig ausgewählten CT-Datensätzen, wobei das Volumen mit je 50 verschiedenen Startpunkten berechnet wurde. Die so ermittelten Variationskoeffizienten liegen deutlich unterhalb der kritischen 5 % Schwelle.

  13. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  14. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    antigenpräsentierender Zellen verantwortlich sein. Durch die Modifikation einer Methode zur intrazellulären IFN-gamma Färbung konnten in vakzinierten Mäusen tumorantigenspezifische CTL sensitiv und quantitativ detektiert werden. Die so bestimmte CTL-Frequenz, nicht jedoch die humorale Antwort, korrelierte mit der in vivo Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Vakzinen: DNA vakzinierte Tiere entwickeln starke tumorantigenspezifische CTL-Antworten, wohingegen in MVA-vakzinierten Tieren überwiegend gegen virale Epitope gerichtete CD4 und CD8-T-Zellen detektiert wurden. Die Wirksamkeit der pCI-DNA-Vakzine spricht für die Weiterentwicklung in weiteren präklinischen Mausmodellen, beispielsweise unter Verwendung von MUC1 oder HLA-A2 transgenen Mäusen. Die Methoden zur Detektion Tumorantigen-spezifischer CTL in 96-Loch-Mikrotiterplatten können dabei zur systematischen Suche nach im Menschen immundominanten T-Zell-Epitopen im Muzin-Molekül genutzt werden. Der durchgeführte Vergleich der auf den Vektoren pCI und MVA basierenden Vakzinen und die Analyse neuerer Publikationen führen zu dem Ergebniss, daß vor allem DNA-Vakzinen in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entwicklung von aktiven Tumorimpfstoffen spielen werden. Rekombinante MVA-Viren, eventuell in Kombination mit DNA- oder anderen Vektoren, haben sich dagegen in zahlreichen Studien als wirksame Impfstoffe zur Kontrolle von durch Pathogene hervorgerufenen Infektionserkrankungen erwiesen. In this study, tumor vaccines based on the plasmid pCI, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and MVA-infected dendritic cells were constructed and characterized by sequencing, Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. The efficiency to induce tumor immunity in vivo was compared in several C57BL/6 mouse tumor models. Naked DNA Vaccination based on the eukaryotic expression vector pCI did induce very effective, antigen-specific and long-term protection against tumor cell lines expressing mucin, CEA or

  15. Periodisches Hitzdrahtverfahren zur Messung von Wärme- und Temperaturleitfähigkeit von geringen Stoffmengen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesinger, A.; Spindler, K.; Hahne, E.

    Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Meßverfahren zur gleichzeitigen Bestimmung der Wärme- und der Temperaturleitfähigkeit von geringen Stoffmengen beschrieben. Neben Messungen an hochviskosen Flüssigkeiten eignet sich das Verfahren besonders für Messungen an Pulver-Schüttungen. Das Meßverfahren basiert auf dem transienten Hitzdraht-Verfahren. In einem dünnen Platindraht fließt ein sinusförmiger Wechselstrom, der den Draht periodisch erwärmt. Es entstehen thermische Wellen, die in die umgebende Probe eindringen. Die Amplitude und die Phasenlage der thermischen Wellen in der Probe hängen von der Temperaturleitfähigkeit a und der Wärmeleitfähigkeit λ der Probe ab. Die Temperaturschwingung in der Probe wird mit Hilfe des Platindrahtes gemessen, der gleichzeitig als Widerstandsthermometer eingesetzt wird. Meßwerte von Wasser und Glycerin zeigen eine gute Übereinstimmung mit Literaturwerten. Das Meßverfahren zeichnet sich dadurch aus, daß zur Bestimmung der Wärme- und Temperaturleitfähigkeit nur 13 ml einer Probe benötigt werden. Es werden Meßwerte einer Zeolith-Schüttung unter Wasserstoffbeladung dargestellt. A measuring procedure for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of small quantities is described. The procedure is suited for high-viscous fluids and for powdery material. The measuring principle is based on the transient hot-wire method. A sinusoidal alternating current flows through a thin platinum wire and heats up the wire periodically. This results in thermal waves, which penetrate into the surrounding sample. The amplitude and the phase shift of the thermal waves depend on the thermal diffusivity ``a'' and the thermal conductivity ``λ'' of the sample. The temperature oscillation in the sample is measured by means of the platinum wire, which is simultaneously applied as a resistance thermometer. The values measured for water and glycerine correspond well to those given in literature. Results of the

  16. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon.

  17. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ji, Chang-Jun; Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  18. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  19. Charakterisierung von CMOS RF Blöcken mittels Volterra-Reihen zur Optimierung des Designprozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, B.; Darrat, A. H.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden die Volterra-Reihen zur Analyse der Nichtlinearität in RF Schaltungen verwendet, um den Designprozess für RF Systeme zu optimieren. Die auf Volterra-Reihen basierende Nichtlinearitätsanalyse wurde in eine Matlab-Toolbox implementiert. Diese Toolbox kann mittels Volterra-Reihen die symbolische Berechnung der Nichtlinearitätsparameter (harmonische Verzerrungen und Intermodulationsverzerrungen) eines RF Blocks für eine gegebene Architektur und Technologie durchführen. Danach können die symbolische Ausdrücke der Nichtlinearitätsparameter in Abhängigkeit von den Architekturparametern und Technologieparametern erhalten werden. Dies ermöglicht die Beschränkung der Wertebereiche der Architekturparameter und die Überprüfung auf die Erfüllung der Nichtlinearitätsspezifikationen für unterschiedliche Kombinationen von Architekturen und Technologien. Somit ist eine Beschränkung der Klassen der Architekturen und Technologien möglich. Die Toolbox wurde zur Verdeutlichung auf einen Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) der Inductive Source Degeneration (ISD) Architektur angewandt. Zur Verifikation wurde diese LNA-Schaltung auch in Cadence SpectreRF Design Tool simuliert.

  20. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  1. Das Blüte-Bestäuber-Netz auf Brachflächen : biozönologische Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Brachen in einer intensiv genutzten Agrarlandschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert

    2002-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Bedeutung von Brachen für Artenvielfalt und Stabilität von Blüte-Bestäuber-Nahrungsnetzen in agrarisch genutzten Landschaften anhand ausgewählter blütenbesuchender Insektengruppen (Syrphidae, Lepidoptera) untersucht. Die Freilandarbeiten fanden von 1998-2000 im Raum der Feldberger Seenlandschaft, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, statt. Es werden die beiden Hauptnahrungsquellen Nektar und Pollen betrachtet, dabei fanden Untersuchungen zur Intensität der Blüte-Bestäuber-Interaktion auf Stilllegungsflächen, zum flächenbezogenen quantitativen Nektarangebot im Jahresverlauf, zur individuellen Pollennutzung bei Syrphiden und zur Breite und Überlappung der Nahrungsnischen bei den dominanten Arten Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens und Sphaerophoria scripta statt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine hohe Bedeutung der Brachflächen für die Stabilität des Blüte-Bestäuber-Netzes, während die Diversität von anderen, eher landschaftsbezogenen Faktoren abhängig ist. This dissertation examines the importance of fallow land for the diversity and stability of pollination webs in agricultural landscapes as exemplified by selected groups of anthophilous insects (syrphidae and lepidoptera). The field studies were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Feldberg lakeland area in the north-east German State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Observations were made of nectar and pollen as the two main sources of food. Studies were conducted into the intensity of plant-pollinator interaction in set-aside areas, the site-specific quantity of nectar available during the vegetation period and the individual pollen intake of syrphid flies. Different methods were employed to establish the breadth of the trophic niches among the predominant species (Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens and Sphaerophoria scripta) and the extent to which they overlapped. The studies showed that, while fallow land is very

  2. Probabilistisches Belegtheitsfilter zur Schätzung dynamischer Umgebungen unter Verwendung multipler Bewegungsmodelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechtel, Sebastian; Gindele, Tobias; Vogelgesang, Jan; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    In dieser Arbeit wird eine Erweiterung des zeilbasierten Belegtheitsfilters BOFUM1 um Objektgruppen zum BOFUG (Bayesian Occupancy Filtering using Groups) vorgenommen. Diese ermöglicht die Einteilung und Klassifikation der Gruppenzugehörigkeit von Belegtheit, allein auf Basis von statischen Belegtheitsmessungen. Exemplarisch wird für Fußgänger und Fahrzeuge gezeigt, dass die Definition unterschiedlicher Dynamikmodelle ausreicht, um auf Objektinformationen zu schließen und das Filterergebnis nachhaltig zu verbessern. Die implizite Gruppeninferenz stellt einen ersten Schritt zur Vereinigung von Objekt- und Zellebene dar.

  3. Reaktive Tracer zur Bestimmung der sedimentären Aquifer-Oxidationskapazität im Labor- und Feldversuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Frank; Bliss, Fabian; Wachter, Thorsten; Dahmke, Andreas

    Kurzfassung Mikrobiell reduzierbares Eisen(III) im Aquifer kann als Elektronenakzeptor von großer Bedeutung für Natural Attenuation (NA) von aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen sein und bildet den Hauptbestandteil der sedimentären Oxidationskapazität (OXC) des Aquifers. Untersuchungsgegenstand war der Vergleich traditioneller, nasschemischer Methoden mit neuentwickelten, reaktiven Tracerverfahren zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC. Die innovativen Tracermethoden haben gegenüber nasschemischen Extraktionsverfahren den prinzipiellen Vorteil, dass sie einen integralen Ansatz zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC bilden, weil geochemische und hydraulische Heterogenitäten des Aquifers berücksichtigt werden. Daher wurden am RETZINA-Standort Zeitz einerseits herkömmliche Säure-Extraktionsmethoden (bestimmter Eisen(III)-Gehalt: 0,43 +/- 0,07 mg/g Aquifermaterial) und andererseits reaktive Tracertests mit Phosphat-(Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) und Sulfidtracern (Eisen(III): 0,31 +/- 0,02 mg/g) in Laborversuchen sowie Bioabbauversuche mit Toluol als Kohlenstoffquelle undGeobacter metallireducensals Eisen(III)-Reduzierer (Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) durchgeführt. Sulfid als reaktiver Tracer wurde in Form eines 〝Push-Pull-Tests`` im Feldversuch eingesetzt (Eisen(III): 1,1 mg/g). Zudem bedeutet die Anwendung des Feld-Tracerverfahrens deutlich weniger Zeitaufwand in der Durchführung als die Anwendung traditioneller Extraktionsmethoden. Microbially reducible iron(III) is important as a terminal electron acceptor for the Natural Attenuation (NA) of aromatic hydrocarbons and forms the balance of the aquifer's sedimentary oxidation capacity (OXC). It was the aim of this investigation to compare traditional acid extraction methods to reactive tracer methods in quantifying the sedimentary OXC. The sedimentary OXC at the RETZINA test site in Zeitz was therefore determined through traditional acid extraction methods (determined Iron(III)-content: 0.43 +/- 0.07 mg/g aquifer material) and

  4. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  5. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Einleitung: Subperiostale Präparation mit einem konventionellen Raspatorium führt zu Störungen der lokalen Mikrozirkulation und Immunhistochemie aufgrund von Mikrothromben im Gefäßssystem. Normalerweise kann die Beschädigung von Weichgewebe durch die Anwendung der Piezochirurgie vermeiden werden. Aus diesem Grund wurde der Effekt eines neuen piezoelektrischen Ansatzes auf die Immunhistochemie und die Histologie des Periostes untersucht und mit der konventionellen Präparation mit dem Raspatorium verglichen. Material und Methode: Lewis-Ratten (n=50) wurden randomisiert auf eine von fünf Gruppen aufgeteilt. Die subperiostale Präparation wurde entweder mit dem neuen piezoelektrischen Ansatz oder mit einem konventionellen Raspatorium durchgeführt. Immunhistochemische und histologische Analysen wurden direct, sowie am Tag drei und acht durchgeführt. Eine statistische Auswertung der angefärbten histologischen Schnitte erfolgte offline unter Nutzung einer Varianzanalyse ANOVA (p>0.05).Ergebnisse: Zu allen Zeiten zeigte sich in der immunhistochemischen Betrachtung sowie in der histologischen Betrachtung eine homogenere Struktur bei den Ratten, welche mit dem neuen piezolektrischen Ansatz operiert wurden, im Vergleich zu den Tieren, welche mit dem Raspatorium operiert wurden. Diskussion: Die Anwendung des neuen piezolekzrischen Ansatzes zur subperiostalen Präparation geht einher mit einem harmonischen Bild in den immunhistochemischen und histologischen Schnitten, im Vergleich zur subperiostalen Präparation mit dem Raspatorium. Infolgedessen, wie man erwarten kann, hat der neue piezoelektrische Ansatz eine positive Wirkung in erster Linie auf das Weichgewebe, das Periost sowie auf das Umgebungsgewebe.

  6. Ein physikalisch basiertes Modellkonzept zur Transportmodellierung in gekoppelten Hydrosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, J.-O.; Park, C.-H.; Kolditz, O.; Kalbus, E.

    2009-09-01

    Hydrosystems are very complex systems with numerous processes occuring simultaneously at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper we present the concept of a compartment approach for the analysis of coupled hydrosystems including heat and mass transport. In this concept, flow and transport processes are coupled via their compartment (or process domain) boundaries without giving up the computational necessities and optimisations for the numerical solution of each individual process. In this new approach, random walk particle tracking (RWPT) methods are integrated into the coupled hydrosystem analysis. We briefly introduce the RWPT method and the governing equations for water flow, heat, and mass transport in aquifers, soils and on surfaces. Flow processes are described by diffusion equations (Darcy equation for groundwater flow, Richards equation for flow in the unsaturated zone, and the diffusive wave approximation for overland flow) which are coupled by exchange fluxes. Transport processes are described by advection-diffusion equations and coupled with the exchange fluxes by advection. We present three application examples concerning flow, mass and heat transport in coupled hydrosystems based on Horton- and Dunne overland flow as well as on hyporheic flows.

  7. Hybridverfahren zur EMV-Analyse elektrischer Leitungen über geschlitztem Grund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Haseborg, J. R.; Brüns, H.-D.; Singer, H.

    2006-09-01

    Die Betrachtung niedrig geführter elektrischer Leitungen über leitendem Grund stellt besondere Anforderungen an die numerische Feldanalyse. Insbesondere für Fälle ungleichförmiger Leitungsführung oder ungleichförmigen Grunds werden Verfahren benötigt, die eine effektive EMV-Analyse zulassen. Die Verwendung von volldiskretisierten Modellen erfordert aufwändige Diskretisierungen, große Ressourcen und hohe Rechenzeiten. Daher werden Möglichkeiten gesucht, die effektive Leitungstheorie auf Anordnungen anzuwenden, deren direkte Berechnung in klassischer Betrachtungsweise nicht möglich ist. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Hybridverfahren vorgestellt, um den Einfluss von Schlitzen unterhalb von Leitungen in einer approximativen EMV-Analyse zu untersuchen. Hierzu dient neben der Leitungstheorie zur Berechnung des Leiterstroms eine momententheoretische Simulation auf Basis von magnetischen Linienströmen.

  8. Modellierungskonzept für MOS Varaktoren zur Minimierung der AM-FM Konversion in VCOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikert, T.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.

