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Sample records for neural progenitors potential

  1. Neural differentiation potential of sympathoadrenal progenitors derived from fresh and cryopreserved neonatal porcine adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bozhok, G A; Sidorenko, O S; Plaksina, E M; Gurina, T M; Sukach, A N; Kholodnyy, V S; Ustichenko, V D; Bilyavskaya, S B; Bondarenko, T P; Legach, E I

    2016-10-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are thought to have the potential in the treatment of severe neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, sympathoadrenal progenitors expressing specific markers of neural crest derivatives and capable to differentiate into neurons were discovered in adult bovine and human adrenal glands, but there was no reported data on cryopreservation of sympathoadrenal progenitors. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural differentiation potential of sympathoadrenal progenitors derived from fresh and cryopreserved neonatal porcine adrenal glands. Considering impact of various initial state of frozen biomaterial on cell recovery, we carried out a comparative estimation of cryopreservation outcome both for adrenal tissue fragments and isolated primary cells. The estimation consisted of determining cell yield, viability, ability to adhere, proliferate and differentiate in vitro. Cells isolated from the fresh adrenal glands were cultured until confluence. A formation of sympathoadrenal progenitors-embedded spherical cell colonies, whose cells are differentiated then into βIII-tubulin-positive cells with neuron-like morphology, was observed on the monolayer. The colonies were well preserved after cryopreservation of cell culture with a cooling rate of 1 °C/min in the cryoprotectant media containing 5-15% of dimethylsulfoxide. Adrenal tissue fragments were cryopreserved in the presence of 10% dimethylsulfoxide at the cooling rates of 0.3; 1: 5; 40 and > 100 °C/min. Sympathoadrenal progenitors were recovered after cryopreservation with 0.3 °C/min cooling rate but not higher.

  2. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Coelho da Costa, Meline; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Neves, Cynara Mendes; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Calloni, Giordano Wosgrau; Trentin, Andrea Goncalves

    2009-04-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effect was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.

  3. Light-induced Notch activity controls neurogenic and gliogenic potential of neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Tai; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2016-10-28

    Oscillations in Notch signaling are essential for reserving neural progenitors for cellular diversity in developing brains. Thus, steady and prolonged overactivation of Notch signaling is not suitable for generating neurons. To acquire greater temporal control of Notch activity and mimic endogenous oscillating signals, here we adopted a light-inducible transgene system to induce active form of Notch NICD in neural progenitors. Alternating Notch activity saved more progenitors that are prone to produce neurons creating larger number of mixed clones with neurons and progenitors in vitro, compared to groups with no light or continuous light stimulus. Furthermore, more upper layer neurons and astrocytes arose upon intermittent Notch activity, indicating that dynamic Notch activity maintains neural progeny and fine-tune neuron-glia diversity.

  4. SUMOylation of DISC1: a potential role in neural progenitor proliferation in the developing cortex.

    PubMed

    Tankou, Stephanie; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Elliott, Christina; Yalla, Krishna C; Day, Jon P; Furukori, Keiko; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Brandon, Nicholas J; Tang, Qiyi; Hayward, Gary; Nakajima, Kazunori; Houslay, Miles D; Kamiya, Atsushi; Baillie, George; Ishizuka, Koko; Sawa, Akira

    2016-05-01

    DISC1 is a multifunctional, intracellular scaffold protein. At the cellular level, DISC1 plays a pivotal role in neural progenitor proliferation, migration, and synaptic maturation. Perturbation of the biological pathways involving DISC1 is known to lead to behavioral changes in rodents, which supports a clinical report of a Scottish pedigree in which the majority of family members with disruption of the DISC1 gene manifest depression, schizophrenia, and related mental conditions. The discrepancy of modest evidence in genetics but strong biological support for the role of DISC1 in mental conditions suggests a working hypothesis that regulation of DISC1 at the protein level, such as posttranslational modification, may play a role in the pathology of mental conditions. In this study, we report the SUMOylation of DISC1. This posttranslational modification occurs on lysine residues where small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and its homologs are conjugated to a large number of cellular proteins, which in turn regulates their subcellular distribution and protein stability. By using in silico, biochemical, and cell biological approaches, we now demonstrate that human DISC1 is SUMOylated at one specific lysine 643 (K643). We also show that this residue is crucial for proper neural progenitor proliferation in the developing cortex.

  5. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Zahidul . E-mail: Zahidul.Khan@ki.se; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas; Juliusson, Bengt . E-mail: Tomas.Ekstrom@ki.se

    2007-08-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levels were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer.

  6. Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Edri, Reuven; Yaffe, Yakey; Ziller, Michael J; Mutukula, Naresh; Volkman, Rotem; David, Eyal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Malcov, Hagar; Levy, Carmit; Rechavi, Gideon; Gat-Viks, Irit; Meissner, Alexander; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-03-23

    Decoding heterogeneity of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progeny is fundamental for revealing the origin of diverse progenitors, for defining their lineages, and for identifying fate determinants driving transition through distinct potencies. Here we have prospectively isolated consecutively appearing PSC-derived primary progenitors based on their Notch activation state. We first isolate early neuroepithelial cells and show their broad Notch-dependent developmental and proliferative potential. Neuroepithelial cells further yield successive Notch-dependent functional primary progenitors, from early and midneurogenic radial glia and their derived basal progenitors, to gliogenic radial glia and adult-like neural progenitors, together recapitulating hallmarks of neural stem cell (NSC) ontogeny. Gene expression profiling reveals dynamic stage-specific transcriptional patterns that may link development of distinct progenitor identities through Notch activation. Our observations provide a platform for characterization and manipulation of distinct progenitor cell types amenable for developing streamlined neural lineage specification paradigms for modelling development in health and disease.

  7. Regulation of the nascent brain vascular network by neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Devi; Huang, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Neural progenitors are central players in the development of the brain neural circuitry. They not only produce the diverse neuronal and glial cell types in the brain, but also guide their migration in this process. Recent evidence indicates that neural progenitors also play a critical role in the development of the brain vascular network. At an early stage, neural progenitors have been found to facilitate the ingression of blood vessels from outside the neural tube, through VEGF and canonical Wnt signaling. Subsequently, neural progenitors directly communicate with endothelial cells to stabilize nascent brain vessels, in part through down-regulating Wnt pathway activity. Furthermore, neural progenitors promote nascent brain vessel integrity, through integrin αvβ8-dependent TGFβ signaling. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for, as well as questions that remain, regarding these novel roles of neural progenitors and the underlying mechanisms in their regulation of the nascent brain vascular network.

  8. Reactive astrocytes as neural stem or progenitor cells: In vivo lineage, In vitro potential, and Genome‐wide expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sirko, Swetlana; Beckers, Johannes; Irmler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review the stem cell hallmarks of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) during development and in some niches of the adult mammalian brain to then compare these with reactive astrocytes acquiring stem cell hallmarks after traumatic and ischemic brain injury. Notably, even endogenous NSCs including the earliest NSCs, the neuroepithelial cells, generate in most cases only a single type of progeny and self‐renew only for a rather short time in vivo. In vitro, however, especially cells cultured under neurosphere conditions reveal a larger potential and long‐term self‐renewal under the influence of growth factors. This is rather well comparable to reactive astrocytes in the traumatic or ischemic brain some of which acquire neurosphere‐forming capacity including multipotency and long‐term self‐renewal in vitro, while they remain within their astrocyte lineage in vivo. Both reactive astrocytes and endogenous NSCs exhibit stem cell hallmarks largely in vitro, but their lineage differs in vivo. Both populations generate largely a single cell type in vivo, but endogenous NSCs generate neurons and reactive astrocytes remain in the astrocyte lineage. However, at some early postnatal stages or in some brain regions reactive astrocytes can be released from this fate restriction, demonstrating that they can also enact neurogenesis. Thus, reactive astrocytes and NSCs share many characteristic hallmarks, but also exhibit key differences. This conclusion is further substantiated by genome‐wide expression analysis comparing NSCs at different stages with astrocytes from the intact and injured brain parenchyma. GLIA 2015;63:1452–1468 PMID:25965557

  9. Transient nuclear Prospero induces neural progenitor quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sen-Lin; Doe, Chris Q

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells can self-renew, differentiate, or enter quiescence. Understanding how stem cells switch between these states is highly relevant for stem cell-based therapeutics. Drosophila neural progenitors (neuroblasts) have been an excellent model for studying self-renewal and differentiation, but quiescence remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that when neuroblasts enter quiescence, the differentiation factor Prospero is transiently detected in the neuroblast nucleus, followed by the establishment of a unique molecular profile lacking most progenitor and differentiation markers. The pulse of low level nuclear Prospero precedes entry into neuroblast quiescence even when the timing of quiescence is advanced or delayed by changing temporal identity factors. Furthermore, loss of Prospero prevents entry into quiescence, whereas a pulse of low level nuclear Prospero can drive proliferating larval neuroblasts into quiescence. We propose that Prospero levels distinguish three progenitor fates: absent for self-renewal, low for quiescence, and high for differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03363.001 PMID:25354199

  10. Gelatin Directly Enhances Neurogenic Differentiation Potential in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Without Stimulation of Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Han, Na Rae; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Yun, Jung Im; Kim, Choonghyo; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2016-09-01

    Gelatin has been reported to induce generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with enhanced potential of differentiation into neuronal lineage cells. However, the presence of various cell types besides MSCs in bone marrow has raised doubts about the effects of gelatin. In the following report, we determined whether gelatin can directly enhance neurogenic differentiation potential in MSCs without proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). MSCs comprised a high proportion of bone marrow-derived primary cells (BMPCs) and gelatin induced significant increases in MSC proliferation during primary culture, and the proportion of MSCs was maintained at more than 99% throughout the subculture. However, NPCs comprised a low percentage of BMPCs and a decrease in proliferation was detected despite gelatin treatment during the primary culture, and the proportion of subcultured NPCs gradually decreased. In a similar manner, MSCs exposed to gelatin during primary culture showed more enhanced neurogenic differentiation ability than those not exposed to gelatin. Together, these results demonstrate that gelatin directly enhances neurogenic differentiation in bone marrow-derived MSCs without stimulating NPC proliferation.

  11. Msx1-Positive Progenitors in the Retinal Ciliary Margin Give Rise to Both Neural and Non-neural Progenies in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Robert, Benoit; Cayouette, Michel

    2017-01-23

    In lower vertebrates, stem/progenitor cells located in a peripheral domain of the retina, called the ciliary margin zone (CMZ), cooperate with retinal domain progenitors to build the mature neural retina. In mammals, it is believed that the CMZ lacks neurogenic potential and that the retina develops from one pool of multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). Here we identify a population of Msx1-expressing progenitors in the mouse CMZ that is both molecularly and functionally distinct from RPCs. Using genetic lineage tracing, we report that Msx1 progenitors have unique developmental properties compared with RPCs. Msx1 lineages contain both neural retina and non-neural ciliary epithelial progenies and overall generate fewer photoreceptors than classical RPC lineages. Furthermore, we show that the endocytic adaptor protein Numb regulates the balance between neural and non-neural fates in Msx1 progenitors. These results uncover a population of CMZ progenitors, distinct from classical RPCs, that also contributes to mammalian retinogenesis.

  12. GSK-3 is a master regulator of neural progenitor homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo-Yang; Wang, Xinshuo; Wu, Yaohong; Doble, Bradley W; Patel, Satish; Woodgett, James R; Snider, William D

    2016-01-01

    The development of the brain requires the exquisite coordination of progenitor proliferation and differentiation to achieve complex circuit assembly. It has been suggested that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) acts as an integrating molecule for multiple proliferation and differentiation signals because of its essential role in the RTK, Wnt and Shh signaling pathways. We created conditional mutations that deleted both the α and β forms of GSK-3 in mouse neural progenitors. GSK-3 deletion resulted in massive hyperproliferation of neural progenitors along the entire neuraxis. Generation of both intermediate neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons was markedly suppressed. These effects were associated with the dysregulation of β-catenin, Sonic Hedgehog, Notch and fibroblast growth factor signaling. Our results indicate that GSK-3 signaling is an essential mediator of homeostatic controls that regulate neural progenitors during mammalian brain development. PMID:19801986

  13. Pannexin 1 regulates postnatal neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pannexin 1 forms ion and metabolite permeable hexameric channels and is abundantly expressed in the brain. After discovering pannexin 1 expression in postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells we sought to elucidate its functional role in neuronal development. Results We detected pannexin 1 in neural stem and progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo. We manipulated pannexin 1 expression and activity in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells and primary postnatal neurosphere cultures to demonstrate that pannexin 1 regulates neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation likely through the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Conclusions Permeable to ATP, a potent autocrine/paracine signaling metabolite, pannexin 1 channels are ideally suited to influence the behavior of neural stem and progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate they play a robust role in the regulation of neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation. Endogenous postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells are crucial for normal brain health, and their numbers decline with age. Furthermore, these special cells are highly responsive to neurological injury and disease, and are gaining attention as putative targets for brain repair. Therefore, understanding the fundamental role of pannexin 1 channels in neural stem and progenitor cells is of critical importance for brain health and disease. PMID:22458943

  14. Neural Progenitors Adopt Specific Identities by Directly Repressing All Alternative Progenitor Transcriptional Programs.

    PubMed

    Kutejova, Eva; Sasai, Noriaki; Shah, Ankita; Gouti, Mina; Briscoe, James

    2016-03-21

    In the vertebrate neural tube, a morphogen-induced transcriptional network produces multiple molecularly distinct progenitor domains, each generating different neuronal subtypes. Using an in vitro differentiation system, we defined gene expression signatures of distinct progenitor populations and identified direct gene-regulatory inputs corresponding to locations of specific transcription factor binding. Combined with targeted perturbations of the network, this revealed a mechanism in which a progenitor identity is installed by active repression of the entire transcriptional programs of other neural progenitor fates. In the ventral neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, together with broadly expressed transcriptional activators, concurrently activates the gene expression programs of several domains. The specific outcome is selected by repressive input provided by Shh-induced transcription factors that act as the key nodes in the network, enabling progenitors to adopt a single definitive identity from several initially permitted options. Together, the data suggest design principles relevant to many developing tissues.

  15. Human neural stem/progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells and fetal nervous system present differences in immunogenicity and immunomodulatory potentials in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Götherström, Cecilia; Forsberg, Magda; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Wu, Jiang; Calzarossa, Cinzia; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik; Åkesson, Elisabet

    2013-05-01

    To develop cell therapies for damaged nervous tissue with human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNPCs), the risk of an immune response and graft rejection must be considered. There are conflicting results and lack of knowledge concerning the immunocompetence of hNPCs of different origin. Here, we studied the immunogenicity and immunomodulatory potentials of hNPCs cultured under equivalent conditions after derivation from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-NPCs) or human fetal spinal cord tissue (hfNPCs). The expression patterns of human leukocyte antigen, co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules in hESC-NPCs and hfNPCs were relatively similar and mostly not affected by inflammatory cytokines. Unstimulated hfNPCs secreted more transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and β2 but similar level of interleukin (IL)-10 compared to hESC-NPCs. In contrast to hfNPCs, hESC-NPCs displayed 4-6 fold increases in TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and IL-10 under inflammatory conditions. Both hNPCs reduced the alloreaction between allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and up-regulated CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) T cells. However, hESC-NPCs but not hfNPCs dose-dependently triggered PBMC proliferation, which at least partly may be due to TGF-β signaling. To conclude, hESC-NPCs and hfNPCs displayed similarities but also significant differences in their immunocompetence and interaction with allogeneic PBMCs, differences may be crucial for the outcome of cell therapy.

  16. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Dakic, Vanja; Maciel, Renata de Moraes; Drummond, Hannah; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Trindade, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive) derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A), which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY), and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not DYRK1A (pargyline). INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo. PMID:27957390

  17. Adult retinal pigment epithelium cells express neural progenitor properties and the neuronal precursor protein doublecortin.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Maren; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-04-08

    The adult mammalian retina is devoid of any detectable neurogenesis. However, different cell types have been suggested to potentially act as neural progenitors in the adult mammalian retina in vitro, such as ciliary body (CB), Muller glia, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In rodents and humans, strong evidence for neural stem or progenitor properties exists only for CB-derived cells, but not for other retinal cell types. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of adult rat CB- and RPE-derived cells suggesting that the two cell types share certain neural progenitor properties in vitro. CB and RPE cells expressed neural progenitor markers such as Nestin, Flk-1, Hes1, and Musashi. They proliferated under adherent and neurosphere conditions and showed limited self-renewal. Moreover, they differentiated into neuronal and glial cells based on the expression of differentiation markers such as the young neuronal marker beta-III tubulin and the glial and progenitor markers GFAP and NG2. Expression of beta-III tubulin was found in cells with neuronal and non-neuronal morphology. A subpopulation of RPE- and CB-derived progenitor cells expressed the neurogenesis-specific protein doublecortin (DCX). Interestingly, DCX expression defined a beta-III tubulin-positive CB and RPE fraction with a distinct neuronal morphology. In summary, the data suggest that RPE cells share with CB cells the potential to de-differentiate into a cell type with neural progenitor-like identity. In addition, DCX expression might define the neuronal-differentiating RPE- and CB-derived progenitor population.

  18. Neural progenitors, neurogenesis and the evolution of the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Florio, Marta; Huttner, Wieland B

    2014-06-01

    The neocortex is the seat of higher cognitive functions and, in evolutionary terms, is the youngest part of the mammalian brain. Since its origin, the neocortex has expanded in several mammalian lineages, and this is particularly notable in humans. This expansion reflects an increase in the number of neocortical neurons, which is determined during development and primarily reflects the number of neurogenic divisions of distinct classes of neural progenitor cells. Consequently, the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex and the concomitant increase in the numbers of neurons produced during development entail interspecies differences in neural progenitor biology. Here, we review the diversity of neocortical neural progenitors, their interspecies variations and their roles in determining the evolutionary increase in neuron numbers and neocortex size.

  19. Presenilin-1 regulates neural progenitor cell differentiation in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Gadadhar, Archana; Marr, Robert; Lazarov, Orly

    2011-01-01

    Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the catalytic core of the aspartyl protease γ-secretase. Previous genetic studies using germ-line deletion of PS1 and conditional knockout mice demonstrated that PS1 plays an essential role in neuronal differentiation during neural development, but it remained unclear whether PS1 plays a similar role in neurogenesis in the adult brain. Here we show that neural progenitor cells infected with lentiviral vectors expressing short interfering RNA (siRNA) for the exclusive knockdown of PS1 in the neurogenic microenvironments, exhibit a dramatic enhancement of cell differentiation. Infected cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, suggesting that multipotentiality of neural progenitor cells is not affected by reduced levels of PS1. Neurosphere cultures treated with γ-secretase inhibitors exhibit a similar phenotype of enhanced cell differentiation, suggesting that PS1 function in neural progenitor cells is γ-secretase-dependent. Neurospheres infected with lentiviral vectors expressing siRNA for the targeting of PS1 differentiated even in the presence of the proliferation factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), suggesting that PS1 dominates EFG and bFGF signaling pathways. Reduction of PS1 expression in neural progenitor cells was accompanied by a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-catenin expression level, suggesting that they are downstream essential transducers of PS1 signaling in adult neural progenitor cells. These findings suggest a physiological role for PS1 in adult neurogenesis, and a potential target for the manipulation of neural progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:21325529

  20. 12-Deoxyphorbols Promote Adult Neurogenesis by Inducing Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Geribaldi-Doldán, Noelia; Flores-Giubi, Eugenia; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; García-Bernal, Francisco; Carrasco, Manuel; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Domínguez-Riscart, Jesús; Verástegui, Cristina; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders frequently occur after brain insults associated with neuronal loss. Strategies aimed to facilitate neuronal renewal by promoting neurogenesis constitute a promising therapeutic option to treat neuronal death-associated disorders. In the adult brain, generation of new neurons occurs physiologically throughout the entire life controlled by extracellular molecules coupled to intracellular signaling cascades. Proteins participating in these cascades within neurogenic regions constitute potential pharmacological targets to promote neuronal regeneration of injured areas of the central nervous system. Methodology: We have performed in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine neural progenitor cell proliferation to understand whether activation of kinases of the protein kinase C family facilitates neurogenesis in the adult brain. Results: We have demonstrated that protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces neural progenitor cell proliferation in vitro. We also show that the nontumorogenic protein kinase C activator prostratin exerts a proliferative effect on neural progenitor cells in vitro. This effect can be reverted by addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor G06850, demonstrating that the effect of prostratin is mediated by protein kinase C activation. Additionally, we show that prostratin treatment in vivo induces proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Finally, we describe a library of diterpenes with a 12-deoxyphorbol structure similar to that of prostratin that induces a stronger effect than prostratin on neural progenitor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: This work suggests that protein kinase C activation is a promising strategy to expand the endogenous neural progenitor cell population to promote neurogenesis and highlights the potential of 12-deoxyphorbols as pharmaceutical

  1. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Fang; Sicard, Flavie; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Hermann, Andreas; Storch, Alexander; Huttner, Wieland B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to neurospheres, these cells, when prevented from adherence to the culture dish, grew in spheres, which we named chromospheres. These chromospheres were devoid of mRNA specific for smooth muscle cells (MYH11) or endothelial cells (PECAM1). During sphere formation, markers for differentiated chromaffin cells, such as phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, were downregulated while neural progenitor markers nestin, vimentin, musashi 1, and nerve growth factor receptor, as well as markers of neural crest progenitor cells such as Sox1 and Sox9, were upregulated. Clonal analysis and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-incorporation analysis demonstrated the self-renewing capacity of chromosphere cells. Differentiation protocols using NGF and BMP4 or dexamethasone induced neuronal or endocrine differentiation, respectively. Electrophysiological analyses of neural cells derived from chromospheres revealed functional properties of mature nerve cells, such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and action potentials. Our study provides evidence that proliferation and differentiation competent chromaffin progenitor cells can be isolated from adult adrenal medulla and that these cells might harbor the potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease.

  2. Membrane biophysics define neuron and astrocyte progenitors in the neural lineage

    PubMed Central

    Nourse, J.L.; Prieto, J.L.; Dickson, A.R.; Lu, J.; Pathak, M.M.; Tombola, F.; Demetriou, M.; Lee, A.P.; Flanagan, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are heterogeneous populations of self-renewing stem cells and more committed progenitors that differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Accurately identifying and characterizing the different progenitor cells in this lineage has continued to be a challenge for the field. We found previously that populations of NSPCs with more neurogenic progenitors (NPs) can be distinguished from those with more astrogenic progenitors (APs) by their inherent biophysical properties, specifically the electrophysiological property of whole cell membrane capacitance, which we characterized with dielectrophoresis (DEP). Here we hypothesize that inherent electrophysiological properties are sufficient to define NPs and APs and test this by determining whether isolation of cells solely by these properties specifically separates NPs and APs. We found NPs and APs are enriched in distinct fractions after separation by electrophysiological properties using DEP. A single round of DEP isolation provided greater NP enrichment than sorting with PSA-NCAM, which is considered an NP marker. Additionally, cell surface N-linked glycosylation was found to significantly affect cell fate-specific electrophysiological properties, providing a molecular basis for the cell membrane characteristics. Inherent plasma membrane biophysical properties are thus sufficient to define progenitor cells of differing fate potential in the neural lineage, can be used to specifically isolate these cells, and are linked to patterns of glycosylation on the cell surface. PMID:24105912

  3. L1 Retrotransposition in Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-01-01

    Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a family of non-LTR retrotransposons that can replicate and reintegrate into the host genome. L1s have considerably influenced mammalian genome evolution by retrotransposing during germ cell development or early embryogenesis, leading to massive genome expansion. For many years, L1 retrotransposons were viewed as a selfish DNA parasite that had no contribution in somatic cells. Historically, L1s were thought to only retrotranspose during gametogenesis and in neoplastic processes, but recent studies have shown that L1s are extremely active in the mouse, rat, and human neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). These de novo L1 insertions can impact neuronal transcriptional expression, creating unique transcriptomes of individual neurons, possibly contributing to the uniqueness of the individual cognition and mental disorders in humans.

  4. Scaffolds for Intracerebral Grafting of Neural Progenitor Cells After Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Laura K; Jensen, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Context Intracerebral grafting of neural progenitor cells is a promising potential treatment to improve recovery after stroke, but the structural disruption and cavitation of brain tissue that occurs creates an unfavorable environment for graft cell survival. To overcome this obstacle, scaffold materials have been used as extracellular matrix to provide structural support for the transplanted cells. Many materials could potentially be used as scaffolds for this application. Evidence Acquisition We performed a systematic review to determine the available evidence supporting specific scaffolds for neural progenitor cell grafting after stroke. Articles were identified with a MeSH search on PubMed. Relevant references and “related articles” of selected manuscripts were also reviewed. Full original articles published prior to May 2013 presenting unique experimental data describing intracerebral grafting of neural progenitor cells in a scaffold after cerebral infarction were included in our study. All selected articles were reviewed thoroughly by the authors for relevant data. Results We found reports of use of scaffolds composed of polyglycolic acid, poly [lactic-co-glycolic acid] particles (with and without VEGF), hyaluronan-heparin-collagen hydrogel, Matrigel, collagen and extracellular matrix derived from porcine brain and urinary bladder. While multiple beneficial effects were reported, the optimal scaffold is unclear as we found no direct comparisons. Conclusions We conclude that multiple scaffolds appear promising for neural progenitor cell grafting after stroke, but further research is needed to optimize this neurorestorative approach. Thus, we hope to provide a basic understanding of the state of scaffolds for neural progenitor cell grafting after stroke and to encourage further research. Based on the methods of the discussed studies, we propose a standardized set of outcomes that would best be used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a given

  5. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  6. Proliferation control in neural stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Homem, Catarina CF; Repic, Marko; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuit function can be drastically affected by variations in the number of cells that are produced during development or by a reduction in adult cell number due to disease. Unlike many other organs, the brain is unable to compensate for such changes by increasing cell numbers or altering the size of the cells. For this reason, unique cell cycle and cell growth control mechanisms operate in the developing and adult brain. In Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian neural stem and progenitor cells these mechanisms are intricately coordinated with the developmental age and the nutritional, metabolic and hormonal state of the animal. Defects in neural stem cell proliferation that result in the generation of incorrect cell numbers or defects in neural stem cell differentiation can cause microcephaly or megalencephaly. PMID:26420377

  7. Arsenic and fluoride induce neural progenitor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; Gimeno-Alcañiz, J V; Martín-Ibañez, R; Canals, J M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2011-06-24

    The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of inorganic arsenic (As) and its metabolites on the viability of the neural progenitor cell (NPC) line C17.2, in order to evaluate cellular mechanisms involved in As developmental neurotoxicity. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of the coexposure to As and fluoride (F), a situation to which some populations are commonly exposed. Our results show that NPCs are not susceptible to pentavalent As species [arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid] and F alone. However, the trivalent metabolites of arsenate [arsenite, monomethylarsonous acid, and dimethylarsinous acid] are toxic at concentrations below 1 mg/l, and this susceptibility increases when there is coexposure with F (≥ 5 mg/l). Arsenite triggers apoptosis after 24 h of exposure, whereas monomethylarsonous acid produces necrosis at very short times (2 h). Arsenite leads to an increase in intracellular Ca levels and generation of reactive oxygen species, which may cause a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and consequent activation of caspases. A slight activation of calpain also takes place, which might favor activation of the mitochondrial pathway or might activate other pathways. The treatment with some antioxidants such as quercetin and α-tocopherol shows only a partial reduction of the cytotoxicity.

  8. Radiopharmaceutical Tracers for Neural Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mangner, Thomas J.

    2006-09-29

    The Technical Report summarizes the results of the synthesis and microPET animal scanning of several compounds labeled with positron-emitting isotopes in normal, neonatal and kainic acid treated (seizure induced) rats as potential PET tracers to image the process of neurogenesis using positron emission tomography (PET). The tracers tested were 3'-deoxy-3'-[F-18]fluorothymidine ([F-18]FLT) and 5'-benzoyl-FTL, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-B-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-bromouracil (FBAU) and 3',5'-dibenzoyl-FBAU, N-[F-18]fluoroacetyl-D-glucosamine (FLAG) and tetraacetyl-FLAG, and L-[1-C-11]leucine.

  9. Transplanted Neural Progenitor Cells from Distinct Sources Migrate Differentially in an Organotypic Model of Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ngalula, Kapinga P.; Cramer, Nathan; Schell, Michael J.; Juliano, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury is a major cause of long-term disability. The possibility exists for exogenously derived neural progenitor cells to repair damage resulting from brain injury, although more information is needed to successfully implement this promising therapy. To test the ability of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) obtained from rats to repair damaged neocortex, we transplanted neural progenitor cell suspensions into normal and injured slice cultures of the neocortex acquired from rats on postnatal day 0–3. Donor cells from E16 embryos were obtained from either the neocortex, including the ventricular zone (VZ) for excitatory cells, ganglionic eminence (GE) for inhibitory cells or a mixed population of the two. Cells were injected into the ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) or directly into the wounded region. Transplanted cells migrated throughout the cortical plate with GE and mixed population donor cells predominately targeting the upper cortical layers, while neocortically derived NPCs from the VZ/SVZ migrated less extensively. In the injured neocortex, transplanted cells moved predominantly into the wounded area. NPCs derived from the GE tended to be immunoreactive for GABAergic markers while those derived from the neocortex were more strongly immunoreactive for other neuronal markers such as MAP2, TUJ1, or Milli-Mark. Cells transplanted in vitro acquired the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons, including action potential generation and reception of spontaneous synaptic activity. This suggests that transplanted cells differentiate into neurons capable of functionally integrating with the host tissue. Together, our data suggest that transplantation of neural progenitor cells holds great potential as an emerging therapeutic intervention for restoring function lost to brain damage. PMID:26500604

  10. Rapid genetic targeting of pial surface neural progenitors and immature neurons by neonatal electroporation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings have indicated the presence of a progenitor domain at the marginal zone/layer 1 of the cerebral cortex, and it has been suggested that these progenitors have neurogenic and gliogenic potential. However, their contribution to the histogenesis of the cortex remains poorly understood due to difficulties associated with genetically manipulating these unique cells in a population-specific manner. Results We have adapted the electroporation technique to target pial surface cells for rapid genetic manipulation at postnatal day 2. In vivo data show that most of these cells proliferate and progressively differentiate into both neuronal and glial subtypes. Furthermore, these cells localize to the superficial layers of the optic tectum and cerebral cortex prior to migration away from the surface. Conclusions We provide a foundation upon which future studies can begin to elucidate the molecular controls governing neural progenitor fate, migration, differentiation, and contribution to cortical and tectal histogenesis. Furthermore, specific genetic targeting of such neural progenitor populations will likely be of future clinical interest. PMID:22776033

  11. Aging neural progenitors lose competence to respond to mitogenic Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Dylan R.; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Doe, Chris Q.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts) are a powerful model system for investigating stem cell self-renewal, specification of temporal identity, and progressive restriction in competence. Notch signaling is a conserved cue that is an important determinant of cell fate in many contexts across animal development; for example mammalian T cell differentiation in the thymus and neuroblast specification in Drosophila are both regulated by Notch signaling. However, Notch also functions as a mitogen, and constitutive Notch signaling potentiates T cell leukemia as well as Drosophila neuroblast tumors. While the role of Notch signaling has been studied in these and other cell types, it remains unclear how stem cells and progenitors change competence to respond to Notch over time. Notch is required in type II neuroblasts for normal development of their transit amplifying progeny, intermediate neural progenitors (INPs). Here we find that aging INPs lose competence to respond to constitutively active Notch signaling. Moreover, we show that reducing the levels of the old INP temporal transcription factor Eyeless/Pax6 allows Notch signaling to promote the de-differentiation of INP progeny into ectopic INPs, thereby creating a proliferative mass of ectopic progenitors in the brain. These findings provide a new system for studying progenitor competence, and identify a novel role for the conserved transcription factor Eyeless/Pax6 in blocking Notch signaling during development. PMID:26585279

  12. Optimization of surface-immobilized extracellular matrices for the proliferation of neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takashi; Kato, Koichi; Konagaya, Shuhei; Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-01

    Neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells have been considered as a potential source for cell-transplantation therapy of central nervous disorders. However, efficient methods to expand neural progenitor cells are further required for their clinical applications. In this study, a protein array was fabricated with nine extracellular matrices and used to screen substrates suitable for the expansion of neural progenitor cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. The results showed that neural progenitor cells efficiently proliferated on substrates with immobilized laminin-1, laminin-5, or Matrigel. Based on this result, further attempts were made to develop clinically compliant substrates with immobilized polypeptides that mimic laminin-1, one of the most effective extracellular matrices as identified in the array-based screening. We used here recombinant DNA technology to prepare polypeptide containing the globular domain 3 of laminin-1 and immobilized it onto glass-based substrates. Our results showed that neural progenitor cells selectively proliferated on substrate with the immobilized polypeptide while maintaining their differentiated state.

  13. Grhl2 is required in non-neural tissues for neural progenitor survival and forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Chelsea; Cionni, Megan; Siggers, Trevor; Bulyk, Martha L.; Beier, David R.; Stottmann, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    Grainyhead-like genes are part of a highly conserved gene family that play a number of roles in ectoderm development and maintenance in mammals. Here we identify a novel allele of Grhl2, cleft-face 3 (clft3), in a mouse line recovered from an ENU mutagenesis screen for organogenesis defects. Homozygous clft3 mutants have a number of phenotypes in common with other alleles of Grhl2. We note a significant effect of genetic background on the clft3 phenotype. One of these is a reduction in size of the telencephalon where we find abnormal patterns of neural progenitor mitosis and apoptosis in mutant brains. Interestingly, Grhl2 is not expressed in the developing forebrain, suggesting this is a survival factor for neural progenitors exerting a paracrine effect on the neural tissue from the overlying ectoderm where Grhl2 is highly expressed. PMID:26177923

  14. Effect of matrix composition on differentiation of nestin-positive neural progenitors from circulation into neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Anumol; Krishnan, Lissy K.

    2010-06-01

    The human peripheral blood mononuclear cell has a mixture of progenitor cells with potential to differentiate into a wide range of lineages. The ability of hematopoietic tissue-derived adult stem cells to differentiate into neural progenitor cells offers an alternative to embryonic stem cells as a viable source for cell transplantation therapies to cure neurodegenerative diseases. This approach could lead to the use of autologous progenitors from blood circulation; however, due to the limited numbers available, in vitro cell expansion may be indispensable. In addition, for successful transplantation there is the requirement of a delivery matrix on which cells can survive and differentiate. In this context we carried out this study to identify a suitable biodegradable matrix on which progenitor cells can home, multiply and differentiate. We designed different compositions of the biomimetic matrix containing fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, growth factors, laminin and hyaluronic acid. The attached cells expressed proliferation markers in initial periods of culture and between days 6 and 9 in culture they differentiated into neurons and/or astrocytes. The differentiation of progenitors into neurons and asterocyte on the composed matrix was established by morphological and immunochemical analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of cells in culture was employed to track development of neurons which expressed an early marker β-tubulin3 and a terminal marker microtubule-associated protein-2 at a later culture period. In vitro experiments indicate that a highly specific niche consisting of various components of the extracellular matrix, including hyaluronic acid, promote cell homing, survival and differentiation.