    2010-10-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein analytisches Simulationsmodell für MOS Varaktoren zur Entwurfsunterstützung von integrierten CMOS LC-Tank VCO-Schaltungen präsentiert. Das analytische Simulationsmodell wurde auf Basis des EKV-Transistormodells implementiert und beinhaltet ausschließlich Design- und Prozessparameter für die Berechnung der Varaktorkapazität. Dieses Simulationsmodell ermöglicht es, die verwendeten Varaktoren im Vorfeld des VCO-Entwurfs zu dimensionieren, die effektive Großsignalkapazität in Abhängigkeit des Ausgangssignals zu berechnen und einzelne Eigenschaften der Varaktoren, wie z.B. das AM-FM Konversionsverhalten zu optimieren. Die Gültigkeit des vorgestellten analytischen Simulationsmodells zur Beschreibung der Varaktorkapazität in CMOS LC-Tank VCOs, wird anhand von Spectre (Cadence) Simulationen auf Basis eines 0.25 μm CMOS Prozesses der Firma IHP (SGB25) und eines 0.35 μm CMOS Prozesses der Firma AMS (C35) verifiziert. In this work an analytical simulation model for MOS varactors, that can be used in a systematically VCO design flow, is presented. The simulation model is based on the EKV transistor model and includes only design and process parameters of the used CMOS technology. The proposed simulation model allows calculating the required design parameters and the effective large signal capacitance of the varactors incorporated into the VCO as a function of the output signal of the VCO. Based on the expression for the effective large signal capacitance it is possible to optimize the AM-FM conversion behavior of the used varactors. The validity and accuracy of the simulation model is verified by Spectre simulations which are based on a 0.25 μm CMOS process (SGB25) from the company IHP and a 0.35 μm CMOS process (C35) from the company AMS. The simulation results show a good accordance in all transistor operating regions for NMOS varactors as well as PMOS varactors.

  9. Innovative Aortenklappenimplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libera, Paul; Götz, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Christian; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Die Versorgung von degenerierten Herzklappen erlebt zurzeit in mehrfacher Hinsicht einen Wandel: Einerseits lässt die wachsende Zahl von kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen, verbunden mit dem Altern der Bevölkerung, die Zahl der erkrankten Herzklappen ansteigen. Andererseits erwächst mit der neuen Aufsehen erregenden Methode der Katheter gestützten Klappenimplantation am schlagenden Herzen, deren vielversprechender Einsatz im Rahmen verschiedener klinischen Studien zur Zeit untersucht wird, eine Alternative zur traditionellen offenen Herzklappenchirurgie. Offensichtlich stehen wir ganz am Anfang dieser grundlegenden Veränderungen. Das vorliegende Kapitel will die Entwicklung der Katheter gestützten Aortenklappenimplantation bis zum heutigen Tag skizzieren, eine Momentaufnahme aktueller Bestrebungen vermitteln und einen Ausblick wagen, durchaus im Bewusstsein, dass alle diesbezüglichen Ideen, Meinungen und Entwicklungen gegenwärtig im Fluss sind.

  10. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  11. Re-Imagining "Bildung Zur Humanität": How I Developed the Dialogos Approach to Practical Philosophy through Action Inquiry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an account of how I developed the Dialogos approach to practical philosophy through action inquiry research. The process of development is understood as a contribution to the reconstruction of the notion "Bildung zur Humanität" as an ideal in education. Core perspectives, traditions and purposes involved in the action…

  12. Functional definition and global regulation of Zur, a zinc uptake regulator in a Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youjun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Beiwen; Han, Huiming; Wang, Changjun; Yan, Jinghua; Tang, Jiaqi; Gao, George F

    2008-11-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms and plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes. However, an excess of zinc is extremely deleterious to cells. Bacteria have evolved complex machineries (such as efflux/influx systems) to control the concentration at levels appropriate for the maintenance of zinc homeostasis in cells and adaptation to the environment. The Zur (zinc uptake regulator) protein is one of these functional members involved in the precise control of zinc homeostasis. Here we identified a zur homologue designated 310 from Streptococcus suis serotype 2, strain 05ZYH33, a highly invasive isolate causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Biochemical analysis revealed that the protein product of gene 310 exists as a dimer form and carries zinc ions. An isogenic gene replacement mutant of gene 310, the Delta310 mutant, was obtained by homologous recombination. Physiological tests demonstrated that the Delta310 mutant is specifically sensitive to Zn(2+), while functional complementation of the Delta310 mutant can restore its duration capability, suggesting that 310 is a functional member of the Zur family. Two-dimensional electrophoresis indicated that nine proteins in the Delta310 mutant are overexpressed in comparison with those in the wild type. DNA microarray analyses suggested that 121 genes in the Delta310 mutant are affected, of which 72 genes are upregulated and 49 are downregulated. The transcriptome of S. suis serotype 2 with high Zn(2+) concentrations also showed 117 differentially expressed genes, with 71 upregulated and 46 downregulated. Surprisingly, more than 70% of the genes differentially expressed in the Delta310 mutant were the same as those in S. suis serotype 2 that were differentially expressed in response to high Zn(2+) concentration, consistent with the notion that 310 is involved in zinc homeostasis. We thus report for the first time a novel zinc-responsive regulator, Zur, from Streptococcus suis

  13. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  14. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    mit einem globalen Erwärmungsignal gefunden werden. Im Durchschnitt haben sich alle betrachteten Frühjahrsphasen zwischen 1951 und 1999 in Naturräumen in Deutschland zwischen 5 und 20 Tagen verfrüht. Ein starker Unterschied in der Verfrühung zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen liegt an deren erwähntem unterschiedlichen Verhalten. Die Blattverfärbung hat sich zwischen 1951 und 1999 für alle Spezies verspätet, aber nach 1984 im Durchschnitt verfrüht. Die VP hat sich in Deutschland zwischen 1951 und 1999 um ca. 10 Tage verlängert. Es ist hauptsächlich die Änderung in den Frühjahrphasen, die zu einer Änderung in der potentiell absorbierten Strahlung (PAS) führt. Darüber hinaus sind es die späten Frühjahrsphasen, die pro Tag Verfrühung stärker profitieren, da die zusätzlichen Tage länger undwärmer sind als dies für die frühen Phasen der Fall ist. Um die relative Änderung in PAS im Vergleich der Spezies abzuschätzen, müssen allerdings auch die Veränderungen in den Herbstphasen berücksichtigt werden. Der deutliche Unterschied zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen konnte durch die Anwendung einer neuen Methode zur Konstruktion von Zeitreihen herausgearbeitet werden. Der neue methodische Ansatz erlaubte die Ableitung verlässlicher 100-jähriger Zeitreihen und die Konstruktion von lokalen kombinierten Zeitreihen, welche die Datenverfügbarkeit für die Modellentwicklung erhöhten. Ausser analysierten Protokollierungsfehlern wurden mikroklimatische, genetische und Beobachtereinflüsse als Quellen von Unsicherheit in phänologischen Daten identifiziert. Phänologischen Beobachtungen eines Ortes können schätzungsweise 24 Tage um das parametrische Mittel schwanken.Dies unterstützt die 30-Tage Regel für die Detektion von Ausreissern. Neue Phänologiemodelle, die den Blattaustrieb aus täglichen Temperaturreihen simulieren, wurden entwickelt. Diese Modelle basieren auf einfachen Interaktionen zwischen aktivierenden und hemmenden

  15. Naturwissenschaftliche Methoden zur Beurteilung von Gemälden und Graphik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Hermann

    1983-09-01

    Stylistic criteria are sometimes not sufficient in order to differentiate with certainty between copies or fakes and originals. Analyses of paints, supports and artistic technique may give an indication for the earliest possible date of a painting or a work of graphic arts. For example, supports made from oak, fir, spruce and beech can be dated by yearring analysis (dendrochronology). Exclusively methods on micro and ultramicro scale are suitable for the identification of various materials, i.e. microchemistry, emission spectrographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction because only very tiny samples can be taken from the object.

  16. Vergleich unterschiedlicher Methoden zur Entnahme von Feststoffproben für mikrobielle Untersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheytt, Traugott; von Freyberg, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Sediment sampling for microbial characterization is often associated with cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of widely used sediment-sampling techniques for obtaining microbially uncontaminated samples from the saturated zone. Three different methods were applied: Continuous percussion drilling, discontinuous drilling with Direct-Push technology and a freeze corer using liquid nitrogen for cooling. Microbial contamination was monitored with dye tracers and fluorescent micro beads. It was assumed that microbial contamination would take place mainly at the ground surface. The results show that the sediment cores in the liners from both the conventional core driver and from Direct-Push yielded little to no contamination if the uppermost 30 cm and the outer part of the sediment core were discarded. A broken core resulted in a high degree of contamination. The freeze corer did not meet the expectations and lead to unsatisfactory results.

  17. Mikrosensor-gesteuerte Rückkopplungs- Bioaktuatoren auf Halbleiterbasis zur biophysikalischen Krebsbehandlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Bernhard; Kraus, Michael

    Acidic microenvironmental conditions combined with large hypoxic areas are ubiquitous hallmarks of most solid tumors. They result from a poorly organized vascularization and a deviant energy metabolism. There is convincing evidence supporting the hypothesis that such physico-chemical conditions promote the microevolution of malignant cells, inhibit the cellular immune response, and favor tumor cell invasion. In agreement with published data, our cell biological analyses and computer simulations indicate that treatment schemes which restore a tumor microenvironment reflecting that one found in normal tissues might improve the efficiency of immunotherapies and classical methods for cancer treatment. We suggest that the tumor microenvironment could be effectively monitored and manipulated by means of silicon-based feedback bioactuators which are controlled by integrated microsensors. In principle, miniaturized bioactuators can be implanted directly at the sites of inoperable tumors and metastases where they function as a 〝pH clamp'' and thereby can reconstitute normal physico-chemical conditions. Drug application could be precisely controlled by an integrated microprocessor. Our paper summarizes the current state of development of microsensor-based feedback bioactuators and outlines possible applications in biophysical cancer treatment.

  18. Zur Bahndynamik niedrigfliegender Satelliten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinert, M.

    The satellite mission ARISTOTELES and STEP give the chance to determine the gravitational field of the Earth with high accuracy and up to the short-wave domain. This is due to the expected highly sensitive observations of gravitational gradients and tracking information obtained by GPS. The goal of the dissertation is to investigate especially the potentiality of the GPS tracking data to solve the coefficients of the long-wave domain in particular. The theory of Hill's equations forms an excellent tool to analyse the orbit perturbations of the satellites moving in nearly polar, nearly circular orbits of very low altitude. The derivation of the linear perturbation theory is dealt with in detail. On the basis of the linear theory numerical simulations were carried out which proofed the impossibility to solve the long-wave domain completely from tracking data of only one of the discussed satellites. But the orbit analysis allows to set up a so-called Tailored Model in each case which may support and complete the processing of the gradiometry data.

  19. Zur Geschichte der Geophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, Klaus

    1980-07-01

    Alfred Wegener's most important work, the theory of continental drift, has a key position in the history of geophysics and has crucially advanced the discussion of this central problem of geodynamics amongst supporters and adversaries. The aim of this paper is to paint a portrait of Wegener's personality, of his stations of life, and of his interests and research work. The conceptions of the origin of continents and oceans prior to Wegener, and the further development of his ideas after his death on the ice cup of Greenland 50 years ago are discussed.

  20. Pragma- und textilinguistische Untersuchungsmethoden zur indirekten Rede im Englischen (Pragmatic and Text-Linguistic Research Methods on Indirect Discourse in English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Examines the mechanisms involved in changing from direct to indirect discourse, taking as a starting point research findings in linguistic pragmatics, which involve the practical application of speech symbol use between speaker and hearer. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  1. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  2. Auswerteverfahren zur Kontrolle der Verfüllqualität in Erdwärmesonden mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegger, Mathieu; Heidinger, Philipp; Lorinser, Bruno; Stober, Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Borehole heat exchangers (BHE) are used for geothermal heating of buildings and infrastructure. To ensure ecologic and economic efficiency, the BHE and the bedrock must be hermetically sealed by grouting material. Incomplete grouting can also be dangerous for groundwater quality and can induce damage. This manuscript describes a new evaluation method for detection of defects in the grouting by continuous fibre optic temperature measurements along the borehole depth while carrying out enhanced geothermal response tests. The described method also works well without groundwater flow within the defects of the BHE grouting.

  3. Kopplung eines auf der Momentenmethode basierenden Computerprogramms mit einem FEM-Algorithmus zur Berechnung von elektromagnetischen Streuproblemen im medizinischen Bereich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, M.; Landstorfer, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Am Beispiel der Verkopplung von medizinischen Geräten über den menschlichen Körper werden elektromagnetische Störphänomene im Klinikbereich betrachtet. Für die Berechnung dieser komplexen Szenarien wird zum einen die Momentenmethode (MoM) verwendet, die sich in besonderem Maße für die Berücksichtigung metallischer Strukturen und offener Streuprobleme eignet, und zum anderen die Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM), mit der die Eigenschaften des menschlichen Körpers besser berücksichtigt werden können. Mit Hilfe des Äquivalenzprinzips lässt sich das Gesamtproblem in zwei Teile zerlegen, in ein inneres und in ein äußeres. Der Außenraum wird dabei mit der MoM behandelt und das Innere, d.h. der Körper mit der FEM. Die Kopplung der beiden Methoden erfolgt an der Körperoberfläche über äquivalente Oberflächenströme. Durch Lösen des resultierenden linearen Gleichungssystems für das gesamte Problem lassen sich dann die Oberflächenströme und die über die Kontinuitätsgleichung miteinander verknüpften elektromagnetischen Felder bestimmen.