  15. Secretin deficiency causes impairment in survival of neural progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Jukkola, Peter I; Rogers, Justin T; Kaspar, Brian K; Weeber, Edwin J; Nishijima, Ichiko

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is the lifelong production of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and affects many physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including neurobehavioral disorders. The early postnatal stage is the most prominent neurogenesis period; however, the functional role of neurogenesis in this developing stage has not been well characterized. To understand the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in the postnatal developing period, we analyzed secretin, a neuropeptide, which is expressed significantly higher in the development stage. Secretin is a pleiotropic neuropeptide hormone that belongs to the secretin/VIP/glucagon peptide family. Although secretin was originally isolated in the gastrointestinal system, it has been found that secretin itself acts as a neuropeptide in the CNS. Here, we report a new function of secretin as a survival factor for neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus. We found that secretin-deficient mice exhibit decreased numbers of BrdU-labeled new neurons and dramatically increased apoptosis of doublecortin-positive neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) during the early postnatal period. Furthermore, we found that reduced survival of neural progenitor cells leads to decreased volume of DG, reduced long-term potentiation and impaired spatial learning ability in adults. Our studies demonstrate that secretin has important implications for neurogenesis in postnatal development, and affects neurobehavioral function in the adult mouse.

  16. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Skardelly, Marco; Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine; Kamprad, Manja; Meixensberger, Juergen; Milosevic, Javorina

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  17. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is maintained by Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA lesions in neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Regnell, Christine Elisabeth; Hildrestrand, Gunn Annette; Sejersted, Yngve; Medin, Tirill; Moldestad, Olve; Rolseth, Veslemøy; Krokeide, Silje Zandstra; Suganthan, Rajikala; Luna, Luisa; Bjørås, Magnar; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-09-27

    Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. The major pathway for removal of oxidative DNA base lesions is base excision repair, which is initiated by DNA glycosylases. In mice, Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase for repair of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded DNA of neural stem/progenitor cells, promoting neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is crucial for maintenance of hippocampus-dependent functions involved in behavior. Herein, behavioral studies reveal learning and memory deficits and reduced anxiety-like behavior in Neil3(-/-) mice. Neural stem/progenitor cells from aged Neil3(-/-) mice show impaired proliferative capacity and reduced DNA repair activity. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons in Neil3(-/-) mice display synaptic irregularities. It appears that Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA damage in neural stem/progenitor cells is required for maintenance of adult neurogenesis to counteract the age-associated deterioration of cognitive performance.

  18. Earmuff restricts progenitor cell potential by attenuating the competence to respond to self-renewal factors

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Derek H.; Komori, Hideyuki; Grbac, Daniel; Chen, Keng; Koe, Chwee Tat; Wang, Hongyan; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Despite expressing stem cell self-renewal factors, intermediate progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential, which allows them to give rise exclusively to differentiated progeny rather than stem cell progeny. Failure to restrict the developmental potential can allow intermediate progenitor cells to revert into aberrant stem cells that might contribute to tumorigenesis. Insight into stable restriction of the developmental potential in intermediate progenitor cells could improve our understanding of the development and growth of tumors, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs), generated by type II neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, provide an in vivo model for investigating the mechanisms that stably restrict the developmental potential of intermediate progenitor cells. Here, we report that the transcriptional repressor protein Earmuff (Erm) functions temporally after Brain tumor (Brat) and Numb to restrict the developmental potential of uncommitted (immature) INPs. Consistently, endogenous Erm is detected in immature INPs but undetectable in INPs. Erm-dependent restriction of the developmental potential in immature INPs leads to attenuated competence to respond to all known neuroblast self-renewal factors in INPs. We also identified that the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex probably functions cooperatively with Erm to restrict the developmental potential of immature INPs. Together, these data led us to conclude that the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism stably restricts the developmental potential of immature INPs by attenuating their genomic responses to stem cell self-renewal factors. We propose that restriction of developmental potential by the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism functionally distinguishes intermediate progenitor cells from stem cells, ensuring the generation of differentiated cells and preventing the formation of progenitor cell-derived tumor-initiating stem cells. PMID

  19. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  20. Time-lapse live imaging of clonally related neural progenitor cells in the developing zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Wagle, Mahendra; Guo, Su

    2011-04-06

    Precise patterns of division, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are crucial for proper brain development and function. To understand the behavior of neural progenitor cells in the complex in vivo environment, time-lapse live imaging of neural progenitor cells in an intact brain is critically required. In this video, we exploit the unique features of zebrafish embryos to visualize the development of forebrain neural progenitor cells in vivo. We use electroporation to genetically and sparsely label individual neural progenitor cells. Briefly, DNA constructs coding for fluorescent markers were injected into the forebrain ventricle of 22 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos and electric pulses were delivered immediately. Six hours later, the electroporated zebrafish embryos were mounted with low melting point agarose in glass bottom culture dishes. Fluorescently labeled neural progenitor cells were then imaged for 36 hours with fixed intervals under a confocal microscope using water dipping objective lens. The present method provides a way to gain insights into the in vivo development of forebrain neural progenitor cells and can be applied to other parts of the central nervous system of the zebrafish embryo.

  1. Skeletal muscle neural progenitor cells exhibit properties of NG2-glia

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Reversing brain degeneration and trauma lesions will depend on cell therapy. Our previous work identified neural precursor cells derived from the skeletal muscle of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice, but their identity, origin, and potential survival in the brain are only vaguely understood. In this work, we show that Nestin-GFP+ progenitor cells share morphological and molecular markers with NG2-glia, including NG2, PDGFRα, O4, NGF receptor (p75), glutamate receptor-1(AMPA), and A2B5 expression. Although these cells exhibit NG2, they do not express other pericyte markers, such as α-SMA or connexin-43, and do not differentiate into the muscle lineage. Patch-clamp studies displayed outward potassium currents, probably carried through Kir6.1 channels. Given their potential therapeutic application, we compared their abundance in tissues and concluded that skeletal muscle is the richest source of predifferentiated neural precursor cells. We found that these cells migrate toward the neurogenic subventricular zone displaying their typical morphology and nestin-GFP expression two weeks after brain injection. For translational purposes, we sought to identify these neural progenitor cells in wild-type species by developing a DsRed expression vector under Nestin-Intron II control. This approach revealed them in nonhuman primates and aging rodents throughout the lifespan. PMID:22999866

  2. Skeletal muscle neural progenitor cells exhibit properties of NG2-glia.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Reversing brain degeneration and trauma lesions will depend on cell therapy. Our previous work identified neural precursor cells derived from the skeletal muscle of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice, but their identity, origin, and potential survival in the brain are only vaguely understood. In this work, we show that Nestin-GFP+ progenitor cells share morphological and molecular markers with NG2-glia, including NG2, PDGFRα, O4, NGF receptor (p75), glutamate receptor-1(AMPA), and A2B5 expression. Although these cells exhibit NG2, they do not express other pericyte markers, such as α-SMA or connexin-43, and do not differentiate into the muscle lineage. Patch-clamp studies displayed outward potassium currents, probably carried through Kir6.1 channels. Given their potential therapeutic application, we compared their abundance in tissues and concluded that skeletal muscle is the richest source of predifferentiated neural precursor cells. We found that these cells migrate toward the neurogenic subventricular zone displaying their typical morphology and nestin-GFP expression two weeks after brain injection. For translational purposes, we sought to identify these neural progenitor cells in wild-type species by developing a DsRed expression vector under Nestin-Intron II control. This approach revealed them in nonhuman primates and aging rodents throughout the lifespan.

  3. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Merson, Tobias D; Bourne, James A

    2012-01-01

    The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14) marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex). While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  4. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Erin Boote

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  5. Multipotent caudal neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cells that give rise to lineages of the central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Denham, Mark; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Menheniott, Trevelyan; Rollo, Ben; Zhang, Dongcheng; Hough, Shelley; Alshawaf, Abdullah; Febbraro, Fabia; Ighaniyan, Samiramis; Leung, Jessie; Elliott, David A; Newgreen, Donald F; Pera, Martin F; Dottori, Mirella

    2015-06-01

    The caudal neural plate is a distinct region of the embryo that gives rise to major progenitor lineages of the developing central and peripheral nervous system, including neural crest and floor plate cells. We show that dual inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal pathways by small molecules differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) directly into a preneuroepithelial progenitor population we named "caudal neural progenitors" (CNPs). CNPs coexpress caudal neural plate and mesoderm markers, and, share high similarities to embryonic caudal neural plate cells in their lineage differentiation potential. Exposure of CNPs to BMP2/4, sonic hedgehog, or FGF2 signaling efficiently directs their fate to neural crest/roof plate cells, floor plate cells, and caudally specified neuroepithelial cells, respectively. Neural crest derived from CNPs differentiated to neural crest derivatives and demonstrated extensive migratory properties in vivo. Importantly, we also determined the key extrinsic factors specifying CNPs from human embryonic stem cell include FGF8, canonical WNT, and IGF1. Our studies are the first to identify a multipotent neural progenitor derived from hPSCs, that is the precursor for major neural lineages of the embryonic caudal neural tube.

  6. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) regulates multipotent neural progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ichiro; Paucar, Andres A; Bajpai, Ruchi; Dougherty, Joseph D; Zewail, Amani; Kelly, Theresa K; Kim, Kevin J; Ou, Jing; Groszer, Matthias; Imura, Tetsuya; Freije, William A; Nelson, Stanley F; Sofroniew, Michael V; Wu, Hong; Liu, Xin; Terskikh, Alexey V; Geschwind, Daniel H; Kornblum, Harley I

    2005-08-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) was previously identified in a screen for genes enriched in neural progenitors. Here, we demonstrate expression of MELK by progenitors in developing and adult brain and that MELK serves as a marker for self-renewing multipotent neural progenitors (MNPs) in cultures derived from the developing forebrain and in transgenic mice. Overexpression of MELK enhances (whereas knockdown diminishes) the ability to generate neurospheres from MNPs, indicating a function in self-renewal. MELK down-regulation disrupts the production of neurogenic MNP from glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive progenitors in vitro. MELK expression in MNP is cell cycle regulated and inhibition of MELK expression down-regulates the expression of B-myb, which is shown to also mediate MNP proliferation. These findings indicate that MELK is necessary for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal MNP and suggest that it regulates the transition from GFAP-expressing progenitors to rapid amplifying progenitors in the postnatal brain.

  7. Preclinical Analysis of Fetal Human Mesencephalic Neural Progenitor Cell Lines: Characterization and Safety In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jisook; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Kang, Jun Mo; Lee, Young-Eun; Kim, Bona; Sung, Mi-Young; Höglinger, Günter; Wegner, Florian; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, Hyung-Min; Chang, Sung Woon; Cha, Kwang Yul; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Schwarz, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a good manufacturing practice for long-term cultivation of fetal human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells. The generation of human dopaminergic neurons may serve as a tool of either restorative cell therapies or cellular models, particularly as a reference for phenotyping region-specific human neural stem cell lines such as human embryonic stem cells and human inducible pluripotent stem cells. We cultivated 3 different midbrain neural progenitor lines at 10, 12, and 14 weeks of gestation for more than a year and characterized them in great detail, as well as in comparison with Lund mesencephalic cells. The whole cultivation process of tissue preparation, cultivation, and cryopreservation was developed using strict serum-free conditions and standardized operating protocols under clean-room conditions. Long-term-cultivated midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells retained stemness, midbrain fate specificity, and floorplate markers. The potential to differentiate into authentic A9-specific dopaminergic neurons was markedly elevated after prolonged expansion, resulting in large quantities of functional dopaminergic neurons without genetic modification. In restorative cell therapeutic approaches, midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells reversed impaired motor function in rodents, survived well, and did not exhibit tumor formation in immunodeficient nude mice in the short or long term (8 and 30 weeks, respectively). We conclude that midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells are a promising source for human dopaminergic neurons and suitable for long-term expansion under good manufacturing practice, thus opening the avenue for restorative clinical applications or robust cellular models such as high-content or high-throughput screening. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:576-588.

  8. Preclinical Analysis of Fetal Human Mesencephalic Neural Progenitor Cell Lines: Characterization and Safety In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jisook; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Kang, Jun Mo; Lee, Young-Eun; Kim, Bona; Sung, Mi-Young; Höglinger, Günter; Wegner, Florian; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, Hyung-Min; Chang, Sung Woon; Cha, Kwang Yul; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Schwarz, Johannes

    2016-09-02

    : We have developed a good manufacturing practice for long-term cultivation of fetal human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells. The generation of human dopaminergic neurons may serve as a tool of either restorative cell therapies or cellular models, particularly as a reference for phenotyping region-specific human neural stem cell lines such as human embryonic stem cells and human inducible pluripotent stem cells. We cultivated 3 different midbrain neural progenitor lines at 10, 12, and 14 weeks of gestation for more than a year and characterized them in great detail, as well as in comparison with Lund mesencephalic cells. The whole cultivation process of tissue preparation, cultivation, and cryopreservation was developed using strict serum-free conditions and standardized operating protocols under clean-room conditions. Long-term-cultivated midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells retained stemness, midbrain fate specificity, and floorplate markers. The potential to differentiate into authentic A9-specific dopaminergic neurons was markedly elevated after prolonged expansion, resulting in large quantities of functional dopaminergic neurons without genetic modification. In restorative cell therapeutic approaches, midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells reversed impaired motor function in rodents, survived well, and did not exhibit tumor formation in immunodeficient nude mice in the short or long term (8 and 30 weeks, respectively). We conclude that midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells are a promising source for human dopaminergic neurons and suitable for long-term expansion under good manufacturing practice, thus opening the avenue for restorative clinical applications or robust cellular models such as high-content or high-throughput screening.

  9. G protein-coupled receptor signaling through Gq and JNK negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Norikazu; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Sato, Maiko; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Yamauchi, Junji; Kurose, Hitoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In the early development of the central nervous system, neural progenitor cells divide in an asymmetric manner and migrate along the radial glia cells. The radial migration is an important process for the proper lamination of the cerebral cortex. Recently, a new mode of the radial migration was found at the intermediate zone where the neural progenitor cells become multipolar and reduce the migration rate. However, the regulatory signals for the radial migration are unknown. Using the migration assay in vitro, we examined how neural progenitor cell migration is regulated. Neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic mouse telencephalon migrated on laminin-coated dishes. Endothelin (ET)-1 inhibited the neural progenitor cell migration. This ET-1 effect was blocked by BQ788, a specific inhibitor of the ETB receptor, and by the expression of a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Gαq but not Gαi. The expression of constitutively active mutant of Gαq, GαqR183C, inhibited the migration of neural progenitor cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ET-1 was suppressed by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the expression of the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, a specific inhibitor of the JNK pathway. Using the slice culture system of embryonic brain, we demonstrated that ET-1 and the constitutively active mutant of Gαq caused the retention of the neural progenitor cells in the intermediate zone and JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1 abrogated the effect of ET-1. These results indicated that G protein-coupled receptor signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration through Gq and JNK. PMID:16116085

  10. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    PubMed Central

    Fukusumi, Hayato; Shofuda, Tomoko; Bamba, Yohei; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Handa, Yukako; Okita, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Yamanaka, Shinya; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes. PMID:27212953

  11. Drosophila intermediate neural progenitors produce lineage-dependent related series of diverse neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Jacob S.; Johnston, Rebecca; Ren, Qingzhong; Lee, Ying-Jou; Luan, Haojiang; Brody, Thomas; Odenwald, Ward F.; Lee, Tzumin

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila type II neuroblasts (NBs), like mammalian neural stem cells, deposit neurons through intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that can each produce a series of neurons. Both type II NBs and INPs exhibit age-dependent expression of various transcription factors, potentially specifying an array of diverse neurons by combinatorial temporal patterning. Not knowing which mature neurons are made by specific INPs, however, conceals the actual variety of neuron types and limits further molecular studies. Here we mapped neurons derived from specific type II NB lineages and found that sibling INPs produced a morphologically similar but temporally regulated series of distinct neuron types. This suggests a common fate diversification program operating within each INP that is modulated by NB age to generate slightly different sets of diverse neurons based on the INP birth order. Analogous mechanisms might underlie the expansion of neuron diversity via INPs in mammalian brain. PMID:24306106

  12. CPAP promotes timely cilium disassembly to maintain neural progenitor pool.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Elke; Wason, Arpit; Ramani, Anand; Gooi, Li Ming; Keller, Patrick; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Noack, Florian; Telugu, Narasimha Swamy; Calegari, Federico; Šarić, Tomo; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hyman, Anthony A; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Alkuraya, Fowzan Sami; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2016-04-15

    A mutation in the centrosomal-P4.1-associated protein (CPAP) causes Seckel syndrome with microcephaly, which is suggested to arise from a decline in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during development. However, mechanisms ofNPCs maintenance remain unclear. Here, we report an unexpected role for the cilium inNPCs maintenance and identifyCPAPas a negative regulator of ciliary length independent of its role in centrosome biogenesis. At the onset of cilium disassembly,CPAPprovides a scaffold for the cilium disassembly complex (CDC), which includes Nde1, Aurora A, andOFD1, recruited to the ciliary base for timely cilium disassembly. In contrast, mutatedCPAPfails to localize at the ciliary base associated with inefficientCDCrecruitment, long cilia, retarded cilium disassembly, and delayed cell cycle re-entry leading to premature differentiation of patientiPS-derivedNPCs. AberrantCDCfunction also promotes premature differentiation ofNPCs in SeckeliPS-derived organoids. Thus, our results suggest a role for cilia in microcephaly and its involvement during neurogenesis and brain size control.

  13. Neural progenitors, patterning and ecology in neocortical origins

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Zamorano, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the mammalian neocortex stands out among vertebrates for its laminar and columnar arrangement, featuring vertically oriented, excitatory pyramidal neurons. The evolutionary origin of this structure is discussed here in relation to the brain organization of other amniotes, i.e., the sauropsids (reptiles and birds). Specifically, we address the developmental modifications that had to take place to generate the neocortex, and to what extent these modifications were shared by other amniote lineages or can be considered unique to mammals. In this article, we propose a hypothesis that combines the control of proliferation in neural progenitor pools with the specification of regional morphogenetic gradients, yielding different anatomical results by virtue of the differential modulation of these processes in each lineage. Thus, there is a highly conserved genetic and developmental battery that becomes modulated in different directions according to specific selective pressures. In the case of early mammals, ecological conditions like nocturnal habits and reproductive strategies are considered to have played a key role in the selection of the particular brain patterning mechanisms that led to the origin of the neocortex. PMID:24273496

  14. Neural stem/progenitor cells in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tincer, Gizem; Mashkaryan, Violeta; Bhattarai, Prabesh; Kizil, Caghan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and a worldwide health challenge. Different therapeutic approaches are being developed to reverse or slow the loss of affected neurons. Another plausible therapeutic way that may complement the studies is to increase the survival of existing neurons by mobilizing the existing neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) — i.e. “induce their plasticity” — to regenerate lost neurons despite the existing pathology and unfavorable environment. However, there is controversy about how NSPCs are affected by the unfavorable toxic environment during AD. In this review, we will discuss the use of stem cells in neurodegenerative diseases and in particular how NSPCs affect the AD pathology and how neurodegeneration affects NSPCs. In the end of this review, we will discuss how zebrafish as a useful model organism with extensive regenerative ability in the brain might help to address the molecular programs needed for NSPCs to respond to neurodegeneration by enhanced neurogenesis. PMID:27505014

  15. Heterogeneity of neural progenitor cells revealed by enhancers in the nestin gene

    PubMed Central

    Yaworsky, Paul J.; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic embryos, we have identified two distinct CNS progenitor cell-specific enhancers, each requiring the cooperation of at least two independent regulatory sites, within the second intron of the rat nestin gene. One enhancer is active throughout the developing CNS while the other is specifically active in the ventral midbrain. These experiments demonstrate that neural progenitor cells in the midbrain constitute a unique subpopulation based upon their ability to activate the midbrain regulatory elements. Our finding of differential enhancer activity from a gene encoding a structural protein reveals a previously unrecognized diversity in neural progenitor cell populations. PMID:9917366

  16. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  17. Luminal Progenitors Restrict Their Lineage Potential during Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes. PMID:25688859

  18. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.hecht@mol-med.uni-freiburg.de

    2007-02-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of {beta}-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity.

  19. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes the neural differentiation of full-term amniotic fluid-derived stem cells towards neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Ye, Wei; Huang, Jinzhi; Chu, Jiaqi; Yan, Shouquan; Wang, Chaojun; Zeng, Rong

    2016-08-01

    The amniotic fluid has a heterogeneous population of cells. Some human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells have been shown to harbor the potential to differentiate into neural cells. However, the neural differentiation efficiency of hAFS cells remains low. In this study, we isolated CD117-positive hAFS cells from amniotic fluid and then examined the pluripotency of these cells through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). Additionally, we induced the neural differentiation of these cells using neuroectodermal medium. This study revealed that the GSK3-beta inhibitor SB216763 was able to stimulate the proliferation of CD117-positive hAFS cells without influencing their undifferentiated state. Moreover, SB216763 can efficiently promote the neural differentiation of CD117-positive hAFS cells towards neural progenitor cells in the presence of DMEM/F12 and N2 supplement. These findings provide an easy and low-cost method to maintain the proliferation of hAFS cells, as well as induce an efficacious generation of neural progenitor cells from hAFS cells. Such induction of the neural commitment of hAFS cells may provide an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by hAFS cells-based therapies.

  20. Multipotent Caudal Neural Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells That Give Rise to Lineages of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kouichi; Menheniott, Trevelyan; Rollo, Ben; Zhang, Dongcheng; Hough, Shelley; Alshawaf, Abdullah; Febbraro, Fabia; Ighaniyan, Samiramis; Leung, Jessie; Elliott, David A.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Pera, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The caudal neural plate is a distinct region of the embryo that gives rise to major progenitor lineages of the developing central and peripheral nervous system, including neural crest and floor plate cells. We show that dual inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal pathways by small molecules differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) directly into a preneuroepithelial progenitor population we named “caudal neural progenitors” (CNPs). CNPs coexpress caudal neural plate and mesoderm markers, and, share high similarities to embryonic caudal neural plate cells in their lineage differentiation potential. Exposure of CNPs to BMP2/4, sonic hedgehog, or FGF2 signaling efficiently directs their fate to neural crest/roof plate cells, floor plate cells, and caudally specified neuroepithelial cells, respectively. Neural crest derived from CNPs differentiated to neural crest derivatives and demonstrated extensive migratory properties in vivo. Importantly, we also determined the key extrinsic factors specifying CNPs from human embryonic stem cell include FGF8, canonical WNT, and IGF1. Our studies are the first to identify a multipotent neural progenitor derived from hPSCs, that is the precursor for major neural lineages of the embryonic caudal neural tube. Stem Cells 2015;33:1759–1770 PMID:25753817

  1. The influence of electric fields on hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carlos Atico; Fleury, Asha T; Tormos, Christian J; Petruk, Vadim; Chawla, Sagar; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2010-12-01

    The differentiation and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) depend on various in vivo environmental factors or cues, which may include an endogenous electrical field (EF), as observed during nervous system development and repair. In this study, we investigate the morphologic, phenotypic, and mitotic alterations of adult hippocampal NPCs that occur when exposed to two EFs of estimated endogenous strengths. NPCs treated with a 437 mV/mm direct current (DC) EF aligned perpendicularly to the EF vector and had a greater tendency to differentiate into neurons, but not into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, compared to controls. Furthermore, NPC process growth was promoted perpendicularly and inhibited anodally in the 437 mV/mm DC EF. Yet fewer cells were observed in the DC EF, which in part was due to a decrease in cell viability. The other EF applied was a 46 mV/mm alternating current (AC) EF. However, the 46 mV/mm AC EF showed no major differences in alignment or differentiation, compared to control conditions. For both EF treatments, the percent of mitotic cells during the last 14 h of the experiment were statistically similar to controls. Reported here, to our knowledge, is the first evidence of adult NPC differentiation affected in an EF in vitro. Further investigation and application of EFs on stem cells is warranted to elucidate the utility of EFs to control phenotypic behavior. With progress, the use of EFs may be engineered to control differentiation and target the growth of transplanted cells in a stem cell-based therapy to treat nervous system disorders.

  2. Bioengineered fibrin-based niche to direct outgrowth of circulating progenitors into neuron-like cells for potential use in cellular therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tara, S.; Krishnan, Lissy K.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Autologous cells are considered to be the best choice for use in transplantation therapy. However, the challenges and risks associated with the harvest of transplantable autologous cells limit their successful therapeutic application. The current study explores the possibility of isolating neural progenitor cells from circulating multipotent adult progenitor cells for potential use in cell-based and patient-specific therapy for neurological diseases. Approach. To enable the selection of neural progenitor cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and to support their lineage maintenance, the composition of a fibrin-based niche was optimized. Morphological examination and specific marker analysis were carried out, employing a qualitative/quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by immunocytochemistry to: (i) characterize neural progenitor cells in culture; (ii) monitor proliferation/survival; and (iii) track their differentiation status. Main results. The presence of neural progenitors in circulation was confirmed by the presence of nestin+ cells at the commencement of the culture. The isolation, proliferation and differentiation of circulating neural progenitors to neuron-like cells were directed by the engineered niche. Neural cell isolation to near homogeneity was confirmed by the expression of β-III tubulin in ∼95% of cells, whereas microtubule associated protein-2 expression confirmed their ability to differentiate. The concentration of potassium chloride in the niche was found to favour neuron-like cell lengthening, cell-cell contact, and expressions of synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Significance. The purpose of this research was to find out if peripheral blood could serve as a potential source of neural progenitors for cell based therapy. The study established that neural progenitors could be selectively isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using a biomimetic niche. The selected cells could multiply and

  3. Dendritic cell potentials of early lymphoid and myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Manz, M G; Traver, D; Miyamoto, T; Weissman, I L; Akashi, K

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that there are at least 2 classes of dendritic cells (DCs), CD8alpha(+) DCs derived from the lymphoid lineage and CD8alpha(-) DCs derived from the myeloid lineage. Here, the abilities of lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors to generate DCs are compared, and their overall contributions to the DC compartment are evaluated. It has previously been shown that primitive myeloid-committed progenitors (common myeloid progenitors [CMPs]) are efficient precursors of both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs in vivo. Here it is shown that the earliest lymphoid-committed progenitors (common lymphoid progenitors [CLPs]) and CMPs and their progeny granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) can give rise to functional DCs in vitro and in vivo. CLPs are more efficient in generating DCs than their T-lineage descendants, the early thymocyte progenitors and pro-T cells, and CMPs are more efficient DC precursors than the descendant GMPs, whereas pro-B cells and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors are incapable of generating DCs. Thus, DC developmental potential is preserved during T- but not B-lymphoid differentiation from CLP and during granulocyte-macrophage but not megakaryocyte-erythrocyte development from CMP. In vivo reconstitution experiments show that CLPs and CMPs can reconstitute CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs with similar efficiency on a per cell basis. However, CMPs are 10-fold more numerous than CLPs, suggesting that at steady state, CLPs provide only a minority of splenic DCs and approximately half the DCs in thymus, whereas most DCs, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) subtypes, are of myeloid origin. (Blood. 2001;97:3333-3341)

  4. Mir-23a and mir-125b regulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by targeting Musashi1

    PubMed Central

    Gioia, Ubaldo; Di Carlo, Valerio; Caramanica, Pasquale; Toselli, Camilla; Cinquino, Antonella; Marchioni, Marcella; Laneve, Pietro; Biagioni, Stefano; Bozzoni, Irene; Cacci, Emanuele; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Musashi1 is an RNA binding protein that controls the neural cell fate, being involved in maintaining neural progenitors in their proliferative state. In particular, its downregulation is needed for triggering early neural differentiation programs. In this study, we profiled microRNA expression during the transition from neural progenitors to differentiated astrocytes and underscored 2 upregulated microRNAs, miR-23a and miR-125b, that sinergically act to restrain Musashi1 expression, thus creating a regulatory module controlling neural progenitor proliferation. PMID:25483045

  5. Mir-23a and mir-125b regulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by targeting Musashi1.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Ubaldo; Di Carlo, Valerio; Caramanica, Pasquale; Toselli, Camilla; Cinquino, Antonella; Marchioni, Marcella; Laneve, Pietro; Biagioni, Stefano; Bozzoni, Irene; Cacci, Emanuele; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Musashi1 is an RNA binding protein that controls the neural cell fate, being involved in maintaining neural progenitors in their proliferative state. In particular, its downregulation is needed for triggering early neural differentiation programs. In this study, we profiled microRNA expression during the transition from neural progenitors to differentiated astrocytes and underscored 2 upregulated microRNAs, miR-23a and miR-125b, that sinergically act to restrain Musashi1 expression, thus creating a regulatory module controlling neural progenitor proliferation.

  6. Environmental factors unveil dormant developmental capacities in multipotent progenitors of the trunk neural crest.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Aguiar, Juliana M; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Dupin, Elisabeth

    2013-12-01

    The neural crest (NC), an ectoderm-derived structure of the vertebrate embryo, gives rise to the melanocytes, most of the peripheral nervous system and the craniofacial mesenchymal tissues (i.e., connective, bone, cartilage and fat cells). In the trunk of Amniotes, no mesenchymal tissues are derived from the NC. In certain in vitro conditions however, avian and murine trunk NC cells (TNCCs) displayed a limited mesenchymal differentiation capacity. Whether this capacity originates from committed precursors or from multipotent TNCCs was unknown. Here, we further investigated the potential of TNCCs to develop into mesenchymal cell types in vitro. We found that, in fact, quail TNCCs exhibit a high ability to differentiate into myofibroblasts, chondrocytes, lipid-laden adipocytes and mineralizing osteoblasts. In single cell cultures, both mesenchymal and neural cell types coexisted in TNCC clonal progeny: 78% of single cells yielded osteoblasts together with glial cells and neurons; moreover, TNCCs generated heterogenous clones with adipocytes, myofibroblasts, melanocytes and/or glial cells. Therefore, alike cephalic NCCs, early migratory TNCCs comprised multipotent progenitors able to generate both mesenchymal and melanocytic/neural derivatives, suggesting a continuum in NC developmental potentials along the neural axis. The skeletogenic capacity of the TNC, which was present in the exoskeletal armor of the extinct basal forms of Vertebrates and which persisted in the distal fin rays of extant teleost fish, thus did not totally disappear during vertebrate evolution. Mesenchymal potentials of the TNC, although not fulfilled during development, are still present in a dormant state in Amniotes and can be disclosed in in vitro culture. Whether these potentials are not expressed in vivo due to the presence of inhibitory cues or to the lack of permissive factors in the trunk environment remains to be understood.

  7. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ghosh, Sukla

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. PMID:26630262

  8. Induction of Excess Centrosomes in Neural Progenitor Cells during the Development of Radiation-Induced Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Mikio; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kato, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Junya; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic brain is one of the tissues most vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In this study, we showed that ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in the neural progenitors of the mouse cerebral cortex, and that the surviving progenitor cells subsequently develop a considerable amount of supernumerary centrosomes. When mouse embryos at Day 13.5 were exposed to γ-rays, brains sizes were reduced markedly in a dose-dependent manner, and these size reductions persisted until birth. Immunostaining with caspase-3 antibodies showed that apoptosis occurred in 35% and 40% of neural progenitor cells at 4 h after exposure to 1 and 2 Gy, respectively, and this was accompanied by a disruption of the apical layer in which mitotic spindles were positioned in unirradiated mice. At 24 h after 1 Gy irradiation, the apoptotic cells were completely eliminated and proliferation was restored to a level similar to that of unirradiated cells, but numerous spindles were localized outside the apical layer. Similarly, abnormal cytokinesis, which included multipolar division and centrosome clustering, was observed in 19% and 24% of the surviving neural progenitor cells at 48 h after irradiation with 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. Because these cytokinesis aberrations derived from excess centrosomes result in growth delay and mitotic catastrophe-mediated cell elimination, our findings suggest that, in addition to apoptosis at an early stage of radiation exposure, radiation-induced centrosome overduplication could contribute to the depletion of neural progenitors and thereby lead to microcephaly. PMID:27367050

  9. Transplantation of neural progenitors enhances production of endogenous cells in the impaired brain.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shaanan, T L; Ben-Hur, T; Yanai, J

    2008-02-01

    Grafting of neural progenitors has been shown to reverse a wide variety of neurobehavioral defects. While their role of replacing injured cells and restoring damaged circuitries has been shown, it is widely accepted that this cannot be the only mechanism, as therapy can occur even when an insufficient number of transplanted cells are found. We hypothesized that one major mechanism by which transplanted neural progenitors exert their therapeutic effect is by enhancing endogenous cells production. Consequently, in an allographic model of transplantation, prenatally heroin-exposed genetically heterogeneous (HS) mice were made defective in their hippocampal neurobehavioral function by exposing their mothers to heroin (10 mg kg(-1) heroin on gestation days 9-18). Hippocampal damage was confirmed by deficient performance in the Morris maze (P<0.009), and decreased production of endogenous cells in the dentate gyrus by 39% was observed. On postnatal day 35, they received an HS-derived neural progenitors transplant followed by repeated bromodeoxyuridine injections. The transplant returned endogenous cells production to normal levels (P<0.006) and reversed the behavioral defects (P<0.03), despite the fact that only 0.0334% of the transplanted neural progenitors survived and that they differentiated mainly to astrocytes. An immunological study demonstrated the presence of macrophages and T cells as a possible explanation for the paucity of the transplanted cells. This study suggests one mechanism for the therapeutic action of neural progenitors, the enhancement of the production of endogenous cells, pointing to future clinical applications in this direction by use of neural progenitors or by analogous cell-inducing techniques.

  10. ERK-dependent and -independent pathways trigger human neural progenitor cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Michaela . E-mail: moors@uni-duesseldorf.de; Cline, Jason E. . E-mail: jason.cline@uni-duesseldorf.de; Abel, Josef . E-mail: josef.abel@uni-duesseldorf.de; Fritsche, Ellen . E-mail: ellen.fritsche@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2007-05-15

    Besides differentiation and apoptosis, cell migration is a basic process in brain development in which neural cells migrate several centimeters within the developing brain before reaching their proper positions and forming the right connections. For identifying signaling events that control neural migration and are therefore potential targets of chemicals to disturb normal brain development, we developed a human neurosphere-based migration assay based on normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells, in which the distance is measured that cells wander over time. Applying this assay, we investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the regulation of NHNP cell migration. Exposure to model substances like ethanol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) revealed a correlation between ERK1/2 activation and cell migration. The participation of phospho-(P-) ERK1/2 was confirmed by exposure of the cells to the MEK inhibitor PD98059, which directly prohibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited cell migration. We identified protein kinase C (PKC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as upstream signaling kinases governing ERK1/2 activation, thereby controlling NHNP cell migration. Additionally, treatments with src kinase inhibitors led to a diminished cell migration without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these results, we postulate that migration of NHNP cells is controlled via ERK1/2-dependent and -independent pathways.