  4. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Zur Regulates the High-Affinity Zinc Uptake System TroCBA and the Putative Metal Chaperone YciC, along with ZinT and ZnuABC, for Survival under Zinc-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chaoprasid, Paweena; Dokpikul, Thanittra; Johnrod, Jaruwan; Sirirakphaisarn, Sirin; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a cluster of genes (Atu3178, Atu3179, and Atu3180) encoding an ABC-type transporter, here named troA, troB, and troC, respectively, which is shown here to be a zinc-specific uptake system. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed that troA, troB, and troC are cotranscribed, with troC as the first gene of the operon. The yciC (Atu3181) gene is transcribed in the opposite orientation to that of the troCBA operon and belongs to a metal-binding GTPase family. Expression of troCBA and yciC was inducible under zinc-limiting conditions and was controlled by the zinc uptake regulator, Zur. Compared to the wild type, the mutant strain lacking troC was hypersensitive to a metal chelator, EDTA, and the phenotype could be rescued by the addition of zinc, while the strain with a single yciC mutation showed no phenotype. However, yciC was important for survival under zinc limitation when either troC or zinT was inactivated. The periplasmic zinc-binding protein, ZinT, could not function when TroC was inactivated, suggesting that ZinT may interact with TroCBA in zinc uptake. Unlike many other bacteria, the ABC-type transporter ZnuABC was not the major zinc uptake system in A. tumefaciens. However, the important role of A. tumefaciens ZnuABC was revealed when TroCBA was impaired. The strain containing double mutations in the znuA and troC genes exhibited a growth defect in minimal medium. A. tumefaciens requires cooperation of zinc uptake systems and zinc chaperones, including TroCBA, ZnuABC, ZinT, and YciC, for survival under a wide range of zinc-limiting conditions. IMPORTANCE Both host and pathogen battle over access to essential metals, including zinc. In low-zinc environments, physiological responses that make it possible to acquire enough zinc are important for bacterial survival and could determine the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. A. tumefaciens was found to operate a novel pathway for zinc uptake in which Zin

  6. Checkpoint-Inhibitoren in der Immuntherapie: Ein Meilenstein in der Behandlung des malignen Melanoms.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Sophia M; Lang, Berenice M; Mohr, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Seit Jahrzehnten ist bekannt, dass Tumoren vom Immunsystem erkannt und zerstört werden können. Diese, vor allem in Tierversuchen gewonnene Erkenntnis konnte jedoch in der Vergangenheit nicht zum Nutzen unserer Patienten umgesetzt werden, da immunonkologische Therapieansätze in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Anwendung beim Menschen stets versagt haben. Daher hat, mit Ausnahme der adjuvanten Interferontherapie, keines dieser Verfahren den Einzug in die klinische Versorgung gefunden. Langzeitüberleben unter guter Lebensqualität war dabei sehr wenigen Patienten vorbehalten. Mit den neuen immunologischen Therapieansätzen wird jedoch sowohl das Langzeitüberleben als auch die Lebensqualität onkologischer Patienten neu definiert. Auf die neuen "Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren" spricht erstmals ein relevanter Teil der behandelten Patienten an und diese zeigen in der Regel langandauernde Remissionen bis hin zur Heilung. Schon jetzt ist klar, dass die Immuntherapie in Zukunft eine der wesentlichen Therapiesäulen bei der Behandlung des metastasierten Melanoms und auch vieler anderer fortgeschrittener Tumoren bilden wird. In dieser Übersicht werden die wichtigsten neuen Therapiemodalitäten besprochen und sowohl deren Wirkprinzip als auch klinische Daten zum Therapieansprechen und zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen der Therapie referiert.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulationen der kosmischen Bestrahlung planetarer Oberflächen und Anwendung zur geochemischen Analyse Neutronen-induzierter Gammaspektren des Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagge, G.

    1991-09-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the simulation of the cosmic irradiation of planetary surfaces was developed by using the HERMES code system. The calculation procedure was successfully tested on experimental data from the lunar surface. The neutron and gamma-ray spectrum emitted from the martian surface was simulated for a variety of possible material compositions. These calculations are the basis for the analysis of future data from orbital neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy with respect to the martian surface composition. A main aspect of these studies was the detection of water in the martian soil. The surface can be investigated to depths of 100 g/cm2 by this method. The background signal at the detector site was calculated in order to show that the complete martian surface can be analyzed within a given time of one martian year.

  8. Ein Unscented Kalman Filter zur Schätzung von Schaltungsnichtidealitäten eines zeitkontinuierlichen Sigma-Delta Wandlers mit impliziter Dezimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhmann, A.; Keller, M.; Maurer, M.; Ortmanns, M.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Nichtidealitäten einer Schaltung, wie z.B. nicht ideale Charakteristik des Operationsverstärkers und Streuungen in den Filterkoeffizienten, sind dahingehend bekannt die Effizienz von zeitkontinuierlichen Sigma-Delta Wandlern in drastischer Weise zu reduzieren. Daher stellt diese Veröffentlichung eine mögliche Methode vor, um die genannten Nichtidealitäten durch eine Schätzung mit Hilfe eines Unscented Kalman Filters zu bestimmen und in einem möglichen weiteren Schritt zu korrigieren. Des Weiteren kann durch eine leichte Modifikation des vorgestellten Algorithmus auch gleichzeitig eine implizite Dezimation des Ausgangssignals durchgeführt werden. Hierdurch wird die Gesamteffizienz des vorgestellten Ansatzes gesteigert, da kein zusätzlicher Dezimationsfilter mehr benötigt wird. Simulationsergebnisse des Filteralgorithmus zeigen die prinzipielle Funktion des Algorithmus.

  9. Stadtgrün statt Stress. Eine epidemiologische Studie zur gesundheitlichen Bedeutung urbaner Ökosystemleistungen am Beispiel der Stadt Bonn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptock, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The study shows the relation between urban green and (urban) stress within the urban district Bonn, Germany. How do urban ecosystem services influence the subjective well-being? A triangulation of methods (site's inspections, online survey) was applied to collect data on the availability and state of urban green spaces regarding the urban district of Bonn and by whom, why and how often they are visited. Of special interest could be the ecological state of the green space. The ecological state of green spaces in Bonn was assessed and connected to the results of the online survey. Thus, health effective potentials of urban green can be given. Main advantages were proved by an excellent network of green infrastructure as well as big green spaces or rather open catchment areas.

  10. Ein eingebettetes Expertensystem zur Automatisierung der VLBI-Auswertung %t An embedded expert system for the automation of the VLBI data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwegmann, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Since its first application in the seventies geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry has become an important technique for geodesy, astronomy and geophysics. The goal of this thesis is the design and implementation of a system to automate the entire VLBI analysis procedure. On the one hand this allows to close the gap between the time of observation and the availability of results, on the other hand the few existing experts will be relieved from their routine burdens. To achieve this, knowledge-based methods from the field of research of artificial intelligence are used. An Intelligent Assistant for Data Analysis in VLBI (IADA) is developed as an embedded expert system. The term "embedded" is of particular interest, because embedding expert systems in the existing data processing environment is critical for the success of such a system. Embedding IADA in the existing analysis software by building a powerful interface guarantees the automation of the whole VLBI analysis procedure. The strong connection between the existing analysis software and the expert system developed here is an important contribution of the thesis, because generally expert systems suffer from the missing connections to the existing data processing environment.

  11. Vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J. |

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  12. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  13. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  14. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  15. Electrodeionization method

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.

    2004-09-28

    An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.

  16. Terminology for interprofessional collaboration: definition and current practice.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Cornelia; Gutmann, Thomas; Karstens, Sven; Joos, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Interprofessionelle Zusammenarbeit führt zu einer verbesserten Gesundheitsversorgung. Die Forderung nach interprofessioneller Zusammenarbeit geht einher mit nationalen und internationalen Empfehlungen für interprofessionelles Lernen und Ausbildungssequenzen. Die GMA nimmt sich dieser nationalen und internationalen Herausforderungen an und hat den Ausschuss „Interprofessionelle Ausbildung in den Gesundheitsberufen“ ins Leben gerufen, um dieser neuen Entwicklung Nachdruck zu verleihen und konkrete Empfehlungen zu entwickeln. Die Verwendung von Begrifflichkeiten zur Zusammenarbeit der Gesundheitsberufe scheint dabei vielgestaltig und wenig abgestimmt zu sein. Ziel des Beitrags ist die Klärung unterschiedlich verwendeter Begriffe im Bereich der Zusammenarbeit der Gesundheitsberufe und die Analyse der verwendeten Begriffe in deutschen Fachzeitschriften. Methodik: Häufig verwendete Begriffe zur Zusammenarbeit der Gesundheitsberufe wurden identifiziert und anschließend eine nicht systematische Analyse deutschsprachiger medizinischen Fachzeitschriften, zur Verwendung der Begrifflichkeiten „interprof*“ und „interdiszip*“ durchgeführt.Ergebnisse: Die Begriffe „interprofessionell“ und „interdisziplinär“ wurden in den begutachteten Fachzeitschriften uneinheitlich und zum Teil synonym verwendet. Schlussfolgerung: Derzeit werden Begrifflichkeiten zur Zusammenarbeit der Gesundheitsberufe wenig abgestimmt genutzt und zum Teil beliebig verwendet. Die Begriffe „professionell“ und „disziplinär“ werden aus Sicht der Medizin und der Sozialwissenschaften unterschiedlich verwendet. Als Basis für eine erfolgreiche Weiterentwicklung der Zusammenarbeit innerhalb der Gesundheitsberufe und für ein besseres Verständnis füreinander sollte die Terminologie einheitlich verwendet werden.

  17. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  18. Zur Biosynthese von Phenylalanin und Tyrosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingens, F.; Keller, E.

    1983-03-01

    With the discovery of arogenic acid two new pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine have been revealed. The occurrence of two, three, or four pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in microorganisms and plants may be a useful tool for taxonomic classifications. Investigations on enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, flavobacteria, streptomycetes, archaebacteria, and on Sphaerotilus, Trichococcus and Leptothrix species from bulking sludge are described. The possible role of arogenate in the evolution of the pathways for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis is discussed.

  19. Zur chemie der marsoberfläche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keil, Klaus; Clark, Benton C.; Baird, A.K.; Toulmin, Priestley; Rose, Harry J.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 13 samples of Martian surface materials with the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometers show SiO2 similar to that of terrestrial mafic rocks, whereas Fe2O3, Cl, and S are higher and Al2O3, K2O, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr are lower. Low totals suggest presence of CO2, H2O, and Na2O. Duricrust fragments are higher in S than fines, but samples from both landing sites are surprisingly similar. We suggest that Martian surface materials are aeolian deposits of complex mixtures of weathering products of maficultramafic rocks, possibly consisting of iron-rich clays, sulfates, iron oxides, carbonates, and chlorides.

  20. Zur Vorgeschichte der Padagogischen Konzepte Pestalozzis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterwalder, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the major concepts of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's work, emphasizing the ways that other contemporary theorists influenced his work. Examines the application of his comprehensive philosophical systems to questions of pedagogy. (RW)

  1. Zur Entwicklung der medizinischen Wissenschaften in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Hans Kurt

    1980-02-01

    Three periods or stages can be recognized in the development of medicine in China. The first one, being the indigenous medical practice, has its own philosophical approach and can therefore not simply be combined with Western medicine. The second period, in which medical missionaries introduced modern medicine was still a time of laissez-faire and pestilence. The third stage was ushered in by the liberation in 1949 and is characterized by the fact that the government no longer regards health as the private affair of the individual but as a task for the whole community. A number of endemic and epidemic diseases were conquered mainly through close cooperation between the population and medical workers. Success must be regarded as in an important part due to land reform and the eradication of famine. Further improvement in health care will depend to a great deal on improvement in living standards and a lessening of population pressure. As family planning meets resistance for economic and other reasons, only specific measures by the state can bring about a change in attitude. The progress in preventive measures is matched by advances in the technical aspects of medicine and especially too in medical education.

  2. Zur Biologie des marinen Heterotardigraden Tetrakentron synaptae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The life cycle of Tetrakentron synaptae Cuénot, 1892, a tardigrade closely associated with the sea cucumber Leptosynapta galliennei Herapath, was investigated in the littoral zone at Roscoff (France). Eggs and juveniles were found only in June and July, adults only from May to October. There are vagile males and stationary dwarf males. The dorsoventrally flattened body, an enlarged slimy epicuticle in females and dwarf males, the full set of claws also in juveniles, and the anus, which is in a dorsocaudal position, are indicative for an epizoic, sessile life. There is strong evidence that T. synaptae punctures the cells of L. galliennei and sucks out their content, which is indicative of parasitism.

  3. Zur Ätiologie des Mongolismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbichler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Beside the rare cases of translocation mongolism, Down syndrom is caused by meiotic malsegregation of chromosomes No. 21. The meiotic error can take place in both sexes and was found twice as frequently in the female as in the male. The same 2∶1 ratio was found concerning nondisjunction in the first and in the second meiotic division. The rate of meiotic errors, which occur at random, is largely dependent on age; this tendency is more pronounced in oogenesis than in spermatogenesis. The results of prenatal chromosomal diagnosis indicate that the recurrence risk of trisomy 21 is not above the age-dependent average.

  4. Virucidal efficacy of a sonicated hydrogen peroxide system (trophon(®) EPR) following European and German test methods.

    PubMed

    Becker, Britta; Bischoff, Birte; Brill, Florian H H; Steinmann, Eike; Steinmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The virucidal efficacy of an automated ultrasound probe disinfector (trophon(®) EPR) was evaluated in a three step procedure according to European and German test methods. This system uses sonicated hydrogen peroxide mist (35%) at elevated temperature (50°C) in a closed chamber with control of all parameters within a 7 minute cycle. Methods: In the first step of examination, the peroxide solution was tested in a quantitative suspension assay according to the Guideline of Deutsche Vereinigung zur Bekämpfung der Viruskrankheiten (DVV) e.V. and Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and in parallel with the European Norm EN 14476 with all test viruses creating a virucidal claim. In the second step, the virucidal efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide solution was evaluated in a hard surface carrier test according to the Guideline of DVV with adenovirus, murine norovirus and parvovirus simulating practical conditions. Finally, the efficacy was evaluated by the automated system using stainless steel carriers inoculated with test virus and positioned at different levels inside the chamber. Results: A ≥4 log10 reduction of virus titre was demonstrated with all methods including carrier tests with murine norovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus using the automated device. Conclusion: The automated device is able to inactivate test viruses of German and European norms and can therefore claim efficacy against human pathogenic enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. This includes human papillomaviruses which form part of the complete virucidal claim.

  5. Virucidal efficacy of a sonicated hydrogen peroxide system (trophon® EPR) following European and German test methods

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Britta; Bischoff, Birte; Brill, Florian H. H.; Steinmann, Eike; Steinmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The virucidal efficacy of an automated ultrasound probe disinfector (trophon® EPR) was evaluated in a three step procedure according to European and German test methods. This system uses sonicated hydrogen peroxide mist (35%) at elevated temperature (50°C) in a closed chamber with control of all parameters within a 7 minute cycle. Methods: In the first step of examination, the peroxide solution was tested in a quantitative suspension assay according to the Guideline of Deutsche Vereinigung zur Bekämpfung der Viruskrankheiten (DVV) e.V. and Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and in parallel with the European Norm EN 14476 with all test viruses creating a virucidal claim. In the second step, the virucidal efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide solution was evaluated in a hard surface carrier test according to the Guideline of DVV with adenovirus, murine norovirus and parvovirus simulating practical conditions. Finally, the efficacy was evaluated by the automated system using stainless steel carriers inoculated with test virus and positioned at different levels inside the chamber. Results: A ≥4 log10 reduction of virus titre was demonstrated with all methods including carrier tests with murine norovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus using the automated device. Conclusion: The automated device is able to inactivate test viruses of German and European norms and can therefore claim efficacy against human pathogenic enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. This includes human papillomaviruses which form part of the complete virucidal claim. PMID:28149707

  6. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  7. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  8. SINTERING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.

    1963-11-01

    Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

  9. Gelcasting methods

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.

  10. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations "Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Ziel: Zur Prävention von Katheter-assoziierten Harnwegsinfektionen hat die Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) im Jahr 2015 neue Empfehlungen publiziert. In diesem Beitrag wird über die Umsetzung dieser Empfehlungen in Frankfurter Krankenhäusern im Herbst 2015 berichtet.Material und Methode: In jedem der 17 Krankenhäuser der Stadt fanden auf jeweils zwei peripheren Stationen (keine Intensivstationen) anhand einer auf Grundlage der neuen KRINKO-Empfehlung erarbeiteten Checkliste Überprüfungen statt, in einer großen Klinik wurden insgesamt 5 Stationen überprüft. Die Überprüfung umfasste die Struktur- und Prozessqualität (Arbeitsanweisungen, Schulungen, Indikation, das Legen und die Pflege von Kathetern) und die Demonstration des Legens eines Katheters an einem fiktiven Patienten oder einem Modell. Ergebnisse: Alle Stationen verfügten über einschlägige Arbeitsanweisungen, in etwa der Hälfte der Stationen fanden auch regelmäßige Schulungen statt. Die Indikationen entsprachen weitgehend den Empfehlungen der KRINKO. Alternativen zum Harnwegskatheter (HWK) waren vorhanden und wurden häufiger eingesetzt als Harnwegskatheter selbst (15,9% vs. 13,5%). Auf eine Antibiotika-Prophylaxe beim Legen des Katheters, die Instillationen antiseptischer oder antimikrobieller Substanzen oder Spülungen wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Empfehlungen verzichtet. Auch die Demonstration des Katheter-Legens war fachgerecht. Verbesserungsbedarf wurde bei der Dokumentation der täglichen Überprüfung des Fortbestehens der Indikation für den HWK sowie bei dem „regelmäßigen“ Katheterwechsel gesehen. Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt wurde eine gute Umsetzung der Empfehlungen der KRINKO zur Prävention von Katheter-assoziierten Harnwegsinfektionen vorgefunden. Es ist aber nicht auszuschließen, dass in Situationen mit Zeitdruck und bei Personalknappheit der Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern weniger positiv verläuft, als wie es im Rahmen der

  11. Casting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  12. Tensiometer methods

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  13. WELDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  14. [Contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Toivonen, J

    1987-01-01

    Interest in contraceptive devices has increased in recent years due to their safety and protection offered against venereal disease. Use of the devices prevents sperm from entering the uterine canal. Failure of a device is usually caused either because the contraceptive outside the uterus is wrongly positioned or because not enough active spermicidal ingredients were released before ejaculation. Mass production of condoms was made possible through utilization of latex rubber. Different color and shape alternatives have made condom usage more popular in developing countries. The diaphragm and its variation, the cervical cap, are treated with spermicide and then placed inside the vagina. Correct size of the contraceptive is an important consideration. Spermicides consist of active substances that kill sperm, as well as a carrier substance such as foam, ointment and jelly. The newest preventive device is the contraceptive sponge, which can stay in place for up to 36 hours. IN vitro studies show that effectiveness of condoms is 0.5-2.0 (Pearl's index). Combination use of diaphragm and spermicide yields a protection rate of 2-20 (life-table index), and spermicides 0.3-30.0. Risks associated with these methods include local irritation. It was believed that some spermicides increased rats of miscarriage, Down's Syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities, as well as limb anomalies. Diaphragm use increases potential for urinary tract infections. Toxic shock may occur with some users of sponge and diaphragm. All the mentioned contraceptives protect from infection, and are most suitable for people who cannot tolerate hormonal preparations or IUD's, who are in a casual sexual relationship or nursing mothers or youth.

  15. A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: effect quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Andreas; Haupt, Elke; Karwath, Tobias; Wullenk, Katharina; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Jatzwauk, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Die standardisierte Schulung klinisch-praktischer Fertigkeiten in sog. Skills Labs ist erst seit wenigen Jahren an deutschen Universitäten verbreitet. Den zumeist umfangreichen und sehr guten Evaluationsergebnissen stehen kaum Untersuchungen zur Effektquantifizierung und Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse gegenüber. In der vorliegenden Studie soll eine Methode zur digitalen Quantifizierung der Güte der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion vorgestellt werden sowie das Skills-Lab-Training der standardisierten Einreibemethode nach EN1500 auf seinen Effekt hin untersucht und mit OP-Pflegepersonal und Operateuren als klinische Referenzgruppen verglichen werden.Methode: 161 Studierende der Medizin eines 8. Semesters wurden in Kontroll- und Interventionsgruppe randomisiert. Die Interventionsgruppe erhielt ein 45-minütiges standardisiertes Training durch geschulte Mitstudierende zum Verhalten im OP mit dem Teilaspekt der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion nach EN1500. Dem Desinfektionsmittel wurde Fluoreszenzfarbstoff beigemischt. Nach der Desinfektion wurden die 4 Handflächen eines jeden Probanden digital fotografiert und teilautomatisiert die nicht ausreichend benetzte Handfläche bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse aller studentischer Probanden wurden verglichen, sowie das Kompetenzniveau anhand zweier klinischer Referenzgruppen eingeordnet.Ergebnisse: Die Interventionsgruppe erreichte nach dem studentisch angeleiteten Training eine zu durchschnittlich 4,99% (SD 2,34) der gesamten vier Handflächen nicht sicher ausreichende Benetzung und war damit hoch signifikant (p<0,01) besser als die Kontrollgruppe mit 7,33% (SD 3,91). Im Vergleich zu den Referenzgruppen konnte in der Kontrollgruppe kein signifikanter Unterschied gezeigt werden, die Interventionsgruppe zeigte aber im Vergleich zu beiden Referenzgruppen hoch signifikant bessere Ergebnisse: Operateure 9,32% (SD 4,97), OP-Pflege 8,46% (SD 4,66). Der Methodenfehler ist vernachlässigbar gering. In der Subgruppenanalyse hinsichtlich der

  16. Deep soil compaction as a method of ground improvement and to stabilization of wastes and slopes with danger of liquefaction, determining the modulus of deformation and shear strength parameters of loose rock.

    PubMed

    Lersow, M

    2001-01-01

    For the stabilization of dumps with the construction of hidden dams and for building ground improvement, for instance for traffic lines over dumps, nearly all applied compaction methods have the aim to reduce the pore volume in the loose rock. With these methods, a homogenization of the compacted loose rock will be obtained too. The compaction methods of weight compaction by falling weight, compaction by vibration and compaction by blasting have been introduced, and their applications and efficiencies have been shown. For the estimation of the effective depth of the compaction and for a safe planning of the bearing layer, respectively, the necessary material parameters have to be determined for each deep compaction method. Proposals for the determination of these parameters have been made within this paper. In connection with the stabilization of flow-slide-prone dump slopes, as well as for the improvement of dump areas for the use as building ground, it is necessary to assess the deformation behavior and the bearing capacity. To assess the resulting building ground improvement, deformation indexes (assessment of the flow-prone layer) and strength indexes (assessment of the bearing capacity) have to be determined with soil mechanical tests. Förster and Lersow, [Patentschrift DE 197 17 988. Verfahren, auf der Grundlage last- und/oder weggesteuerter Plattendruckversuche auf der Bohrlochsohle, zur Ermittlung des Spannungs-Verformungs-Verhaltens und/oder von Deformationsmoduln und/oder von Festigkeitseigenschaften in verschiedenen Tiefen insbesondere von Lockergesteinen und von Deponiekörpern in situ; Förster W, Lersow M. Plattendruckversuch auf der Bohrlochsohle, Ermittlung des Spannungs-Verformungs-Verhaltens von Lockergestein und Deponiematerial Braunkohle--Surface Mining, 1998;50(4): 369-77; Lersow M. Verfahren zur Ermittlung von Scherfestigkeitsparametern von Lockergestein und Deponiematerial aus Plattendruckversuchen auf der Bohrlochsohle. Braunkohle

  17. Birth Control Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, or ...

  18. Magnetotomography—a new method for analysing fuel cell performance and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauer, Karl-Heinz; Potthast, Roland; Wüster, Thorsten; Stolten, Detlef

    Magnetotomography is a new method for the measurement and analysis of the current density distribution of fuel cells. The method is based on the measurement of the magnetic flux surrounding the fuel cell stack caused by the current inside the stack. As it is non-invasive, magnetotomography overcomes the shortcomings of traditional methods for the determination of current density in fuel cells [J. Stumper, S.A. Campell, D.P. Wilkinson, M.C. Johnson, M. Davis, In situ methods for the determination of current distributions in PEM fuel cells, Electrochem. Acta 43 (1998) 3773; S.J.C. Cleghorn, C.R. Derouin, M.S. Wilson, S. Gottesfeld, A printed circuit board approach to measuring current distribution in a fuel cell, J. Appl. Electrochem. 28 (1998) 663; Ch. Wieser, A. Helmbold, E. Gülzow, A new technique for two-dimensional current distribution measurements in electro-chemical cells, J. Appl. Electrochem. 30 (2000) 803; Grinzinger, Methoden zur Ortsaufgelösten Strommessung in Polymer Elektrolyt Brennstoffzellen, Diploma thesis, TU-München, 2003; Y.-G. Yoon, W.-Y. Lee, T.-H. Yang, G.-G. Park, C.-S. Kim, Current distribution in a single cell of PEMFC, J. Power Sources 118 (2003) 193-199; M.M. Mench, C.Y. Wang, An in situ method for determination of current distribution in PEM fuel cells applied to a direct methanol fuel cell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150 (2003) A79-A85; S. Schönbauer, T. Kaz, H. Sander, E. Gülzow, Segmented bipolar plate for the determination of current distribution in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, in: Proceedings of the Second European PEMFC Forum, vol. 1, Lucerne/Switzerland, 2003, pp. 231-237; G. Bender, S.W. Mahlon, T.A. Zawodzinski, Further refinements in the segmented cell approach to diagnosing performance in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, J. Power Sources 123 (2003) 163-171]. After several years of research a complete prototype system is now available for research on single cells and stacks. This paper describes the basic system (fundamentals

  19. Einige Bemerkungen ueber die Erzeugung von Elektromagnetischen Wanderwellen und Stehenden Wellen zur Induktiven Plasmabeschleunigung (Some Comments Concerning the Generation of Traveling and Standing Electromagnetic Waves for Inductive Plasma Acceleration),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some comments are made for the generation of electromagnetic travelling and standing waves used for inductive plasma acceleration. Resulting from a...simple mathematical formulation the different features lead to a non-conventional method for travelling wave generation, which is compared with the

  20. Factors influencing base flow in the Swiss Midlands - Can results from different base flow separation methods help to identify these factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Raphael; Schädler, Bruno; Viviroli, Daniel; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    is generally accepted in the literature, secondly in land cover, and, especially for the Swiss Midlands, in aquifer area and aquifer volumes. In this contribution the results of the different methods are presented and conclusions as to control factors are drawn from the results. The data base for river flow analysis in the low flow range is ideal in Switzerland. There are long time series, a dense gauge network and a comprehensive knowledge about uncertainty of the runoff measurements during low flow. This allows, in addition to the obtained process understanding, a well-founded comparison between the methods applied, which is going to be presented as well. Demuth, S. (1993) Untersuchungen zum Niedrigwasser in West-Europa (European low flow study). Freiburger Schriften zur Hydrologie, Band 1, Freiburg, Germany. Institue of Hydrology (1980) Low Flows Studies Report, 3 volumes. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, UK. Kille, K. (1970) Das Verfahren MoMNQ, ein Beitrag zur Berechnung der mittleren langjährigen Grundwasserneubildung mit Hilfe der monatlichen Niedrigwasserabflüsse. Zeitschrift der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Sonderheft Hydrogeologie Hydrogeochemie, 89-95. Wittenberg, H. (1999) Baseflow recession and recharge as nonlinear storage processes. Hydrol. Process., 13, 715-726.

  1. From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masouleh, Nima Shakouri

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…

  2. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  3. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  4. A Sensitive Method for the Detection of Immune Complexes in Human Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Report) This document has been approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1992; 19...Northwestern University but with intervals of 10, 10, 15, 20, and dontitis, deposits of ICs and comple- Dental School Clinic provided the GCF 30 min...Nachweismie- of antibody. Journal of Pt-riodontal Re- :tmcter inl a profile to indicate active thode karno zur F rkundung dcr Fragestellung Mearri/ 19

  5. On waveform multigrid method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taasan, Shlomo; Zhang, Hong

    1993-01-01

    Waveform multigrid method is an efficient method for solving certain classes of time dependent PDEs. This paper studies the relationship between this method and the analogous multigrid method for steady-state problems. Using a Fourier-Laplace analysis, practical convergence rate estimates of the waveform multigrid iterations are obtained. Experimental results show that the analysis yields accurate performance prediction.

  6. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  7. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  8. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  9. Electromagnetic induction methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  10. SAM Chemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery

  11. SAM Radiochemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target radiochemical analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select radiochemical analytes.

  12. SAM Biotoxin Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select biotoxins.

  13. SAM Pathogen Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target pathogen analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select pathogens.

  14. SAM Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation

  15. Formal Methods Tool Qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Lucas G.; Cofer, Darren; Slind, Konrad; Tinelli, Cesare; Mebsout, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Formal methods tools have been shown to be effective at finding defects in safety-critical digital systems including avionics systems. The publication of DO-178C and the accompanying formal methods supplement DO-333 allows applicants to obtain certification credit for the use of formal methods without providing justification for them as an alternative method. This project conducted an extensive study of existing formal methods tools, identifying obstacles to their qualification and proposing mitigations for those obstacles. Further, it interprets the qualification guidance for existing formal methods tools and provides case study examples for open source tools. This project also investigates the feasibility of verifying formal methods tools by generating proof certificates which capture proof of the formal methods tool's claim, which can be checked by an independent, proof certificate checking tool. Finally, the project investigates the feasibility of qualifying this proof certificate checker, in the DO-330 framework, in lieu of qualifying the model checker itself.

  16. Implementing EPA Method 537

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes EPA Method 537 for the analysis of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water as well as the challenges associated with preparing a laboratory for analysis using Method 537.

  17. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  18. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  19. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  20. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Using Case Methods Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Neil

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the case study method of management education, which provides experiential learning in the classroom. He covers unique features of the case study method, as well as types of cases. Advantages and limitations of this method are presented. (CH)

  2. Topics in spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    After detailing the construction of spectral approximations to time-dependent mixed initial boundary value problems, a study is conducted of differential equations of the form 'partial derivative of u/partial derivative of t = Lu + f', where for each t, u(t) belongs to a Hilbert space such that u satisfies homogeneous boundary conditions. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that L is an unbounded, time-independent linear operator. Attention is given to Fourier methods of both Galerkin and pseudospectral method types, the Galerkin method, the pseudospectral Chebyshev and Legendre methods, the error equation, hyperbolic partial differentiation equations, and time discretization and iterative methods.

  3. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  4. Inexact Newton dogleg methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Simonis, Joseph P.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Walker, Homer Franklin

    2005-05-01

    The dogleg method is a classical trust-region technique for globalizing Newton's method. While it is widely used in optimization, including large-scale optimization via truncated-Newton approaches, its implementation in general inexact Newton methods for systems of nonlinear equations can be problematic. In this paper, we first outline a very general dogleg method suitable for the general inexact Newton context and provide a global convergence analysis for it. We then discuss certain issues that may arise with the standard dogleg implementational strategy and propose modified strategies that address them. Newton-Krylov methods have provided important motivation for this work, and we conclude with a report on numerical experiments involving a Newton-GMRES dogleg method applied to benchmark CFD problems.

  5. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  6. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  7. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  8. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  9. Amor und der Abstand zur Sonne. Geschichten aus meinem Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2001-10-01

    R. Kippenhahn hat in vielen Büchern die Astronomie populär gemacht. Ihn interessieren dabei immer auch die kuriosen Aspekte seiner Wissenschaft. Von ihnen erzählt er in den kleinen Geschichten dieses Buches.