  11. [A technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells intravitreal transplant to rats].

    PubMed

    Bian, Hui; Fan, Yao-Dong; Guo, Li-Yun; Yu, Hua-Lin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate a simple and effective intraocular xenotransplant technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells to rats, mechanical injury was induced in the rat's right retina. And the GFP-labeled rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells suspension was slowly injected into the vitreous space of the right injured and left control eye. Confocal image suggested that the xenografted cells survived in both the injured and control eye, meanwhile the cells integrated in the injured right retina. The results demonstrated that intravitreal xenotransplant could be adopted as a simple and reliable method.

  12. ADULT NEURAL STEM CELLS: RESPONSE TO STROKE INJURY AND POTENTIAL FOR THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Barkho, Basam Z.; Zhao, Xinyu

    2011-01-01

    The plasticity of neural stem/progenitor cells allows a variety of different responses to many environmental cues. In the past decade, significant research has gone into understanding the regulation of neural stem/progenitor cell properties, because of their promise for cell replacement therapies in adult neurological diseases. Both endogenous and grafted neural stem/progenitor cells are known to have the ability to migrate long distances to lesioned sites after brain injury and differentiate into new neurons. Several chemokines and growth factors, including stromal cell-derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, have been shown to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells, and investigators have now begun to identify the critical downstream effectors and signaling mechanisms that regulate these processes. Both our own lab and others have shown that the extracellular matrix and matrix remodeling factors play a critical role in directing cell differentiation and migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells within injured sites. Identification of these and other molecular pathways involved in stem cell homing into ischemic areas is vital for the development of new treatments. To ensure the best functional recovery, regenerative therapy may require the application of a combination approach that includes cell replacement, trophic support, and neural protection. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about endogenous adult and exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells as potential therapeutic agents for central nervous system injuries. PMID:21466483

  13. Electroacupuncture Promotes Proliferation of Amplifying Neural Progenitors and Preserves Quiescent Neural Progenitors from Apoptosis to Alleviate Depressive-Like and Anxiety-Like Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Yue, Na; Zhu, Xiaocang; Han, Qiuqin; Li, Bin; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Gencheng; Yu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours and neural progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rat model of depression. After being exposed to a CUS procedure for 2 weeks, rats were subjected to EA treatment, which was performed on acupoints Du-20 (Bai-Hui) and GB-34 (Yang-Ling-Quan), once every other day for 15 consecutive days (including 8 treatments), with each treatment lasting for 30 min. The behavioural tests (i.e., forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field entries test) revealed that EA alleviated the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours of the stressed rats. Immunohistochemical results showed that proliferative cells (BrdU-positive) in the EA group were significantly larger in number compared with the Model group. Further, the results showed that EA significantly promoted the proliferation of amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs) and simultaneously inhibited the apoptosis of quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs). In a word, the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like effects of EA is associated with enhancement of ANPs proliferation and preserving QNPs from apoptosis. PMID:24719647

  14. Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Badsha, Farhath; Kanton, Sabina; Camp, J Gray; Vernot, Benjamin; Köhler, Kathrin; Voigt, Birger; Okita, Keisuke; Maricic, Tomislav; He, Zhisong; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Treutlein, Barbara; Huttner, Wieland B

    2016-01-01

    Human neocortex expansion likely contributed to the remarkable cognitive abilities of humans. This expansion is thought to primarily reflect differences in proliferation versus differentiation of neural progenitors during cortical development. Here, we have searched for such differences by analysing cerebral organoids from human and chimpanzees using immunohistofluorescence, live imaging, and single-cell transcriptomics. We find that the cytoarchitecture, cell type composition, and neurogenic gene expression programs of humans and chimpanzees are remarkably similar. Notably, however, live imaging of apical progenitor mitosis uncovered a lengthening of prometaphase-metaphase in humans compared to chimpanzees that is specific to proliferating progenitors and not observed in non-neural cells. Consistent with this, the small set of genes more highly expressed in human apical progenitors points to increased proliferative capacity, and the proportion of neurogenic basal progenitors is lower in humans. These subtle differences in cortical progenitors between humans and chimpanzees may have consequences for human neocortex evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18683.001 PMID:27669147

  15. Pannexin 2 Is Expressed by Postnatal Hippocampal Neural Progenitors and Modulates Neuronal Commitment*

    PubMed Central

    Swayne, Leigh Anne; Sorbara, Catherine D.; Bennett, Steffany A. L.

    2010-01-01

    The pannexins (Panx1, -2, and -3) are a mammalian family of putative single membrane channels discovered through homology to invertebrate gap junction-forming proteins, the innexins. Because connexin gap junction proteins are known regulators of neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, migration, and specification, we asked whether pannexins, specifically Panx2, play a similar role in the postnatal hippocampus. We show that Panx2 protein is differentially expressed by multipotential progenitor cells and mature neurons. Both in vivo and in vitro, Type I and IIa stem-like neural progenitor cells express an S-palmitoylated Panx2 species localizing to Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Protein expression is down-regulated during neurogenesis in neuronally committed Type IIb and III progenitor cells and immature neurons. Panx2 is re-expressed by neurons following maturation. Protein expressed by mature neurons is not palmitoylated and localizes to the plasma membrane. To assess the impact of Panx2 on neuronal differentiation, we used short hairpin RNA to suppress Panx2 expression in Neuro2a cells. Knockdown significantly accelerated the rate of neuronal differentiation. Neuritic extension and the expression of antigenic markers of mature neurons occurred earlier in stable lines expressing Panx2 short hairpin RNA than in controls. Together, these findings describe an endogenous post-translational regulation of Panx2, specific to early neural progenitor cells, and demonstrate that this expression plays a role in modulating the timing of their commitment to a neuronal lineage. PMID:20529862

  16. Spatiotemporal analyses of neural lineages after embryonic and postnatal progenitor targeting combining different reporters

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; García-Marqués, Jorge; Pedraza, Maria; De Carlos, Juan Andrés; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Genetic lineage tracing with electroporation is one of the most powerful techniques to target neural progenitor cells and their progeny. However, the spatiotemporal relationship between neural progenitors and their final phenotype remain poorly understood. One critical factor to analyze the cell fate of progeny is reporter integration into the genome of transfected cells. To address this issue, we performed postnatal and in utero co-electroporations of different fluorescent reporters to label, in both cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, the progeny of subventricular zone neural progenitors. By comparing fluorescent reporter expression in the adult cell progeny, we show a differential expression pattern within the same cell lineage, depending on electroporation stage and cell identity. Further, while neuronal lineages arise from many progenitors in proliferative zones after few divisions, glial lineages come from fewer progenitors that accomplish many cell divisions. Together, these data provide a useful guide to select a strategy to track the cell fate of a specific cell population and to address whether a different proliferative origin might be correlated with functional heterogeneity. PMID:25852461

  17. The Cellular Prion Protein Controls Notch Signaling in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Halliez, Sophie; Hirsch, Théo Z; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Passet, Bruno; Tomkiewicz, Céline; Villa-Diaz, Ana; Torres, Juan-Maria; Launay, Jean-Marie; Béringue, Vincent; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    The prion protein is infamous for its involvement in a group of neurodegenerative diseases known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. In the longstanding quest to decipher the physiological function of its cellular isoform, PrP(C) , the discovery of its participation to the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells has cast a new spotlight on its potential role in stem cell biology. However, still little is known on the cellular and molecular mechanisms at play. Here, by combining in vitro and in vivo murine models of PrP(C) depletion, we establish that PrP(C) deficiency severely affects the Notch pathway, which plays a major role in neural stem cell maintenance. We document that the absence of PrP(C) in a neuroepithelial cell line or in primary neurospheres is associated with drastically reduced expression of Notch ligands and receptors, resulting in decreased levels of Notch target genes. Similar alterations of the Notch pathway are recovered in the neuroepithelium of Prnp(-/-) embryos during a developmental window encompassing neural tube closure. In addition, in line with Notch defects, our data show that the absence of PrP(C) results in altered expression of Nestin and Olig2 as well as N-cadherin distribution. We further provide evidence that PrP(C) controls the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) downstream from Notch. Finally, we unveil a negative feedback action of EGFR on both Notch and PrP(C) . As a whole, our study delineates a molecular scenario through which PrP(C) takes part to the self-renewal of neural stem and progenitor cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:754-765.

  18. MicroRNA-9 controls a migratory mechanism in human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nobuko

    2010-04-02

    MicroRNAs play roles in developmental switching; however, their roles in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) is poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Delaloy et al. (2010) report that proliferation and migration choices in hNPCs are regulated by miR-9.

  19. Characterization of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Models for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating two different human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) models for their utility in screens for...

  20. Humanized neuronal chimeric mouse brain generated by neonatally engrafted human iPSC-derived primitive neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The creation of a humanized chimeric mouse nervous system permits the study of human neural development and disease pathogenesis using human cells in vivo. Humanized glial chimeric mice with the brain and spinal cord being colonized by human glial cells have been successfully generated. However, generation of humanized chimeric mouse brains repopulated by human neurons to possess a high degree of chimerism have not been well studied. Here we created humanized neuronal chimeric mouse brains by neonatally engrafting the distinct and highly neurogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)–derived rosette-type primitive neural progenitors. These neural progenitors predominantly differentiate to neurons, which disperse widely throughout the mouse brain with infiltration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at 6 and 13 months after transplantation. Building upon the hiPSC technology, we propose that this potentially unique humanized neuronal chimeric mouse model will provide profound opportunities to define the structure, function, and plasticity of neural networks containing human neurons derived from a broad variety of neurological disorders. PMID:27882348

  1. Mitochondrial gene replacement in human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Iyer, S; Xiao, E; Alsayegh, K; Eroshenko, N; Riggs, M J; Bennett, J P; Rao, R R

    2012-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor (hNP) cells are an excellent resource for understanding early neural development and neurodegenerative disorders. Given that many neurodegenerative disorders can be correlated with defects in the mitochondrial genome, optimal utilization of hNP cells requires an ability to manipulate and monitor changes in the mitochondria. Here, we describe a novel approach that uses recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM) protein to transfect and express a pathogenic mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) carrying the G11778A mutation associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) disease, into dideoxycytidine (ddC)-treated hNPs. Treatment with ddC reduced endogenous mtDNA and gene expression, without loss of hNP phenotypic markers. Entry of G11778A mtDNA complexed with the rhTFAM was observed in mitochondria of ddC-hNPs. Expression of the pathogenic RNA was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis of the SfaN1-digested cDNA. On the basis of the expression of neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin, neuronal differentiation occurred. Our results show for the first time that pathogenic mtDNA can be introduced and expressed into hNPs without loss of phenotype or neuronal differentiation potential. This mitochondrial gene replacement technology allows for creation of in vitro stem cell-based models useful for understanding neuronal development and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by interleukin-10 transduced neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Klose, Juliane; Schmidt, Nils Ole; Melms, Arthur; Dohi, Makoto; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Bischof, Felix; Greve, Bernhard

    2013-09-22

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have the ability to migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) to replace damaged cells. In inflammatory CNS disease, cytokine transduced neural stem cells may be used as vehicles to specifically reduce inflammation and promote cell replacement. In this study, we used NSPCs overexpressing IL-10, an immunomodulatory cytokine, in an animal model for CNS inflammation and multiple sclerosis (MS). Intravenous injection of IL-10 transduced neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC(IL-10)) suppressed myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein aa 35-55 (MOG35-55)- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, following intravenous injection, NSPC(IL-10) migrated to peripheral lymphoid organs and into the CNS. NSPC(IL-10 )suppressed antigen-specific proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production of lymph node cells obtained from MOG35-55 peptide immunized mice. In this model, IL-10 producing NSPCs act via a peripheral immunosuppressive effect to attenuate EAE.

  3. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Related Proteins as Regulators of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Young, Kaylene M.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a highly organised structure. Many signalling systems work in concert to ensure that neural stem cells are appropriately directed to generate progenitor cells, which in turn mature into functional cell types including projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Herein we explore the role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, in particular family members LRP1 and LRP2, in regulating the behaviour of neural stem and progenitor cells during development and adulthood. The ability of LRP1 and LRP2 to bind a diverse and extensive range of ligands, regulate ligand endocytosis, recruit nonreceptor tyrosine kinases for direct signal transduction and signal in conjunction with other receptors, enables them to modulate many crucial neural cell functions. PMID:26949399

  4. Characterization of a population of neural progenitor cells in the infant hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Paine, S M L; Willsher, A R; Nicholson, S L; Sebire, N J; Jacques, T S

    2014-01-01

    Aims Abnormalities of the hippocampus are associated with a range of diseases in children, including epilepsy and sudden death. A population of rod cells in part of the hippocampus, the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus, has long been recognized in infants. Previous work suggested that these cells were microglia and that their presence was associated with chronic illness and sudden infant death syndrome. Prompted by the observations that a sensitive immunohistochemical marker of microglia used in diagnostic practice does not typically stain these cells and that the hippocampus is a site of postnatal neurogenesis, we hypothesized that this transient population of cells were not microglia but neural progenitors. Methods Using archived post mortem tissue, we applied a broad panel of antibodies to establish the immunophenotype of these cells in 40 infants dying suddenly of causes that were either explained or remained unexplained, following post mortem investigation. Results The rod cells were consistently negative for the microglial markers CD45, CD68 and HLA-DR. The cells were positive, in varying proportions, for the neural progenitor marker, doublecortin, the neural stem cell marker, nestin and the neural marker, TUJ1. Conclusions These data support our hypothesis that the rod cells of the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus in the infant hippocampus are not microglia but a population of neural progenitors. These findings advance our understanding of postnatal neurogenesis in the human hippocampus in health and disease and are of diagnostic importance, allowing reactive microglia to be distinguished from the normal population of neural progenitors. PMID:23742713

  5. Inhibition of autophagy prevents irradiation-induced neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Zhou, Kai; Li, Tao; Xu, Yiran; Xie, Cuicui; Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yaodong; Rodriguez, Juan; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian

    2017-03-23

    Radiotherapy is an effective tool in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. However, damage to brain stem and progenitor cells constitutes a major problem and is associated with long-term side effects. Autophagy has been shown to be involved in cell death, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibition on neural stem and progenitor cell death in the juvenile brain. Ten-day-old selective Atg7 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a single 6Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation. Cell death and proliferation as well as microglia activation and inflammation were evaluated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the cerebellum at 6 h after irradiation. We found that cell death was reduced in Atg7 KO compared with WT mice at 6 h after irradiation. The number of activated microglia increased significantly in both the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum of WT mice after irradiation, but the increase was lower in the Atg7 KO mice. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines decreased, especially in the cerebellum, in the Atg7 KO group. These results suggest that autophagy might be a potential target for preventing radiotherapy-induced neural stem and progenitor cell death and its associated long-term side effects.

  6. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Apoptosis and Mitochondrial DNA Mutation in Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mengling; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Qing; Wu, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic pollutant primarily found in the aquatic environment. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to MeHg due to reduced proliferation of neural stem cell. Although several mechanisms of MeHg-induced apoptosis have been defined in culture models, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation is involved in the toxic effect of MeHg, especially in the neural progenitor cells. In the present study, the ReNcell CX cell, a human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) line, was exposed to nanomolar concentrations of MeHg (≤50 nM). We found that MeHg altered mitochondrial metabolic function and induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in hNPCs cells, which was associated with significantly increased expressions of ND1, Cytb, and ATP6. To elucidate the mechanism underlying MeHg toxicity on mitochondrial function, we examined the ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in MeHg-treated hNPCs. Our study showed that MeHg exposure led to decreased ATP content and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which failed to match the expansion in mtDNA copy number, suggesting impaired mtDNA. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MeHg induced toxicity in hNPCs through altering mitochondrial function and inducing oxidative damage to mtDNA. PMID:27525052

  7. A Mechanism for the Inhibition of Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Chen, Jia; Hayashi, Teruo; Tsai, Shang-Yi; Sanchez, Joseph F; Errico, Stacie L; Amable, Rose; Su, Tsung-Ping; Lowe, Ross H; Huestis, Marilyn A; Shen, James; Becker, Kevin G; Geller, Herbert M; Freed, William J

    2008-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to cocaine causes morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis in neural progenitor cells may play a pivotal role in causing these abnormalities. To understand the molecular mechanism through which cocaine inhibits cell proliferation in neural progenitors, we sought to identify the molecules that are responsible for mediating the effect of cocaine on cell cycle regulation. Methods and Findings Microarray analysis followed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to screen cocaine-responsive and cell cycle-related genes in a neural progenitor cell line where cocaine exposure caused a robust anti-proliferative effect by interfering with the G1-to-S transition. Cyclin A2, among genes related to the G1-to-S cell cycle transition, was most strongly down-regulated by cocaine. Down-regulation of cyclin A was also found in cocaine-treated human primary neural and A2B5+ progenitor cells, as well as in rat fetal brains exposed to cocaine in utero. Reversing cyclin A down-regulation by gene transfer counteracted the proliferation inhibition caused by cocaine. Further, we found that cocaine-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which involves N-oxidation of cocaine via cytochrome P450, promotes cyclin A down-regulation by causing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and expression of ATF4. In the developing rat brain, the P450 inhibitor cimetidine counteracted cocaine-induced inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation as well as down-regulation of cyclin A. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of cyclin A underlies cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition in neural progenitors. The down-regulation of cyclin A is initiated by N-oxidative metabolism of cocaine and consequent ER stress. Inhibition of cocaine N

  8. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells. PMID:27806344

  9. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-12-06

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

  10. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J.; Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway. PMID:20596238

  11. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J; Vassilev, Alex; Depamphilis, Melvin L; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-04-12

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway.

  12. Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT promote differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Ye, Zhizhong; Zheng, Shuhui; Chen, Luming; Wan, Yong; Deng, Yubin; Yang, Ruirui

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the exogenous factors that regulate differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes is an important step in the clinical therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI). The Notch pathway inhibits the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells and Lingo-1 is a strong negative regulator for myelination and axon growth. While Lingo-1 shRNA and N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-Phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor, have been used separately to help repair SCI, the results have been unsatisfactory. Here we investigated and elucidated the preliminary mechanism for the effect of Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT on neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation. We found that neural stem/progenitor cells from E14 rat embryos expressed Nestin, Sox-2 and Lingo-1, and we optimized the transduction of neural stem/progenitor cells using lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 shRNA. The addition of DAPT decreased the expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) as well as the downstream genes Hes1 and Hes5. Expression of NeuN, CNPase and GFAP in DAPT treated cells and expression of NeuN in Lingo-1 shRNA treated cells confirmed differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. These results revealed that while Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT both promoted differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons, only DAPT was capable of driving neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Since we were able to show that both Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT could drive neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation, our data might aid the development of more effective SCI therapies using Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT.

  13. Characterization of calcium responses and electrical activity in differentiating mouse neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Dingemans, Milou M L; Rus, Katinka H; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-02-01

    In vitro methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing have the potential to reduce animal use and increase insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying chemical-induced alterations in the development of functional neuronal networks. Mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs) differentiate into nervous system-specific cell types and have proven valuable to detect DNT using biochemical and morphological techniques. We therefore investigated a number of functional neuronal parameters in primary mNPCs to explore their applicability for neurophysiological in vitro DNT testing. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that mNPCs express neuronal, glial, and progenitor markers at various differentiation durations (1, 7, 14, and 21 days). Because intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) plays an essential role in neuronal development and function, we measured stimulus-evoked changes in [Ca(2+)]i at these differentiation durations using the Ca(2+)-responsive dye Fura-2. Increases in [Ca(2+)]i (averages ranging from 65 to 226 nM) were evoked by depolarization, ATP, l-glutamic acid, acetylcholine, and dopamine (up to 87%, 57%, 93%, 28%, and 37% responding cells, respectively) and to a lesser extent by serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (both up to 10% responding cells). Notably, the changes in percentage of responsive cells and their response amplitudes over time indicate changes in the expression and functionality of the respective neurotransmitter receptors and related calcium signaling pathways during in vitro differentiation. The development of functional intercellular signaling pathways was confirmed using multielectrode arrays, demonstrating that mNPCs develop electrical activity within 1-2 weeks of differentiation (55% active wells at 14 days of differentiation; mean spike rate of 1.16 spikes/s/electrode). The combined data demonstrate that mNPCs develop functional neuronal characteristics in vitro, making it a promising model to study chemical-induced effects on the

  14. Recent Zika Virus Isolates Induce Premature Differentiation of Neural Progenitors in Human Brain Organoids.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Elke; Ramani, Anand; Karow, Ulrike; Gottardo, Marco; Natarajan, Karthick; Gooi, Li Ming; Goranci-Buzhala, Gladiola; Krut, Oleg; Peters, Franziska; Nikolic, Milos; Kuivanen, Suvi; Korhonen, Essi; Smura, Teemu; Vapalahti, Olli; Papantonis, Argyris; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Riparbelli, Maria; Callaini, Giuliano; Krönke, Martin; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2017-03-02

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is associated with microcephaly in newborns. Although the connection between ZIKV and neurodevelopmental defects is widely recognized, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that two recently isolated strains of ZIKV, an American strain from an infected fetal brain (FB-GWUH-2016) and a closely-related Asian strain (H/PF/2013), productively infect human iPSC-derived brain organoids. Both of these strains readily target to and replicate in proliferating ventricular zone (VZ) apical progenitors. The main phenotypic effect was premature differentiation of neural progenitors associated with centrosome perturbation, even during early stages of infection, leading to progenitor depletion, disruption of the VZ, impaired neurogenesis, and cortical thinning. The infection pattern and cellular outcome differ from those seen with the extensively passaged ZIKV strain MR766. The structural changes we see after infection with these more recently isolated viral strains closely resemble those seen in ZIKV-associated microcephaly.

  15. Defining a developmental path to neural fate by global expression profiling of mouse embryonic stem cells and adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Kazuhiro; Sharov, Alexei A; Carter, Mark G; Foroni, Chiara; Vescovi, Angelo L; Ko, Minoru S H

    2006-04-01

    To understand global features of gene expression changes during in vitro neural differentiation, we carried out the microarray analysis of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonal carcinoma cells, and adult neural stem/progenitor (NS) cells. Expression profiling of ESCs during differentiation in monolayer culture revealed three distinct phases: undifferentiated ESCs, primitive ectoderm-like cells, and neural progenitor cells. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that these cells were aligned on PC1 over the course of 6 days. This PC1 represents approximately 4,000 genes, the expression of which increased with neural commitment/differentiation. Furthermore, NS cells derived from adult brain and their differentiated cells were positioned along this PC axis further away from undifferentiated ESCs than embryonic stem-derived neural progenitors. We suggest that this PC1 defines a path to neural fate, providing a scale for the degree of commitment/differentiation.

  16. Heparin prevents Zika virus induced-cytopathic effects in human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Silvia; Cooper, Lynsay; Rubio, Alicia; Pagani, Isabel; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pelletier, Julien; Meneghetti, Maria Cecilia Z; Lima, Marcelo A; Skidmore, Mark A; Broccoli, Vania; Yates, Edwin A; Vicenzi, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, which mainly affected Brazil and neighbouring states, demonstrated the paucity of information concerning the epidemiology of several flaviruses, but also highlighted the lack of available agents with which to treat such emerging diseases. Here, we show that heparin, a widely used anticoagulant, while exerting a modest inhibitory effect on Zika Virus replication, fully prevents virus-induced cell death of human neural progenitor cells (NPCs).

  17. Short term interactions with long term consequences: modulation of chimeric vessels by neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cicely; Rauch, Millicent Ford; Michaud, Michael; Robinson, Rebecca; Xu, Hao; Madri, Joseph; Lavik, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Vessels are a critical and necessary component of most tissues, and there has been substantial research investigating vessel formation and stabilization. Several groups have investigated coculturing endothelial cells with a second cell type to promote formation and stabilization of vessels. Some have noted that long-term vessels derived from implanted cocultures are often chimeric consisting of both host and donor cells. The questions arise as to whether the coculture cell might impact the chimeric nature of the microvessels and can modulate the density of donor cells over time. If long-term engineered microvessels are primarily of host origin, any impairment of the host's angiogenic ability has significant implications for the long-term success of the implant. If one can modulate the host versus donor response, one may be able to overcome a host's angiogenic impairment. Furthermore, if one can modulate the donor contribution, one may be able to engineer microvascular networks to deliver molecules a patient lacks systemically for long times. To investigate the impact of the cocultured cell on the host versus donor contributions of endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks, we varied the ratio of the neural progenitors to endothelial cells in subcutaneously implanted poly(ethylene glycol)/poly-L-lysine hydrogels. We found that the coculture of neural progenitors with endothelial cells led to the formation of chimeric host-donor vessels, and the ratio of neural progenitors has a significant impact on the long term residence of donor endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks in vivo even though the neural progenitors are only present transiently in the system. We attribute this to the short term paracrine signaling between the two cell types. This suggests that one can modulate the host versus donor contributions using short-term paracrine signaling which has broad implications for the application of engineered microvascular networks and

  18. Short Term Interactions with Long Term Consequences: Modulation of Chimeric Vessels by Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cicely; Rauch, Millicent Ford; Michaud, Michael; Robinson, Rebecca; Xu, Hao; Madri, Joseph; Lavik, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Vessels are a critical and necessary component of most tissues, and there has been substantial research investigating vessel formation and stabilization. Several groups have investigated coculturing endothelial cells with a second cell type to promote formation and stabilization of vessels. Some have noted that long-term vessels derived from implanted cocultures are often chimeric consisting of both host and donor cells. The questions arise as to whether the coculture cell might impact the chimeric nature of the microvessels and can modulate the density of donor cells over time. If long-term engineered microvessels are primarily of host origin, any impairment of the host's angiogenic ability has significant implications for the long-term success of the implant. If one can modulate the host versus donor response, one may be able to overcome a host's angiogenic impairment. Furthermore, if one can modulate the donor contribution, one may be able to engineer microvascular networks to deliver molecules a patient lacks systemically for long times. To investigate the impact of the cocultured cell on the host versus donor contributions of endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks, we varied the ratio of the neural progenitors to endothelial cells in subcutaneously implanted poly(ethylene glycol)/poly-L-lysine hydrogels. We found that the coculture of neural progenitors with endothelial cells led to the formation of chimeric host-donor vessels, and the ratio of neural progenitors has a significant impact on the long term residence of donor endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks in vivo even though the neural progenitors are only present transiently in the system. We attribute this to the short term paracrine signaling between the two cell types. This suggests that one can modulate the host versus donor contributions using short-term paracrine signaling which has broad implications for the application of engineered microvascular networks and

  19. Neural crest stem cells: discovery, properties and potential for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory cell population synonymous with vertebrate evolution. They generate a wide variety of cell and tissue types during embryonic and adult development including cartilage and bone, connective tissue, pigment and endocrine cells as well as neurons and glia amongst many others. Such incredible lineage potential combined with a limited capacity for self-renewal, which persists even into adult life, demonstrates that NC cells bear the key hallmarks of stem and progenitor cells. In this review, we describe the identification, characterization and isolation of NC stem and progenitor cells from different tissues in both embryo and adult organisms. We discuss their specific properties and their potential application in cell-based tissue and disease-specific repair. PMID:22231630

  20. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-22

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  1. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation. PMID:26795421

  2. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  3. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  4. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries.

  5. Gene expression profiling of human neural progenitor cells following the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Kim, Seung U; Satoh, Jun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties could provide an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the majority of transplanted NSC and neural progenitor cells (NPC) differentiate into astrocytes in vivo under pathological environments in the central nervous system, which potentially cause reactive gliosis. Because the serum is a potent inducer of astrocyte differentiation of rodent NPC in culture, we studied the effect of the serum on gene expression profile of cultured human NPC to identify the gene signature of astrocyte differentiation of human NPC. Human NPC spheres maintained in the serum-free culture medium were exposed to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 72 h, and processed for analyzing on a Whole Human Genome Microarray of 41,000 genes, and the microarray data were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The serum elevated the levels of expression of 45 genes, including ID1, ID2, ID3, CTGF, TGFA, METRN, GFAP, CRYAB and CSPG3, whereas it reduced the expression of 23 genes, such as DLL1, DLL3, PDGFRA, SOX4, CSPG4, GAS1 and HES5. Thus, the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation of human NPC is characterized by a counteraction of ID family genes on Delta family genes. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis identified ID1 as a direct binding partner of a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor MASH1. Luciferase assay indicated that activation of the DLL1 promoter by MASH1 was counteracted by ID1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) elevated the levels of ID1 and GFAP expression in NPC under the serum-free culture conditions. Because the serum contains BMP4, these results suggest that the serum factor(s), most probably BMP4, induces astrocyte differentiation by upregulating the expression of ID family genes that repress the proneural bHLH protein-mediated Delta expression in human NPC.

  6. Geminin loss causes neural tube defects through disrupted progenitor specification and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ethan S; Waller, Laura E; Kroll, Kristen L

    2014-09-01

    Geminin is a nucleoprotein that can directly bind chromatin regulatory complexes to modulate gene expression during development. Geminin knockout mouse embryos are preimplantation lethal by the 32-cell stage, precluding in vivo study of Geminin's role in neural development. Therefore, here we used a conditional Geminin allele in combination with several Cre-driver lines to define an essential role for Geminin during mammalian neural tube (NT) formation and patterning. Geminin was required in the NT within a critical developmental time window (embryonic day 8.5-10.5), when NT patterning and closure occurs. Geminin excision at these stages resulted in strongly diminished expression of genes that mark and promote dorsal NT identities and decreased differentiation of ventral motor neurons, resulting in completely penetrant NT defects, while excision after embryonic day 10.5 did not result in NT defects. When Geminin was deleted specifically in the spinal NT, both NT defects and axial skeleton defects were observed, but neither defect occurred when Geminin was excised in paraxial mesenchyme, indicating a tissue autonomous requirement for Geminin in developing neuroectoderm. Despite a potential role for Geminin in cell cycle control, we found no evidence of proliferation defects or altered apoptosis. Comparisons of gene expression in the NT of Geminin mutant versus wild-type siblings at embryonic day 10.5 revealed decreased expression of key regulators of neurogenesis, including neurogenic bHLH transcription factors and dorsal interneuron progenitor markers. Together, these data demonstrate a requirement for Geminin for NT patterning and neuronal differentiation during mammalian neurulation in vivo.

  7. Lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of human neural progenitor cells for ex vivo gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Capowski, Elizabeth E; Schneider, Bernard L; Ebert, Allison D; Seehus, Corey R; Szulc, Jolanta; Zufferey, Romain; Aebischer, Patrick; Svendsen, Clive N

    2007-07-30

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) hold great potential as an ex vivo system for delivery of therapeutic proteins to the central nervous system. When cultured as aggregates, termed neurospheres, hNPC are capable of significant in vitro expansion. In the current study, we present a robust method for lentiviral vector-mediated gene delivery into hNPC that maintains the differentiation and proliferative properties of neurosphere cultures while minimizing the amount of viral vector used and controlling the number of insertion sites per population. This method results in long-term, stable expression even after differentiation of the hNPC to neurons and astrocytes and allows for generation of equivalent transgenic populations of hNPC. In addition, the in vitro analysis presented predicts the behavior of transgenic lines in vivo when transplanted into a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. The methods presented provide a powerful tool for assessing the impact of factors such as promoter systems or different transgenes on the therapeutic utility of these cells.

  8. The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yonggang; Li, Xiaosu; Zhang, Xian; Mei, Shaolin; Li, Hongyu; Urso, Andreacarola; Zhu, Sijun

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs) need to avoid differentiation and cell cycle exit while maintaining restricted developmental potential, but mechanisms preventing differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs are not well understood. In this study, we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd) prevents premature differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs in Drosophila larval type II neuroblast (NB) lineages. We show that the loss of Btd leads to elimination of mature INPs due to premature differentiation of INPs into terminally dividing ganglion mother cells. We provide evidence to demonstrate that Btd prevents the premature differentiation by suppressing the expression of the homeodomain protein Prospero in immature INPs. We further show that Btd functions cooperatively with the Ets transcription factor Pointed P1 to promote the generation of INPs. Thus, our work reveals a critical mechanism that prevents premature differentiation and cell cycle exit of Drosophila INPs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03596.001 PMID:25285448

  9. Differentiation of human CD146-positive endometrial stem cells to adipogenic-, osteogenic-, neural progenitor-, and glial-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fayazi, Mehri; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ziaei, Saeideh

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential differentiation of CD146(+) endometrial stem cells to several lineages. Endometrial stromal cells were cultured using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Hams F-12 (DMEM/F-12) and were passaged every 7-10 d when cultures reached 80-100% of confluency. The immunophenotypes of single endometrial cells were analyzed using flow cytometry at fourth passage. Then the CD146(+) cells were sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting, and they were cultured and analyzed for in vitro differentiation to several lineages. Detection of adipocyte- and osteocyte-like cells were assessed by oil red O and alizarin red staining, respectively. For detection of neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte-like cells, the cells were immunostained by neurofilament 68 and oligo2, respectively. The rates of CD90, CD105, CD146, CD31, CD34, and CD9 of cultured endometrial cells were 94.98 ± 3%, 95.77 ± 2.5%, 27.61 ± 2%, 0.79 ± 0.05%, 1.43 ± 0.1%, and 1.01 ± 0.06%, respectively. CD146(+) cells were isolated to high purity. CD146(+)-differentiated cells to adipogenic cell with typical lipid-rich vacuoles and osteogenic cells were observed and confirmed their mesenchymal origin. They also differentiated into neural progenitor and glial differentiation by retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor signaling molecules, respectively, and confirmed by neurofilament 68 and oligo2 immunocytochemistry. The efficiency of differentiation to neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte-like cells was 90 ± 3.4% and 79 ± 2.8%, respectively. This study showed that CD146(+) cells from human endometrium after in vitro cultivation can differentiate into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, neural progenitor-, and glial-like cells. They may provide available alternative source of stem cells for future cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications.