  10. Integrierter Ansatz zur Beurteilung eines Aufsuchungsantrages auf Schiefergas in Hessen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Brodsky, Jan; Heggemann, Heiner; Hoffmann, Michaela; Hottenrott, Martin; Kracht, Matthias; Reischmann, Thomas; Rosenberg, Fred; Schlösser-Kluger, Inga

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an application for a shale gas exploration license including hydraulic fracturing, the Geological Survey of Hessen (HLNUG) has grouped and ranked structural geological regions in terms of their shale gas potential and the function of overlying rocks as barriers. Tectonic and structural features as well as the type of reservoir have been examined. Rock units overlying the shale gas layers have been classified as hydrogeological units and divided into aquifers and hydraulic barriers. Possible effects on drinking water abstraction facilities, mineral springs and water for industrial use have also been estimated, followed by an analysis of competing requirements for land use. A potential for shale gas can only be identified in a region north of Kassel, covering about 16 % of the claim area. Approximately 65 % of this region is overlapped by protection areas for drinking water and mineral springs, nature reserves and many other areas of public interest.

  11. Interkulturelles Lernen — Zur Grundlegung eines didaktischen Prinzips interkultureller Begegnungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhaas, Bernd

    1988-12-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there have in recent years been many varied encounters between Germans and representatives of other cultures, particularly those from Third World countries. These have increasingly been organized with an awareness of global interdependence and have as a result opened the door to the influence of foreign cultures and to an unmistakeable movement in the direction of a multicultural society. An intercultural pedagogical approach and didactic theory are faced with the task of resolving the consequent problems related to education and training. The author firstly attempts to systematize as a typology the practice of learning as it occurs in intercultural encounters in so far as this relates to the Federal Republic of Germany. He suggests that `intercultural learning' should be seen as the didactic principle underlying the organization of learning in such encounters. Through a detailed discussion of his central concepts of `culture' and `learning' and of the issue of `interculturalism', and by sketching a theoretical model of the stages and goals of the learning taking place, he then makes plain the necessary enlargement of the German concept of `Kultur' and the process of differentiation which the concept of learning will have to engage in if it is to be applicable to educational activity in international or intercultural contexts.

  12. Neue Norm zur thermischen Nutzung des Grundwassers in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppei, Joachim; Altenburger, Adrian; Mettauer, Pascal; Papritz, Kaspar; Signorelli, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of groundwater for heating and cooling is the second most common application of shallow geothermal energy. In contrast to closed-loop ground-coupled heat exchangers, changes in groundwater temperature and pumping in open-loop systems can have far-reaching impacts, often exceeding property limits. The limited resources on one hand, and the justified protection of groundwater on the other hand, result in a need for standardisation of this energy source. The Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA) released the standard 384/6 "Ground-coupled heat exchanger" in 2010, which was followed in April 2015 by standard 384/7 "Thermal utilization of groundwater". The authors—associates and head of the commission—give an overview on how to deal with the specific needs, resulting from the interdisciplinary subject area, and from differences in demands and claims of the involved parties. We show how the challenges in quality assurance, functionality and environmental aspects are being met with a consensus of planners, managers and authorities during the implementation of the new standard.

  13. Zur Lyrik in der Schule (Lyrics in the School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Emil

    1954-01-01

    Good German lyric poetry is a union in a higher reality of the inner life with the world of objects. Its use of musical effect, metaphor, and the mysterious and imponderable creates for the trained reader a sense of permanent beauty. The German-speaking, adolescent, secondary-school student is ripe for such an experience, having reached a point in…

  14. Zur Wortbildung im Russischen (10) (On Russian Word Formation [10])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Tenth of a regular series on contemporary Russian word formation, this article gives examples of: 1) four types of standard formation, 2) rare cases where compounds are produced with no combining vowel, and 3) appositive noun compounds. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  15. Definition von Datenarten zur konsistenten Kommunikation im Unternehmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Andrea; Gebauer, Marcus

    Probleme in der Informationsqualität (IQ) treten in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen eines Unternehmens auf und werden durch die unterschiedlichsten Bereiche verursacht. Daher ist es um so wichtiger, diese Probleme klar und eindeutig kommunizieren zu können. Insbesondere wenn Kollegen fachübergreifend IQ-Probleme beheben wollen, kann dies schwierig sein. Erst wenn klar ist, worüber geredet wird, und häufig sind dies Datenfelder und ihr Inhalt, kann das Problem eindeutig beschrieben und gelöst werden.

  16. Definition von Datenarten zur konsistenten Kommunikation im Unternehmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Andrea; Gebauer, Marcus

    Probleme in der Informationsqualität (IQ) treten in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen eines Unternehmens auf und werden durch die unterschiedlichsten Bereiche verursacht. Daher ist es um so wichtiger, diese Probleme klar und eindeutig kommunizieren zu können. Insbesondere wenn Kollegen fachübergreifend IQProbleme beheben wollen, kann dies schwierig sein. Erst wenn klar ist, worüber geredet wird, und häufig sind dies Datenfelder und ihr Inhalt, kann das Problem eindeutig beschrieben und gelöst werden.

  17. Glossary of Educational Technology Terms = Glossar zur Bildungstechnologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This glossary, prepared by the International Council of Educational Media (ICEM), groups in one volume the English and German terms related to educational technology in order to facilitate understanding of these terms and to promote communication at the international level. Analysis of terms from the fields of audiovisual teaching, programmed…

  18. Evolutionäres Graphmatching zur Handknochen-Identifikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Fritsche, Armin; Thies, Christian; Deserno, Thomas M.

    Im medizinischen Umfeld ist häufig eine Identifikation lokaler Bildinhalte (z.B. Organe) erforderlich. Dazu lassen sich Bildinhalte als Graphstruktur abstrahieren und mit für die jeweilige Anwendung statistisch ermittelten Strukturprototypen vergleichen. Die Identifikation unbekannter Inhalte zu den Prototypen entspricht dann einem Graphmatching. In dieser Arbeit wird dazu ein auf evolutionärer Spieletheorie basierender Ansatz verwendet. Die Praxistauglichkeit wird am Beispiel der Identifikation von 19 Handknochen in 96 Handradiographien evaluiert und mit weiteren Matchingverfahren verglichen. Bei durchschnittlich 2.300 hierarchisch segmentierten Regionen je Radiographie werden mit 34 regionalen und 12 relationalen Merkmalen Werte von bis zu 71,63%, 65,76% bzw. 64,08% für Recall, Precision bzw. F-Measure für 27 unterschiedliche Parametrierungen erzielt.

  19. Zur Arbeit mit Texten (On Working with Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1977-01-01

    Using as an example Lesson 21 of the textbook "Lebendiges Englisch" ("Living English") (Munich, Hueber 1976), some hints are given on how to work on the lesson. The suggestions for discussion bear on the treatment of dialogs and reading texts. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  1. New Adsorption Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)

  2. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  3. The Method of Archimedes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  4. The Comparative Method Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Glenn M.; Lutterschmidt, William I.; Hutchison, Victor H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of comparative methods and their use in biology as an investigative philosophy. Discusses Bernard's and Krogh's ideas and supports Jorgensen's arguments. Explains conceptual change in the comparative studies which is referred to as "comparative phylogenetic method". (Contains 33 references.) (YDS)

  5. The Method of Curvatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.; Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes method for locating images in simple and complex systems of thin lenses and spherical mirrors. The method helps students to understand differences between real and virtual images. It is helpful in discussing the human eye and the correction of imperfect vision by the use of glasses. (Author/SK)

  6. Coping with Alinsky Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowson, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    "Alinsky methods," designed for confrontation, can include packing meetings, requesting marathon sessions, and using dramatic advertising. Developed by Saul Alinsky for oppressed people, the methods can be mitigated by 10 administrator actions, including building openness and trust, having good legal and public relations advice, and…

  7. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  8. Metalworking method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    Effective fabrication methods for aluminum/boron and aluminum/graphite composites have been investigated. Drawing and rolling were found to be adaptable to Al/B fabrication. Although graphite composites are not amenable to standard metal processing methods, it may be possible to reduce fabrication costs of Al/C through electron-beam heating.

  9. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  10. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  11. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  12. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  13. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  14. Methods of Motivational Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2008-01-01

    As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…

  15. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  16. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  17. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  18. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  19. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  20. Methods for data classification

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  1. Spectral collocation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1987-01-01

    This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

  2. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  3. Sampling system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2014-05-20

    An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

  4. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  5. The Schwinger Variational Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.

  6. Counseling for barrier methods.

    PubMed

    Guest, F

    1979-08-01

    Despite the less serious risks of barrier methods (diaphragm, condom, foam, and other vaginal spermicides) compared with other contraceptive methods, many family planning programs find that only a minority of patients accept barrier methods as primary contraceptive choices. Some misconceptions patients have about barrier methods are: 1) they are less effective compared to oral contraceptives or IUDs, 2) foam kills sperm that are still inside a man's body, and 3) you need a prescription to use a barrier method. This article provides the following information about barrier methods to use in counseling patients: 1) couples who use barriers exactly right all the time can achieve high levels of effectiveness; average effectiveness rates for longterm users are 87% for the diaphragm, 90% for condoms, and 85% for foam; 2) noncontraceptive benefits include protection against sexually transmitted infections; barrier methods are nonhormonal and nonsurgical and posters to that effect are recommended for the counselor's waiting room; 3) patients need to be encouraged to use barrier methods even though they are less convenient in certain situations; support groups could improve patients' success; 4) counselors may be able to help users by giving them permission not to use the method on certain cycle days as a tradeoff for diligent use at other times thereby relieving the contraceptive burden; 5) recurring problems that patients should be warned about include waiting too late to put on a condom, running out of foam, using too little cream with the diaphragm, and douching after intercourse; and 6) improper care and storage problems which could cause failure are storing latex near heat, separating the foam bottle from the applicator, using old condoms and diaphragms, and suppositories that fail to melt. Patients' 2 biggest complaints about vaginal suppositories are messiness and irritation and switching to condoms can help. The last page of the article is a one page handout for

  7. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  8. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  9. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  10. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  11. Introduction to multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesseling, P.

    1995-01-01

    These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.

  12. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  13. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  14. Method for inducing hypothermia

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  15. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  16. Methods of flash sintering

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  18. Bone Surface Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bone shape is an important factor to determine the bone's structural function. For the asymmetrically shaped and anisotropically distributed bone in vivo, a surface mapping method is proposed on the bases of its geometric transformation invariance and its uniqueness of the principal axes of inertia. Using spiral CT scanning, we can make precise measurements to bone in vivo. The coordinate transformations lead to the principal axes of inertia, with which the prime meridian and the contour can be set. Methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping method can reflect the shape features and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. This method can be applied to research into the surface characteristics and changes of organ, tissue or cell whenever its digitalized surface is obtained. PMID:22412952

  19. METHOD OF BRAZING

    DOEpatents

    Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-11-27

    A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)

  20. Lean Government Methods Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  1. Concrete compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  2. PARTICLE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.G.

    1963-01-29

    An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)

  3. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  4. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  5. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  6. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  7. Project Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  8. Method for making organooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2003-12-23

    A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.

  9. Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes

    DOEpatents

    Schattenmann, Florian Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.

  10. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  11. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  12. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Eric A.; Demain, Arnold L.; Madia, Ashwin

    1985-09-10

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  13. Methods for polymer synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.

    2016-12-06

    The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.

  14. IRRADIATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Cabell, C.P.

    1962-12-18

    A method and apparatus are described for changing fuel bodies into a process tube of a reactor. According to this method fresh fuel elements are introduced into one end of the tube forcing used fuel elements out the other end. When sufficient fuel has been discharged, a reel and tape arrangement is employed to pull the column of bodies back into the center of the tube. Due provision is made for providing shielding in the tube. (AEC)

  15. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  16. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  17. Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    tracking in usability evaluation : A practitioner’s guide. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel. (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied...Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods Terence S. Andre, Lt Col, USAF Margaret Schurig, Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Co...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  18. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  19. [Unproven methods in oncology].

    PubMed

    Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L

    1984-09-08

    As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.

  20. Multicriteria identification sets method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenev, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).

  1. The ICARE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics

  2. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Im Rahmen der Novellierung der Ärztlichen Approbationsordnung (ÄAppO) im Jahr 2009 fand die Palliativmedizin als 13. Querschnittsbereich (QB 13) Eingang in die ärztliche Ausbildung als Pflichtlehr- und Prüfungsfach. Die Implementierung des neuen QB stellt nach wie vor Medizinische Fakultäten vor große Herausforderungen. Geringe Lehrressourcen und nur geringe Zahlen von Patienten stehen einer hohen Anzahl von Studierenden gegenüber. Neben der Vermittlung von Wissen und Fertigkeiten liegt in der Lehre der Palliativmedizin auch eine besondere Herausforderung in der Vermittlung einer ärztlichen Haltung gegenüber unheilbar erkrankten und sterbenden Menschen und deren Angehörigen.Projektbeschreibung: Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität und dem Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf ein evidenzbasiertes longitudinales Curriculum systematisch nach dem Kern-Zyklus [1] entwickelt und teilweise bereits implementiert sowie durch die Studierenden im Pilotprojekt evaluiert. Innovative Lehrmethoden (Virtuelle Schauspielpatienten, eLearning-Kurse, interprofessionelle Lehre und reflexive Selbstentwicklungsgruppe) wurden mit dem Ziel eingesetzt, palliativmedizinische Kernkompetenzen interdisziplinär und interprofessionell im klinischen Kontext zu vermitteln.Ergebnisse: Das gesamte in diesem Prozess entwickelte Curriculum Palliativmedizin (60 UE) wird nach einer nahezu 5-jährigen Entwicklungsphase ab dem Wintersemester 2014/2015 erstmalig in vollem Umfang durchgeführt. Die vorangestellten Pilotphasen wurden erfolgreich abgeschlossen. Bisher liegen Evaluationsergebnisse der Pilotierungsphasen (n=26), des Teilprojektes eLearning in der Palliativmedizin (n=518) und dem Blended-Learning Wahlpflichtfach „Kommunikation mit Sterbenden“ (n=12) vor. Schlussfolgerung: Alle durchgeführten Schritte und entwickelten Programme stehen anderen Fakultäten zur Umsetzung frei zugänglich zur Verfügung (Open Access

  3. Optimization Methods in Sherpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.

    2009-09-01

    Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  4. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  5. Panel methods: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

  6. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    PubMed

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed.

  7. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  8. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  9. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  10. Robust iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saadd, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  11. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  12. Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

    2009-12-01

    Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

  13. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  14. Bayesian Methods in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David

    2014-02-01

    Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.

  15. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  16. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  17. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  18. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  19. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nedd, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  20. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  1. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  2. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOEpatents

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  3. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  4. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  5. Method of purifying isosaccharinate

    DOEpatents

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-09-07

    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  6. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  7. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  8. Truth and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  9. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    SciTech Connect

    Nevanlinna, O.

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  10. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  11. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  12. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  13. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  14. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  17. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  18. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    DOEpatents

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  19. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  20. Qualitative Methods Reclaimed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    concerning such a process (e.g., Schutz, 1970; Gadamer , 1975). If, however, readers feel philosophy is important enough to be left to the philosophers...Political Science Association. Gadamer , Hans G. 1975 Truth and Method. New York: Continuum. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss 1967 The Discovery of

  1. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  2. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  3. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  4. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-10-14

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  5. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-08-05

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  6. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  7. Methods Evolved by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  8. Selection: Evaluation and methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...

  9. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  10. Method in Catholic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Quinn, K P

    2000-12-01

    Method in Catholic bioethics is distinguished by a specific philosophical and theological anthropology. Human beings are not to be considered simply as selves, but as selves in relation to God and each other. This essay reflects on that claim by reviewing four areas of concern from Catholic social teaching: common good, human dignity, option for the poor, and stewardship.

  11. Suzuki's Mother Tongue Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John

    1986-01-01

    Suzuki believed that all human beings are endowed with remarkable musical ability and can learn to play musical instruments in the same way they learn to speak. The Suzuki method of teaching music and its evolution in the United States are discussed. (RM)

  12. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  13. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  14. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  15. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  16. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  17. Making Methods Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Methodological paradigms in evaluation research are discussed. This article is a response to the attacks on paradigmatic perspectives made by Reichardt and Cook in the opening chapter of their edited book, "Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research." (Author/GK)

  18. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  19. Postpartum contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    Contraceptive methods suitable for postpartum women include sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), barrier methods, oral contraceptives, implants, injectables, breastfeeding, and natural family planning. Couples considering either male or female sterilization should receive counseling since this method is irreversible; however, it is very effective. IUDs are effective, reversible, and can be inserted as early as 10 minutes following placental delivery. Barrier methods are not as effective and include condoms, spermicides, diaphragm, and cervical caps. While condoms and spermicides can be employed whenever sexual activity resumes, diaphragms and cervical caps can be used 4-6 weeks postpartum. The progestin-only and the combined oral contraceptives are both very effective. There is disagreement among professionals regarding when nursing mothers should start taking oral contraceptives and implant and injectable contraceptives. Implants and injectable contraceptives have long acting effects. Breastfeeding is a natural form of contraception which can last up to 6 months; it also supplies nutritional and immunological benefits. Natural family planning requires providing women with information on fertility awareness.

  20. Method of photocatalytic nanotagging

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2010-04-27

    A nanotagged chemical structure comprising a chemical structure with an associated photocatalyst and a tagging nanoparticle (a nanotag) grown in proximity to the photocatalyst, and a method for making the nanotagged chemical structure. The nanoparticle is grown in proximity to the photocatalyst by using a photocatalytic reduction reaction.

  1. Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

  2. Photothermal methods in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John C.

    2000-10-01

    Photothermal imaging and spectroscopy are being applied to a variety of medical problems for diagnosis and therapy. This paper reviews some aspects of this field including the opportunities presented by non-optical sources and by use of detection methods targeted to the application.

  3. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  4. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  5. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  6. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  7. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  8. Barrier methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Skrine, R L

    1985-05-01

    Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline

  9. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  10. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  11. Method for welding beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  12. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  13. Ion sensing method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  14. Cold isopressing method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  15. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  16. Camshaft assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Madaffer, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    A method is described of manufacturing a camshaft assembly for internal combustion engines and the like. The method includes the steps of: providing cam and journal elements, the elements each including an axial opening, securing the elements in predetermined fixed orientation and spacing with the openings aligned on a common axis, inserting a hollow tube into the elements, in close fitting relation with openings, and expanding the hollow tube into mechanical interference engagement with all the element openings to secure the elements permanently onto the tube in the predetermined orientation while forming within the tube a uniform smooth sided interior cross-sectional configuration by forcing through the tube an element sufficiently larger than the tube inner diameter to outwardly deform the tube wall in the required degree.

  17. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  18. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  20. GRAPHITE IMPREGNATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, F.; Buttram, H.J.

    1962-04-24

    ABS>A method for impregnating a refractory material by filling its pores with a first salt having a high melting temperature is described. The salt is mixed with another, more volatile salt, giving the mixture a much lower melting temperature than that of the first salt. The material is coated with the mixture, then heated to drive off the volatile salt, leaving the first salt in place. (AEC)

  1. Parameter Plane Design Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Th usr a toente aninteer a thca sms b esta 1 Fp-ocsing 2. Enter P1 values, lwgt, ldig - > 9 Table I give us proper values. Table 1. PARAMETER TABLE...necessary and identify by block number) In this thesis a control systems analysis package is developed using parameter plane methods. It is an interactive...designer is able to choose values of the parameters which provide a good compromise between cost and dynamic behavior. 20 Distribution Availability of

  2. Formal Methods for Privacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Against a vast and rich canvas of diverse types of privacy rights and violations, we argue technology’s dual role in privacy : new technologies raise...new threats to privacy rights and new technologies can help preserve privacy . Formal methods, as just one class of technology , can be applied to...differs from what a teenager thinks, and vice versa [18]. New technologies give rise to new privacy concerns. Warren and Brandeis’s 1890 seminal paper

  3. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  4. Polymer compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  5. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  6. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  7. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  8. Polysomnography methods and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Rundell, O H; Jones, R K

    1990-08-01

    As the field of sleep disorders medicine continues to mature, appropriate diagnostic techniques are becoming properly defined and standardized. This article focuses principally upon diagnostic testing for sleep apnea, although other sleep disorders are discussed briefly. When interpreting a polysomnogram, one must consider a number of complex variables. A critical discussion of the methods for adequately measuring these variables is provided together with guidelines for appropriate interpretation.

  9. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  10. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  11. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  12. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  13. RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gresky, A.T.

    1960-07-19

    A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.

  14. Mathematical Methods for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Tai L.

    2000-07-01

    Preface; 1. Vector and tensor analysis; 2. Ordinary differential equations; 3. Matrix algebra; 4. Fourier series and integrals; 5. Linear vector spaces; 6. Functions of a complex variable; 7. Special functions of mathematical physics; 8. The calculus of variations; 9. The Laplace transformation; 10. Partial differential equations; 11. Simple linear integral equations; 12. Elements of group theory; 13. Numerical methods; 14. Introduction to probability theory; Appendices; Further reading; Index.

  15. Method for detecting biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  16. Review of Godunov Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.

  17. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  18. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  19. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  20. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  1. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  2. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  3. Method for making nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  4. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  5. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  6. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  7. The data embedding method

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  8. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  9. Statistical Methods for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, G. Jogesh

    Statistical methodology, with deep roots in probability theory, providesquantitative procedures for extracting scientific knowledge from astronomical dataand for testing astrophysical theory. In recent decades, statistics has enormouslyincreased in scope and sophistication. After a historical perspective, this reviewoutlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory,hypothesis tests, and point estimation. Least squares, maximum likelihood, andBayesian approaches to statistical inference are outlined. Resampling methods,particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributionsfunctions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection andgoodness of fit are considered.

  10. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

    1960-02-01

    A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

  11. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  12. Method for thinning specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  13. Preparation System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.

  14. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  15. Method of joining ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  16. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  17. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  18. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  19. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  20. Computational Methods for Crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.

  1. Magnetic imager and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.

  2. Magnetic imager and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.

    1997-07-22

    A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.

  3. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  4. Lysimeter methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-12-07

    A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.

  5. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  6. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  7. Cooling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.

    2009-05-05

    A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

  8. Construction Material And Method

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2006-02-21

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  9. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  10. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  11. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  12. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  13. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  14. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  15. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.

  16. REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-06-24

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

  17. Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083

  18. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    PubMed Central

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098

  19. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  20. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  1. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  2. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  3. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  4. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  5. Connector pin and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

  6. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  7. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  8. METHOD OF SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented fer separating uranium, plutonium, and fission products ions from uranyl nitrate solutions having a pH value between 1 and 3 obtained by dissolving neutron irradiated uranium. The method consists in passing such solutions through a bed of cation exchange resin, which may be a sulfonated phenol formaidehyde type. Following the adsorption step the resin is first treated with a solution of 0.2M to 0.3M sulfuric acid to desorb the uranium. Fission product ions are then desorbed by treating the resin in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid. Lastly, the plutonium may be desorbed by treating the resin with a solution approximately 0.8M in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid.

  9. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  10. Consolidation agent and method

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a sand consolidating method for an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises perforating a cased borehole at an interval expected to produce fines or sand when producing hydrocarbonaceous fluids from the interval; injecting an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate into the interval through perforations contained in the borehole which solution is of a strength sufficient to react with an alcoholic solution of calcium salt to form a permeability retention cement; and injecting thereafter a solvent containing a calcium salt into the interval via the perforations in an amount sufficient to react with the alkali metal silicate so as to form a calcium silicate cement with permeability retention characteristics whereupon the interval is consolidated in a manner sufficient to prevent formation sand from being produced from the formation during the production of hydrocarbonaceous fluids, which solvent is selected from a member of the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, higher alcohols, ketones, tetrahydrofuran, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

  11. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  12. Laser device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. D.

    1985-06-25

    A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.

  13. Method for synthesizing HMX

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  14. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  15. Pumpable rockbolt method

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Manowitz, Bernard; Waide, Charles H.

    1976-01-06

    Method and apparatus for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole.

  16. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  17. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  18. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  19. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  20. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  1. Tensiometer methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2004-08-10

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  2. Well system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, H.P.; Heard, T.J.

    1982-10-26

    A method and apparatus especially adapted for use with an injection well in which a valve controlled h-member interconnects the two tubings of a two tubing installation and landing nipples are attached to the lower legs of the h-member to receive expendable fluid control means, such as standing valves, in which pressure applied to one tubing to create a pressure differential will move the valve controlling the interconnection between the H -members to open position to permit tfl operations to be carried out in the well and thereafter pressure exerted on a ball supported on the valve member of the control valve for the hmember closes the control valve, and the ball passes through the control valve. The fluid control members in the landing nipples may be ejected either before or after closing of the valve in the h-member.

  3. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  4. METHOD FOR PREPARING NORMORPHINE

    DOEpatents

    Rapoport, H.; Look, M.

    1959-06-01

    An improved method is presented for producing normorphine from morphine. Morphine as the starting material is acetylated by treatment with acetylating agents to produce di-acetyl morphine (heroin). The acetylated compound is reacted with cyanating agents to produce di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine (cyanonorheroin). The di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine compound is then treated in accordance with the improved hydrolysis reactions of the present invention in which concentrated hydrochloric acid is employed for a limited time period to hydrolyze the acetyl group therefrom forming cyanonormorphine. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is diluted and hydrolysis of the cyano groups from the cyanonormorphine is effected with a longer contact time with dilute hydrochloric acid thereby producing normorphine. A high over-all conversion and production of a high purity product which may be radioactlvely labeled, if desired, is obtained by operation of the process.

  5. Baryons with functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.

  6. Methods for studying oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis.

  7. Unconventional methods for clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  8. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  9. Microencapsulation system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  10. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  11. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  12. Method for controlling brazing

    DOEpatents

    Hosking, F. Michael; Hall, Aaron C.; Givler, Richard C.; Walker, Charles A.

    2006-08-01

    A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

  13. Sand consolidation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1984-01-24

    Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

  14. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  15. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.

  16. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  17. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  18. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  19. Error detection method

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  20. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  1. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  2. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    , reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

  3. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  4. Method of bonding

    DOEpatents

    Saller, deceased, Henry A.; Hodge, Edwin S.; Paprocki, Stanley J.; Dayton, Russell W.

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  5. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  6. Hyperspectral data discrimination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.; Chen, Xuewen

    2000-12-01

    Hyperspectral data provides spectral response information that provides detailed chemical, moisture, and other description of constituent parts of an item. These new sensor data are useful in USDA product inspection. However, such data introduce problems such as the curse of dimensionality, the need to reduce the number of features used to accommodate realistic small training set sizes, and the need to employ discriminatory features and still achieve good generalization (comparable training and test set performance). Several two-step methods are compared to a new and preferable single-step spectral decomposition algorithm. Initial results on hyperspectral data for good/bad almonds and for good/bad (aflatoxin infested) corn kernels are presented. The hyperspectral application addressed differs greatly from prior USDA work (PLS) in which the level of a specific channel constituent in food was estimated. A validation set (separate from the test set) is used in selecting algorithm parameters. Threshold parameters are varied to select the best Pc operating point. Initial results show that nonlinear features yield improved performance.

  7. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  8. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  9. OSCAR statement of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massat, Jean-Pierre; Balmes, Etienne; Bianchi, Jean-Philippe; Van Kalsbeek, Guido

    2015-03-01

    OSCAR (Outil de Simulation du CAptage pour la Reconnaissance des défauts) is the pantograph-catenary dynamic software developed by Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (SNCF) since 2004. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) mesh allows the modelling of any catenary type: alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) designs, and conventional or high-speed lines. It is a representative of the real overhead line geometry, with contact wire (CW) irregularities, staggered alignment of the CW, dropper spacing, wire tension, etc. Nonlinearities, such as slackening of droppers and unilateral contact between the pantograph and the CW, are taken into account. Several pantograph models can be used, with a complexity level growing from the three-lumped-mass model to the multibody model. In the second case, a cosimulation between the FE method catenary and the multibody pantograph models has been developed. Industrial features for pre- and post-treatments were developed to increase robustness of results and optimise computation time. Recent developments include volume meshing of the CW for stress computation or statistical analysis and lead to new fields of studies such as fatigue failure or design optimisation. OSCAR was fully validated against in-line measurements for its different AC and DC catenary models as well as its different pantograph models (with independent strips for instance) and has continuously been certified against EN50318 since 2008.

  10. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  11. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  12. Detector Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

  13. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  14. Chromatographic methods of fractionation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, A D

    1987-01-01

    Chromatography's functional versatility, separation efficiency, gentle non-denaturing separating process and ease of automation and scale-up make it attractive for industrial scale protein purification. The Winnipeg Rh Institute's new Plasma Fractionation facility is an example of the use of chromatography for the large scale purification of plasma protein fractions. The fractionation facility has a capacity to process 800 litres of plasma per batch into blood clotting factor VIII and IX, albumin and intravenous immune serum globulin (i.v. ISG). Albumin and i.v. ISG are purified using ion exchange columns of DEAE-Sepharose (230 litre size), DEAE-Biogel (150 litre size) and CM-Sepharose (150 litre size). The chromatographic process is automated using a Modicon 584 Programmable Logic Controller to regulate valves, pumps and sensors which control plasma flow during fractionation. The stainless steel tanks and piping are automatically cleaned-in-place. The high degree of automation and cleaning provides efficient operation and sanitary processing. Chromatographic methods (DEAE-Sepharose and metal chelation) are also being used at the pilot scale to purify the human blood products superoxide dismutase and hemoglobin from outdated red blood cells. Characterization of the protein fractions produced by chromatography has shown them to be of equal or higher quality than fractions produced by other techniques.