  10. USP9X deubiquitylating enzyme maintains RAPTOR protein levels, mTORC1 signalling and proliferation in neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Caitlin R; Tan, Men-Chee; Premarathne, Susitha; Nanayakkara, Devathri; Bellette, Bernadette; Zencak, Dusan; Domingo, Deepti; Gecz, Jozef; Murtaza, Mariyam; Jolly, Lachlan A; Wood, Stephen A

    2017-03-24

    USP9X, is highly expressed in neural progenitors and, essential for neural development in mice. In humans, mutations in USP9X are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To understand USP9X's role in neural progenitors, we studied the effects of altering its expression in both the human neural progenitor cell line, ReNcell VM, as well as neural stem and progenitor cells derived from Nestin-cre conditionally deleted Usp9x mice. Decreasing USP9X resulted in ReNcell VM cells arresting in G0 cell cycle phase, with a concomitant decrease in mTORC1 signalling, a major regulator of G0/G1 cell cycle progression. Decreased mTORC1 signalling was also observed in Usp9x-null neurospheres and embryonic mouse brains. Further analyses revealed, (i) the canonical mTORC1 protein, RAPTOR, physically associates with Usp9x in embryonic brains, (ii) RAPTOR protein level is directly proportional to USP9X, in both loss- and gain-of-function experiments in cultured cells and, (iii) USP9X deubiquitlyating activity opposes the proteasomal degradation of RAPTOR. EdU incorporation assays confirmed Usp9x maintains the proliferation of neural progenitors similar to Raptor-null and rapamycin-treated neurospheres. Interestingly, loss of Usp9x increased the number of sphere-forming cells consistent with enhanced neural stem cell self-renewal. To our knowledge, USP9X is the first deubiquitylating enzyme shown to stabilize RAPTOR.

  11. Neural progenitor cell transplants into the developing and mature central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, D S; Van Hoffelen, S J; Grozdanic, S D; Kwon, Y H; Kardon, R H; Young, M J

    2005-05-01

    When developing cell transplant strategies to repair the diseased or injured central nervous system (CNS), it is essential to consider host-graft interactions and how they may influence the outcome of the transplants. Recent studies have demonstrated that transplanted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can differentiate and integrate morphologically into developing mammalian retinas. Is the ability to differentiate and to undergo structural integration into the CNS unique to specific progenitor cells, or is this plasticity a function of host environment, or both? To address these issues we have used the developing retina of the Brazilian opossum and have compared the structural integration of brain and retinal progenitor cells transplanted into the eyes at different developmental stages. The Brazilian opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is a small pouchless marsupial native to South America. This animal's lack of a pouch and fetal-like nature at birth circumvents the need for in utero surgical procedures, and thus provides an ideal environment in which to study the interactions between developing host tissues and transplanted NPCs. To test whether NPCs affect visual function we transplanted adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) into normal, healthy adult rat eyes and performed noninvasive functional recordings. Monitoring of the retina and optic nerve over time by electroretinography and pupillometry revealed no severe perturbation in visual function in the transplant recipient eyes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the age of the host environment can strongly influence NPC differentiation and that transplantation of neural progenitor cells may be a useful strategy aimed at treating neurodegeneration and pathology of the CNS.

  12. Defining properties of neural crest-derived progenitor cells from the apex of human developing tooth.

    PubMed

    Degistirici, Ozer; Jaquiery, Claude; Schönebeck, Bodo; Siemonsmeier, Jürgen; Götz, Werner; Martin, Ivan; Thie, Michael

    2008-02-01

    The connective tissue of the human tooth arises from cells that are derived from the cranial neural crest and, thus, are termed as "ectomesenchymal cells." Here, cells being located in a pad-like tissue adjacent to the apex of the developing tooth, which we designated the third molar pad, were separated by the microexplant technique. When outgrowing from the explant, dental neural crest-derived progenitor cells (dNC-PCs) adhered to plastic, proliferated steadily, and displayed a fibroblast-like morphology. At the mRNA level, dNC-PCs expressed neural crest marker genes like Sox9, Snail1, Snail2, Twist1, Msx2, and Dlx6. Cytofluorometric analysis indicated that cells were positive for CD49d (alpha4 integrin), CD56 (NCAM), and PDGFRalpha, while negative for CD31, CD34, CD45, and STRO-1. dNC-PCs could be differentiated into neurogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages and were shown to produce bone matrix in athymic mice. These results demonstrate that human third molar pad possesses neural crest-derived cells that represent multipotent stem/progenitor cells. As a rather large amount of dNC-PCs could be obtained from each single third molar, cells may be used to regenerate a wide range of tissues within the craniofacial region of humans.

  13. Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells: implications to mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal neural progenitor cells by focusing on the actions of glucocorticoids. Also addressed is a further discussion on the implications of such interactions to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. PMID:26347657

  14. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid in brain development: neural progenitor control.

    PubMed

    Gato, Angel; Alonso, M Isabel; Martín, Cristina; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, José Antonio; De la Mano, Aníbal; Fernández, José M F; Lamus, Francisco; Desmond, Mary E

    2014-08-28

    Due to the effort of several research teams across the world, today we have a solid base of knowledge on the liquid contained in the brain cavities, its composition, and biological roles. Although the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is among the most relevant parts of the central nervous system from the physiological point of view, it seems that it is not a permanent and stable entity because its composition and biological properties evolve across life. So, we can talk about different CSFs during the vertebrate life span. In this review, we focus on the CSF in an interesting period, early in vertebrate development before the formation of the choroid plexus. This specific entity is called "embryonic CSF." Based on the structure of the compartment, CSF composition, origin and circulation, and its interaction with neuroepithelial precursor cells (the target cells) we can conclude that embryonic CSF is different from the CSF in later developmental stages and from the adult CSF. This article presents arguments that support the singularity of the embryonic CSF, mainly focusing on its influence on neural precursor behavior during development and in adult life.

  15. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid in brain development: neural progenitor control

    PubMed Central

    Gato, Angel; Alonso, M. Isabel; Martín, Cristina; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, José Antonio; De la Mano, Aníbal; Fernández, José M. F.; Lamus, Francisco; Desmond, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the effort of several research teams across the world, today we have a solid base of knowledge on the liquid contained in the brain cavities, its composition, and biological roles. Although the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is among the most relevant parts of the central nervous system from the physiological point of view, it seems that it is not a permanent and stable entity because its composition and biological properties evolve across life. So, we can talk about different CSFs during the vertebrate life span. In this review, we focus on the CSF in an interesting period, early in vertebrate development before the formation of the choroid plexus. This specific entity is called “embryonic CSF.” Based on the structure of the compartment, CSF composition, origin and circulation, and its interaction with neuroepithelial precursor cells (the target cells) we can conclude that embryonic CSF is different from the CSF in later developmental stages and from the adult CSF. This article presents arguments that support the singularity of the embryonic CSF, mainly focusing on its influence on neural precursor behavior during development and in adult life. PMID:25165044

  16. Induction of Neural Progenitor-Like Cells from Human Fibroblasts via a Genetic Material-Free Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mirakhori, Fahimeh; Zeynali, Bahman; Rassouli, Hassan; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Hashemizadeh, Shiva; Kiani, Sahar; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies generated induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) from human fibroblasts by viral delivering defined transcription factors. However, the potential risks associated with gene delivery systems have limited their clinical use. We propose it would be safer to induce neural progenitor-like cells from human adult fibroblasts via a direct non-genetic alternative approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have reported that seven rounds of TAT-SOX2 protein transduction in a defined chemical cocktail under a 3D sphere culture gradually morphed fibroblasts into neuroepithelial-like colonies. We were able to expand these cells for up to 20 passages. These cells could give rise to cells that expressed neurons and glia cell markers both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results show that our approach is beneficial for the genetic material-free generation of iNPCs from human fibroblasts where small chemical molecules can provide a valuable, viable strategy to boost and improve induction in a 3D sphere culture. PMID:26266943

  17. Radial glia and neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2015-08-01

    The adult central nervous system (CNS) of the zebrafish, owing to its enrichment in constitutive neurogenic niches, is becoming an increasingly used model to address fundamental questions pertaining to adult neural stem cell (NSC) biology, adult neurogenesis and neuronal repair. Studies conducted in several CNS territories (notably the telencephalon, retina, midbrain, cerebellum and spinal cord) highlighted the presence, in these niches, of progenitor cells displaying NSC-like characters. While pointing to radial glial cells (RG) as major long-lasting, constitutively active and/or activatable progenitors in most domains, these studies also revealed a high heterogeneity in the progenitor subtypes used at the top of neurogenic hierarchies, including the persistence of neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors in some areas. Likewise, dissecting the molecular pathways underlying RG maintenance and recruitment under physiological conditions and upon repair in the zebrafish model revealed shared processes but also specific cascades triggering or sustaining reparative NSC recruitment. Together, the zebrafish adult brain reveals an extensive complexity of adult NSC niches, properties and control pathways, which extends existing understanding of adult NSC biology and gives access to novel mechanisms of efficient NSC maintenance and recruitment in an adult vertebrate brain.

  18. BLOS2 negatively regulates Notch signaling during neural and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenwen; He, Qiuping; Zhang, Chunxia; He, Xin; Cui, Zongbin; Liu, Feng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in controling the proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells during embryogenesis or organogenesis, but its regulation is incompletely understood. BLOS2, encoded by the Bloc1s2 gene, is a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes, biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) and BLOC-1-related complex (BORC). Bloc1s2−/− mice were embryonic lethal and exhibited defects in cortical development and hematopoiesis. Loss of BLOS2 resulted in elevated Notch signaling, which consequently increased the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and inhibited neuronal differentiation in cortices. Likewise, ablation of bloc1s2 in zebrafish or mice led to increased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell production in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. BLOS2 physically interacted with Notch1 in endo-lysosomal trafficking of Notch1. Our findings suggest that BLOS2 is a novel negative player in regulating Notch signaling through lysosomal trafficking to control multiple stem and progenitor cell homeostasis in vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18108.001 PMID:27719760

  19. P2X7 receptors at adult neural progenitor cells of the mouse subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Messemer, Nanette; Kunert, Christin; Grohmann, Marcus; Sobottka, Helga; Nieber, Karen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Franke, Heike; Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Straub, Isabelle; Schaefer, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2013-10-01

    Neurogenesis requires the balance between the proliferation of newly formed progenitor cells and subsequent death of surplus cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of P2X7 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs) prepared from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed a marked potentiation of the inward current responses both to ATP and the prototypic P2X7 receptor agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) at low Ca(2+) and zero Mg(2+) concentrations in the bath medium. The Bz-ATP-induced currents reversed their polarity near 0 mV; in NPCs prepared from P2X7(-/-) mice, Bz-ATP failed to elicit membrane currents. The general P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist PPADS and the P2X7 selective antagonists Brilliant Blue G and A-438079 strongly depressed the effect of Bz-ATP. Long-lasting application of Bz-ATP induced an initial current, which slowly increased to a steady-state response. In combination with the determination of YO-PRO uptake, these experiments suggest the dilation of a receptor-channel and/or the recruitment of a dye-uptake pathway. Ca(2+)-imaging by means of Fura-2 revealed that in a Mg(2+)-deficient bath medium Bz-ATP causes [Ca(2+)](i) transients fully depending on the presence of external Ca(2+). The MTT test indicated a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability by Bz-ATP treatment. Correspondingly, Bz-ATP led to an increase in active caspase 3 immunoreactivity, indicating a P2X7-controlled apoptosis. In acute SVZ brain slices of transgenic Tg(nestin/EGFP) mice, patch-clamp recordings identified P2X7 receptors at NPCs with pharmacological properties identical to those of their cultured counterparts. We suggest that the apoptotic/necrotic P2X7 receptors at NPCs may be of particular relevance during pathological conditions which lead to increased ATP release and thus could counterbalance the ensuing excessive cell proliferation.

  20. Neural differentiation of novel multipotent progenitor cells from cryopreserved human umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Moon, Young Joon; Yang, Mal Sook; Kim, Sun Kyung; Jang, In Keun; Eom, Young-woo; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hugh C.; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Soon Cheol; Lim, Hwan Sub; Kim, Young Jin . E-mail: jin@lifecord.co.kr

    2007-06-29

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells, with practical and ethical advantages. To date, the presence of other stem cells in UCB remains to be established. We investigated whether other stem cells are present in cryopreserved UCB. Seeded mononuclear cells formed adherent colonized cells in optimized culture conditions. Over a 4- to 6-week culture period, colonized cells gradually developed into adherent mono-layer cells, which exhibited homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and immunophenotypes, and were highly proliferative. Isolated cells were designated 'multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs)'. Under appropriate conditions for 2 weeks, MPCs differentiated into neural tissue-specific cell types, including neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte. Differentiated cells presented their respective markers, specifically, NF-L and NSE for neurons, GFAP for astrocytes, and myelin/oligodendrocyte for oligodendrocytes. In this study, we successfully isolated MPCs from cryopreserved UCB, which differentiated into the neural tissue-specific cell types. These findings suggest that cryopreserved human UCB is a useful alternative source of neural progenitor cells, such as MPCs, for experimental and therapeutic applications.

  1. Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Malmersjö, Seth; Rebellato, Paola; Smedler, Erik; Planert, Henrike; Kanatani, Shigeaki; Liste, Isabel; Nanou, Evanthia; Sunner, Hampus; Abdelhady, Shaimaa; Zhang, Songbai; Andäng, Michael; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Silberberg, Gilad; Arenas, Ernest; Uhlén, Per

    2013-04-16

    Coherent network activity among assemblies of interconnected cells is essential for diverse functions in the adult brain. However, cellular networks before formations of chemical synapses are poorly understood. Here, embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors were found to form networks exhibiting synchronous calcium ion (Ca(2+)) activity that stimulated cell proliferation. Immature neural cells established circuits that propagated electrical signals between neighboring cells, thereby activating voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels that triggered Ca(2+) oscillations. These network circuits were dependent on gap junctions, because blocking prevented electrotonic transmission both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting connexin 43 gap junctions abolished network activity, suppressed proliferation, and affected embryonic cortical layer formation. Cross-correlation analysis revealed highly correlated Ca(2+) activities in small-world networks that followed a scale-free topology. Graph theory predicts that such network designs are effective for biological systems. Taken together, these results demonstrate that immature cells in the developing brain organize in small-world networks that critically regulate neural progenitor proliferation.

  2. Tissue Engineering Special Feature: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Millicent C.; Bertram, James P.; Royce Hynes, Sara; Michaud, Michael; Li, Qi; Young, Michael; Segal, Steven S.; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2006-02-01

    A microvascular network is critical for the survival and function of most tissues. We have investigated the potential of neural progenitor cells to augment the formation and stabilization of microvascular networks in a previously uncharacterized three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel and the ability of this engineered system to develop a functional microcirculation in vivo. The hydrogel is synthesized by cross-linking polyethylene glycol with polylysine around a salt-leached polylactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold that is degraded in a sodium hydroxide solution. An open macroporous network is formed that supports the efficient formation of tubular structures by brain endothelial cells. After subcutaneous implantation of hydrogel cocultures in mice, blood flow in new microvessels was apparent at 2 weeks with perfused networks established on the surface of implants at 6 weeks. Compared to endothelial cells cultured alone, cocultures of endothelial cells and neural progenitor cells had a significantly greater density of tubular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at the 6-week time point. In implant cross sections, the presence of red blood cells in vessel lumens confirmed a functional microcirculation. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells promote the formation of endothelial cell tubes in coculture and the development of a functional microcirculation in vivo. We demonstrate a previously undescribed strategy for creating stable microvascular networks to support engineered tissues of desired parenchymal cell origin. microvasculature | neural stem cells | polymer | scaffold

  3. The mother superior mutation ablates foxd3 activity in neural crest progenitor cells and depletes neural crest derivatives in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Montero-Balaguer, Mercedes; Lang, Michael R; Sachdev, Sherri Weiss; Knappmeyer, Christiane; Stewart, Rodney A; De La Guardia, Ana; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Knapik, Ela W

    2006-12-01

    The zebrafish mutation mother superior (mosm188) leads to a depletion of neural crest (NC) derivatives including the craniofacial cartilage skeleton, the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic neurons, dorsal root ganglia, enteric neurons), and pigment cells. The loss of derivatives is preceded by a reduction in NC-expressed transcription factors, snail1b, sox9b, sox10, and a specific loss of foxd3 expression in NC progenitor cells. We employed genetic linkage analysis and physical mapping to place the mosm188 mutation on zebrafish chromosome 6 in the vicinity of the foxd3 gene. Furthermore, we found that mosm188 does not complement the sym1/foxd3 mutation, indicating that mosm188 resides within the foxd3 locus. Injection of PAC clones containing the foxd3 gene into mosm188 embryos restored foxd3 expression in NC progenitors and suppressed the mosm188 phenotype. However, sequencing the foxd3 transcribed area in mosm188 embryos did not reveal nucleotide changes segregating with the mosm188 phenotype, implying that the mutation most likely resides outside the foxd3-coding region. Based on these findings, we propose that the mosm188 mutation perturbs a NC-specific foxd3 regulatory element. Further analysis of mosm188 mutants and foxd3 morphants revealed that NC cells are initially formed, suggesting that foxd3 function is required to maintain the pool of NC progenitors.

  4. Noncoding RNA in the transcriptional landscape of human neural progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Patrick M.; Ballesteros-Yanez, Inmaculada; Grepo, Nicole; Knowles, James A.; Campbell, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play key roles in cellular processes, particularly in the brain. The present study used RNA sequencing to identify the transcriptional landscape of two human neural progenitor cell lines, SK-N-SH and ReNcell CX, as they differentiate into human cortical projection neurons. Protein coding genes were found to account for 54.8 and 57.0% of expressed genes, respectively, and alignment of RNA sequencing reads revealed that only 25.5–28.1% mapped to exonic regions of the genome. Differential expression analysis in the two cell lines identified altered gene expression in both protein coding and noncoding RNAs as they undergo neural differentiation with 222 differentially expressed genes observed in SK-N-SH cells and 19 differentially expressed genes in ReNcell CX. Interestingly, genes showing differential expression in SK-N-SH cells are enriched in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder, but not in gene sets related to cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to detect modules of co-expressed protein coding and noncoding RNAs in SK-N-SH cells and found four modules to be associated with neural differentiation. These modules contain varying levels of noncoding RNAs ranging from 10.7 to 49.7% with gene ontology suggesting roles in numerous cellular processes important for differentiation. These results indicate that noncoding RNAs are highly expressed in human neural progenitor cells and likely hold key regulatory roles in gene networks underlying neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26557050

  5. Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases regulate the maintenance of neural progenitor cells in the developing neocortex.

    PubMed

    Endo, Mitsuharu; Doi, Ryosuke; Nishita, Michiru; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-15

    The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Ror1 and Ror2, have been shown to play crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis by acting as receptors or co-receptors to mediate Wnt5a-induced signaling. Although Ror1, Ror2 and Wnt5a are expressed in the developing brain, little is known about their roles in the neural development. Here we show that Ror1, Ror2 and their ligand Wnt5a are highly expressed in neocortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of Ror1, Ror2 or Wnt5a in cultured NPCs isolated from embryonic neocortex results in the reduction of βIII-tubulin-positive neurons that are produced from NPCs possibly through the generation of T-box brain 2 (Tbr2)-positive intermediate progenitors. BrdU-labeling experiments further reveal that the proportion of proliferative and neurogenic NPCs, which are positive for neural progenitor cell marker (Pax6) but negative for glial cell marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP), is reduced within a few days in culture following knockdown of these molecules, suggesting that Ror1, Ror2 and Wnt5a regulate neurogenesis through the maintenance of NPCs. Moreover, we show that Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) is involved in Wnt5a-Ror1 and Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in NPCs, and that suppressed expression of Dvl2 indeed reduces the proportion of proliferative and neurogenic NPCs. Interestingly, suppressed expression of either Ror1 or Ror2 in NPCs in the developing neocortex results in the precocious differentiation of NPCs into neurons, and their forced expression results in delayed differentiation. Collectively, these results indicate that Wnt5a-Ror1 and Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling pathways play roles in maintaining proliferative and neurogenic NPCs during neurogenesis of the developing neocortex.

  6. CHEMOKINES REGULATE THE MIGRATION OF NEURAL PROGENITORS TO SITES OF NEUROINFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Belmadani, Abdelhak; Tran, Phuong B.; Ren, Dongjun; Miller, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown that transplanted or endogenous neural progenitor cells will migrate towards damaged areas of the brain. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is not clear. Here we report that, using hippocampal slice cultures, grafted neural progenitor cells (NPs) migrate towards areas of neuroinflammation, and that chemokines are a major regulator of this process. Migration of NPs was observed after injecting an inflammatory stimulus into the area of the fimbria, and transplanting green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled NPs into the dentate gyrus (DG) of cultured hippocampal slices. 3–7 days following transplantation, EGFP-NPs in control slices showed little tendancy to migrate and had differentiated into neurons and glia. In contrast, in slices injected with inflammatory stimuli, EGFP-NPs migrated towards the site of the injection. NPs in these slices also survived less well. The inflammatory stimuli used were either a combination of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, the bacterial toxin LPS, the HIV-1 coat protein gp120 or a β-amyloid expressing adenovirus. We showed that these inflammatory stimuli increased the synthesis of numerous chemokines and cytokines by hippocampal slices. When EGFP-NPs from CCR2 ko mice were transplanted into slices they exhibited little migration towards sites of inflammation. Similarly, wild type EGFP-NPs exhibited little migration towards inflammatory sites when transplanted into slices prepared from MCP-1 ko mice. These data indicate that factors secreted by sites of neuroinflammation are attractive to neural progenitors and suggest that chemokines such as MCP-1 play an important role in this process. PMID:16554469

  7. Effects of acute hypoxia/acidosis on intracellular pH in differentiating neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Tommy; Jansson, Linda C; Louhivuori, Lauri M; Akerman, Karl E O

    2012-06-21

    The response of differentiating mouse neural progenitor cells, migrating out from neurospheres, to conditions simulating ischemia (hypoxia and extracellular or intracellular acidosis) was studied. We show here, by using BCECF and single cell imaging to monitor intracellular pH (pH(i)), that two main populations can be distinguished by exposing migrating neural progenitor cells to low extracellular pH or by performing an acidifying ammonium prepulse. The cells dominating at the periphery of the neurosphere culture, which were positive for neuron specific markers MAP-2, calbindin and NeuN had lower initial resting pH(i) and could also easily be further acidified by lowering the extracellular pH. Moreover, in this population, a more profound acidification was seen when the cells were acidified using the ammonium prepulse technique. However, when the cell population was exposed to depolarizing potassium concentrations no alterations in pH(i) took place in this population. In contrast, depolarization caused an increase in pH(i) (by 0.5 pH units) in the cell population closer to the neurosphere body, which region was positive for the radial cell marker (GLAST). This cell population, having higher resting pH(i) (pH 6.9-7.1) also responded to acute hypoxia. During hypoxic treatment the resting pH(i) decreased by 0.1 pH units and recovered rapidly after reoxygenation. Our results show that migrating neural progenitor cells are highly sensitive to extracellular acidosis and that irreversible damage becomes evident at pH 6.2. Moreover, our results show that a response to acidosis clearly distinguishes two individual cell populations probably representing neuronal and radial cells.

  8. Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP) expands neural progenitors and regulates Pax3 expression in the neural plate border zone.

    PubMed

    Gee, Stephen T; Milgram, Sharon L; Kramer, Kenneth L; Conlon, Frank L; Moody, Sally A

    2011-01-01

    Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP) contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and functions as both a transcriptional co-activator and as a scaffolding protein. Mouse embryos lacking YAP did not survive past embryonic day 8.5 and showed signs of defective yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic fusion, and anterior-posterior (A-P) axis elongation. Given that the YAP knockout mouse defects might be due in part to nutritional deficiencies, we sought to better characterize a role for YAP during early development using embryos that develop externally. YAP morpholino (MO)-mediated loss-of-function in both frog and fish resulted in incomplete epiboly at gastrulation and impaired axis formation, similar to the mouse phenotype. In frog, germ layer specific genes were expressed, but they were temporally delayed. YAP MO-mediated partial knockdown in frog allowed a shortened axis to form. YAP gain-of-function in Xenopus expanded the progenitor populations in the neural plate (sox2(+)) and neural plate border zone (pax3(+)), while inhibiting the expression of later markers of tissues derived from the neural plate border zone (neural crest, pre-placodal ectoderm, hatching gland), as well as epidermis and somitic muscle. YAP directly regulates pax3 expression via association with TEAD1 (N-TEF) at a highly conserved, previously undescribed, TEAD-binding site within the 5' regulatory region of pax3. Structure/function analyses revealed that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP contributes to the inhibition of epidermal and somitic muscle differentiation, but a complete, intact YAP protein is required for expansion of the neural plate and neural plate border zone progenitor pools. These results provide a thorough analysis of YAP mediated gene expression changes in loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Furthermore, this is the first report to use YAP structure-function analyzes to determine which portion of YAP is involved in specific gene expression changes and the first to show

  9. S-phase duration is the main target of cell cycle regulation in neural progenitors of developing ferret neocortex.

    PubMed

    Turrero García, Miguel; Chang, YoonJeung; Arai, Yoko; Huttner, Wieland B

    2016-02-15

    The evolutionary expansion of the neocortex primarily reflects increases in abundance and proliferative capacity of cortical progenitors and in the length of the neurogenic period during development. Cell cycle parameters of neocortical progenitors are an important determinant of cortical development. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo), a gyrencephalic mammal, has gained increasing importance as a model for studying corticogenesis. Here, we have studied the abundance, proliferation, and cell cycle parameters of different neural progenitor types, defined by their differential expression of the transcription factors Pax6 and Tbr2, in the various germinal zones of developing ferret neocortex. We focused our analyses on postnatal day 1, a late stage of cortical neurogenesis when upper-layer neurons are produced. Based on cumulative 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling as well as Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence, we determined the duration of the various cell cycle phases of the different neocortical progenitor subpopulations. Ferret neocortical progenitors were found to exhibit longer cell cycles than those of rodents and little variation in the duration of G1 among distinct progenitor types, also in contrast to rodents. Remarkably, the main difference in cell cycle parameters among the various progenitor types was the duration of S-phase, which became shorter as progenitors progressively changed transcription factor expression from patterns characteristic of self-renewal to those of neuron production. Hence, S-phase duration emerges as major target of cell cycle regulation in cortical progenitors of this gyrencephalic mammal.

  10. Activin/Nodal Signaling Supports Retinal Progenitor Specification in a Narrow Time Window during Pluripotent Stem Cell Neuralization

    PubMed Central

    Bertacchi, Michele; Lupo, Giuseppe; Pandolfini, Luca; Casarosa, Simona; D’Onofrio, Mara; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.; Cremisi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Summary Retinal progenitors are initially found in the anterior neural plate region known as the eye field, whereas neighboring areas undertake telencephalic or hypothalamic development. Eye field cells become specified by switching on a network of eye field transcription factors, but the extracellular cues activating this network remain unclear. In this study, we used chemically defined media to induce in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward eye field fates. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was sufficient to drive ESCs to telencephalic, but not retinal, fates. Instead, retinal progenitors could be generated from competent differentiating mouse ESCs by activation of Activin/Nodal signaling within a narrow temporal window corresponding to the emergence of primitive anterior neural progenitors. Activin also promoted eye field gene expression in differentiating human ESCs. Our results reveal insights into the mechanisms of eye field specification and open new avenues toward the generation of retinal progenitors for translational medicine. PMID:26388287

  11. A comparison of epithelial and neural properties in progenitor cells derived from the adult human ciliary body and brain.

    PubMed

    Moe, Morten C; Kolberg, Rebecca S; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Olstorn, Havard; Varghese, Mercy; Langmoen, Iver A; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Cells isolated from the ciliary body (CB) of the adult human eye possess properties of retinal stem/progenitor cells and can be propagated as spheres in culture. As these cells are isolated from a non-neural epithelium which has neuroepithelial origin, they may have both epithelial and neural lineages. Since it is the properties of neural progenitor cells that are sought after in a future scenario of autotransplantation, we wanted to directly compare human CB spheres with neurospheres derived from the human subventricular zone (SVZ), which is the best characterized neural stem cell niche in the CNS of adults. The CB epithelium was dissected from donor eyes (n = 8). Biopsies from the ventricular wall were harvested during neurosurgery due to epilepsy (n = 7). CB and SVZ tissue were also isolated from Brown Norwegian rats. Dissociated single cells were cultivated in a sphere-promoting medium and passaged every 10-30 days. Fixed spheres were studied by immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. We found that both CB and SVZ spheres contained a mixed population of cells embedded in extracellular matrix. CB spheres, in contrast to SVZ neurospheres, contained pigmented cells with epithelial morphology that stained for cytokeratins (3/12 + 19), were connected through desmosomes and tight-junctions and produced PEDF. Markers of neural progenitors (nestin, Sox-2, GFAP) were significantly lower expressed in human CB compared to SVZ spheres, and nestin positive cells in the CB spheres also contained pigment. There was higher expression of EGF and TGF-beta receptors in human CB spheres, and a comparative greater activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. These results indicate that adult human CB spheres contain progenitor cells with epithelial properties and limited expression of neural progenitor markers compared to CNS neurospheres. Further studies mapping the regulation between epithelial and neural properties in the adult human

  12. Dexamethasone regulates expression of BRUCE/Apollon and the proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Maria; Rajala, Raili; Korhonen, Laura; Bornhauser, Beat; Sokka, Anna-Leena; Naito, Mikihiko; Lindholm, Dan

    2009-07-07

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GHs) regulate cell proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) contributing to reduction of neurogenesis after stress. We show here that dexamethasone (Dex) decreases BRUCE/Apollon (BRUCE) in cultured NPCs in a GH-receptor-dependent manner. Downregulation of BRUCE by Dex or using silencing RNA reduced the number of proliferating NPCs, whilst overexpression of BRUCE counteracted the effect of Dex. Dex also elevated the deubiquitinating enzyme, Usp8/Ubpy, which via Nrdp1 decreases BRUCE. The results show that BRUCE is a target for GHs in the NPCs, and that BRUCE controls cell division of NPCs and possibly of other stem cells.

  13. Concentration-dependent effect of nerve growth factor on cell fate determination of neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hui; Hu, Zhengqing

    2011-10-01

    Stem cell-based spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) replacement therapy has been proposed to be a promising strategy to restore hearing either via replacing degenerated neurons or by improving the efficacy of cochlear implants which rely on functional neurons. However, lack of suitable donor cells and low survival rate of implanted cells are the major obstacles to successful implementation of therapeutic transplantation. The present study investigated the potential of mouse inner ear statoacoustic ganglion (SAG)-derived neural progenitors (NPs) to differentiate toward SGN-like glutamatergic cells and the influence to cell survival and differentiation when nerve growth factor (NGF) was supplied. We found that SAG-NPs could form neurospheres, proliferate, and differentiate into cells expressing neuronal protein neurofilament and β-III tubulin. NGF affected the cell fate of SAG-NP in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Low concentration of NGF (2-5 ng/mL) promoted cell proliferation. Medium concentration of NGF (20-40 ng/mL) stimulated cells to differentiate into bi-polar SGN-like cells expressing glutamatergic proteins. High concentration of NGF (100 ng/mL) could rescue cells from induced apoptosis. In the in vivo study, NGF (100 ng/mL) dramatically enhanced SAG-NP survival rate after implantation into adult mammalian inner ear. This finding raises the possibility to further induce these NPs to differentiate into SGN-like neurons in future in vivo study. In conclusion, given the capability of proliferation and differentiation into SGN-like cells with the supplement of NGF in vitro, SAG-NPs can serve as donor cells in stem cell-based SGN replacement therapy. NGF improved the survival of SAG-NPs not only in vitro but also in vivo.

  14. Astrocyte-Secreted Factors Selectively Alter Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Fragile X Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that astrocytes contribute to the governance and fine tuning of stem and progenitor cell production during brain development. The effect of astrocyte function in cell production in neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. We used the Neural Colony Forming Cell assay to determine the effect of astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) on the generation of neurospheres originating from either progenitor cells or functional stem cells in the knock out (KO) Fragile X mouse model. ACM from both normal and Fmr1-KO mice generated higher percentages of smaller neurospheres indicative of restricted proliferation of the progenitor cell population in Fmr1-KO brains. Wild type (WT) neurospheres, but not KO neurospheres, showed enhanced responses to ACM from the Fmr1-KO mice. In particular, Fmr1-KO ACM increased the percentage of large neurospheres generated, representative of spheres produced from neural stem cells. We also used 2D DIGE to initiate identification of the astrocyte-secreted proteins with differential expression between Fmr1-KO and WT cortices and hippocampi. The results further support the critical role of astrocytes in governing neural cell production in brain development and point to significant alterations in neural cell proliferation due to astrocyte secreted factors from the Fragile X brain. Highlights: • We studied the proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells in Fragile X. • We examined the role of astrocyte-secreted factors in neural precursor cell biology. • Astrocyte-secreted factors with differential expression in Fragile X identified. PMID:27242437

  15. Biophysical Characteristics Reveal Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Hayley J.; Marchenko, Steve A.; Hoettges, Kai F.; Estrada, Laura C.; Lee, Abraham P.; Hughes, Michael P.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Distinguishing human neural stem/progenitor cell (huNSPC) populations that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type-specific surface markers predictive of fate potential. This limits investigation of lineage-biased progenitors and their potential use as therapeutic agents. A live-cell biophysical and label-free measure of fate potential would solve this problem by obviating the need for specific cell surface markers. Methodology/Principal Findings We used dielectrophoresis (DEP) to analyze the biophysical, specifically electrophysiological, properties of cortical human and mouse NSPCs that vary in differentiation potential. Our data demonstrate that the electrophysiological property membrane capacitance inversely correlates with the neurogenic potential of NSPCs. Furthermore, as huNSPCs are continually passaged they decrease neuron generation and increase membrane capacitance, confirming that this parameter dynamically predicts and negatively correlates with neurogenic potential. In contrast, differences in membrane conductance between NSPCs do not consistently correlate with the ability of the cells to generate neurons. DEP crossover frequency, which is a quantitative measure of cell behavior in DEP, directly correlates with neuron generation of NSPCs, indicating a potential mechanism to separate stem cells biased to particular differentiated cell fates. Conclusions/Significance We show here that whole cell membrane capacitance, but not membrane conductance, reflects and predicts the neurogenic potential of human and mouse NSPCs. Stem cell biophysical characteristics therefore provide a completely novel and quantitative measure of stem cell fate potential and a label-free means to identify neuron- or glial-biased progenitors. PMID:21980464

  16. Human skin neural crest progenitor cells are susceptible to BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S M; Dai, J; Li, S; Yang, R; Yu, H; Nathanson, K L; Liu, S; Zhou, H; Guo, J; Xu, X

    2014-02-13

    Adult stem cells are multipotent and persist in small numbers in adult tissues throughout the lifespan of an organism. Unlike differentiated cells, adult stem cells are intrinsically resistant to senescence. It is unclear how adult stem cells in solid organs respond to oncogenic stimulation and whether these cells have a role in tumor initiation. We report here that expression of BRAF(V600E) in human neural crest progenitor cells (hNCPCs) did not induce growth arrest as seen in human melanocytes, but instead, increased their cell proliferation capacity. These cells (hNCPCs(V600E)) acquired anchorage-independent growth ability and were weakly tumorigenic in vivo. Unlike in human melanocytes, BRAF(V600E) expression in hNCPCs did not induce p16(INK4a) expression. BRAF(V600E) induced elevated expression of CDK2, CDK4, MITF and EST1/2 protein in hNCPCs, and also induced melanocytic differentiation of these cells. Furthermore, overexpression of MITF in hNCPCs(V600E) dramatically increased their tumorigenicity and resulted in fully transformed tumor cells. These findings indicate that hNCPCs are susceptible to BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation, and MITF potentiates the oncogenic effect of BRAF(V600E) in these progenitor cells. These results suggest that the hNCPCs are potential targets for BRAF(V600E)-induced melanocytic tumor formation.

  17. LOXL2 Oxidizes Methylated TAF10 and Controls TFIID-Dependent Genes during Neural Progenitor Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Iturbide, Ane; Pascual-Reguant, Laura; Fargas, Laura; Cebrià, Joan Pau; Alsina, Berta; García de Herreros, Antonio; Peiró, Sandra

    2015-06-04

    Protein function is often regulated and controlled by posttranslational modifications, such as oxidation. Although oxidation has been mainly considered to be uncontrolled and nonenzymatic, many enzymatic oxidations occur on enzyme-selected lysine residues; for instance, LOXL2 oxidizes lysines by converting the ε-amino groups into aldehyde groups. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, we have identified methylated TAF10, a member of the TFIID complex, as a LOXL2 substrate. LOXL2 oxidation of TAF10 induces its release from its promoters, leading to a block in TFIID-dependent gene transcription. In embryonic stem cells, this results in the inactivation of the pluripotency genes and loss of the pluripotent capacity. During zebrafish development, the absence of LOXL2 resulted in the aberrant overexpression of the neural progenitor gene Sox2 and impaired neural differentiation. Thus, lysine oxidation of the transcription factor TAF10 is a controlled protein modification and demonstrates a role for protein oxidation in regulating pluripotency genes.

  18. Poly-L-ornithine promotes preferred differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells via ERK signalling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hongfei; Tan, Liang; Wu, Pengfei; Yin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Meng, Hui; Cui, Gaoyu; Wu, Nan; Lin, Jiangkai; Hu, Rong; Feng, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) replacement therapies are the most attractive strategies to restore an injured brain. Key challenges of such therapies are enriching NSPCs and directing them differentiation into specific neural cell types. Here, three biomaterial substrates Poly-L-ornithine (PO), Poly-L-lysine (PLL) and fibronectin (FN) were investigated for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of rat NSPCs, and the underlying mechanisms were also explored. The results showed PO significantly increased NSPCs proliferation and induced preferred differentiation, compared with PLL and FN. Checking protein markers of several neural cell subtypes, it is showed PO significantly induced NSPCs expressing Doublecortin (DCX) and Olig2, one for neuroblasts and young neurons and the other for young oligodendrocytes. It is suggested the ERK signaling pathway was involving in this process because an ERK antagonist U0126 could inhibit PO’s effects mentioned above, as well as an ERK pathway agonist Ceramide C6 could enhance them. Given that both neurons and oligodendrocytes are the most vulnerable cells in many neurological diseases, PO-induced preferred differentiation into neurons and oligodendrocytes is a potential paradigm for NSPCs-based therapies.

  19. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shichao; Mao, Jianxin; Ding, Kan; Zhou, Yue; Zeng, Xianglu; Yang, Wenjuan; Wang, Peipei; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Jian; Xia, Peng; Pei, Gang

    2017-01-10

    Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture. Further mechanistic study revealed that GLP potentiated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT cascades. Consistently, inhibition of FGFR1 effectively blocked the GLP-promoted NPC proliferation and activation of the downstream cascades. Our findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. p38 MAP kinase mediates nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Chan, S L; Milhavet, O; Wang, S; Mattson, M P

    2001-11-16

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) can proliferate, differentiate into neurons or glial cells, or undergo a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Although death of NPC occurs during development of the nervous system and in the adult, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) can induce death of C17.2 NPC by a mechanism requiring activation of p38 MAP kinase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspase-3. Nitric oxide causes release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and Bcl-2 protects the neural progenitor cells against nitric oxide-induced death, consistent with a pivotal role for mitochondrial changes in controlling the cell death process. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 abolished NO-induced cell death, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3, indicating that p38 activation serves as an upstream mediator in the cell death process. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 protected NPC against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis and suppressed activation of p38 MAP kinase. The ability of nitric oxide to trigger death of NPC by a mechanism involving p38 MAP kinase suggests that this diffusible gas may regulate NPC fate in physiological and pathological settings in which NO is produced.

  1. Severe NDE1-mediated microcephaly results from neural progenitor cell cycle arrests at multiple specific stages

    PubMed Central

    Doobin, David J.; Kemal, Shahrnaz; Dantas, Tiago J.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Microcephaly is a cortical malformation disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain. Recent studies have revealed severe cases of microcephaly resulting from human mutations in the NDE1 gene, which is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. Here using in utero electroporation of NDE1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in embryonic rat brains, we observe cell cycle arrest of proliferating neural progenitors at three distinct stages: during apical interkinetic nuclear migration, at the G2-to-M transition and in regulation of primary cilia at the G1-to-S transition. RNAi against the NDE1 paralogue NDEL1 has no such effects. However, NDEL1 overexpression can functionally compensate for NDE1, except at the G2-to-M transition, revealing a unique NDE1 role. In contrast, NDE1 and NDEL1 RNAi have comparable effects on postmitotic neuronal migration. These results reveal that the severity of NDE1-associated microcephaly results not from defects in mitosis, but rather the inability of neural progenitors to ever reach this stage. PMID:27553190

  2. Using human neural crest-derived progenitor cells to investigate osteogenesis: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Degistirici, Ozer; Grabellus, Florian; Irsen, Stephan; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Thie, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Human tooth contains a distinct population of neural crest-derived progenitor cells (dNC-PCs) which are known to give rise to specialized daughter cells of an osteogenic lineage. We hypothesised that dNC-PCs could develop into neural crest-derived bone in a self-propagating and extracorporal culture system. Thus, we examined the three-dimensional structure obtained from osteogenic-stimulated dNC-PCs by morphological, biochemical and spectroscopic methods. After the onset of stimulation, cells formed a multilayer with outer cells covering the surface and inner cells secreting a hyaline matrix. With prolonged culture, multilayers contracted and formed a three-dimensional construct which subsequently converted to a calcified mass. Differentiation of progenitor cells was associated with apoptosis. Cell types which survived were smooth muscle actin-positive cells and bone-like cells. The expression of osteoblastic markers and the secretion of a collagenous matrix indicate that the bone cells had acquired their functional phenotype. Furthermore, these cells produced and secreted membrane-bound vesicles into the newly forming matrix. Consequently, an early biomineralized extracellular matrix was found with calcium phosphate deposits being associated with the newly formed collagen matrix framework. The molar calcium-phosphorus-ratio of the mineralized collagen indicated that amorphous calcium phosphate was present within this matrix. The data suggest that stimulated cultures of dNC-PCs are able to recapitulate some processes of the early phase of osteogenesis.

  3. Splicing factor TRA2B is required for neural progenitor survival

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jacqueline M; Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Edmondson, Carina; Wirth, Brunhilde; Sanford, Jeremy; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs can rapidly regulate the expression of large groups of proteins. The RNA binding protein TRA2B (SFRS10) plays well-established roles in developmentally regulated alternative splicing during Drosophila sexual differentiation. TRA2B is also essential for mammalian embryogenesis and is implicated in numerous human diseases. Precise regulation of alternative splicing is critical to the development and function of the central nervous system; however the requirements for specific splicing factors in neurogenesis are poorly understood. In this study we focus on the role of TRA2B in mammalian brain development. We show that, during murine cortical neurogenesis, TRA2B is expressed in both neural progenitors and cortical projection neurons. Using cortex-specific Tra2b mutant mice, we find that TRA2B depletion results in apoptosis of the neural progenitor cells as well as disorganization of the cortical plate. Thus, TRA2B is essential for proper development of the cerebral cortex. PMID:23818142

  4. Morphine Modulates Adult Neurogenesis and Contextual Memory by Impeding the Maturation of Neural Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Xu, Chi; Zheng, Hui; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of adult neurogenesis by opiates has been implicated in modulating different addiction cycles. At which neurogenesis stage opiates exert their action remains unresolved. We attempt to define the temporal window of morphine's inhibition effect on adult neurogenesis by using the POMC-EGFP mouse model, in which newborn granular cells (GCs) can be visualized between days 3-28 post-mitotic. The POMC-EGFP mice were trained under the 3-chambers conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm with either saline or morphine. We observed after 4 days of CPP training with saline, the number of EGFP-labeled newborn GCs in sub-granular zone (SGZ) hippocampus significantly increased compared to mice injected with saline in their homecage. CPP training with morphine significantly decreased the number of EGFP-labeled GCs, whereas no significant difference in the number of EGFP-labeled GCs was observed with the homecage mice injected with the same dose of morphine. Using cell-type selective markers, we observed that morphine reduced the number of late stage progenitors and immature neurons such as Doublecortin (DCX) and βIII Tubulin (TuJ1) positive cells in the SGZ but did not reduce the number of early progenitors such as Nestin, SOX2, or neurogenic differentiation-1 (NeuroD1) positive cells. Analysis of co-localization between different cell markers shows that morphine reduced the number of adult-born GCs by interfering with differentiation of early progenitors, but not by inducing apoptosis. In addition, when NeuroD1 was over-expressed in DG by stereotaxic injection of lentivirus, it rescued the loss of immature neurons and prolonged the extinction of morphine-trained CPP. These results suggest that under the condition of CPP training paradigm, morphine affects the transition of neural progenitor/stem cells to immature neurons via a mechanism involving NeuroD1.

  5. Morphine Modulates Adult Neurogenesis and Contextual Memory by Impeding the Maturation of Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Xu, Chi; Zheng, Hui; Loh, Horace H.; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of adult neurogenesis by opiates has been implicated in modulating different addiction cycles. At which neurogenesis stage opiates exert their action remains unresolved. We attempt to define the temporal window of morphine’s inhibition effect on adult neurogenesis by using the POMC-EGFP mouse model, in which newborn granular cells (GCs) can be visualized between days 3–28 post-mitotic. The POMC-EGFP mice were trained under the 3-chambers conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm with either saline or morphine. We observed after 4 days of CPP training with saline, the number of EGFP-labeled newborn GCs in sub-granular zone (SGZ) hippocampus significantly increased compared to mice injected with saline in their homecage. CPP training with morphine significantly decreased the number of EGFP-labeled GCs, whereas no significant difference in the number of EGFP-labeled GCs was observed with the homecage mice injected with the same dose of morphine. Using cell-type selective markers, we observed that morphine reduced the number of late stage progenitors and immature neurons such as Doublecortin (DCX) and βIII Tubulin (TuJ1) positive cells in the SGZ but did not reduce the number of early progenitors such as Nestin, SOX2, or neurogenic differentiation-1 (NeuroD1) positive cells. Analysis of co-localization between different cell markers shows that morphine reduced the number of adult-born GCs by interfering with differentiation of early progenitors, but not by inducing apoptosis. In addition, when NeuroD1 was over-expressed in DG by stereotaxic injection of lentivirus, it rescued the loss of immature neurons and prolonged the extinction of morphine-trained CPP. These results suggest that under the condition of CPP training paradigm, morphine affects the transition of neural progenitor/stem cells to immature neurons via a mechanism involving NeuroD1. PMID:27078155

  6. Neural Progenitor Cells Promote Axonal Growth and Alter Axonal mRNA Localization in Adult Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Jin, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures. This growth-promoting effect of NPC-conditioned medium was also seen in injury-conditioned neurons. DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs showed altered expression of regeneration-associated genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We found that levels of GAP-43 mRNA increased in DRG cell bodies and axons. However, hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) mRNA decreased in the cell bodies of DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs, which is distinct from the increase in cell body HAMP mRNA levels seen in DRGs after injury conditioning. Endogenous GAP-43 and β-actin mRNAs as well as reporter RNAs carrying axonally localizing 3'UTRs of these transcripts showed significantly increased levels in distal axons in the DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs. These results indicate that axon growth promoted by NPCs is associated not only with enhanced transcription of growth-associated genes but also can increase localization of some mRNAs into growing axons. PMID:28197547

  7. Increased dentate neurogenesis after grafting of glial restricted progenitors or neural stem cells in the aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Cai, Jingli; Coksaygan, Turhan; Rao, Mahendra S; Shetty, Ashok K

    2007-08-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) declines severely by middle age, potentially because of age-related changes in the DG microenvironment. We hypothesize that providing fresh glial restricted progenitors (GRPs) or neural stem cells (NSCs) to the aging hippocampus via grafting enriches the DG microenvironment and thereby stimulates the production of new granule cells from endogenous NSCs. The GRPs isolated from the spinal cords of embryonic day 13.5 transgenic F344 rats expressing human alkaline phosphatase gene and NSCs isolated from embryonic day 9 caudal neural tubes of Sox-2:EGFP transgenic mice were expanded in vitro and grafted into the hippocampi of middle-aged (12 months old) F344 rats. Both types of grafts survived well, and grafted NSCs in addition migrated to all layers of the hippocampus. Phenotypic characterization revealed that both GRPs and NSCs differentiated predominantly into astrocytes and oligodendrocytic progenitors. Neuronal differentiation of graft-derived cells was mostly absent except in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ), where some of the migrated NSCs but not GRPs differentiated into neurons. Analyses of the numbers of newly born neurons in the DG using 5'-bromodeoxyuridine and/or doublecortin assays, however, demonstrated considerably increased dentate neurogenesis in animals receiving grafts of GRPs or NSCs in comparison with both naïve controls and animals receiving sham-grafting surgery. Thus, both GRPs and NSCs survive well, differentiate predominantly into glia, and stimulate the endogenous NSCs in the SGZ to produce more new dentate granule cells following grafting into the aging hippocampus. Grafting of GRPs or NSCs therefore provides an attractive approach for improving neurogenesis in the aging hippocampus. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  8. FatJ acts via the Hippo mediator Yap1 to restrict the size of neural progenitor cell pools

    PubMed Central

    Van Hateren, Nick J.; Das, Raman M.; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle; Placzek, Marysia; Wilson, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    The size, composition and functioning of the spinal cord is likely to depend on appropriate numbers of progenitor and differentiated cells of a particular class, but little is known about how cell numbers are controlled in specific cell cohorts along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube. Here, we show that FatJ cadherin, identified in a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen of cadherin genes expressed in the neural tube, is localised to progenitors in intermediate regions of the neural tube. Loss of function of FatJ promotes an increase in dp4-vp1 progenitors and a concomitant increase in differentiated Lim1+/Lim2+ neurons. Our studies reveal that FatJ mediates its action via the Hippo pathway mediator Yap1: loss of downstream Hippo components can rescue the defect caused by loss of FatJ. Together, our data demonstrate that RNAi screens are feasible in the chick embryonic neural tube, and show that FatJ acts through the Hippo pathway to regulate cell numbers in specific subsets of neural progenitor pools and their differentiated progeny. PMID:21521736

  9. Cell type-dependent Erk-Akt pathway crosstalk regulates the proliferation of fetal neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Ji heon; Luo, Xiangjian; Gao, Dongbing; Xu, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Tieling; Li, Fuhai; Wang, Ping; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Xia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitor (NP) cells are the multipotent cells that produce neurons and glia in the central nervous system. Compounds regulating their proliferation are key to both understanding brain development and unlocking their potential in regenerative repair. We discuss a chemical screen that unexpectedly identified inhibitors of Erk signaling potently promoting the self-renewing divisions of fetal NP cells. This occurred through crosstalk between Erk and Akt signaling cascades. The crosstalk mechanism is cell type-specific, and is not detected in adult NP cells as well as brain tumor cells. The mechanism was also shown to be independent from the GSK-3 signaling pathway, which has been reported to be a major regulator of NP cell homeostasis and inhibitors to which were also identified in the screen. In vitro Erk inhibition led to the prolonged rapid expansion of fetal NP cells while retaining their multipotency. In vivo inhibitor administration significantly inhibited the neuronal differentiation, and resulted in increased proliferative progenitor cells in the ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) of the embryonic cortex. Our results uncovered a novel regulating pathway for NP cell proliferation in the developing brain. The discovery provides a pharmacological basis for in vitro expansion and in vivo manipulation of NP cells. PMID:27211495

  10. The Earliest Thymic T Cell Progenitors Sustain B Cell and Myeloid Lineage Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Luc, Sidinh; Luis, Tiago C.; Boukarabila, Hanane; Macaulay, Iain C.; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter S.; Loughran, Stephen J.; Mead, Adam J.; Hultquist, Anne; Brown, John; Mizukami, Takuo; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Ferry, Helen; Anderson, Kristina; Duarte, Sara; Atkinson, Deborah; Soneji, Shamit; Domanski, Aniela; Farley, Alison; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Carella, Cintia; Patient, Roger; de Bruijn, Marella; Enver, Tariq; Nerlov, Claus; Blackburn, Clare; Godin, Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

    2012-01-01

    The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus. PMID:22344248

  11. EVALUATION OF HUMAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING: TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS ON CELL PROLIFERATION AND VIABILITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a screen for DNT. ReNcell CX (ReN CX) cells are a...

  12. Characterization of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaarschmidt, Grit; Wegner, Florian; Schwarz, Sigrid C.; Schmidt, Hartmut; Schwarz, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are among the earliest ion channels to appear during brain development, suggesting a functional requirement for progenitor cell proliferation and/or differentiation. We tested this hypothesis, using human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) as a model system. Methodology/Principal Findings In proliferating hNPCs a broad spectrum of Kv channel subtypes was identified using quantitative real-time PCR with a predominant expression of the A-type channel Kv4.2. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings Kv currents were separated into a large transient component characteristic for fast-inactivating A-type potassium channels (IA) and a small, sustained component produced by delayed-rectifying channels (IK). During differentiation the expression of IA as well as A-type channel transcripts dramatically decreased, while IK producing delayed-rectifiers were upregulated. Both Kv currents were differentially inhibited by selective neurotoxins like phrixotoxin-1 and α-dendrotoxin as well as by antagonists like 4-aminopyridine, ammoniumchloride, tetraethylammonium chloride and quinidine. In viability and proliferation assays chronic inhibition of the A-type currents severely disturbed the cell cycle and precluded proper hNPC proliferation, while the blockade of delayed-rectifiers by α-dendrotoxin increased proliferation. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that A-type potassium currents are essential for proper proliferation of immature multipotent hNPCs. PMID:19584922

  13. Immunocytochemical characterisation of neural stem-progenitor cells from green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus.

    PubMed

    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Nan, F H; Wang, C S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein. Nevertheless, astrocytes were polymorphic and were the most dominant cells in the NSPC cultures. By using Matrigel, radial glia exhibiting a long GFAP(+) or DARPP-32(+) fibre and neurons exhibiting a significant acetyl-tubulin(+) process were obtained. The results confirmed that NSPCs obtained from A. rivulatus brains can proliferate and differentiate into neurons in vitro. Clonal culture can be useful for further studying the distinct NSPCs.

  14. Landscape of monoallelic DNA accessibility in mouse embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Carter, Ava C; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Attia, Mikael; Loftus, Joshua; Greenleaf, William J; Tibshirani, Robert; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2017-01-01

    We developed an allele-specific assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC–seq) to genotype and profile active regulatory DNA across the genome. Using a mouse hybrid F1 system, we found that monoallelic DNA accessibility across autosomes was pervasive, developmentally programmed and composed of several patterns. Genetically determined accessibility was enriched at distal enhancers, but random monoallelically accessible (RAMA) elements were enriched at promoters and may act as gatekeepers of monoallelic mRNA expression. Allelic choice at RAMA elements was stable across cell generations and bookmarked through mitosis. RAMA elements in neural progenitor cells were biallelically accessible in embryonic stem cells but premarked with bivalent histone modifications; one allele was silenced during differentiation. Quantitative analysis indicated that allelic choice at the majority of RAMA elements is consistent with a stochastic process; however, up to 30% of RAMA elements may deviate from the expected pattern, suggesting a regulated or counting mechanism. PMID:28112738

  15. Aging neural progenitor cells have decreased mitochondrial content and lower oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Cheung, Willy; Mikheev, Andrei M; Sweet, Ian R; Bielas, Jason H; Zhang, Jing; Rostomily, Robert C; Horner, Philip J

    2011-11-04

    Although neurogenesis occurs in discrete areas of the adult mammalian brain, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) produce fewer new neurons with age. To characterize the molecular changes that occur during aging, we performed a proteomic comparison between primary-cultured NPCs from the young adult and aged mouse forebrain. This analysis yielded changes in proteins necessary for cellular metabolism. Mitochondrial quantity and oxygen consumption rates decrease with aging, although mitochondrial DNA in aged NPCs does not have increased mutation rates. In addition, aged cells are resistant to the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone and proliferate in response to lowered oxygen conditions. These results demonstrate that aging NPCs display an altered metabolic phenotype, characterized by a coordinated shift in protein expression, subcellular structure, and metabolic physiology.

  16. Effects of addictive drugs on adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chi; Loh, Horace H.; Law, Ping-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) undergo a series of developmental processes before giving rise to newborn neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in adult neurogenesis. During the past decade, the role of NSPCs has been highlighted by studies on adult neurogenesis modulated by addictive drugs. It has been proven that these drugs regulate the proliferation, differentiation and survival of adult NSPCs in different manners, which results in the varying consequences of adult neurogenesis. The effects of addictive drugs on NSPCs are exerted via a variety of different mechanisms and pathways, which interact with one another and contribute to the complexity of NSPC regulation. Here, we review the effects of different addictive drugs on NSPCs, and the related experimental methods and paradigms. We also discuss the current understanding of major signaling molecules, especially the putative common mechanisms, underlying such effects. Finally, we review the future directions of research in this area. PMID:26468052

  17. NEPRO: a novel Notch effector for maintenance of neural progenitor cells in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tetsuichiro

    2012-01-01

    The Notch pathway is essential for maintaining neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the developing brain. Activation of the pathway is sufficient to maintain NPCs, whereas loss-of-function mutations in the critical components of the pathway cause precocious neuronal differentiation and NPC depletion. Hairy and Enhancer of split (Hes)-type transcription factors have long been thought to be the only Notch effectors for the maintenance of NPCs. Recently, a novel nuclear protein, Nepro, has been identified as another critical effector of Notch. The Notch pathway is bifurcated into Nepro and Hes-type proteins in the early development of the neocortex. The combination of Nepro and Hes-type proteins is necessary and sufficient for maintaining NPCs downstream of Notch.

  18. Measuring Process Dynamics and Nuclear Migration for Clones of Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    De La Hoz, Edgar Cardenas; Winter, Mark R.; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Temple, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) generate processes that extend from the cell body in a dynamic manner. The NPC nucleus migrates along these processes with patterns believed to be tightly coupled to mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and cell fate determination. Here, we describe a new segmentation and tracking approach that allows NPC processes and nuclei to be reliably tracked across multiple rounds of cell division in phase-contrast microscopy images. Results are presented for mouse adult and embryonic NPCs from hundreds of clones, or lineage trees, containing tens of thousands of cells and millions of segmentations. New visualization approaches allow the NPC nuclear and process features to be effectively visualized for an entire clone. Significant differences in process and nuclear dynamics were found among type A and type C adult NPCs, and also between embryonic NPCs cultured from the anterior and posterior cerebral cortex. PMID:27878138

  19. Molecular signatures associated with ZIKV exposure in human cortical neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feiran; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C.; Cheng, Yichen; Lee, Emily M.; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Xu, Miao; Xu, Tianlei; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhiqin; Feng, Hao; Huang, Wei-Kai; Yoon, Ki-jun; Shan, Chao; Huang, Luoxiu; Qin, Zhaohui; Christian, Kimberly M.; Shi, Pei-Yong; Xu, Mingjiang; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Hao; Song, Hongjun; Tang, Hengli; Ming, Guo-Li; Jin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes microcephaly and has been linked to other brain abnormalities. How ZIKV impairs brain development and function is unclear. Here we systematically profiled transcriptomes of human neural progenitor cells exposed to Asian ZIKVC, African ZIKVM, and dengue virus (DENV). In contrast to the robust global transcriptome changes induced by DENV, ZIKV has a more selective and larger impact on expression of genes involved in DNA replication and repair. While overall expression profiles are similar, ZIKVC, but not ZIKVM, induces upregulation of viral response genes and TP53. P53 inhibitors can block the apoptosis induced by both ZIKVC and ZIKVM in hNPCs, with higher potency against ZIKVC-induced apoptosis. Our analyses reveal virus- and strain-specific molecular signatures associated with ZIKV infection. These datasets will help to investigate ZIKV-host interactions and identify neurovirulence determinants of ZIKV. PMID:27580721

  20. Transplantation of enteric neural stem/progenitor cells into the irradiated young mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ahmed M; Zhou, Kai; Zhu, Changlian; Blomgren, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for brain tumors but often results in cognitive deficits in survivors. Transplantation of embryonic or brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (BNSPCs) ameliorated cognitive impairment after irradiation (IR) in animal models. However, such an approach in patients requires a clinically relevant source of cells. We show for the first time the utilization of enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSPCs) from the postnatal intestinal wall as a source of autologous cells for brain repair after injury caused by IR. Cells were isolated from the intestinal wall and propagated in vitro for 1 week. Differentiation assays showed that ENSPCs are multipotent and generated neurons, astrocytes, and myofibroblasts. To investigate whether ENSPCs can be used in vivo, postnatal day 9 mice were subjected to a single moderate irradiation dose (6 or 8 Gy). Twelve days later, mice received an intrahippocampal injection of syngeneic ENSPCs. Four weeks after transplantation, 0.5% and 1% of grafted ENSPCs were detected in the dentate gyrus of sham and irradiated animals, respectively, and only 0.1% was detected after 16 weeks. Grafted ENSPCs remained undifferentiated but failed to restore IR-induced loss of BNSPCs and the subsequent impaired growth of the dentate gyrus. We observed microglia activation, astrogliosis, and loss of granule neurons associated with grafted ENSPC clusters. Transplantation of ENSPCs did not ameliorate IR-induced impaired learning and memory. In summary, while autologous ENSPC grafting to the brain worked technically, even in the absence of immunosuppression, the protocols need to be modified to improve survival and integration.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stromal Cells-derived Human Umbilical Cord Blood Neural Progenitor Cells in EAE.

    PubMed

    Rafieemehr, Hassan; Kheyrandish, Maryam; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of transplanted human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (UCB-MSC) derived neural progenitor cell (MDNPC) in EAE, an experimental model of MS. To initiate neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs, the pre-induction medium was removed and replaced with induction media containing retinoic acid, b FGF, h EGF, NGF, IBMX and ascorbic acid for one week. The expression of neural genes was examined in comparison to control group by real-time PCR assay. Then, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, 35-55 peptides) in 24 C57BL/6 mice. After induction, the mice were divided in four groups (n=6) as follows: healthy, PBS, UCB-MSCs and MDNPC, respectively. At the end of the study, disease status in all the groups was analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining of brain sections. We found that UCB-MSCs exhibit neuronal differentiation potential in vitro and transplanted MDNPC lowered clinical score and reduced CNS leukocyte infiltration compared to untreated mice. Our results showed that MDNPC from UCB may be a proper candidate for regenerative therapy in MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. HIV-1 alters neural and glial progenitor cell dynamics in the central nervous system: coordinated response to opiates during maturation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yun Kyung; Podhaizer, Elizabeth M; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2012-12-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are common sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, even when viral titers are well controlled by antiretroviral therapy. Evidence in patients and animal models suggests that neurologic deficits are increased during chronic opiate exposure. We have hypothesized that central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells in both adult and developing CNS are affected by HIV infection and that opiates exacerbate these effects. To examine this question, neural progenitors were exposed to HIV-1 Tat(1-86) in the developing brain of inducible transgenic mice and in vitro. We examined whether Tat affected the proliferation or balance of progenitor populations expressing nestin, Sox2, and Olig2. Disease relevance was further tested by exposing human-derived progenitors to supernatant from HIV-1 infected monocytes. Studies concentrated on striatum, a region preferentially targeted by HIV and opiates. Results were similar among experimental paradigms. Tat or HIV exposure reduced the proliferation of undifferentiated (Sox2(+)) progenitors and oligodendroglial (Olig2(+)) progenitors. Coexposure to morphine exacerbated the effects of Tat or HIV-1(SF162) supernatant, but partially reversed HIV-1(IIIB) supernatant effects. Populations of Sox2(+) and Olig2(+) cells were also reduced by Tat exposure, although progenitor survival was unaffected. In rare instances, p24 immunolabeling was detected in viable human progenitors by confocal imaging. The vulnerability of progenitors is likely to distort the dynamic balance among neuron/glial populations as the brain matures, perhaps contributing to reports that neurologic disease is especially prevalent in pediatric HIV patients. Pediatric disease is atypical in developed regions but remains a serious concern in resource-limited areas where infection occurs commonly at birth and through breast feeding.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling Supports the Neural Crest Origin of Adult Rodent Carotid Body Stem Cells and Identifies CD10 as a Marker for Mesectoderm-Committed Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guerrero, Elena; Platero-Luengo, Aida; Linares-Clemente, Pedro; Cases, Ildefonso; López-Barneo, José; Pardal, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are promising tools for understanding nervous system plasticity and repair, but their use is hampered by the lack of markers suitable for their prospective isolation and characterization. The carotid body (CB) contains a population of peripheral NSCs, which support organ growth during acclimatization to hypoxia. We have set up CB neurosphere (NS) cultures enriched in differentiated neuronal (glomus) cells versus undifferentiated progenitors to investigate molecular hallmarks of cell classes within the CB stem cell (CBSC) niche. Microarray gene expression analysis in NS is compatible with CBSCs being neural crest derived-multipotent progenitor cells able to sustain CB growth upon exposure to hypoxia. Moreover, we have identified CD10 as a marker suitable for isolation of a population of CB mesectoderm-committed progenitor cells. CD10 + cells are resting in normoxia, and during hypoxia they are activated to proliferate and to eventually complete maturation into mesectodermal cells, thus participating in the angiogenesis necessary for CB growth. Our results shed light into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in CBSC fate choice, favoring a potential use of these cells for cell therapy. Stem Cells 2016;34:1637-1650.

  4. Inducible expression of noggin selectively expands neural progenitors in the adult SVZ.

    PubMed

    Morell, M; Tsan, Yao-chang; O'Shea, K Sue

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent, self-renewing stem cells are present throughout the developing nervous system remaining in discrete regions of the adult brain. In the subventricular zone (SVZ) signaling molecules, including the bone morphogenetic proteins and their secreted inhibitor, noggin appear to play a critical role in controlling neural stem cell (NSC) behavior. To examine the function of this signaling pathway in the intact nervous system, we developed a transgenic mouse model in which noggin expression can be induced specifically in NSC via a nestin-driven reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA). In adult animals, the induction of noggin expression promotes the proliferation of neural progenitors in the SVZ, and shifts the differentiation of B cells (NSC) from mature astrocytes to transit amplifying C cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells without depleting the NSC population. Noggin expression significantly increases neuronal and oligodendrocyte differentiation both in vivo and in vitro when NSCs are grown as neurospheres. These results demonstrate that noggin/BMP interactions tightly control cell fate in the SVZ.

  5. Defining the role of oxygen tension in human neural progenitor fate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Ying; Gaeta, Xavier; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Cinkornpumin, Jessica; Koehler, Carla M; Malone, Cindy S; Teitell, Michael A; Lowry, William E

    2014-11-11

    Hypoxia augments human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal via hypoxia-inducible factor 2α-activated OCT4 transcription. Hypoxia also increases the efficiency of reprogramming differentiated cells to a pluripotent-like state. Combined, these findings suggest that low O2 tension would impair the purposeful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Here, we show that low O2 tension and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity instead promote appropriate hESC differentiation. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, we implicate O2 tension as a modifier of a key cell fate decision, namely whether neural progenitors differentiate toward neurons or glia. Furthermore, our data show that even transient changes in O2 concentration can affect cell fate through HIF by regulating the activity of MYC, a regulator of LIN28/let-7 that is critical for fate decisions in the neural lineage. We also identify key small molecules that can take advantage of this pathway to quickly and efficiently promote the development of mature cell types.

  6. Survivin Improves Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Neural Progenitors by Single Molecule OCT4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinan; Feng, Ruopeng; Wang, Caiyun; Jiang, Sibo; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four Yamanaka factors. Here, we report that Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor, can enhance iPS cells generation from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) together with one factor OCT4 (1F-OCT4-Survivin). Compared with 1F-OCT4, Survivin accelerates the process of reprogramming from human NPCs. The neurocyte-originated induced pluripotent stem (NiPS) cells generated from 1F-OCT4-Survivin resemble human embryonic stem (hES) cells in morphology, surface markers, global gene expression profiling, and epigenetic status. Survivin keeps high expression in both iPS and ES cells. During the process of NiPS cell to neural cell differentiation, the expression of Survivin is rapidly decreased in protein level. The mechanism of Survivin promotion of reprogramming efficiency from NPCs may be associated with stabilization of β-catenin in WNT signaling pathway. This hypothesis is supported by experiments of RT-PCR, chromatin immune-precipitation, and Western blot in human ES cells. Our results showed overexpression of Survivin could improve the efficiency of reprogramming from NPCs to iPS cells by one factor OCT4 through stabilization of the key molecule, β-catenin. PMID:27974895

  7. SDF-1/CXCR4 Signaling Maintains Stemness Signature in Mouse Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Thai-Yen; Lin, Hsing-Yu; Liou, Jeffrey Tsai-Jui; Liu, Fei-Chih; Chen, I-Chun; Lee, Sue-Wei; Hsu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    SDF-1 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, are highly expressed in the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) and play a crucial role in brain architecture. Loss of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling causes abnormal development of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and cortex. However, the mechanism of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in NSCs/NPCs regulation remains unknown. In this study, we found that elimination of SDF-1/CXCR4 transduction caused NSCs/NPCs to lose their stemness characteristics and to encounter neurogenic differentiation. Moreover, Notch and RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) both play an essential role in NSCs/NPCs maintenance and neuronal differentiation and were dramatically downregulated following SDF-1/CXCR4 cascade inhibition. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1), a proneural gene, and p27, an antiproliferative gene, were significantly increased after genetic elimination of SDF-1 alleles. Our results support that the loss of functional SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway in NSCs/NPCs induces exit of cell cycle and promotes premature neural differentiation.