  15. The Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, D W; Randall, R L

    1993-10-01

    While the use of external fixators is not revolutionary, the Ilizarov apparatus has dramatically improved the application of the principles of external fixation to the management of bony defects, malunions, infections, and pseudarthroses. Since its formal introduction in Western Siberia in 1951 by Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov, an international cadre of surgeons has employed its methods to pioneer modern limb salvaging procedures. Such techniques are made possible by the numerous advantages, including immediate loading of the limb postoperatively, and the use of healthy viable bone to replace devascularized dead bone "in situ" by osteoclasis, localized transport and osteogenesis. Accordingly, leg length discrepancy, deformity and infected nonunions may all be treated effectively. The basic premise of the llizarov technique is that osteogenesis can occur at a surgical osteotomy site given the appropriate degree of retained vascularity, fixation and quantified distraction. This dogma is a function of many variables which Ilizarov classified into three categories; biological, clinical, and technical. First, biologic variables include preservation of endosteal and periosteal blood supply via corticotomy and stable fixation to prevent shear forces, but to permit axial dynamization with postoperative weight bearing. Distraction should occur at approximately 1 mm. per day divided into four times per day. At the termination of distraction, neutral fixation should be permitted to allow strengthening of the new bone. In essence, the technique fools the body into believing it is a child again. The corticotomy sites now act as physes.

  16. Solid feeder and method

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a housing containing a rotatable coal bucket that is sealed at its ends in the housing with a reciprocal plunger that is sealed in the bucket at one end and has an opposite cone-shaped end that wedges up against a closed end of the bucket, and a method for feeding dry, variable size coal from an ambient atmosphere at low pressure into a high temperature, high pressure reactor between the seals for producing fuel gas substantially without losing any high pressure gas from the reactor or excessively wearing the seals. To this end, the piston biases the plunger back and forth for loading and unloading the bucket with coal along an axis that is separated from the seals, the bucket is rotated to unload the coal into the reactor so as to fill the bucket with trapped high pressure gas from the reactor while preventing the gas from escaping therefrom, and then the cone-shaped plunger end is wedged into mating engagement with the closed end of the bucket to displace this high pressure bucket gas by expelling it back into the reactor whereby the bucket can be re-rotated for filling it with coal again substantially without losing any of the high pressure gas or excessively wearing the seals.

  17. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-03-12

    A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

  18. Method for etherifications

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

  19. Test methods: anabolics.

    PubMed

    Saugy, M; Cardis, C; Robinson, N; Schweizer, C

    2000-03-01

    In the International Olympic Committee (IOC) accredited laboratories, specific methods have been developed to detect anabolic steroids in athletes' urine. The technique of choice to achieve this is gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to improve the efficiency of anti-doping programmes, the laboratories have defined new analytical strategies. The final sensitivity of the analytical procedure can be improved by choosing new technologies for use in detection, such as tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) or high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A better sample preparation using immuno-affinity chromatography (IAC) is also a good tool for improving sensitivity. These techniques are suitable for the detection of synthetic anabolic steroids whose structure is not found naturally in the human body. The more and more evident use, on a large scale, of substances chemically similar to the endogenous steroids obliges both the laboratory and the sports authorities to use the steroid profile of the athlete in comparison with reference ranges from a population or with intraindividual reference values.

  20. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane Allan; DesChane, Jaquetta R.

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

  1. Bismuth generator method

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

    1998-05-05

    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  2. Method for biological purification

    DOEpatents

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila

    2001-03-27

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  3. Consolidatable gravel pack method

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for forming a consolidated gravel pack in a washed-out cavity adjacent to a producing well penetrating a subterranean oil formation comprising the steps of: (a) forming a quantity of resin coated gravel comprising granular mineral particles including gravel, the gravel particles being coated with a resin fluid containing a polymerizable oligomer of furfuryl alcohol resin, a catalyst comprising an oil soluble, very slightly water soluble organic acid and an ester of a weak organic acid to consume water produced by the polymerization of resin, the polymer coated gravel comprising a sticky solid material; (b) preparing an aqueous saline carrier fluid comprising water which is from 70 to 100% saturated with sodium chloride; (c) suspending the resin-coated gravel in the carrier fluid, forming a fluid mixture of resin-coated gravel and carrier fluid; (d) introducing the fluid mixture comprising the resin coated gravel particles suspended in the aqueous saline carrier fluid into the washed-out cavity of the formation adjacent to the producing well and shutting in the well for sufficient period of time to allow polymerization of the resin, forming the permeable gravel pack in the washed-out cavity of the formation.

  4. Singularity Expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Lloyd Stephen

    In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It is also useful as a modal synthesis tool in the analysis and design of frequency selective surfaces (FSS). SEM parameters for a variety of thin cylindrical geometries have been computed. Specifically, SEM poles, modes, coupling coefficients, and transient currents are given for the two and three element planar array. Poles and modes for planar arrays with a larger number (as many as eight) of identical equally spaced elements are also considered. SEM pole-mode results are given for identical parallel elements with ends located at the vertices of a regular N-agon. Pole-mode patterns are found for symmetric (and slightly perturbed) single junction N-arm elements and for the five junction Jerusalem cross. The Jerusalem cross element has been used extensively in FSS.

  5. Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

  6. Methods in tubulin proteomics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leah M; Xiao, Hui; Burd, Berta; Horwitz, Susan Band; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    New analytical methods are needed for the successful outcome of experiments aimed at characterizing mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and at understanding the effects of drugs on microtubules. The identification of tubulin isotypes and of regions of the microtubule involved in drug interactions has been advanced by proteomic methodologies. The diversity of tubulin sequences and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can generate a complex mixture of heterodimers with unique molecular dynamics driving specific functions. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been developed, and in combination with chromatographic and/or electrophoretic separation of tubulin polypeptides or peptides, they have contributed to our understanding of tubulin proteomics. We present protocols that we have used for the analysis of tubulin isotypes and PTMs present in tubulin isolated from cells in culture or tissues and for the identification of tubulin regions altered by microtubule-stabilizing agents. Tubulin proteomics complements structural and computer modeling information for a high-resolution view of microtubule dynamics and its alteration by drugs. These methodologies will help in providing insights into tubulin isotype-specific functions and in the design of drugs targeting either all tubulin heterodimers indiscriminately or only those containing specific isotypes.

  7. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  8. Hydrogen storage methods.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen

  9. Hydrogen storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is

  10. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  11. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  12. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  13. Correlation of Two Anthocyanin Quantification Methods: HPLC and Spectrophotometric Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH differential method and HPLC are methods that are commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins in a sample. This study was conducted to establish a relationship between the two analytical methods. Seven juice samples containing an array of different individu...

  14. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paques, Jerome P; van der Linden, Erik; van Rijn, Cees J M; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the "complexation method", complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocapsules, and complex formation in an aqueous solution is used to form alginate nano-aggregates. In a second method w/o emulsification coupled with gelation of the alginate emulsion droplet can be used to form alginate nanospheres. We review advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and give an overview of the properties of the alginate particles produced with these methods.

  15. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  16. Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

  17. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  18. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  19. [Manipulation methods of slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Xin; Ran, Peng-Fei; Lü, Xiao-Rui; Wang, Xue-Xia

    2008-06-01

    After consulting literature, following the original meaning of the paper about slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic, in combination with explanation of later ages, and comprehension and clinical experience of the authors, it is put forward that the slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic is not single manipulation method, but it is a guiding principle for reinforcing-reducing manipulation, it includes many manipulation methods and they were listed, and all of the reinforcing-reducing methods of later ages are developed from these. In the teaching material Acupuncture and Moxibustion Sciences they are included in single reinforcing-reducing method, reducing extension and intension of this definition. The relative description in the teaching material only is slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method of narrow sense, but the manipulations can be divided into qi-carrying manipulating needle type and three-one pushing-pulling type.

  20. Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.

  1. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  2. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  3. Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.

  4. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

  5. Method for alignment of microwires

    DOEpatents

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  6. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  7. SW-846 Method Style Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This style guide is for use by developers of new methods for SW-846 and editors of existing SW-846 methods. Its use will help assure consistent method format and minimize editorial errors during the development and maintenance of SW-846.

  8. Error Estimates for Mixed Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    This paper presents abstract error estimates for mixed methods for the approximate solution of elliptic boundary value problems. These estimates are...then applied to obtain quasi-optimal error estimates in the usual Sobolev norms for four examples: three mixed methods for the biharmonic problem and a mixed method for 2nd order elliptic problems. (Author)

  9. Methods of Producing Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes various methods of producing thin films , especially for microelectronics. In addition to the classical methods of forming thin ... films by vacuum vapor deposition, it also describes processes of diode sputtering and modern methods of cathode sputtering by means of a third

  10. The Discovery Method in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belbin, R. M.

    In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…

  11. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  12. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  13. Linguistic Method: Yesterday and Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Irmengard

    This paper introduces the reader to a brief history of the focus of linguistic method from prehistoric times, through the Classical era, the Middle Ages, to the present. The scientific orientation of linguistic method is exploited; a set of specific principles is found to unify most of today's diverse methods. The success of linguistics is…

  14. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  15. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dailly, Anne; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-05-26

    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  16. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  17. A multiscale discontinuous Galerkin method.

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Hughes, Thomas J. R.

    2005-04-01

    We propose a new class of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods based on variational multiscale ideas. Our approach begins with an additive decomposition of the discontinuous finite element space into continuous (coarse) and discontinuous (fine) components. Variational multiscale analysis is used to define an interscale transfer operator that associates coarse and fine scale functions. Composition of this operator with a donor DG method yields a new formulation that combines the advantages of DG methods with the attractive and more efficient computational structure of a continuous Galerkin method. The new class of DG methods is illustrated for a scalar advection-diffusion problem.

  18. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  19. Computational Methods in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Meiler, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery/design methods have played a major role in the development of therapeutically important small molecules for over three decades. These methods are broadly classified as either structure-based or ligand-based methods. Structure-based methods are in principle analogous to high-throughput screening in that both target and ligand structure information is imperative. Structure-based approaches include ligand docking, pharmacophore, and ligand design methods. The article discusses theory behind the most important methods and recent successful applications. Ligand-based methods use only ligand information for predicting activity depending on its similarity/dissimilarity to previously known active ligands. We review widely used ligand-based methods such as ligand-based pharmacophores, molecular descriptors, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. In addition, important tools such as target/ligand data bases, homology modeling, ligand fingerprint methods, etc., necessary for successful implementation of various computer-aided drug discovery/design methods in a drug discovery campaign are discussed. Finally, computational methods for toxicity prediction and optimization for favorable physiologic properties are discussed with successful examples from literature. PMID:24381236

  20. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  1. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  2. The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n = 1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n = 227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n = 157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database.

  3. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  4. Component outage data analysis methods. Volume 2: Basic statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Mazumdar, M.; McCutchan, D. A.

    1981-08-01

    Statistical methods for analyzing outage data on major power system components such as generating units, transmission lines, and transformers are identified. The analysis methods produce outage statistics from component failure and repair data that help in understanding the failure causes and failure modes of various types of components. Methods for forecasting outage statistics for those components used in the evaluation of system reliability are emphasized.

  5. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  6. LC-MS/MS Method for Serum Creatinine: Comparison with Enzymatic Method and Jaffe Method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; Yu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding isotope-labeled Cre-d3 as internal standard, serum samples were prepared via a one-step protein precipitation with methanol. The LC-MS/MS method was compared with frequently used enzymatic method and Jaffe method. This developed method, with a total run time of 3 min, had a lower limit of quantification of 4.4 μmol/L, a total imprecision of 1.15%–3.84%, and an average bias of 1.06%. No significant matrix effect, carryover, and interference were observed for the LC-MS/MS method. The reference intervals of serum Cre measured by LC-MS/MS assay were 41–79 μmol/L for adult women, and 46–101 μmol/L for adult men. Using LC-MS/MS as a reference, the enzymatic method showed an average bias of -2.1% and the Jaffe method showed a substantial average bias of 11.7%. Compared with the LC-MS/MS method, significant negative bias was observed for the enzymatic and Jaffe methods in hemolytic and lipimic samples. We developed a simple, specific, and accurate LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum Cre. Discordance existed among different methods. PMID:26207996

  7. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  8. Structural Embeddings: Mechanization with Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Rushby, John

    1999-01-01

    The most powerful tools for analysis of formal specifications are general-purpose theorem provers and model checkers, but these tools provide scant methodological support. Conversely, those approaches that do provide a well-developed method generally have less powerful automation. It is natural, therefore, to try to combine the better-developed methods with the more powerful general-purpose tools. An obstacle is that the methods and the tools often employ very different logics. We argue that methods are separable from their logics and are largely concerned with the structure and organization of specifications. We, propose a technique called structural embedding that allows the structural elements of a method to be supported by a general-purpose tool, while substituting the logic of the tool for that of the method. We have found this technique quite effective and we provide some examples of its application. We also suggest how general-purpose systems could be restructured to support this activity better.

  9. Generalized James' effective Hamiltonian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, Xun-Li

    2017-03-01

    James' effective Hamiltonian method has been extensively adopted to investigate largely detuned interacting quantum systems. This method only corresponds to the second-order perturbation theory and cannot be exploited to treat problems which should be solved by using the third- or higher-order perturbation theory. In this paper, we generalize James' effective Hamiltonian method to the higher-order case. Using the method developed here, we reexamine two recently published examples [L. Garziano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601; Ken K. W. Ma and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023842 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023842]; our results turn out to be the same as the original ones derived from the third-order perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination method, respectively. For some specific problems, this method can simplify the calculating procedure and the resultant effective Hamiltonian is more general.

  10. The spaced antenna drift method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

  11. Aircraft digital control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  12. Troubleshooting pharmacological and toxicological methods.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The majority of articles published in J Pharmacol Tox Methods describe new approaches, or modifications to those established (Curtis, 2006). However, even established methods have their limitations. It is part of the practice of research to troubleshoot: to identify methodological weaknesses and correct them. This process of troubleshooting is rarely acknowledged in research. The present issue of J Pharmacol Tox Methods draws on the expertise of the editorial board and their network of colleagues around the world to highlight how to troubleshoot the methods they use. We hope that the articles published herein with not only help those in the field to improve their research, but will also stimulate the community to feel more comfortable with the idea that improving established methods - and publishing the results - is a valuable part of the process. Now, and in the future, the journal will give its support and encouragement to the community to submit for publication papers that identify how to troubleshoot the methods they use.

  13. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  14. Medicinal herb research: serum pharmacological method and plasma pharmacological method.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinwen; Wang, Dongsheng; He, Rong; Zhu, Huibin; Wang, Yuhong; He, Shilin

    2010-01-01

    Serum pharmacological method has generally been used in herb studies. However, preparation of test serum for ex vivo experiment is an intricate process: besides pretreatment (heat or chemicals), it involves the proteolytic cascades of coagulation along with fibrinolysis, complement and kinin systems, as well as platelet and leukocyte activation resulting in release reactions. These processes deviate serum sample components away from the original in vivo state, and possibly also have effects on the absorbed herbal components and their downstream effectors in blood. The conclusions drawn from serum pharmacological method are at least partially uncertain in its validity. These processes can be avoided by anticoagulation. Compared to those of the serum, constituents of plasma are better reflectors of the in vivo physiological/pathological state and medicinal herb-induced changes. Therefore, we have advocated the adoption of plasma pharmacological method in ex vivo experiments of herb studies. Recent studies including our work demonstrated that the constituents and biological activities are partially different between absorbed medicinal herbs in plasma and serum. This review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the feasibility of plasma pharmacological method and discusses the reasons and facts that flaw the serum pharmacological method. But serum pharmacological method can be used if anticoagulants interfere with experiments. It should be emphasized that the domination between plasma and serum pharmacological methods is different depending on the usage. Indeed, the pros and cons of both methods as well as the appropriate choices of coagulants in different ex vivo experimental settings remain to be further elucidated.

  15. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  16. Anonymous statistical methods versus cryptographic methods in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Quantin; Allaert; Dusserre

    2000-11-01

    Sensitive data are most often indirectly identifiable and so need to be rendered anonymous in order to ensure privacy. Statistical methods to provide anonymity require data perturbation and so generate data processing difficulties. Encryption methods, while preserving confidentiality, do not require data modification.

  17. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    SciTech Connect

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  18. Two methods of conserving fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.

    1981-01-01

    The first method of conservation of fuel described requires the collection of polyethylene and polypropylene containers and films now being discarded as waste. Present methods of disposal are costly in money, in energy and in ecological damage. The second method eliminates grass lawns and the need for lawn-maintenance with a power-mower. In place of grass-cover, the world-wide use of perennial ground cover plants and low-spreading evergreens is proposed. 7 refs.

  19. Methods of manipulating stressed epistructures

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W

    2014-04-08

    A method of processing an epistructure or processing a semiconductor device including associating a conformal and flexible handle with the epistructure and removing the epistructure and handle as a unit from the parent substrate. The method further includes causing the epistructure and handle unit to conform to a shape that differs from the shape the epistructure otherwise inherently assumes upon removal from the parent substrate. A device prepared according to the disclosed methods.

  20. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  1. Semistochastic Projector Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzielo, F. R.; Holmes, A. A.; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Nightingale, M. P.; Umrigar, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a semistochastic implementation of the power method to compute, for very large matrices, the dominant eigenvalue and expectation values involving the corresponding eigenvector. The method is semistochastic in that the matrix multiplication is partially implemented numerically exactly and partially stochastically with respect to expectation values only. Compared to a fully stochastic method, the semistochastic approach significantly reduces the computational time required to obtain the eigenvalue to a specified statistical uncertainty. This is demonstrated by the application of the semistochastic quantum Monte Carlo method to systems with a sign problem: the fermion Hubbard model and the carbon dimer.

  2. Method of adaptive artificial viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, I. V.; Fryazinov, I. V.

    2011-09-01

    A new finite-difference method for the numerical solution of gas dynamics equations is proposed. This method is a uniform monotonous finite-difference scheme of second-order approximation on time and space outside of domains of shock and compression waves. This method is based on inputting adaptive artificial viscosity (AAV) into gas dynamics equations. In this paper, this method is analyzed for 2D geometry. The testing computations of the movement of contact discontinuities and shock waves and the breakup of discontinuities are demonstrated.

  3. Projected sequential quadratic programming methods

    SciTech Connect

    Heinkenschloss, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk we investigate projected SQP methods for the solution of min f(y, u). s.t. c(y, u) = 0 a {<=} u {<=} b. These methods combine the ideas of (reduced) SQP methods and projected Newton methods. The problem formulation and the design of these solution methods is motivated by optimal control problems. In this case y and u are the state and the control, respectively, and c(y, u) = 0 represents the state equation. Projected SQP methods use the simple projection onto the set {l_brace}a {<=} u {<=} b{r_brace} and maintain feasibility with respect to the inequality constraints. In each iteration only linearized constraint equations need to be solved. Global convergence of the method is enforced using a constrained merit function and an Armijo-like line search. We discuss global and local convergence properties of these methods, the identification of active indices, and implementation details for optimal control problems. Numerical examples of projected SQP methods applied to optimal control problems are presented.

  4. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  5. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  6. Comparison of photopeak integration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, G.

    1990-12-01

    Several methods for the calculation of gamma-ray photopeak areas have been compared for the case of a small peak on a high Compton background. 980 similar spectra were accumulated with a germanium detector using a weak 137Cs source to produce a peak at 662 keV on a Compton background generated by a 60Co source. A computer program was written to calculate the area of the 662 keV peak using the total- and partial-peak-area methods, a modification of Sterlinski's method, Loska's method and least-squares fitting of Gaussian peak shapes with linear and quadratic background. The precision attained was highly dependent on the number of channels used to estimate the background, and the best precision, about 9.5%, was obtained with the partial-peak-area method, the modified Sterlinski method and least-squares fitting with variable peak position, fixed peak width and linear background. The methods were also evaluated for their sensitivity to uncertainty in the peak centroid position. Considering precision, ease of use, reliability and universal applicability, the total-peak-area method using several channels for background estimation and the least-squares-fitting method are recommended.

  7. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  8. Method of making tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D.; Clausing, Robert E.; Vierow, William F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for manufacturing tantalum capacitors includes preparing a tantalum compact by cold pressing tantalum powder, placing the compact, along with loose refractory metal powder, in a microwave-transparent casket to form an assembly, and heating the assembly for a time sufficient to effect at least partial sintering of the compact and the product made by the method.

  9. Revisiting Methods of Literature Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

    This paper highlights the relative strengths and weaknesses of the contemporary methods of research synthesis and proposes a multistage approach to research synthesis that draws on the strengths of each of these individual methods. In this approach, the decisions at every step of the synthesis process are guided by the nature of the data. The…

  10. Droplet transport system and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.

  11. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  12. Statistical methods for evolutionary trees.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2009-09-01

    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution.

  13. Matrix Methods to Analytic Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of basis matrix methods to rotate axes is detailed. It is felt that persons who have need to rotate axes often will find that the matrix method saves considerable work. One drawback is that most students first learning to rotate axes will not yet have studied linear algebra. (MP)

  14. METHOD OF DISINTEGRATING REFRACTORY BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, R.P.; Vogel, R.C.

    1959-08-18

    A method is described for disintegrating uranium dioxide and other oxide fuel elements of the compacted type. The method consists of immersing them in liquid alkali metal long enough to form surface cracks, removing them from the metal bath, and immersing them in nitric or some other mineral acid.

  15. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  16. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1982-11-02

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  17. Laboratory method used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines

    DOEpatents

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

  20. Filter desulfation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Michael D.; Robel, Wade J.; Verkiel, Maarten; Driscoll, James J.

    2010-08-10

    A method of removing sulfur from a filter system of an engine includes continuously passing an exhaust flow through a desulfation leg of the filter system during desulfation. The method also includes sensing at least one characteristic of the exhaust flow and modifying a flow rate of the exhaust flow during desulfation in response to the sensing.

  1. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Greengard, C.A.

    1984-08-01

    Three-dimensional vortex methods for the computation of incompressible fluid flow are presented from a unified point of view. Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms; in both of them, the vorticity is evaluated by a discretization of the spatial derivative of the flow map. The fact that the filament method, the one which is most often used in practice, can be formulated as a version of the Beale and Majda algorithm in a curved coordinate system is used to give a convergence theorem for the filament method. The method of Anderson is also discussed, in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. This remains true even when time discretization is taken into account. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed. 36 references, 4 figures.

  2. THE {gamma}SF METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Okamoto, A.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2011-10-28

    The {gamma}-ray strength function ({gamma}SF) interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission as a common ingredient in the statistical model. Outlined here is an indirect method of determining radiative neutron-capture cross sections for unstable nuclei based on the {gamma}-ray strength function. Application examples of the {gamma}SF method are demonstrated.

  3. A numerical method of regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2004-02-01

    A numerical method for regenerators is introduced in this paper. It is not only suitable for the regenerators in cryocoolers and Stirling engines, but also suitable for the stacks in acoustic engines and the pulse tubes in pulse tube refrigerators. The numerical model is one dimensional periodic unsteady flow model. The numerical method is based on the control volume concept with the implicitly solve method. The iteration acceleration method, which considers the one-dimensional periodic unsteady problem as the steady two-dimensional problem, is used for decreasing the calculation time. By this method, the regenerator in an inertance tube pulse tube refrigerator was simulated. The result is useful for understanding how the inefficiency of the regenerator changes with the inertance effect.

  4. Transformation method and wave control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai

    2010-12-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

  5. Teaching methods: Tradition and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikandrov, Nikolai D.

    1990-06-01

    It has always been difficult to distinguish between tradition and innovation in teaching methods, not least because of the absence of clear-cut criteria. Definitions of teaching methods are also loose rather than binding. Nevertheless a trend towards active participation by studients is noticeable and very often taken as marking `progressive' teaching. Starting from the basic relationship of method and objective, an attempt is made to further relate cognitive activity of students to specific levels of achievement which are considered as teaching objectives. It is suggested, too, that a loose notion of method can for practical purposes be replaced by a more reliable notion of teaching text whether presented orally or given in written form. Then the problem of innovation in teaching methods can be stated a bit more precisely as that of creating a good teaching text. Some suggestions of how this can be achieved are discussed.

  6. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  7. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengard, C. A.

    1984-08-01

    Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms. The method of Anderson in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field is discussed. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed.

  8. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien

    2011-10-01

    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  9. Evaluation of Two New Smoothing Methods in Equating: The Cubic B-Spline Presmoothing Method and the Direct Presmoothing Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongmin; Kolen, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers two new smoothing methods in equipercentile equating, the cubic B-spline presmoothing method and the direct presmoothing method. Using a simulation study, these two methods are compared with established methods, the beta-4 method, the polynomial loglinear method, and the cubic spline postsmoothing method, under three sample…

  10. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  11. Outlier detection method in GEEs.

    PubMed

    Pardo, María Del Carmen; Hobza, Tomáš

    2014-09-01

    The generalized estimating equations (GEEs) method has become quite useful in modeling correlated data. However, diagnostic tools to check that the selected final model fits the data as accurately as possible have not been explored intensively. In this paper, an outlier detection technique is developed based on the use of the "working" score test statistic to test an appropriate mean-shift model in the context of longitudinal studies based on GEEs. Through a simulation study it has been shown that this method correctly singled out the outlier when the data set had a known outlier. The method is applied to a set of data to illustrate the outlier detection procedure in GEEs.

  12. Standardized Methods for Electronic Shearography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Matthew D.

    1997-01-01

    Research was conducted in development of operating procedures and standard methods to evaluate fiber reinforced composite materials, bonded or sprayed insulation, coatings, and laminated structures with MSFC electronic shearography systems. Optimal operating procedures were developed for the Pratt and Whitney Electronic Holography/Shearography Inspection System (EH/SIS) operating in shearography mode, as well as the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) SC-4000 and Ettemeyer SHS-94 ISTRA shearography systems. Operating practices for exciting the components being inspected were studied, including optimal methods for transient heating with heat lamps and other methods as appropriate to enhance inspection capability.

  13. Security control methods for CEDR

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, D.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the findings of recent studies on the security problem in statistical databases and examine their applicability to the specific needs of CEDR. The document is organized as follows: In Section 2 we describe some general control methods which are available on most commercial database software. In Section 3 we provide a classification of statistical security methods. In Section 4 we analyze the type of users of CEDR and the security control methods which may be applied to each type. In Section 5 we summarize the findings of this study and recommend possible solutions.

  14. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  15. Staircase Methods of Sensitivity Testing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-03-21

    lP TA LS.G A H AP Q BUREA OF ORNACE 1AH D.C (AVOD EPOR .......) NAVORD REPORT 65W4’ś p - I- ýr 4C) "STAIRCASE" METHOD OF SENSITIVITY TESTING A...DEPARTNENT BUREAU OF ORIDIANCE WAz1HNGTON 25, D.C. 21 March 19A6 NAVORD REPORT 65-46 "STAIRCASE" METHODS OF SENSITIVITY TESTING 1. NAVORD REPORT 65--46...presents information on the "Staircase" method of testing sensitivity of mili- tary explosives for the use of agencies conducting explosives research. 2

  16. Method for determining astronomic azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alan G.; Stein, William L.

    1990-09-01

    An improved method is disclosed for fixing position of a land based target site with respect to a reference site in the natural coordinate frame comprising the steps of determining geodetic azimuth between the target site and the reference target using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and relative positioning survey techniques; then calculating a relationship using gravity vertical deflections; and then converting the geodetic azimuth to astronomic azimuth. This method has several advantages over conventional methods of targeting, including speed, the ability to work in all weather conditions, and improved accuracy.

  17. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  18. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  19. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  20. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  1. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  2. Decision Support Methods and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Gumbert, Clyde r.; Sorokach, Michael R.; Burg, Cecile M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is one of a set of papers, developed simultaneously and presented within a single conference session, that are intended to highlight systems analysis and design capabilities within the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). This paper focuses on the specific capabilities of uncertainty/risk analysis, quantification, propagation, decomposition, and management, robust/reliability design methods, and extensions of these capabilities into decision analysis methods within SACD. These disciplines are discussed together herein under the name of Decision Support Methods and Tools. Several examples are discussed which highlight the application of these methods within current or recent aerospace research at the NASA LaRC. Where applicable, commercially available, or government developed software tools are also discussed

  3. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  4. Graph modeling systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  5. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    DOEpatents

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  6. A Compressed Terahertz Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Pan, Rui; Xiong, Wei; He, Ting; Shen, Jing-Ling

    2012-10-01

    A compressed terahertz imaging method using a terahertz time domain spectroscopy system (THz-TDSS) is suggested and demonstrated. In the method, a parallel THz wave with the beam diameter 4cm from a usual THz-TDSS is used and a square shaped 2D echelon is placed in front of an imaged object. We confirm both in simulation and in experiment that only one terahertz time domain spectrum is needed to image the object. The image information is obtained from the compressed THz signal by deconvolution signal processing, and therefore the whole imaging time is greatly reduced in comparison with some other pulsed THz imaging methods. The present method will hopefully be used in real-time imaging.

  7. Appropriate Teaching and Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Eric

    1976-01-01

    Young adults making the transition from full time education to employment will be challenged by jobs requiring considerable or limited skills which require training. Vocational education programs should adapt instructional methods to meet students' vocational needs. (ABM)

  8. Method of modifying a surface

    DOEpatents

    Renk, Timothy J.; Sorensen, Neil R.; Senft, Donna Cowell; Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  9. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  10. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... implants while breastfeeding. Progestin implants work better than birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. Very few women who ...

  11. Methods Courses and Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Donald E.

    1977-01-01

    Presents findings of a study conducted to determine the organization and characteristics of methods courses and student teaching in business education in the Mountain-Plains Region of the National Business Education Association. Recommendations are also provided. (TA)

  12. Outstanding Examples of Innovative Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, David R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The author describes a conference on exploring some educational methods that have proved effective in other fields and at other levels of medical education to see if they have application to continuing medical education. (SSH)

  13. NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

  14. Data transmission system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

  15. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J.; Falta, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  16. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples required by the Clean Water Act.

  17. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  18. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  19. Spectral methods for discontinuous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral methods yield high-order accuracy even when applied to problems with discontinuities, though not in the sense of pointwise accuracy. Two different procedures are presented which recover pointwise accurate approximations from the spectral calculations.

  20. Semiclassical Methods in Chemical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of semiclassical theory in chemical physics both as a computational method and conceptual framework for interpreting quantum mechanical experiments and calculations. Topics covered include energy wells and eigenvalues, scattering, statistical mechanics and electronically nonadiabiatic processes. (JM)