  8. beta-Chemokine production by neural and glial progenitor cells is enhanced by HIV-1 Tat: effects on microglial migration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yun Kyung; Vo, Phu; Fitting, Sylvia; Block, Michelle L; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2010-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 neuropathology results from collective effects of viral proteins and inflammatory mediators on several cell types. Significant damage is mediated indirectly through inflammatory conditions promulgated by glial cells, including microglia that are productively infected by HIV-1, and astroglia. Neural and glial progenitors exist in both developing and adult brains. To determine whether progenitors are targets of HIV-1, a multi-plex assay was performed to assess chemokine/cytokine expression after treatment with viral proteins transactivator of transcription (Tat) or glycoprotein 120 (gp120). In the initial screen, ten analytes were basally released by murine striatal progenitors. The beta-chemokines CCL5/regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta were increased by 12-h exposure to HIV-1 Tat. Secreted factors from Tat-treated progenitors were chemoattractive towards microglia, an effect blocked by 2D7 anti-CCR5 antibody pre-treatment. Tat and opiates have interactive effects on astroglial chemokine secretion, but this interaction did not occur in progenitors. gp120 did not affect chemokine/cytokine release, although both CCR5 and CXCR4, which serve as gp120 co-receptors, were detected in progenitors. We postulate that chemokine production by progenitors may be a normal, adaptive process that encourages immune inspection of newly generated cells. Pathogens such as HIV might usurp this function to create a maladaptive state, especially during development or regeneration, when progenitors are numerous.

  9. Stem/progenitor cells: a potential source of retina-specific cells for retinal repair.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yong-Yan; Feng, Dong-Fu; Pan, Dong-Chao

    2009-11-01

    Retinal injury generally results in permanent visual disturbance or even blindness. Any effort to restore vision in such condition would require replacement of the highly specialized retinal cells. Stem/progenitor cells have been proposed as a potential source of new retina-specific cells to replace those lost due to retina injury. Evidence to date suggests that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for retina injury. A wide range of stem/progenitor cells from various sources is currently being investigated for the treatment of retinal injury. This article reviews the recent achievements about stem/progenitor cell source for retinal repair.

  10. Integration of signals along orthogonal axes of the vertebrate neural tube controls progenitor competence and increases cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

    2014-07-01

    A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling.

  11. Adult human brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and fibroblast-like cells have similar properties in vitro but only NPCs differentiate into neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas In-Hyeup; Monzo, Hector; Mee, Edward W; Bergin, Peter S; Teoh, Hoon H; Montgomery, Johanna M; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC) culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP) of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia), and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs). These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5-6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting AhNPC-based experiments.

  12. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  13. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Franco, Paula G; Pasquini, Juana M; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  14. Optimizing Culture Medium Composition to Improve Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Yields In Vitro from Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Paula G.; Pasquini, Juana M.; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC. PMID:25837625

  15. Neural and glial progenitor transplantation as a neuroprotective strategy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Haidet-Phillips, Amanda M; Maragakis, Nicholas J

    2015-12-02

    ALS is a neurodegenerative disease with a prevalence rate of up to 7.4/100,000 and the overall risk of developing ALS over a lifetime is 1:400. Most patients die from respiratory failure following a course of progressive weakness. To date, only one traditional pharmaceutical agent-riluzole, has been shown to afford a benefit on survival but numerous pharmaceutical interventions have been studied in preclinical models of ALS without subsequent translation to patient efficacy. Despite the relative selectivity of motor neuron cell death, animal and tissue culture models of familial ALS suggest that non-neuronal cells significantly contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death. Early efforts to transplant stem cells had focused on motor neuron replacement. More practically for this aggressive neurodegenerative disease, recent studies, preclinical efforts, and early clinical trials have focused on the transplantation of neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or glial progenitors. Using transgenic mouse or rat models of ALS, a number of studies have shown neuroprotection through a variety of different mechanisms that have included neurotrophic factor secretion, glutamate transporter regulation, and modulation of neuroinflammation, among others. However, given that cell replacement could involve a number of biologically relevant factors, identifying the key pathway(s) that may contribute to neuroprotection remains a challenge. Nevertheless, given the abundant data supporting the interplay between non-neuronal cell types and motor neuron disease propagation, the replacement of disease-carrying host cells by normal cells may be sufficient to confer neuroprotection. Key preclinical issues that currently are being addressed include the most appropriate methods and routes for delivery of cells to disease-relevant regions of the neuraxis, cell survival and migration, and tracking the cells following transplantation. Central to the initial development of stem cell

  16. Neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation for spinal cord injury treatment; A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yousefifard, M; Rahimi-Movaghar, V; Nasirinezhad, F; Baikpour, M; Safari, S; Saadat, S; Moghadas Jafari, A; Asady, H; Razavi Tousi, S M T; Hosseini, M

    2016-05-13

    Despite the vast improvements of cell therapy in spinal cord injury treatment, no optimum protocol has been developed for application of neural stem/progenitor cells. In this regard, the present meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation depends mainly on injury model, intervention phase, transplanted cell count, immunosuppressive use, and probably stem cell source. Improved functional recovery post NSPC transplantation was found to be higher in transection and contusion models. Moreover, NSPC transplantation in acute phase of spinal injury was found to have better functional recovery. Higher doses (>3×10(6)cell/kg) were also shown to be optimum for transplantation, but immunosuppressive agent administration negatively affected the motor function recovery. Scaffold use in NSPC transplantation could also effectively raise functional recovery.

  17. Self-renewal and differentiation of reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the cortical peri-infarct area after stroke.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Issei S; LeComte, Matthew D; Granger, Jerrica C; Quinlan, Noah J; Spees, Jeffrey L

    2012-06-06

    In response to stroke, subpopulations of cortical reactive astrocytes proliferate and express proteins commonly associated with neural stem/progenitor cells such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Nestin. To examine the stem cell-related properties of cortical reactive astrocytes after injury, we generated GFAP-CreER(TM);tdRFP mice to permanently label reactive astrocytes. We isolated cells from the cortical peri-infarct area 3 d after stroke, and cultured them in neural stem cell medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. We observed tdRFP-positive neural spheres in culture, suggestive of tdRFP-positive reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (Rad-NSCs). Cultured Rad-NSCs self-renewed and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Pharmacological inhibition and conditional knock-out mouse studies showed that Presenilin 1 and Notch 1 controlled neural sphere formation by Rad-NSCs after stroke. To examine the self-renewal and differentiation potential of Rad-NSCs in vivo, Rad-NSCs were transplanted into embryonic, neonatal, and adult mouse brains. Transplanted Rad-NSCs were observed to persist in the subventricular zone and secondary Rad-NSCs were isolated from the host brain 28 d after transplantation. In contrast with neurogenic postnatal day 4 NSCs and adult NSCs from the subventricular zone, transplanted Rad-NSCs differentiated into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, demonstrating that Rad-NSCs had restricted differentiation in vivo. Our results indicate that Rad-NSCs are unlikely to be suitable for neuronal replacement in the absence of genetic or epigenetic modification.

  18. The Interleukin 3 Gene (IL3) Contributes to Human Brain Volume Variation by Regulating Proliferation and Survival of Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang; Nho, Kwangsik; Deng, Min; Chen, Qiang; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Rijpkema, Mark; Mattay, Venkata S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Fernández, Guillén; Franke, Barbara; Chen, Jing-chun; Chen, Xiang-ning; Wang, Jin-kai; Xiao, Xiao; Qi, Xue-bin; Xiang, Kun; Peng, Ying-Mei; Cao, Xiang-yu; Li, Yi; Shi, Xiao-dong; Gan, Lin; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant evolutionary changes underlying the highly developed cognitive abilities of humans is the greatly enlarged brain volume. In addition to being far greater than in most other species, the volume of the human brain exhibits extensive variation and distinct sexual dimorphism in the general population. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying normal variation as well as the observed sex difference in human brain volume. Here we show that interleukin-3 (IL3) is strongly associated with brain volume variation in four genetically divergent populations. We identified a sequence polymorphism (rs31480) in the IL3 promoter which alters the expression of IL3 by affecting the binding affinity of transcription factor SP1. Further analysis indicated that IL3 and its receptors are continuously expressed in the developing mouse brain, reaching highest levels at postnatal day 1–4. Furthermore, we found IL3 receptor alpha (IL3RA) was mainly expressed in neural progenitors and neurons, and IL3 could promote proliferation and survival of the neural progenitors. The expression level of IL3 thus played pivotal roles in the expansion and maintenance of the neural progenitor pool and the number of surviving neurons. Moreover, we found that IL3 activated both estrogen receptors, but estrogen didn’t directly regulate the expression of IL3. Our results demonstrate that genetic variation in the IL3 promoter regulates human brain volume and reveals novel roles of IL3 in regulating brain development. PMID:23226269

  19. Changes in metabolic proteins in ex vivo rat retina during glutamate-induced neural progenitor cell induction.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Baron, Byron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how energy metabolism and related proteins influence neural progenitor cells in adult tissues is critical for developing new strategies in clinical tissue regeneration therapy. We have recently reported that a subtoxic concentration of glutamate-induced neural progenitor cells in the mature ex vivo rat retina. We herein explore changes in the metabolic pathways during the process. We firstly observed an increase in lactate and lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the glutamate-treated retina. We then investigated the levels of glycolytic enzymes and confirmed significant upregulation of pyruvate kinase M type (PKM), especially PKM2, enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), and inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH1) in the glutamate-treated retina compared to the untreated retina. An analysis of the subcellular localization of PKM2 revealed nuclear translocation in the treated retina, which has been reported to regulate cell cycle proliferation and glycolytic enzymes. Our findings indicate that the mature rat retina undergoes an increase in aerobic glycolysis. PKM2, both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, may thus play an important role during neural progenitor cell induction, as it does in other proliferating cells.

  20. Disruption of neural progenitors along the ventricular and subventricular zones in periventricular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, Russell J.; Batiz, Luis Federico; Neal, Jason; Lian, Gewei; Bundock, Elizabeth; Lu, Jie; Hsiao, Yi-Chun; Diamond, Rachel; Mei, Davide; Banham, Alison H.; Brown, Philip J.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Joseph, Jeffrey; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Folkerth, Rebecca; Guerrini, Renzo; Walsh, Christopher A.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.; Sheen, Volney L.

    2009-01-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a disorder characterized by neuronal nodules, ectopically positioned along the lateral ventricles of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in either of two human genes, Filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2), cause PH (Fox et al. in ‘Mutations in filamin 1 prevent migration of cerebral cortical neurons in human periventricular heterotopia'. Neuron, 21, 1315–1325, 1998; Sheen et al. in ‘Mutations in ARFGEF2 implicate vesicle trafficking in neural progenitor proliferation and migration in the human cerebral cortex'. Nat. Genet., 36, 69–76, 2004). Recent studies have shown that mutations in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-4 (Mekk4), an indirect interactor with FlnA, also lead to periventricular nodule formation in mice (Sarkisian et al. in ‘MEKK4 signaling regulates filamin expression and neuronal migration'. Neuron, 52, 789–801, 2006). Here we show that neurons in post-mortem human PH brains migrated appropriately into the cortex, that periventricular nodules were primarily composed of later-born neurons, and that the neuroependyma was disrupted in all PH cases. As studied in the mouse, loss of FlnA or Big2 function in neural precursors impaired neuronal migration from the germinal zone, disrupted cell adhesion and compromised neuroepithelial integrity. Finally, the hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mouse, which harbors a mutation in Napa [encoding N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein alpha (α-SNAP)], also develops a progressive denudation of the neuroepithelium, leading to periventicular nodule formation. Previous studies have shown that Arfgef2 and Napa direct vesicle trafficking and fusion, whereas FlnA associates dynamically with the Golgi membranes during budding and trafficking of transport vesicles. Our current findings suggest that PH formation arises from a final common pathway involving disruption of vesicle trafficking, leading to impaired cell

  1. Neural Dynamics Underlying Event-Related Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ankoor S.; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Ding, Ming-Zhou; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Ulbert, Istvan; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    There are two opposing hypotheses about the brain mechanisms underlying sensory event-related potentials (ERPs). One holds that sensory ERPs are generated by phase resetting of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and the other that they result from signal averaging of stimulus-evoked neural responses. We tested several contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by direct intracortical analysis of neural activity in monkeys. Our findings clearly demonstrate evoked response contributions to the sensory ERP in the monkey, and they suggest the likelihood that a mixed (Evoked/Phase Resetting) model may account for the generation of scalp ERPs in humans.

  2. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  3. Methylglyoxal Causes Cell Death in Neural Progenitor Cells and Impairs Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yujeong; Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-04-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is formed during normal metabolism by processes like glycolysis, lipid peroxidation, and threonine catabolism, and its accumulation is associated with various degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and arterial atherogenesis. Furthermore, MG has also been reported to have toxic effects on hippocampal neurons. However, these effects have not been studied in the context of neurogenesis. Here, we report that MG adversely affects hippocampal neurogenesis and induces neural progenitor cell (NPC) death. MG significantly reduced C17.2 NPC proliferation, and high concentration of MG (500 μM) induced cell death and elevated oxidative stress. Further, MG was found to activate the ERK signaling pathway, indicating elevated stress response. To determine the effects of MG in vivo, mice were administrated with vehicle or MG (0.5 or 1 % in drinking water) for 4 weeks. The numbers of BrdU-positive cells in hippocampi were significantly lower in MG-treated mice, indicating impaired neurogenesis, but MG did not induce neuronal damage or glial activations. Interestingly, MG reduced memory retention when administered to mice at 1 % but not at 0.5 %. In addition, the levels of hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin were significantly lower in the hippocampi of mice treated with MG at 1 %. Collectively, our findings suggest MG could be harmful to NPCs and to hippocampal neurogenesis.

  4. Differential Expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 During Human Fetal Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Kolb, Ryan; Kennedy, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α, CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 play an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) development and adulthood by mediating cell migration, enhancing precursor cell proliferation, assisting in neuronal circuit formation, and possibly regulating migration during repair. The expression pattern of CXCR4 and CXCL12 during neurogenesis has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 during neural progenitor cells (NPC) differentiation by microarray analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using human fetal NPC as a model system. The production of CXCL12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CXCR4 expression was determined by florescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, immunocytochemical staining, and CXCR4-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. Our data demonstrated that CXCR4 expression is significantly upregulated when NPC are differentiated into neuronal precursors, whereas CXCL12 is upregulated when differentiated into astrocytes. We also provide evidence that CXCR4 localization changes as neurons mature. In neuronal precursors, CXCR4 is localized in both neuronal processes and the cell body, whereas in mature neurons, it is primarily expressed on axons and dendrites. This differential expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 may be important for the temporal regulation of neuronal migration and circuit formation during development and possibly in adult neurogenesis and repair. PMID:18040858

  5. The effect of interferon-{beta} on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Marek; Knight, Julia; Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2009-10-16

    Interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-{beta} on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-{beta} has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-{beta} and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFN{alpha}/{beta} receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-{beta} treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-{beta} treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-{beta} treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-{beta} can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  6. The Lysine Acetyltransferase Activator Brpf1 Governs Dentate Gyrus Development through Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    You, Linya; Yan, Kezhi; Zhou, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hong; Bertos, Nicholas R.; Park, Morag; Wang, Edwin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis. PMID:25757017

  7. Zika virus infection induces mitosis abnormalities and apoptotic cell death of human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Bruno S. F.; Sampaio, Gabriela L. A.; Pereira, Ciro S.; Campos, Gubio S.; Sardi, Silvia I.; Freitas, Luiz A. R.; Figueira, Claudio P.; Paredes, Bruno D.; Nonaka, Carolina K. V.; Azevedo, Carine M.; Rocha, Vinicius P. C.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena B. P.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with severe complications both in the developing and adult nervous system. To investigate the deleterious effects of ZIKV infection, we used human neural progenitor cells (NPC), derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). We found that NPC are highly susceptible to ZIKV and the infection results in cell death. ZIKV infection led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation, ultrastructural alterations and induction of autophagy. Induction of apoptosis of Sox2+ cells was demonstrated by activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9, and by ultrastructural and flow cytometry analyses. ZIKV-induced death of Sox2+ cells was prevented by incubation with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. By confocal microscopy analysis we found an increased number of cells with supernumerary centrosomes. Live imaging showed a significant increase in mitosis abnormalities, including multipolar spindle, chromosome laggards, micronuclei and death of progeny after cell division. FISH analysis for chromosomes 12 and 17 showed increased frequency of aneuploidy, such as monosomy, trisomy and polyploidy. Our study reinforces the link between ZIKV and abnormalities in the developing human brain, including microcephaly. PMID:28008958

  8. CXCR4/CXCR7 molecular involvement in neuronal and neural progenitor migration: focus in CNS repair.

    PubMed

    Merino, José Joaquín; Bellver-Landete, Victor; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús; Cubelos, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    In the adult brain, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. Following CNS insult, NPCs from the SVZ can migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a migration of NPCs that is directed by proinflammatory cytokines. Cells expressing CXCR4 follow a homing signal that ultimately leads to neuronal integration and CNS repair, although such molecules can also promote NPC quiescence. The ligand, SDF1 alpha (or CXCL12) is one of the chemokines secreted at sites of injury that it is known to attract NSC-derived neuroblasts, cells that express CXCR4. In function of its concentration, CXCL12 can induce different responses, promoting NPC migration at low concentrations while favoring cell adhesion via EGF and the alpha 6 integrin at high CXCL12 concentrations. However, the preclinical effectiveness of chemokines and their relationship with NPC mobilization requires further study, particularly with respect to CNS repair. NPC migration may also be affected by the release of cytokines or chemokines induced by local inflammation, through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, as well as through erythropoietin (EPO) or nitric oxide (NO) release. CXCL12 activity requires G-coupled proteins and the availability of its ligand may be modulated by its binding to CXCR7, for which it shows a stronger affinity than for CXCR4.

  9. CXCL12-mediated murine neural progenitor cell movement requires PI3Kβ activation.

    PubMed

    Holgado, Borja L; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Sánchez-Alcañiz, Juan Antonio; Lucas, Pilar; Pérez-García, Vicente; Pérez, Gema; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Nieto, Marta; Marín, Oscar; Carrasco, Yolanda R; Carrera, Ana C; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Mellado, Mario

    2013-08-01

    The migratory route of neural progenitor/precursor cells (NPC) has a central role in central nervous system development. Although the role of the chemokine CXCL12 in NPC migration has been described, the intracellular signaling cascade involved remains largely unclear. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms that promote murine NPC migration in response to CXCL12, in vitro and ex vivo. Migration was highly dependent on signaling by the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4. Although the JAK/STAT pathway was activated following CXCL12 stimulation of NPC, JAK activity was not necessary for NPC migration in vitro. Whereas CXCL12 activated the PI3K catalytic subunits p110α and p110β in NPC, only p110β participated in CXCL12-mediated NPC migration. Ex vivo experiments using organotypic slice cultures showed that p110β blockade impaired NPC exit from the medial ganglionic eminence. In vivo experiments using in utero electroporation nonetheless showed that p110β is dispensable for radial migration of pyramidal neurons. We conclude that PI3K p110β is activated in NPC in response to CXCL12, and its activity is necessary for immature interneuron migration to the cerebral cortex.

  10. Characterization and Molecular Profiling of PSEN1 Familial Alzheimer's Disease iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sproul, Andrew A.; Jacob, Samson; Pre, Deborah; Kim, Soong Ho; Nestor, Michael W.; Navarro-Sobrino, Miriam; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Zimmer, Matthew; Aubry, Soline; Steele, John W.; Kahler, David J.; Dranovsky, Alex; Arancio, Ottavio; Crary, John F.; Gandy, Sam; Noggle, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes. PMID:24416243

  11. Reduced CYFIP1 in Human Neural Progenitors Results in Dysregulation of Schizophrenia and Epilepsy Gene Networks.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Rebecca A; Zhao, Dejian; Pedrosa, Erika; Kirschen, Jill; Lachman, Herbert M; Zheng, Deyou; Abrahams, Brett S

    2016-01-01

    Deletions encompassing the BP1-2 region at 15q11.2 increase schizophrenia and epilepsy risk, but only some carriers have either disorder. To investigate the role of CYFIP1, a gene within the region, we performed knockdown experiments in human neural progenitors derived from donors with 2 copies of each gene at the BP1-2 locus. RNA-seq and cellular assays determined that knockdown of CYFIP1 compromised cytoskeletal remodeling. FMRP targets and postsynaptic density genes, each implicated in schizophrenia, were significantly overrepresented among differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Schizophrenia and/or epilepsy genes, but not those associated with randomly selected disorders, were likewise significantly overrepresented. Mirroring the variable expressivity seen in deletion carriers, marked between-line differences were observed for dysregulation of disease genes. Finally, a subset of DEGs showed a striking similarity to known epilepsy genes and represents novel disease candidates. Results support a role for CYFIP1 in disease and demonstrate that disease-related biological signatures are apparent prior to neuronal differentiation.

  12. Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Stabilize the Cortical Microenvironment after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Kirsty J.; Theus, Michelle H.; Nelersa, Claudiu M.; Mier, Jose; Travieso, Lissette G.; Yu, Tzong-Shiue; Kernie, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although a myriad of pathological responses contribute to traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebral dysfunction has been closely linked to cell death mechanisms. A number of therapeutic strategies have been studied in an attempt to minimize or ameliorate tissue damage; however, few studies have evaluated the inherent protective capacity of the brain. Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside in distinct brain regions and have been shown to respond to tissue damage by migrating to regions of injury. Until now, it remained unknown whether these cells have the capacity to promote endogenous repair. We ablated NSPCs in the subventricular zone to examine their contribution to the injury microenvironment after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Studies were performed in transgenic mice expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene under the control of the nestinδ promoter exposed to CCI injury. Two weeks after CCI injury, mice deficient in NSPCs had reduced neuronal survival in the perilesional cortex and fewer Iba-1-positive and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive glial cells but increased glial hypertrophy at the injury site. These findings suggest that the presence of NSPCs play a supportive role in the cortex to promote neuronal survival and glial cell expansion after TBI injury, which corresponds with improvements in motor function. We conclude that enhancing this endogenous response may have acute protective roles after TBI. PMID:25290253

  13. Intraspinal transplantation of GABAergic neural progenitors attenuates neuropathic pain in rats: a pharmacologic and neurophysiological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jergova, Stanislava; Hentall, Ian D.; Gajavelli, Shyam; Varghese, Mathew S.; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory neurotransmission is hypothesized to underlie chronic neuropathic pain. Intraspinal transplantation of GABAergic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may reduce neuropathic pain by restoring dorsal horn inhibition. Rat NPCs pre-differentiated to a GABAergic phenotype were transplanted into the dorsal horn of rats with unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. GABA signaling in antinociceptive effects of NPC grafts was tested with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC), GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (CGP) and GABA reuptake inhibitor SKF 89976A (SKF). NPC-treated animals showed decreased hyperalgesia and allodynia 1-3 week post-transplantation; vehicle-injected CCI rats continued displaying pain behaviors. Intrathecal application of BIC or CGP attenuated the antinociceptive effects of the NPC transplants while SKF injection induced analgesia in control rats. Electrophysiological recordings in NPC treated rats showed reduced responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons to peripheral stimulation compared to controls. A spinal application of BIC or CGP increased wind-up response and post-discharges of WDR neurons in NPC treated animals. Results suggest that transplantation of GABAergic NPCs attenuate pain behaviors and reduce exaggerated dorsal horn neuronal firing induced by CCI. The effects of GABA receptor inhibitors suggest participation of continuously released GABA in the grafted animals. PMID:22193109

  14. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuping; Shan, Ge; Guo, Weixiang; Smrt, Richard D; Johnson, Eric B; Li, Xuekun; Pfeiffer, Rebecca L; Szulwach, Keith E; Duan, Ranhui; Barkho, Basam Z; Li, Wendi; Liu, Changmei; Jin, Peng; Zhao, Xinyu

    2010-04-08

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs). We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  15. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits adhesion and migration of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barenys, Marta; Gassmann, Kathrin; Baksmeier, Christine; Heinz, Sabrina; Reverte, Ingrid; Schmuck, Martin; Temme, Thomas; Bendt, Farina; Zschauer, Tim-Christian; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Unfried, Klaus; Wätjen, Wim; Sundaram, Sivaraj Mohana; Heuer, Heike; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Fritsche, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Food supplements based on herbal products are widely used during pregnancy as part of a self-care approach. The idea that such supplements are safe and healthy is deeply seated in the general population, although they do not underlie the same strict safety regulations than medical drugs. We aimed to characterize the neurodevelopmental effects of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is now commercialized as high-dose food supplement. We used the "Neurosphere Assay" to study the effects and unravel underlying molecular mechanisms of EGCG treatment on human and rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) development in vitro. EGCG alters human and rat NPC development in vitro. It disturbs migration distance, migration pattern, and nuclear density of NPCs growing as neurospheres. These functional impairments are initiated by EGCG binding to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein laminin, preventing its binding to β1-integrin subunits, thereby prohibiting cell adhesion and resulting in altered glia alignment and decreased number of migrating young neurons. Our data raise a concern on the intake of high-dose EGCG food supplements during pregnancy and highlight the need of an in vivo characterization of the effects of high-dose EGCG exposure during neurodevelopment.

  16. Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lages, Yury M.; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Lemos, Gabriela A.; Galina, Antonio; Castilho, Leda R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen concentration should be carefully regulated in all living tissues, beginning at the early embryonic stages. Unbalances in oxygen regulation can lead to cell death and disease. However, to date, few studies have investigated the consequences of variations in oxygen levels for fetal-like cells. Therefore, in the present work, human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells grown in 3% oxygen (v/v) were compared with NPCs cultured in 21% (v/v) oxygen. Low oxygen concentrations altered the mitochondrial content and oxidative functions of the cells, which led to improved ATP production, while reducing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NPCs cultured in both conditions showed no differences in proliferation and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymatic activity was not altered in NPCs cultured in 3% oxygen under normal conditions, however, when exposed to external agents known to induce oxidative stress, greater susceptibility to DNA damage was observed. Our findings indicate that the management of oxygen levels should be considered for in vitro models of neuronal development and drug screening. PMID:26713239

  17. Permeability transition pore-mediated mitochondrial superoxide flashes regulate cortical neural progenitor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan; Mattson, Mark P; Cheng, Aiwu

    2013-01-01

    In the process of neurogenesis, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) cease dividing and differentiate into postmitotic neurons that grow dendrites and an axon, become excitable, and establish synapses with other neurons. Mitochondrial biogenesis and aerobic metabolism provide energy substrates required to support the differentiation, growth and synaptic activity of neurons. Mitochondria may also serve signaling functions and, in this regard, it was recently reported that mitochondria can generate rapid bursts of superoxide (superoxide flashes), the frequency of which changes in response to environmental conditions and signals including oxygen levels and Ca(2+) fluxes. Here we show that the frequency of mitochondrial superoxide flashes increases as embryonic cerebral cortical neurons differentiate from NPCs, and provide evidence that the superoxide flashes serve a signaling function that is critical for the differentiation process. The superoxide flashes are mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and pharmacological inhibition of the mPTP suppresses neuronal differentiation. Moreover, superoxide flashes and neuronal differentiation are inhibited by scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide. Conversely, manipulations that increase superoxide flash frequency accelerate neuronal differentiation. Our findings reveal a regulatory role for mitochondrial superoxide flashes, mediated by mPTP opening, in neuronal differentiation.

  18. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, BE; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, BC; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, CN; Wolfe, JH; Fischbeck, KH; Pierson, TM

    2016-01-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone’s ability to cross the blood–brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:26863047

  19. Patient-specific models of microglia-mediated engulfment of synapses and neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sellgren, C M; Sheridan, S D; Gracias, J; Xuan, D; Fu, T; Perlis, R H

    2017-01-01

    Engulfment of synapses and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) by microglia is critical for the development and maintenance of proper brain circuitry, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disease etiology. We have developed and validated models of these mechanisms by reprogramming microglia-like cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and combining them with NPCs and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to create patient-specific cellular models of complement-dependent synaptic pruning and elimination of NPCs. The resulting microglia-like cells express appropriate markers and function as primary human microglia, while patient-matched macrophages differ markedly. As a demonstration of disease-relevant application, we studied the role of C4, recently implicated in schizophrenia, in engulfment of synaptic structures by human microglia. The ability to create complete patient-specific cellular models of critical microglial functions utilizing samples taken during a single clinical visit will extend the ability to model central nervous system disease while facilitating high-throughput screening. PMID:27956744

  20. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, B E; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, B C; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, C N; Wolfe, J H; Fischbeck, K H; Pierson, T M

    2016-05-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders.

  1. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    PubMed Central

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  2. Spatiotemporal recapitulation of central nervous system development by murine embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Matsumoto, Arifumi; Shimazaki, Takuya; Enoki, Ryosuke; Koizumi, Amane; Ishii, Seiji; Itoyama, Yasuto; Sobue, Gen; Okano, Hideyuki

    2008-12-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) can generate a wide variety of neural cells. However, their fates are generally restricted, depending on the time and location of NS/PC origin. Here we demonstrate that we can recapitulate the spatiotemporal regulation of central nervous system (CNS) development in vitro by using a neurosphere-based culture system of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived NS/PCs. This ES cell-derived neurosphere system enables the efficient derivation of highly neurogenic fibroblast growth factor-responsive NS/PCs with early temporal identities and high cell-fate plasticity. Over repeated passages, these NS/PCs exhibit temporal progression, becoming epidermal growth factor-responsive gliogenic NS/PCs with late temporal identities; this change is accompanied by an alteration in the epigenetic status of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, similar to that observed in the developing brain. Moreover, the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral spatial identities of the NS/PCs can be successfully regulated by sequential administration of several morphogens. These NS/PCs can differentiate into early-born projection neurons, including cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, and motor neurons, that exhibit action potentials in vitro. Finally, these NS/PCs differentiate into neurons that form synaptic contacts with host neurons after their transplantation into wild-type and disease model animals. Thus, this culture system can be used to obtain specific neurons from ES cells, is a simple and powerful tool for investigating the underlying mechanisms of CNS development, and is applicable to regenerative treatment for neurological disorders.

  3. Lithium increases proliferation of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells and rescues irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Giulia; Di Martino, Elena; Omelyanenko, Anna; Andäng, Michael; Delle, Ulla; Elmroth, Kecke; Blomgren, Klas

    2015-11-10

    Radiotherapy in children causes debilitating cognitive decline, partly linked to impaired neurogenesis. Irradiation targets primarily cancer cells but also endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) leading to cell death or cell cycle arrest. Here we evaluated the effects of lithium on proliferation, cell cycle and DNA damage after irradiation of young NSPCs in vitro.NSPCs were treated with 1 or 3 mM LiCl and we investigated proliferation capacity (neurosphere volume and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation). Using flow cytometry, we analysed apoptosis (annexin V), cell cycle (propidium iodide) and DNA damage (γH2AX) after irradiation (3.5 Gy) of lithium-treated NSPCs.Lithium increased BrdU incorporation and, dose-dependently, the number of cells in replicative phase as well as neurosphere growth. Irradiation induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2/M phases. Treatment with 3 mM LiCl was sufficient to increase NSPCs in S phase, boost neurosphere growth and reduce DNA damage. Lithium did not affect the levels of apoptosis, suggesting that it does not rescue NSPCs committed to apoptosis due to accumulated DNA damage.Lithium is a very promising candidate for protection of the juvenile brain from radiotherapy and for its potential to thereby improve the quality of life for those children who survive their cancer.

  4. Activation of neural progenitor cells in human eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Erik O; Frøen, Rebecca C; Albert, Réka; Omdal, Bente K; Sarang, Zsolt; Berta, András; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C

    2012-05-01

    In addition to the ability for self-renewal and functional differentiation, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) can respond to CNS injuries by targeted migration. In lower vertebrates, retinal injury is known to activate NSCs in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the ciliary body epithelium (CE) and in Müller glia in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye. However, these cells seem to be quiescent in the adult human eye and recent reports have shown that CE cells have limited properties of NSCs. In order to further clarify whether NSCs exist in the adult human eye, we tested whether NSC-like cells could be activated in eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The PR and CE were studied for NSC-associated markers in human enucleated control eyes and eyes with confirmed PVR, as well as in a mouse model of PVR. Furthermore, cells isolated from vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomies for retinal detachment were directly fixed or cultured in a stem cell-promoting medium and compared to cells cultured from the post-mortem retina and CE. In situ characterization of the normal eyes revealed robust expression of markers present in NSCs (Nestin, Sox2, Pax6) only around peripheral cysts of the proximal pars plana region and the PR, the latter population also staining for the glial marker GFAP. Although there were higher numbers of dividing cells in the CE of PVR eyes than in controls, we did not detect NSC-associated markers in the CE except around the proximal pars plana cysts. In the mice PVR eyes, Nestin activation was also found in the CE. In human PVR eyes, proliferation of both non-glial and glial cells co-staining NSC-associated markers was evident around the ora serrata region. Spheres formed in 7/10 vitreous samples from patients with PVR compared to 2/15 samples from patients with no known PVR, and expressed glial - and NSC-associated markers both after direct fixation and repetitive

  5. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly.

  6. Adult Human Olfactory Epithelial-Derived Progenitors: A Potential Autologous Source for Cell-Based Treatment for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Lu, Chengliang

    2012-01-01

    Human adult olfactory epithelial-derived neural progenitors (hONPs) can differentiate along several neural lineages in response to morphogenic signals in vitro. A previous study optimized the transfection paradigm for the differentiation of hONPs to dopaminergic neurons. This study engrafted cells modified by the most efficient transfection paradigm for dopaminergic neural restriction and pretransfected controls into a unilateral neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rat model. Approximately 35% of the animals engrafted with hONPs had improved behavioral recovery as demonstrated by the amphetamine-induced rotation test, as well as a corner preference and cylinder paw preference, over a period of 24 weeks. The pre- and post-transfected groups produced equivalent responses, indicating that the toxic host environment supported hONP dopaminergic differentiation in situ. Human fibroblasts used as a cellular control did not diminish the parkinsonian rotational deficits at any point during the study. Increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells were detected in the engrafted brains compared with the fibroblast-implanted and medium-only controls. Engrafted TH-positive hONPs were detected for a minimum of 6 months in vivo; they were multipolar, had long processes, and migrated beyond their initial injection sites. Higher dopamine levels were detected in the striatum of behaviorally improved animals than in equivalent regions of their nonrecovered counterparts. Throughout these experiments, no evidence of tumorigenicity was observed. These results support our hypothesis that human adult olfactory epithelial-derived progenitors represent a unique autologous cell type with promising potential for future use in a cell-based therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:23197853

  7. Multipotent neural stem cells generate glial cells of the central complex through transit amplifying intermediate progenitors in Drosophila brain development.

    PubMed

    Viktorin, Gudrun; Riebli, Nadia; Popkova, Anna; Giangrande, Angela; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-08-15

    The neural stem cells that give rise to the neural lineages of the brain can generate their progeny directly or through transit amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs). The INP-producing neural stem cells in Drosophila are called type II neuroblasts, and their neural progeny innervate the central complex, a prominent integrative brain center. Here we use genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis to show that the INPs of these type II neuroblast lineages give rise to glial cells as well as neurons during postembryonic brain development. Our data indicate that two main types of INP lineages are generated, namely mixed neuronal/glial lineages and neuronal lineages. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the gcm gene is necessary and sufficient for gliogenesis in these lineages. The INP-derived glial cells, like the INP-derived neuronal cells, make major contributions to the central complex. In postembryonic development, these INP-derived glial cells surround the entire developing central complex neuropile, and once the major compartments of the central complex are formed, they also delimit each of these compartments. During this process, the number of these glial cells in the central complex is increased markedly through local proliferation based on glial cell mitosis. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel and complex form of neurogliogenesis in Drosophila involving transit amplifying intermediate progenitors. Moreover, they indicate that type II neuroblasts are remarkably multipotent neural stem cells that can generate both the neuronal and the glial progeny that make major contributions to one and the same complex brain structure.

  8. Human Cardiac Progenitor Spheroids Exhibit Enhanced Engraftment Potential

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Donato; Gregoletto, Luca; Reano, Simone; Pietronave, Stefano; Merlin, Simone; Talmon, Maria; Novelli, Eugenio; Diena, Marco; Nicoletti, Carmine; Musarò, Antonio; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Follenzi, Antonia; Prat, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM). We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-to-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol. PMID:26375957

  9. Diffusible Factors Secreted by Glioblastoma and Medulloblastoma Cells Induce Oxidative Stress in Bystander Neural Stem Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neha; Colangelo, Nicholas W.; de Toledo, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    Harmful effects that alter the homeostasis of neural stem or progenitor cells (NSPs) can affect regenerative processes in the central nervous system. We investigated the effect of soluble factors secreted by control or 137Cs-γ-irradiated glioblastoma or medulloblastoma cells on redox-modulated endpoints in recipient human NSPs. Growth medium harvested from the nonirradiated brain tumor cells, following 24 h of growth, induced prominent oxidative stress in recipient NSPs as judged by overall increases in mitochondrial superoxide radical levels (p < .001), activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase, and decrease in the active form of FoxO3a. The induced oxidative stress was associated with phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15, a marker of DNA damage, induction of the cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21Waf1 and p27Kip1, and perturbations in cell cycle progression (p < .001). These changes were also associated with increased apoptosis as determined by enhanced annexin V staining (p < .001) and caspase 8 activation (p < .05) and altered expression of critical regulators of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Exposure of the tumor cells to radiation only slightly altered the induced oxidative changes in the bystander NSPs, except for medium from irradiated medulloblastoma cells that was more potent at inducing apoptosis in the NSPs than medium from nonirradiated cells (p < .001). The elucidation of such stressful bystander effects provides avenues to understand the biochemical events underlying the development or exacerbation of degenerative outcomes associated with brain cancers. It is also relevant to tissue culture protocols whereby growth medium conditioned by tumor cells is often used to support the growth of stem cells. PMID:27511909

  10. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  11. Store-Operated CRAC Channels Regulate Gene Expression and Proliferation in Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Agila; Shum, Andrew K.; McBride, Helen J.; Kessler, John A.; Feske, Stefan; Miller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium signals regulate many critical processes during vertebrate brain development including neurogenesis, neurotransmitter specification, and axonal outgrowth. However, the identity of the ion channels mediating Ca2+ signaling in the developing nervous system is not well defined. Here, we report that embryonic and adult mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) exhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. SOCE in NPCs was blocked by the CRAC channel inhibitors La3+, BTP2, and 2-APB and Western blots revealed the presence of the canonical CRAC channel proteins STIM1 and Orai1. Knock down of STIM1 or Orai1 significantly diminished SOCE in NPCs, and SOCE was lost in NPCs from transgenic mice lacking Orai1 or STIM1 and in knock-in mice expressing the loss-of-function Orai1 mutant, R93W. Therefore, STIM1 and Orai1 make essential contributions to SOCE in NPCs. SOCE in NPCs was activated by epidermal growth factor and acetylcholine, the latter occurring through muscarinic receptors. Activation of SOCE stimulated gene transcription through calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling through a mechanism consistent with local Ca2+ signaling by Ca2+ microdomains near CRAC channels. Importantly, suppression or deletion of STIM1 and Orai1 expression significantly attenuated proliferation of embryonic and adult NPCs cultured as neurospheres and, in vivo, in the subventricular zone of adult mice. These findings show that CRAC channels serve as a major route of Ca2+ entry in NPCs and regulate key effector functions including gene expression and proliferation, indicating that CRAC channels are important regulators of mammalian neurogenesis. PMID:24990931

  12. Inhibition of neurosphere formation in neural stem/progenitor cells by acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Mei-Shu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transplantation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) could improve functional recovery for various neurological diseases. This study aims to develop a stem cell-based model for predictive toxicology of development in the neurological system after acrylamide exposure. Treatment of mouse (KT98/F1B-GFP) and human (U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP) NSPCs with 0.5 mM acrylamide resulted in the inhibition of neurosphere formation (definition of self-renewal ability in NSPCs), but not inhibition of cell proliferation. Apoptosis and differentiation of KT98 (a precursor of KT98/F1B-GFP) and KT98/F1B-GFP are not observed in acrylamide-treated neurospheres. Analysis of secondary neurosphere formation and differentiation of neurons and glia illustrated that acrylamide-treated KT98 and KT98/F1B-GFP neurospheres retain the NSPC properties, such as self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Correlation of acrylamide-inhibited neurosphere formation with cell-cell adhesion was observed in mouse NSPCs by live cell image analysis and the presence of acrylamide. Protein expression levels of cell adhesion molecules [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin] and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in acrylamide-treated KT98/F1B-GFP and U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP neurospheres demonstrated that NCAM decreased and phospho-ERK (pERK) increased, whereas expression of N-cadherin remained unchanged. Analysis of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB)/β-catenin pathway showed decrease in phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and cyclin D1 expression in acrylamide-treated neurospheres of KT98/F1B-GFP. Furthermore, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, attenuated acrylamide-induced ERK phosphorylation, indicating that pERK contributed to the cell proliferation, but not in neurosphere formation in mouse NSPCs. Coimmunoprecipitation results of KT98/F1B-GFP cell lysates showed that the complex of NCAM and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is present in the neurosphere, and the

  13. Heads-up: new roles for the fragile X mental retardation protein in neural stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Callan, Matthew A; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and is caused by the loss of function for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a selective RNA-binding protein with a demonstrated role in the localized translation of target mRNAs at synapses. Several recent studies provide compelling evidence for a new role of FMRP in the development of the nervous system, during neurogenesis. Using a multi-faceted approach and a variety of model systems ranging from cultured neurospheres and progenitor cells to in vivo Drosophila and mouse models these reports indicate that FMRP is required for neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, as well as regulation of gene expression. Here we compare and contrast these recent reports and discuss the implications of FMRP's new role in embryonic and adult neurogenesis, including the development of novel therapeutic approaches to FXS and related neurological disorders such as autism.

  14. The APC/C cofactor Cdh1 prevents replicative stress and p53-dependent cell death in neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Eguren, Manuel; Porlan, Eva; Manchado, Eusebio; García-Higuera, Irene; Cañamero, Marta; Fariñas, Isabel; Malumbres, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The E3-ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is essential for endoreduplication but its relevance in the mammalian mitotic cell cycle is still unclear. Here we show that genetic ablation of Cdh1 in the developing nervous system results in hypoplastic brain and hydrocephalus. These defects correlate with enhanced levels of Cdh1 substrates and increased entry into the S phase in neural progenitors. However, cell division is prevented in the absence of Cdh1 due to hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases, replicative stress, induction of p53, G2 arrest and apoptotic death of these progenitor cells. Concomitant ablation of p53 rescues apoptosis but not replicative stress, resulting in the presence of damaged neurons throughout the adult brain. These data indicate that the inactivation of Cdh1 in vivo results in replicative stress, cell cycle arrest and cell death, supporting recent therapeutic proposals aimed to inhibit the APC/C in tumours.

  15. Neural Progenitor Cell Transplantation Promotes Neuroprotection, Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Improves Cognitive Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Meghan O.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Bramlett, Helen M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may be a potential treatment strategy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to their intrinsic advantages, including the secretion of neurotrophins. Neurotrophins are critical for neuronal survival and repair, but their clinical use is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that pericontusional transplantation of NPCs genetically modified to secrete a synthetic, human multineurotrophin (MNTS1) would overcome some of the limitations of traditional neurotrophin therapy. MNTS1 is a multifunctional neurotrophin that binds all three tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors, recapitulating the prosurvival activity of 3 endogenous mature neurotrophins. NPCs obtained from rat fetuses at E15 were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing MNTS1 and GFP constructs (MNTS1-NPCs) or fluorescent constructs alone (control GFP-NPCs). Adult rats received fluid percussion-induced TBI or sham surgery. Animals were transplanted 1 week later with control GFP-NPCs, MNTS1-NPCs, or injected with saline (vehicle). At five weeks, animals were evaluated for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Six weeks post surgery, we observed significant survival and neuronal differentiation of MNTS1-NPCs and injury-activated tropism towards contused regions. NPCs displayed processes that extended into several remote structures, including the hippocampus and contralateral cortex. Both GFP- and MNTS1-NPCs conferred significant preservation of pericontusional host tissues and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. NPC transplantation improved spatial memory capacity on the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Transplant recipients exhibited escape latencies approximately half that of injured vehicle controls. While we observed greater transplant survival and neuronal differentiation of MNTS1-NPCs, our collective findings suggest that MNTS1 may be superfluous in terms of preserving the cytoarchitecture and rescuing behavioral deficits given the lack of significant

  16. Neural progenitor cell transplantation promotes neuroprotection, enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, and improves cognitive outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Meghan O; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2015-02-01

    Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may be a potential treatment strategy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to their intrinsic advantages, including the secretion of neurotrophins. Neurotrophins are critical for neuronal survival and repair, but their clinical use is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that pericontusional transplantation of NPCs genetically modified to secrete a synthetic, human multineurotrophin (MNTS1) would overcome some of the limitations of traditional neurotrophin therapy. MNTS1 is a multifunctional neurotrophin that binds all three tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors, recapitulating the prosurvival activity of 3 endogenous mature neurotrophins. NPCs obtained from rat fetuses at E15 were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing MNTS1 and GFP constructs (MNTS1-NPCs) or fluorescent constructs alone (control GFP-NPCs). Adult rats received fluid percussion-induced TBI or sham surgery. Animals were transplanted 1week later with control GFP-NPCs, MNTS1-NPCs, or injected with saline (vehicle). At five weeks, animals were evaluated for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Six weeks post-surgery, we observed significant survival and neuronal differentiation of MNTS1-NPCs and injury-activated tropism toward contused regions. NPCs displayed processes that extended into several remote structures, including the hippocampus and contralateral cortex. Both GFP- and MNTS1-NPCs conferred significant preservation of pericontusional host tissues and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. NPC transplantation improved spatial memory capacity on the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Transplant recipients exhibited escape latencies approximately half that of injured vehicle controls. While we observed greater transplant survival and neuronal differentiation of MNTS1-NPCs, our collective findings suggest that MNTS1 may be superfluous in terms of preserving the cytoarchitecture and rescuing behavioral deficits given the lack of significant

  17. Electric signals regulate directional migration of ventral midbrain derived dopaminergic neural progenitor cells via Wnt/GSK3β signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhu, Bangfu; Zhang, Gaofeng; Wang, Jian; Tian, Weiming; Ju, Gong; Wei, Xiaoqing; Song, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). It requires a controlled directional migration and integration of NPCs, for example dopaminergic (DA) progenitor cells, into the damaged host brain tissue. There is, however, only limited understanding of how to regulate the directed migration of NPCs to the diseased or damaged brain tissues for repair and regeneration. The aims of this study are to explore the possibility of using a physiological level of electrical stimulation to regulate the directed migration of ventral midbrain NPCs (NPCs(vm)), and to investigate their potential regulation via GSK3β and associated downstream effectors. We tested the effects of direct-current (DC) electric fields (EFs) on the migration behavior of the NPCs(vm). A DC EF induced directional cell migration toward the cathode, namely electrotaxis. Reversal of the EF polarity triggered a sharp reversal of the NPC(vm) electrotaxis. The electrotactic response was both time and EF voltage dependent. Pharmacologically inhibiting the canonical Wnt/GSK3β pathway significantly reduced the electrotactic response of NPCs(vm), which is associated with the down-regulation of GSK3β phosphorylation, β-catenin activation and CLASP2 expression. This was further proved by RNA interference of GSK3β, which also showed a significantly reduced electrotactic response in association with reduced β-catenin activation and CLASP2 expression. In comparison, RNA interference of β-catenin slightly reduced electrotactic response and CLASP2 expression. Both pharmacological inhibition of Wnt/GSK3β and RNA interference of GSK3β/β-catenin clearly reduced the asymmetric redistribution of CLASP2 and its co-localization with α-tubulin. These results suggest that Wnt/GSK3β signaling contributes to the electrotactic response of NPCs(vm) through the coordination of GSK3β phosphorylation, β-catenin activation, CLASP2

  18. Potential applications for cell regulatory factors in liver progenitor cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shupe, Thomas; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2010-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant represent the state of the art treatment for terminal liver pathologies such as cirrhosis in adults and hemochromatosis in neonates. A limited supply of transplantable organs in relationship to the demand means that many patients will succumb to disease before an organ becomes available. One promising alternative to liver transplant is therapy based on the transplant of liver progenitor cells. These cells may be derived from the patient, expanded in vitro, and transplanted back to the diseased liver. Inborn metabolic disorders represent the most attractive target for liver progenitor cell therapy, as many of these disorders may be corrected by repopulation of only a portion of the liver by healthy cells. Another potential application for liver progenitor cell therapy is the seeding of bio-artificial liver matrix. These ex vivo bioreactors may someday be used to bridge critically ill patients to other treatments. Conferring a selective growth advantage to the progenitor cell population remains an obstacle to therapy development. Understanding the molecular signaling mechanisms and micro-environmental cues that govern liver progenitor cell phenotype may someday lead to strategies for providing this selective growth advantage. The discovery of a population of cells within the bone marrow possessing the ability to differentiate into hepatocytes may provide an easily accessible source of cells for liver therapies. PMID:20851776

  19. Recombinant neural progenitor transplants in the spinal dorsal horn alleviate chronic central neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Jergova, Stanislava; Gajavelli, Shyam; Pathak, Nirmal; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) is clinically challenging with inadequate long-term treatment options. Partial pain relief offered by pharmacologic treatment is often counterbalanced by adverse effects after prolonged use in chronic pain patients. Cell-based therapy for neuropathic pain using GABAergic neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) has the potential to overcome untoward effects of systemic pharmacotherapy while enhancing analgesic potency due to local activation of GABAergic signaling in the spinal cord. However, multifactorial anomalies underlying chronic pain will likely require simultaneous targeting of multiple mechanisms. Here, we explore the analgesic potential of genetically modified rat embryonic GABAergic NPCs releasing a peptidergic NMDA receptor antagonist, Serine-histogranin (SHG), thus targeting both spinal hyperexcitability and reduced inhibitory processes. Recombinant NPCs were designed using either lentiviral or adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV2/8) encoding single and multimeric (6 copies of SHG) cDNA. Intraspinal injection of recombinant cells elicited enhanced analgesic effects compared with nonrecombinant NPCs in SCI-induced pain in rats. Moreover, potent and sustained antinociception was achieved, even after a 5-week postinjury delay, using recombinant multimeric NPCs. Intrathecal injection of SHG antibody attenuated analgesic effects of the recombinant grafts suggesting active participation of SHG in these antinociceptive effects. Immunoblots and immunocytochemical assays indicated ongoing recombinant peptide production and secretion in the grafted host spinal cords. These results support the potential for engineered NPCs grafted into the spinal dorsal horn to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain.

  20. A targeted secretome profiling by multiplexed immunoassay revealed that secreted chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) affects neural differentiation in mesencephalic neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Cicatiello, Anna Emilia; Reccia, Mafalda Giovanna; Volpicelli, Floriana; Severino, Valeria; Russo, Rosita; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Doti, Nunzianna; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Chambery, Angela

    2015-02-01

    Chemokines and cytokines, primarily known for their roles in the immune and inflammatory response, have also been identified as key components of the neurogenic niche where they are involved in the modulation of neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, a complete understanding of the functional role played in neural differentiation and a comprehensive profiling of these secreted molecules are lacking. By exploiting the multiplexing capability of magnetic bead-based immunoassays, we have investigated the changes of the expression levels of a set of chemokines and cytokines released from the pluripotent neural cell line mes-c-myc A1 following its differentiation from a proliferating phenotype (A1P) toward a neural (A1D) phenotype. We found a subset of molecules exclusively released from A1P, whereas others were differentially detected in A1P and A1D conditioned media. Among them, we identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) as a proneurogenic factor able to affect neuronal differentiation of A1 cells as well as of neuroblasts from primary cultures and to induce the elongation and/or formation of neuritic processes. Altogether, data are suggestive of a main role played by the CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway and in general of the network of secreted cytokines/chemokines in the differentiation of neural progenitor cells toward a neural fate.

  1. Huntingtin Is Required for Neural But Not Cardiac/Pancreatic Progenitor Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man Shan; Tanese, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    Mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene causes Huntington’s disease (HD). It is an autosomal dominant trinucleotide-repeat expansion disease in which CAG repeat sequence expands to >35. This results in the production of mutant HTT protein with an increased stretch of glutamines near the N-terminus. The wild type HTT gene encodes a 350 kD protein whose function remains elusive. Mutant HTT protein has been implicated in transcription, axonal transport, cytoskeletal structure/function, signal transduction, and autophagy. HD is characterized by the appearance of nuclear inclusions and degeneration of the striatum. Although HTT protein is expressed early in embryos, most patients develop symptoms in mid-life. It is also unclear why the ubiquitously expressed mutant HTT specifically causes striatal atrophy. Wild type Htt is essential for development as Htt knockout mice die at day E7.5. Increasing evidence suggests mutant Htt may alter neurogenesis and development of striatal neurons resulting in neuronal loss. Using a mouse embryonic stem cell model, we examined the role of Htt in neural differentiation. We found cells lacking Htt inefficient in generating neural stem cells. In contrast differentiation into progenitors of mesoderm and endoderm lineages was not affected. The data suggests Htt is essential for neural but not cardiac/pancreatic progenitor differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro. PMID:28270748

  2. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis.

  3. Direct Stimulation of Adult Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells In Vitro and Neurogenesis In Vivo by Salvianolic Acid B

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Cui, Guangzhi; Bian, Yuhong; Zhang, Mixia; Zhang, Jinbao; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xinpeng; Isaiah, Adejobi Oluwaniyi; Lin, Yingxue; Jiang, Yongbo

    2012-01-01

    Background Small molecules have been shown to modulate the neurogenesis processes. In search for new therapeutic drugs, the herbs used in traditional medicines for neurogenesis are promising candidates. Methodology and Principal Findings We selected a total of 45 natural compounds from Traditional Chinese herbal medicines which are extensively used in China to treat stroke clinically, and tested their proliferation-inducing activities on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). The screening results showed that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) displayed marked effects on the induction of proliferation of NSPCs. We further demonstrated that Sal B promoted NSPCs proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners. To explore the molecular mechanism, PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Notch signaling pathways were investigated. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that Ly294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), but neither U0126 (ERK inhibitor) nor DAPT (Notch inhibitor) inhibited the Sal B-induced proliferation of cells. Western Blotting results showed that stimulation of NSPCs with Sal B enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt, and Ly294002 abolished this effect, confirming the role of Akt in Sal B mediated proliferation of NSPCs. Rats exposed to transient cerebral ischemia were treated for 4 weeks with Sal B from the 7th day after stroke. BrdU incorporation assay results showed that exposure Sal B could maintain the proliferation of NSPCs after cerebral ischemia. Morris water maze test showed that delayed post-ischemic treatment with Sal B improved cognitive impairment after stroke in rats. Significance Sal B could maintain the NSPCs self-renew and promote proliferation, which was mediated by PI3K/Akt signal pathway. And delayed post-ischemic treatment with Sal B improved cognitive impairment after stroke in rats. These findings suggested that Sal B may act as a potential drug in treatment of brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22545124

  4. Progesterone Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Induces Neural Regeneration after Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanying; Wang, Bin; Kan, Zhisheng; Zhang, Baoliang; Yang, Zhuo; Chen, Jieli; Wang, Dong; Wei, Huijie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular remodeling plays a key role in neural regeneration in the injured brain. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a mediator of the vascular remodeling process. Previous studies have found that progesterone treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases cerebral edema and cellular apoptosis and inhibits inflammation, which in concert promote neuroprotective effects in young adult rats. However, whether progesterone treatment regulates circulating EPC level and fosters vascular remodeling after TBI have not been investigated. In this study, we hypothesize that progesterone treatment following TBI increases circulating EPC levels and promotes vascular remodeling in the injured brain in aged rats. Male Wistar 20-month-old rats were subjected to a moderate unilateral parietal cortical contusion injury and were treated with or without progesterone (n=54/group). Progesterone was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 16mg/kg at 1 h post-TBI and was subsequently injected subcutaneously daily for 14 days. Neurological functional tests and immnunostaining were performed. Circulating EPCs were measured by flow cytometry. Progesterone treatment significantly improved neurological outcome after TBI measured by the modified neurological severity score, Morris Water Maze and the long term potentiation in the hippocampus as well as increased the circulating EPC levels compared to TBI controls (p<0.05). Progesterone treatment also significantly increased CD34 and CD31 positive cell number and vessel density in the injured brain compared to TBI controls (p<0.05). These data indicate that progesterone treatment of TBI improves multiple neurological functional outcomes, increases the circulating EPC level, and facilitates vascular remodeling in the injured brain after TBI in aged rats. PMID:21534727

  5. THE ARDUOUS JOURNEY TO BLACK HOLE FORMATION IN POTENTIAL GAMMA-RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Dessart, Luc; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D. E-mail: evanoc@tapir.caltech.edu

    2012-07-20

    We present a quantitative study on the properties at death of fast-rotating massive stars evolved at low-metallicity-objects that are proposed as likely progenitors of long-duration {gamma}-ray bursts (LGRBs). We perform one-dimensional+rotation stellar-collapse simulations on the progenitor models of Woosley and Heger, and critically assess their potential for the formation of a black hole and a Keplerian disk (namely, a collapsar) or a proto-magnetar. We note that theoretical uncertainties in the treatment of magnetic fields and the approximate handling of rotation compromise the accuracy of stellar-evolution models. We find that only the fastest rotating progenitors achieve sufficient compactness for black hole formation while the bulk of models possess a core density structure typical of garden-variety core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitors evolved without rotation and at solar metallicity. Of the models that do have sufficient compactness for black hole formation, most of them also retain a large amount of angular momentum in the core, making them prone to a magneto-rotational explosion, therefore preferentially leaving behind a proto-magnetar. A large progenitor angular-momentum budget is often the sole criterion invoked in the community today to assess the suitability for producing a collapsar. This simplification ignores equally important considerations such as the core compactness, which conditions black hole formation, the core angular momentum, which may foster a magneto-rotational explosion preventing black hole formation, or the metallicity and the residual envelope mass which must be compatible with inferences from observed LGRB/SNe. Our study suggests that black hole formation is non-trivial, that there is room for accommodating both collapsars and proto-magnetars as LGRB progenitors, although proto-magnetars seem much more easily produced by current stellar-evolutionary models.

  6. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  7. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for chemical effects on proliferation and viability of immortalized human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Breier, Joseph M; Radio, Nicholas M; Mundy, William R; Shafer, Timothy J

    2008-09-01

    There is considerable public concern that the majority of commercial chemicals have not been evaluated for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although several chemicals are assessed annually under the current developmental neurotoxicity guidelines, time, resource, and animal constraints prevent testing of large numbers of chemicals using this approach. Thus, incentive is mounting to develop in vitro methods to screen chemicals for their potential to harm the developing human nervous system. As an initial step toward this end, the present studies evaluated an automated, high-throughput method for screening chemical effects on proliferation and viability using ReNcell CX cells, a human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) line. ReNcell CX cells doubled in approximately 36 h and expressed the neural progenitor markers nestin and SOX2. High-throughput assays for cell proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation) and viability (propidium iodide exclusion) were optimized and tested using known antiproliferative compounds. The utility of this in vitro screen was evaluated further using a set of compounds containing eight known to cause developmental neurotoxicity and eight presumably nontoxic compounds. Six out of eight developmental neurotoxicants significantly inhibited ReNcell CX cell proliferation and/or viability, whereas two out of eight nontoxic chemicals caused only minimal effects. These results demonstrate that chemical effects on cell proliferation and viability can be assessed via high-throughput methods using hNPCs. Further development of this approach as part of a strategy to screen compounds for potential effects on nervous system development is warranted.

  8. A Notch-Gli2 axis sustains Hedgehog responsiveness of neural progenitors and Müller glia.

    PubMed

    Ringuette, Randy; Atkins, Michael; Lagali, Pamela S; Bassett, Erin A; Campbell, Charles; Mazerolle, Chantal; Mears, Alan J; Picketts, David J; Wallace, Valerie A

    2016-03-01

    Neurogenesis is regulated by the dynamic and coordinated activity of several extracellular signalling pathways, but the basis for crosstalk between these pathways remains poorly understood. Here we investigated regulatory interactions between two pathways that are each required for neural progenitor cell maintenance in the postnatal retina; Hedgehog (Hh) and Notch signalling. Both pathways are activated in progenitor cells in the postnatal retina based on the co-expression of fluorescent pathway reporter transgenes at the single cell level. Disrupting Notch signalling, genetically or pharmacologically, induces a rapid downregulation of all three Gli proteins and inhibits Hh-induced proliferation. Ectopic Notch activation, while not sufficient to promote Hh signalling or proliferation, increases Gli2 protein. We show that Notch regulation of Gli2 in Müller glia renders these cells competent to proliferate in response to Hh. These data suggest that Notch signalling converges on Gli2 to prime postnatal retinal progenitor cells and Müller glia to proliferate in response to Hh.

  9. Translational regulation of NeuroD1 expression by FMRP: involvement in glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of cultured rat primary neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Han, So Min; Go, Hyo Sang; Seo, Jung Eun; Choi, Chang Soon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2014-03-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is encoded by Fmr1 gene in which mutation is known to cause fragile X syndrome characterized by mental impairment and other psychiatric symptoms similar to autism spectrum disorders. FMRP plays important roles in cellular mRNA biology such as transport, stability, and translation as an RNA-binding protein. In the present study, we identified potential role of FMRP in the neural differentiation, using cortical neural progenitor cells from Sprague-Dawley rat. We newly found NeuroD1, an essential regulator of glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, as a new mRNA target interacting with FMRP in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We also identified FMRP as a regulator of neuronal differentiation by modulating NeuroD1 expression. Down-regulation of FMRP by siRNA also increased NeuroD1 expression along with increased pre- and post-synaptic development of glutamatergic neuron, as evidenced by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. On the contrary, cells harboring FMRP over-expression construct showed decreased NeuroD1 expression. Treatment of cultured neural precursor cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid known as an inducer of hyper-glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, down-regulated the expression of FMRP, and induced NeuroD1 expression. Our study suggests that modulation of FMRP expression regulates neuronal differentiation by interaction with its binding target mRNA, and provides an example of the gene and environmental interaction regulating glutamatergic neuronal differentiation.

  10. MicroRNA-130b targets Fmr1 and regulates embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Xi; Zhang, Kunshan; Wang, Yanlu; Wang, Junbang; Cui, Yaru; Li, Siguang; Luo, Yuping

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •We found that the 3′ UTR of the Fmr1 mRNA is a target of miR-130b. •MiR-130b suppresses the expression of Fmr1 in mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters fate specification of mouse embryonic stem cell. -- Abstract: Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of the CGG repeat in the 5′-untranslated region of the X-linked Fmr1 gene, which results in transcriptional silencing and loss of expression of its encoded protein FMRP. The loss of FMRP increases proliferation and alters fate specification in adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs). However, little is known about Fmr1 mRNA regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In the present study, we report that miR-130b regulated Fmr1 expression by directly targeting its 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR). Up-regulation of miR-130b in mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) decreased Fmr1 expression, markedly increased eNPC proliferation and altered the differentiation tendency of eNPCs, suggesting that antagonizing miR-130b may be a new therapeutic entry point for treating Fragile X syndrome.

  11. SBE6: a novel long-range enhancer involved in driving sonic hedgehog expression in neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Benabdallah, Nezha S.; Gautier, Philippe; Hekimoglu-Balkan, Betul; Lettice, Laura A.; Bhatia, Shipra

    2016-01-01

    The expression of genes with key roles in development is under very tight spatial and temporal control, mediated by enhancers. A classic example of this is the sonic hedgehog gene (Shh), which plays a pivotal role in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells both in vivo and in vitro. Shh expression in the brain is tightly controlled by several known enhancers that have been identified through genetic, genomic and functional assays. Using chromatin profiling during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells to neural progenitor cells, here we report the identification of a novel long-range enhancer for Shh—Shh-brain-enhancer-6 (SBE6)—that is located 100 kb upstream of Shh and that is required for the proper induction of Shh expression during this differentiation programme. This element is capable of driving expression in the vertebrate brain. Our study illustrates how a chromatin-focused approach, coupled to in vivo testing, can be used to identify new cell-type specific cis-regulatory elements, and points to yet further complexity in the control of Shh expression during embryonic brain development. PMID:27852806

  12. SBE6: a novel long-range enhancer involved in driving sonic hedgehog expression in neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Benabdallah, Nezha S; Gautier, Philippe; Hekimoglu-Balkan, Betul; Lettice, Laura A; Bhatia, Shipra; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-11-01

    The expression of genes with key roles in development is under very tight spatial and temporal control, mediated by enhancers. A classic example of this is the sonic hedgehog gene (Shh), which plays a pivotal role in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells both in vivo and in vitro. Shh expression in the brain is tightly controlled by several known enhancers that have been identified through genetic, genomic and functional assays. Using chromatin profiling during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells to neural progenitor cells, here we report the identification of a novel long-range enhancer for Shh-Shh-brain-enhancer-6 (SBE6)-that is located 100 kb upstream of Shh and that is required for the proper induction of Shh expression during this differentiation programme. This element is capable of driving expression in the vertebrate brain. Our study illustrates how a chromatin-focused approach, coupled to in vivo testing, can be used to identify new cell-type specific cis-regulatory elements, and points to yet further complexity in the control of Shh expression during embryonic brain development.

  13. Cell cycle and lineage progression of neural progenitors in the ventricular-subventricular zones of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Giovanna; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina; Jose, Lingu; Bonfanti, Luca; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating neural stem cells and intermediate progenitors persist in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain. This extensive germinal layer in the walls of the lateral ventricles is the site of birth of different types of interneurons destined for the olfactory bulb. The cell cycle dynamics of stem cells (B1 cells), intermediate progenitors (C cells), and neuroblasts (A cells) in the V-SVZ and the number of times these cells divide remain unknown. Using whole mounts of the walls of the lateral ventricles of adult mice and three cell cycle analysis methods using thymidine analogs, we determined the proliferation dynamics of B1, C, and A cells in vivo. Achaete-scute complex homolog (Ascl)1+ C cells were heterogeneous with a cell cycle length (TC) of 18–25 h and a long S phase length (TS) of 14–17 h. After C cells, Doublecortin+ A cells were the second-most common dividing cell type in the V-SVZ and had a TC of 18 h and TS of 9 h. Human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP)::GFP+ B1 cells had a surprisingly short Tc of 17–18 h and a TS of 4 h. Progenitor population analysis suggests that following the initial division of B1 cells, C cells divide three times and A cells once, possibly twice. These data provide essential information on the dynamics of adult progenitor cell proliferation in the V-SVZ and how large numbers of new neurons continue to be produced in the adult mammalian brain. PMID:23431204

  14. Hypoxic-preconditioning enhances the regenerative capacity of neural stem/progenitors in subventricular zone of newborn piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Ara, Jahan; De Montpellier, Sybille

    2013-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) results in brain injury, whereas mild hypoxic episodes result in preconditioning, which can significantly reduce the vulnerability of the brain to subsequent severe hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic-preconditioning (PC) has been shown to enhance cell survival and differentiation of progenitor cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with PC prior to HI stimulates subventricular zone (SVZ) proliferation and neurogenesis in newborn piglets. One-day-old piglets were subjected to PC (8% O2/92% N2) for 3h and 24h later were exposed to HI produced by combination of hypoxia (5% FiO2) for a pre-defined period of 30min and ischemia induced by a period of 10min of hypotension. Here we demonstrate that SVZ derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) from PC, HI and PC+HI piglets proliferated as neurospheres, expressed neural progenitor and neurodevelopmental markers, and that greater proportion of the spheres generated are multipotential. Neurosphere assay revealed that preconditioning pretreatment increased the number of NSP-derived neurospheres in SVZ following HI compared to normoxic and HI controls. NSPs from preconditioned SVZ generated twice as many neurons and astrocytes in vitro. Injections with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) after PC revealed a robust proliferative response within the SVZ that continued for one week. PC also increased neurogenesis in vivo, doublecortin positive cells with migratory profiles were observed streaming from the SVZ to striatum and neocortex. These findings show that the induction of proliferation and neurogenesis by PC might be a positive adaptation for an efficient repair and plasticity in the event of a hypoxic-ischemic insult.

  15. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    SciTech Connect

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar; James, Jackson

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  16. Isoform-Specific Potentiation of Stem and Progenitor Cell Engraftment by AML1/RUNX1

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Hong, Dengli; Gupta, Rajeev; Matsuo, Keitaro; Seto, Masao; Enver, Tariq

    2007-01-01

    Background AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Findings The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the “a” isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of

  17. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  18. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development

    PubMed Central

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A.; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D.; McNeill, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. PMID:26209645

  19. Cell-cycle-independent transitions in temporal identity of mammalian neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Miyata, Takaki; Konno, Daijiro; Ueda, Hiroki R; Kasukawa, Takeya; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kawaguchi, Ayano

    2016-04-20

    During cerebral development, many types of neurons are sequentially generated by self-renewing progenitor cells called apical progenitors (APs). Temporal changes in AP identity are thought to be responsible for neuronal diversity; however, the mechanisms underlying such changes remain largely unknown. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome analysis of individual progenitors at different developmental stages, and identify a subset of genes whose expression changes over time but is independent of differentiation status. Surprisingly, the pattern of changes in the expression of such temporal-axis genes in APs is unaffected by cell-cycle arrest. Consistent with this, transient cell-cycle arrest of APs in vivo does not prevent descendant neurons from acquiring their correct laminar fates. Analysis of cultured APs reveals that transitions in AP gene expression are driven by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. These results suggest that the timing mechanisms controlling AP temporal identity function independently of cell-cycle progression and Notch activation mode.

  20. Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean O.; Rosenheimer, Julie L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Because of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and βIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells. PMID:18270591

  1. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth.

  2. Gene expression changes in the retina following subretinal injection of human neural progenitor cells into a rodent model for retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Melissa K.; Lu, Bin; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinal degenerative diseases (RDDs) affect millions of people and are the leading cause of vision loss. Although treatment options for RDDs are limited, stem and progenitor cell–based therapies have great potential to halt or slow the progression of vision loss. Our previous studies have shown that a single subretinal injection of human forebrain derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) into the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) retinal degenerate rat offers long-term preservation of photoreceptors and visual function. Furthermore, neural progenitor cells are currently in clinical trials for treating age-related macular degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms of stem cell–based therapies are largely unknown. This is the first study to analyze gene expression changes in the retina of RCS rats following subretinal injection of hNPCs using high-throughput sequencing. Methods RNA-seq data of retinas from RCS rats injected with hNPCs (RCShNPCs) were compared to sham surgery in RCS (RCSsham) and wild-type Long Evans (LEsham) rats. Differential gene expression patterns were determined with in silico analysis and confirmed with qRT-PCR. Function, biologic, cellular component, and pathway analyses were performed on differentially expressed genes and investigated with immunofluorescent staining experiments. Results Analysis of the gene expression data sets identified 1,215 genes that were differentially expressed between RCSsham and LEsham samples. Additionally, 283 genes were differentially expressed between the RCShNPCs and RCSsham samples. Comparison of these two gene sets identified 68 genes with inverse expression (termed rescue genes), including Pdc, Rp1, and Cdc42ep5. Functional, biologic, and cellular component analyses indicate that the immune response is enhanced in RCSsham. Pathway analysis of the differential expression gene sets identified three affected pathways in RCShNPCs, which all play roles in phagocytosis signaling. Immunofluorescent

  3. Methylmercury Exposure during Early Xenopus laevis Development Affects Cell Proliferation and Death but not Neural Progenitor Specification

    PubMed Central

    Huyck, Ryan W.; Nagarkar, Maitreyi; Olsen, Nina; Clamons, Samuel E.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental toxin that preferentially and adversely affects developing organisms. To investigate the impact of MeHg toxicity on the formation of the vertebrate nervous system at physiologically relevant concentrations, we designed a graded phenotype scale for evaluating Xenopus laevis embryos exposed to MeHg in solution. Embryos displayed a range of abnormalities in response to MeHg, particularly in brain development, which is influenced by both MeHg concentration and the number of embryos per ml of exposure solution. A TC50 of ~50 μg/l and LC50 of ~100 μg/l were found when maintaining embryos at a density of one per ml, and both increased with increasing embryo density. In situ hybridization and microarray analysis showed no significant change in expression of early neural patterning genes including sox2, en2, or delta; however a noticeable decrease was observed in the terminal neural differentiation genes GAD and xGAT, but not xVGlut. PCNA, a marker for proliferating cells, was negatively correlated with MeHg dose, with a significant reduction in cell number in the forebrain and spinal cord of exposed embryos by tadpole stages. Conversely, the number of apoptotic cells in neural regions detected by a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay was significantly increased. These results provide evidence that disruption of embryonic neural development by MeHg may not be directly due to a loss of neural progenitor specification and gene transcription, but to a more general decrease in cell proliferation and increase in cell death throughout the developing nervous system. PMID:25496965

  4. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  5. Sonic hedgehog signaling coordinates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells by regulating cell cycle kinetics during development of the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Komada, Munekazu

    2012-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) acts as a morphogen in normal development of various vertebrate tissues and organs. Shh signaling is essential for patterning and cell-fate specification, particularly in the central nervous system. Shh signaling plays different roles depending on its concentration, area, and timing of exposure. During the development of the neocortex, a low level of Shh is expressed in the neural stem/progenitor cells as well as in mature neurons in the dorsal telencephalon. Shh signaling in neocortex development has been shown to regulate cell cycle kinetics of radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells, thereby maintaining the proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex. During the development of the telencephalon, endogenous Shh signaling is involved in the transition of slow-cycling neural stem cells to fast-cycling neural progenitor cells. It seems that high-level Shh signaling in the ventral telencephalon is essential for ventral specification, while low-level Shh signaling in the dorsal telencephalon plays important roles in the fine-tuning of cell cycle kinetics. The Shh levels and multiple functions of Shh signaling are important for proper corticogenesis in the developing brain. The present paper discusses the roles of Shh signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

  6. Histone Methylation and microRNA-dependent Regulation of Epigenetic Activities in Neural Progenitor Self-Renewal and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cacci, Emanuele; Negri, Rodolfo; Biagioni, Stefano; Lupo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) self-renewal and differentiation in the developing and the adult brain are controlled by extra-cellular signals and by the inherent competence of NSPCs to produce appropriate responses. Stage-dependent responsiveness of NSPCs to extrinsic cues is orchestrated at the epigenetic level. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA-mediated regulation control crucial aspects of NSPC development and function, and are also implicated in pathological conditions. While their roles in the regulation of stem cell fate have been largely explored in pluripotent stem cell models, the epigenetic signature of NSPCs is also key to determine their multipotency as well as their progressive bias towards specific differentiation outcomes. Here we review recent developments in this field, focusing on the roles of histone methylation marks and the protein complexes controlling their deposition in NSPCs of the developing cerebral cortex and the adult subventricular zone. In this context, we describe how bivalent promoters, carrying antagonistic epigenetic modifications, feature during multiple steps of neural development, from neural lineage specification to neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging cross-talk between epigenetic regulators and microRNAs, and how the interplay between these different layers of regulation can finely tune the expression of genes controlling NSPC maintenance and differentiation. In particular, we highlight recent advances in the identification of astrocyte-enriched microRNAs and their function in cell fate choices of NSPCs differentiating towards glial lineages.

  7. Transient but not permanent benefit of neuronal progenitor cell therapy after traumatic brain injury: potential causes and translational consequences

    PubMed Central

    Skardelly, Marco; Gaber, Khaled; Burdack, Swen; Scheidt, Franziska; Schuhmann, Martin U.; Hilbig, Heidegard; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have reported a beneficial impact of neural progenitor cell transplantation on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) during short and medium follow-up periods. However, our knowledge regarding long-term functional effects is fragmentary while a direct comparison between local and systemic transplantation is missing so far. Objectives: This study investigated the long-term (12 week) impact of human fetal neuronal progenitor cell (hNPC) transplantation 24 h after severe TBI in rats. Methods: Cells were either transplanted stereotactically (1 × 105) into the putamen or systemically (5 × 105) via the tail vein. Control animals received intravenous transplantation of vehicle solution. Results: An overall functional benefit was observed after systemic, but not local hNPC transplantation by area under the curve analysis (p < 0.01). Surprisingly, this effect vanished during later stages after TBI with all groups exhibiting comparable functional outcomes 84 days after TBI. Investigation of cell-mediated inflammatory processes revealed increasing microglial activation and macrophage presence during these stages, which was statistically significant after systemic cell administration (p < 0.05). Intracerebral hNPC transplantation slightly diminished astrogliosis in perilesional areas (p < 0.01), but did not translate into a permanent functional benefit. No significant effects on angiogenesis were observed among the groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest the careful long-term assessment of cell therapies for TBI, as well as to identify potential long-term detrimental effects of such therapies before moving on to clinical trials. Moreover, immunosuppressive protocols, though widely used, should be rigorously assessed for their applicability in the respective setup. PMID:25352780

  8. Interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse: the importance of glia, neural progenitors, and host genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2014-01-01

    Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain "connectome." Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life, and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions.

  9. The MMP-1/PAR-1 Axis Enhances Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Maria Maddalena; Allen, Megan; Bortolotto, Valeria; Lim, Seung T.; Conant, Katherine; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that play a role in varied forms of developmental and postnatal neuroplasticity. MMP substrates include protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in hippocampus. We examined proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) from hippocampi of mice that overexpress the potent PAR-1 agonist MMP-1. We found that, as compared to aNPCs from littermate controls, MMP-1 tg aNPCs display enhanced proliferation. Under differentiating conditions, these cells give rise to a higher percentage of MAP-2+ neurons and a reduced number of oligodendrocyte precursors, and no change in the number of astrocytes. The fact that these results are MMP and PAR-1 dependent is supported by studies with distinct antagonists. Moreover, JSH-23, an inhibitor of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, counteracted both the proliferation and differentiation changes seen in MMP-1 tg-derived NPCs. In complementary studies, we found that the percentage of Sox2+ undifferentiated progenitor cells is increased in hippocampi of MMP-1 tg animals, compared to wt mice. Together, these results add to a growing body of data suggesting that MMPs are effectors of hippocampal neuroplasticity in the adult CNS and that the MMP-1/PAR-1 axis may play a role in neurogenesis following physiological and/or pathological stimuli. PMID:26783471

  10. Increased abundance of translation machinery in stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from four schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Topol, A; English, J A; Flaherty, E; Rajarajan, P; Hartley, B J; Gupta, S; Desland, F; Zhu, S; Goff, T; Friedman, L; Rapoport, J; Felsenfeld, D; Cagney, G; Mackay-Sim, A; Savas, J N; Aronow, B; Fang, G; Zhang, B; Cotter, D; Brennand, K J

    2015-10-20

    The genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to risk for schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, perturbed global protein translation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived forebrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from four SZ patients relative to six unaffected controls. We report increased total protein levels and protein synthesis, together with two independent sets of quantitative mass spectrometry evidence indicating markedly increased levels of ribosomal and translation initiation and elongation factor proteins, in SZ hiPSC NPCs. We posit that perturbed levels of global protein synthesis in SZ hiPSC NPCs represent a novel post-transcriptional mechanism that might contribute to disease progression.

  11. Increased abundance of translation machinery in stem cell–derived neural progenitor cells from four schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Topol, A; English, J A; Flaherty, E; Rajarajan, P; Hartley, B J; Gupta, S; Desland, F; Zhu, S; Goff, T; Friedman, L; Rapoport, J; Felsenfeld, D; Cagney, G; Mackay-Sim, A; Savas, J N; Aronow, B; Fang, G; Zhang, B; Cotter, D; Brennand, K J

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to risk for schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, perturbed global protein translation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived forebrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from four SZ patients relative to six unaffected controls. We report increased total protein levels and protein synthesis, together with two independent sets of quantitative mass spectrometry evidence indicating markedly increased levels of ribosomal and translation initiation and elongation factor proteins, in SZ hiPSC NPCs. We posit that perturbed levels of global protein synthesis in SZ hiPSC NPCs represent a novel post-transcriptional mechanism that might contribute to disease progression. PMID:26485546

  12. Comparative neuronal differentiation of self-renewing neural progenitor cell lines obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Verpelli, Chiara; Carlessi, Luigi; Bechi, Giulia; Fusar Poli, Elena; Orellana, Daniel; Heise, Christopher; Franceschetti, Silvana; Mantegazza, Renato; Mantegazza, Massimo; Delia, Domenico; Sala, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Most human neuronal disorders are associated with genetic alterations that cause defects in neuronal development and induce precocious neurodegeneration. In order to fully characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of these devastating diseases, it is important to establish in vitro models able to recapitulate the human pathology as closely as possible. Here we compared three different differentiation protocols for obtaining functional neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs): human neural progenitors (hNPs) obtained from hiPSCs were differentiated by co-culturing them with rat primary neurons, glial cells or simply by culturing them on matrigel in neuronal differentiation medium, and the differentiation level was compared using immunofluorescence, biochemical and electrophysiological methods. We show that the differentiated neurons displayed distinct maturation properties depending on the protocol used and the faster morphological and functional maturation was obtained when hNPs were co-cultured with rat primary neurons. PMID:24109433

  13. Numb regulates the balance between Notch recycling and late-endosome targeting in Drosophila neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Seth A.; Zitserman, Diana; Roegiers, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays essential roles in both animal development and human disease. Regulation of Notch receptor levels in membrane compartments has been shown to affect signaling in a variety of contexts. Here we used steady-state and pulse-labeling techniques to follow Notch receptors in sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. We find that the endosomal adaptor protein Numb regulates levels of Notch receptor trafficking to Rab7-labeled late endosomes but not early endosomes. Using an assay we developed that labels different pools of Notch receptors as they move through the endocytic system, we show that Numb specifically suppresses a recycled Notch receptor subpopulation and that excess Notch signaling in numb mutants requires the recycling endosome GTPase Rab11 activity. Our data therefore suggest that Numb controls the balance between Notch receptor recycling and receptor targeting to late endosomes to regulate signaling output after asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neural progenitors. PMID:27466320

  14. Suppression of Nestin reveals a critical role for p38-EGFR pathway in neural progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wentao; Lu, Hong; Wang, Shang; Yin, Wenhan; Liu, Xujie; Dong, Lin; Chiu, Richard; Shen, Li; Lu, Wen-Jing; Lan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The expression of intermediate filament Nestin is necessary for the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to maintain stemness, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Nestin is required for the self-renew of NPCs through activating MAPK and EGFR pathways. Knockdown of Nestin by shRNA inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation in mouse NPCs. Moreover, suppression of Nestin reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in NPCs and inhibited the mitogenic effects of EGF on these cells. Treatment of NPCs with p38-MAPK inhibitor PD169316 reversed cell cycle arrest caused by the knockdown of Nestin. Our findings indicate that Nestin promotes NPC proliferation via p38-MAPK and EGFR pathways, and reveals the necessity of these pathways in NPCs self-renewal. PMID:27894083

  15. Embryonic exposure to ethanol disturbs regulation of mitotic spindle orientation via GABA(A) receptors in neural progenitors in ventricular zone of developing neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tochitani, Shiro; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2010-03-19

    Neural progenitors in the ventricular zone of the developing neocortex divide oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the ventricular surface based on their mitotic spindle orientation. It has been shown that the cleavage plane orientation is developmentally regulated and plays a crucial role in cell fate determination of neural progenitors or the maintenance of the proliferative ventricular zone during neocortical development. We tested if fetal exposure to ethanol, the most widely used psychoactive agent and a potent teratogen that may cause malformation in the central nervous system, alters mitotic cleavage orientation of the neural progenitors at the apical surface of the ventricular zone in the developing neocortex. Fetal exposure to ethanol on E10.5 and 11.5 increased the occurrence frequency of a horizontal cleavage plane that is parallel to the ventricular surface on E 12.5. Administration of picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, prior to ethanol administration canceled the effect of ethanol with the frequency of horizontal division similar to the control level, although picrotoxin itself did not show any effect on cleavage plane orientation. Phenobarbital, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, induced horizontal cleavage to an extent similar to that induced by ethanol administration. (+)MK801, an antagonist of NMDA receptor that is another major target of ethanol in neural cells, did not affect the cleavage plane of dividing progenitors. These results suggest that fetal ethanol exposure induced alterations in the cleavage plane orientation of neural progenitors in the ventricular zone of the neocortex via the enhancement of the function of GABA(A) receptors.

  16. Neutralization of nerve growth factor impairs proliferation and differentiation of adult neural progenitors in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Scardigli, Raffaella; Capelli, Paolo; Vignone, Domenico; Brandi, Rossella; Ceci, Marcello; La Regina, Federico; Piras, Eleonora; Cintoli, Simona; Berardi, Nicoletta; Capsoni, Simona; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2014-09-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a multistep process regulated by several extrinsic factors, including neurotrophins. Among them, little is known about the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the neurogenic niches of the mouse. Here we analyzed the biology of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of AD11 anti-NGF transgenic mice, in which the expression of the recombinant antibody aD11 leads to a chronic postnatal neutralization of endogenous NGF. We showed that AD11-NSCs proliferate 10-fold less, with respect to their control counterparts, and display a significant impairment in their ability to differentiate into β-tubulin positive neurons. We found a considerable reduction in the number of SVZ progenitors and neuroblasts also in vivo, which correlates with a lower number of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulbs of AD11 mice and a severe deficit in the ability of these mice to discriminate between different odors. We also demonstrated that, in AD11 mice, the morphology of both SVZ-resident and neurosphere-derived astrocytes is significantly altered. We were able to reproduce the AD11 phenotype in vitro, by acutely treating wild type NSCs with the anti-NGF antibody, further demonstrating that both the proliferation and the differentiation defects are due to the NGF deprivation. Consistently, the proliferative impairment of AD11 progenitors, as well as the atrophic morphology of AD11 astrocytes, can be partly rescued in vitro and in vivo by exogenous NGF addition. Altogether, our results demonstrate a causal link between NGF signaling and proper proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from the SVZ.

  17. Characterization of the Filum terminale as a neural progenitor cell niche in both rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Chrenek, Ryan; Magnotti, Laura M; Herrera, Gabriella R; Jha, Ruchira M; Cardozo, David L

    2017-02-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a unique microenvironment within the central nervous system (CNS) called the NSC niche. Although they are relatively rare, niches have been previously characterized in both the brain and spinal cord of adult animals. Recently, another potential NSC niche has been identified in the filum terminale (FT), which is a thin band of tissue at the caudal end of the spinal cord. While previous studies have demonstrated that NSCs can be isolated from the FT, the in vivo architecture of this tissue and its relation to other NSC niches in the CNS has not yet been established. In this article we report a histological analysis of the FT NSC niche in postnatal rats and humans. Immunohistochemical characterization reveals that the FT is mitotically active and its cells express similar markers to those in other CNS niches. In addition, the organization of the FT most closely resembles that of the adult spinal cord niche. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:661-675, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization of the Filum terminale as a neural progenitor cell niche in both rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Chrenek, Ryan; Herrera, Gabriella R.; Jha, Ruchira M.; Cardozo, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a unique microenvironment within the central nervous system (CNS) called the NSC niche. Although they are relatively rare, niches have been previously characterized in both the brain and spinal cord of adult animals. Recently, another potential NSC niche has been identified in the filum terminale (FT), which is a thin band of tissue at the caudal end of the spinal cord. While previous studies have demonstrated that NSCs can be isolated from the FT, the in vivo architecture of this tissue and its relation to other NSC niches in the CNS has not yet been established. In this article we report a histological analysis of the FT NSC niche in postnatal rats and humans. Immunohistochemical characterization reveals that the FT is mitotically active and its cells express similar markers to those in other CNS niches. In addition, the organization of the FT most closely resembles that of the adult spinal cord niche. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:661–675, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27511739

  19. Cell-cycle-independent transitions in temporal identity of mammalian neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Miyata, Takaki; Konno, Daijiro; Ueda, Hiroki R.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kawaguchi, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    During cerebral development, many types of neurons are sequentially generated by self-renewing progenitor cells called apical progenitors (APs). Temporal changes in AP identity are thought to be responsible for neuronal diversity; however, the mechanisms underlying such changes remain largely unknown. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome analysis of individual progenitors at different developmental stages, and identify a subset of genes whose expression changes over time but is independent of differentiation status. Surprisingly, the pattern of changes in the expression of such temporal-axis genes in APs is unaffected by cell-cycle arrest. Consistent with this, transient cell-cycle arrest of APs in vivo does not prevent descendant neurons from acquiring their correct laminar fates. Analysis of cultured APs reveals that transitions in AP gene expression are driven by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. These results suggest that the timing mechanisms controlling AP temporal identity function independently of cell-cycle progression and Notch activation mode. PMID:27094546

  20. The effect of pulsed electric fields on the electrotactic migration of human neural progenitor cells through the involvement of intracellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Edin, Fredrik; Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are required for the physiological control of the central nervous system development. Application of the direct current EFs to neural stem cells has been studied for the possibility of stem cell transplantation as one of the therapies for brain injury. EFs generated within the nervous system are often associated with action potentials and synaptic activity, apparently resulting in a pulsed current in nature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed EF, which can reduce the cytotoxicity, on the migration of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). We applied the mono-directional pulsed EF with a strength of 250mV/mm to hNPCs for 6h. The migration distance of the hNPCs exposed to pulsed EF was significantly greater compared with the control not exposed to the EF. Pulsed EFs, however, had less of an effect on the migration of the differentiated hNPCs. There was no significant change in the survival of hNPCs after exposure to the pulsed EF. To investigate the role of Ca(2+) signaling in electrotactic migration of hNPCs, pharmacological inhibition of Ca(2+) channels in the EF-exposed cells revealed that the electrotactic migration of hNPCs exposed to Ca(2+) channel blockers was significantly lower compared to the control group. The findings suggest that the pulsed EF induced migration of hNPCs is partly influenced by intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.

  1. Overexpression of MCT8 enhances the differentiation of ES cells into neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Mika; Nagaoka, Masato; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2007-09-07

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation is regulated by cytokines and growth factors, as well as small-compound chemicals incorporated into cells by transporter proteins. Little is known regarding the effect of transporters on ES cell differentiation. This study focused on the effect of transporters during the neural-lineage differentiation of ES cells. Among the 27 types of SLC family transporters, MCT8 expression was coincident with that of neural stem cell markers, and the overexpression of MCT8 accelerated the differentiation into neural cells. These results suggested that the transporters and their substrates also play a crucial role in the regulation of ES cell differentiation.

  2. Neuregulin 1 Type II-ErbB Signaling Promotes Cell Divisions Generating Neurons from Neural Progenitor Cells in the Developing Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomomi; Sato, Fuminori; Kamezaki, Aosa; Sakaguchi, Kazuya; Tanigome, Ryoma; Kawakami, Koichi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    Post-mitotic neurons are generated from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) at the expense of their proliferation. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuron production temporally and spatially should impact on the size and shape of the brain. While transcription factors such as neurogenin1 (neurog1) and neurod govern progression of neurogenesis as cell-intrinsic mechanisms, recent studies show regulatory roles of several cell-extrinsic or intercellular signaling molecules including Notch, FGF and Wnt in production of neurons/neural progenitor cells from neural stem cells/radial glial cells (NSCs/RGCs) in the ventricular zone (VZ). However, it remains elusive how production of post-mitotic neurons from neural progenitor cells is regulated in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). Here we show that newborn neurons accumulate in the basal-to-apical direction in the optic tectum (OT) of zebrafish embryos. While neural progenitor cells are amplified by mitoses in the apical ventricular zone, neurons are exclusively produced through mitoses of neural progenitor cells in the sub-basal zone, later in the sub-ventricular zone, and accumulate apically onto older neurons. This neurogenesis depends on Neuregulin 1 type II (NRG1-II)-ErbB signaling. Treatment with an ErbB inhibitor, AG1478 impairs mitoses in the sub-ventricular zone of the optic tectum. Removal of AG1478 resumes sub-ventricular mitoses without precedent mitoses in the apical ventricular zone prior to basal-to-apical accumulation of neurons, suggesting critical roles of ErbB signaling in mitoses for post-mitotic neuron production. Knockdown of NRG1-II impairs both mitoses in the sub-basal/sub-ventricular zone and the ventricular zone. Injection of soluble human NRG1 into the developing brain ameliorates neurogenesis of NRG1-II-knockdown embryos, suggesting a conserved role of NRG1 as a cell-extrinsic signal. From these results, we propose that NRG1-ErbB signaling stimulates cell divisions generating neurons from

  3. Implication of JAK1, JAK2, and JAK3 in the Realization of Proliferation and Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zyuz'kov, G N; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Polyakova, T Yu; Chaikovskii, A V; Stavrova, L A; Udut, V V; Agafonov, V I; Burmina, Ya V; Danilets, M G; Minakova, M Yu; Dygai, A M

    2016-06-01

    Involvement of individual JAK kinases in the realization of growth potential of mesenchymal progenitor cells was examined in vitro. Important role of JAK2 and JAK3 in determining the initial level of mitotic activity of progenitor cells was established. The yield of fibroblast CFUF was suppressed under the effect of specific inhibitors of JAK kinases. Blockade of JAK3 increased the rate of progenitor element differentiation. JAK1 had no effect on proliferation and differentiation status of progenitor cells.

  4. Alternating Current Electric Fields of Varying Frequencies: Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Porcine Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hey; McCullen, Seth D.; Piedrahita, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Application of sinusoidal electric fields (EFs) has been observed to affect cellular processes, including alignment, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we applied low-frequency alternating current (AC) EFs to porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and investigated the effects on cell patterning, proliferation, and differentiation. pNPCs were grown directly on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) localizing the EFs to a region accessible visually for fluorescence-based assays. Cultures of pNPCs were exposed to EFs (1 V/cm) of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 50 Hz for 3, 7, and 14 days and compared to control cultures. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of neural markers. pNPCs grew uniformly with no evidence of alignment to the EFs and no change in cell numbers when compared with controls. Nestin expression was shown in all groups at 3 and 7 days, but not at 14 days. NG2 expression was low in all groups. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and TUJ1 was significantly higher in the cultures exposed to 10- and 50-Hz EFs than the controls. In summary, sinusoidal AC EFs via IDEs did not alter the alignment and proliferation of pNPCs, but higher frequency stimulation appeared to delay differentiation into mature astrocytes. PMID:23961767

  5. Alternating current electric fields of varying frequencies: effects on proliferation and differentiation of porcine neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hey; McCullen, Seth D; Piedrahita, Jorge A; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Olby, Natasha J

    2013-10-01

    Application of sinusoidal electric fields (EFs) has been observed to affect cellular processes, including alignment, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we applied low-frequency alternating current (AC) EFs to porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and investigated the effects on cell patterning, proliferation, and differentiation. pNPCs were grown directly on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) localizing the EFs to a region accessible visually for fluorescence-based assays. Cultures of pNPCs were exposed to EFs (1 V/cm) of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 50 Hz for 3, 7, and 14 days and compared to control cultures. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of neural markers. pNPCs grew uniformly with no evidence of alignment to the EFs and no change in cell numbers when compared with controls. Nestin expression was shown in all groups at 3 and 7 days, but not at 14 days. NG2 expression was low in all groups. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and TUJ1 was significantly higher in the cultures exposed to 10- and 50-Hz EFs than the controls. In summary, sinusoidal AC EFs via IDEs did not alter the alignment and proliferation of pNPCs, but higher frequency stimulation appeared to delay differentiation into mature astrocytes.

  6. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhance the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells cultured from ischemic brains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yannan; Dai, Yiqin; Zhu, Ximin; Xu, Haochen; Cai, Ping; Xia, Ruohong; Mao, Lizhen; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Fan, Wenying

    2015-10-21

    In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the embryonic period and adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the granular zone (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Newborn neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the two regions play a critical role in structural and functional plasticity and neural regeneration after brain injury. Previous studies have reported that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) could promote osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and cardiac stem cells' differentiation, which indicates that ELF-EMF might be an effective tool for regenerative therapy. The present studies were carried out to examine the effects of ELF-EMF on hippocampal NPCs cultured from embryonic and adult ischemic brains. We found that exposure to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 0.4 mT) significantly enhanced the proliferation capability both in embryonic NPCs and in ischemic NPCs. Neuronal differentiation was also enhanced after 7 days of cumulative ELF-EMF exposure, whereas glial differentiation was not influenced markedly. The expression of phosphorylated Akt increased during the proliferation process when ischemic NPCs were exposed to ELF-EMF. However, blockage of the Akt pathway abolished the ELF-EMF-induced proliferation of ischemic NPCs. These data show that ELF-EMF promotes neurogenesis of ischemic NPCs and suggest that this effect may occur through the Akt pathway.Video abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A347.

  7. The BAF complex interacts with Pax6 in adult neural progenitors to establish a neurogenic cross-regulatory transcriptional network.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Jovica; Steiner-Mezzadri, Andrea; Jawerka, Melanie; Akinci, Umut; Masserdotti, Giacomo; Petricca, Stefania; Fischer, Judith; von Holst, Alexander; Beckers, Johanes; Lie, Chichung D; Petrik, David; Miller, Erik; Tang, Jiong; Wu, Jiang; Lefebvre, Veronique; Demmers, Jeroen; Eisch, Amelia; Metzger, Daniel; Crabtree, Gerald; Irmler, Martin; Poot, Raymond; Götz, Magdalena

    2013-10-03

    Numerous transcriptional regulators of neurogenesis have been identified in the developing and adult brain, but how neurogenic fate is programmed at the epigenetic level remains poorly defined. Here, we report that the transcription factor Pax6 directly interacts with the Brg1-containing BAF complex in adult neural progenitors. Deletion of either Brg1 or Pax6 in the subependymal zone (SEZ) causes the progeny of adult neural stem cells to convert to the ependymal lineage within the SEZ while migrating neuroblasts convert to different glial lineages en route to or in the olfactory bulb (OB). Genome-wide analyses reveal that the majority of genes downregulated in the Brg1 null SEZ and OB contain Pax6 binding sites and are also downregulated in Pax6 null SEZ and OB. Downstream of the Pax6-BAF complex, we find that Sox11, Nfib, and Pou3f4 form a transcriptional cross-regulatory network that drives neurogenesis and can convert postnatal glia into neurons. Taken together, elements of our work identify a tripartite effector network activated by Pax6-BAF that programs neuronal fate.

  8. Effect of lipopolysaccharides on adipogenic potential and premature senescence of adipocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Chen, Xiaoli

    2015-08-15

    The elevation of circulating LPS has been associated with obesity and aging. However, whether and how LPS contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on the adipogenic capacity and cellular senescence of adipocyte progenitors. Stromal-vascular cells were isolated from inguinal adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice and treated with LPS during the different time periods of adipocyte differentiation. We found that LPS treatment for 24 h prior to the induction of differentiation led to the most profound effect on the inhibition of adipogenesis, as evidenced by the morphological changes and the decreased mRNA expression of adipocyte marker genes. In addition, LPS induced features of premature senescence of SV cells, including the activation of p53, the elevation of SA-β-gal activity, and increased hydrogen peroxide production, but not telomere length. Upon LPS treatment, SV cells also developed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as demonstrated by the increased expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and VEGFα. Blocking LPS-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production by Bay 11-7082 failed to rescue the impaired adipogenesis and the reduction in PPARγ and Zfp423 expression. On the contrary, rosiglitazone had little effect on cytokine production but corrected the defective adipogenic potential. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LPS inhibits adipogenesis by disrupting the differentiation of adipocyte progenitors in a NF-κB-independent manner; LPS also induces premature senescence of adipocyte progenitors. Our data suggest that LPS could be a potential contributor to the defective adipogenesis and the development of cellular senescence in adipose tissue during obesity and aging.

  9. Discovery of a novel 2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4(6H)-dione series promoting neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Fang, Haiyan; Wang, Jamie; Meng, Qinghua; Dai, Xuedong; Wu, Sharon; Luo, Jie; Pu, Dan; Chen, Libo; Minick, Douglas; Arai, Ken; Mandeville, Emiri T; Lo, Eng; Holder, Julie C; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    A novel neurogenic compound (1), discovered from a mouse neural progenitor cell (NPC) screen, showed profound neurogenic effect on human NPCs. Synthesis and SAR of this novel 2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4(6H)-dione series are described. Compound 20 is brain penetrable in rodents, and promotes neurogenesis in wild type mice, therefore it is a good tool molecule to study neurogenesis induction as a potential treatment for conditions associated with neurogenesis impairment diseases.

  10. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Signalling in Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells during Development and after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Alistair E.; Murray, Simon S.; Xiao, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying the extracellular signalling pathways that regulate neural stem and precursor cell biology in the central nervous system (CNS). The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), in particular BMP4, are key players regulating neuronal and glial cell development from neural precursor cells in the embryonic, postnatal, and injured CNS. Here we review recent studies on BMP4 signalling in the generation of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendroglial cells in the CNS. We also discuss putative mechanisms that BMP4 may utilise to influence glial cell development following CNS injury and highlight some questions for further research. PMID:27293450

  11. Differential Subcellular Localization of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Distinct Neural Stem and Progenitor Populations of the Mouse Telencephalon In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tsiarli, Maria A.; Monaghan, A. Paula; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are given to pregnant women at risk for premature delivery to promote lung maturation. Despite reports of detrimental effects of glucocorticoids on telencephalic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the regional and cellular expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in various NSPC populations in the intact brain has not been thoroughly assessed. Therefore in this study we performed a detailed analysis of GR protein expression in the developing mouse ventral and dorsal telencephalon in vivo. At embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), the majority of Pax6-positive radial glial cells (RGCs) and Tbr2-positive intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) expressed nuclear GR, while a small number of RGCs on the apical ventricular zone (aVZ), expressed cytoplasmic GR. However, on E13.5, the latter population of RGCs increased in size, whereas abventricular NSPCs and especially neurons of the cortical plate, expressed nuclear GR. In IPCs, GR was always nuclear. A similar expression profile was observed throughout the ventral telencephalon, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, with NSPCs of the aVZ primarily expressing cytoplasmic GR, while abventricular NSPCs and mature cells primarily expressed nuclear GR. Close to birth, nuclear GR accumulated within specific cortical areas such as layer V, the subplate and CA1 area of the hippocampus. In summary, our data show that GR protein is present in early NSPCs of the dorsal and ventral telencephalon at E11.5 and primarily occupies the nucleus. Moreover, our study suggests that the subcellular localization of the receptor may be subjected to region and neurodevelopmental stage-specific regulation. PMID:23751362

  12. Interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse: the importance of glia, neural progenitors, and host genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain “connectome”. Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions. PMID:25175867

  13. Transplantation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 Enhances Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Caiwei; Sun, Yu; Liao, Tiffany; Beattie, Ursula; López, Francisco J.; Chen, Dong Feng; Lashkari, Kameran

    2015-01-01

    We have previously characterized human neuronal progenitor cells (hNP) that can adopt a retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-like morphology within the RGC and nerve fiber layers of the retina. In an effort to determine whether hNPs could be used a candidate cells for targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), we evaluated whether hNPs transfected with an vector that expresses IGF-1 in the form of a fusion protein with tdTomato (TD), would increase RGC survival in vitro and confer neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of glaucoma. RGCs co-cultured with hNPIGF-TD cells displayed enhanced survival, and increased neurite extension and branching as compared to hNPTD or untransfected hNP cells. Application of various IGF-1 signaling blockers or IGF-1 receptor antagonists abrogated these effects. In vivo, using a model of glaucoma we showed that IOP elevation led to reductions in retinal RGC count. In this model, evaluation of retinal flatmounts and optic nerve cross sections indicated that only hNPIGF-TD cells effectively reduced RGC death and showed a trend to improve optic nerve axonal loss. RT-PCR analysis of retina lysates over time showed that the neurotrophic effects of IGF-1 were also attributed to down-regulation of inflammatory and to some extent, angiogenic pathways. This study shows that neuronal progenitor cells that hone into the RGC and nerve fiber layers may be used as vehicles for local production and delivery of a desired NTF. Transplantation of hNPIGF-TD cells improves RGC survival in vitro and protects against RGC loss in a rodent model of glaucoma. Our findings have provided experimental evidence and form the basis for applying cell-based strategies for local delivery of NTFs into the retina. Application of cell-based delivery may be extended to other disease conditions beyond glaucoma. PMID:25923430

  14. Clinical and pathological effects of intrathecal injection of mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitors in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Violaine K; Yan, Qi Jiang; Vyshkina, Tamara; Sahabi, Sadia; Liu, Xinhe; Sadiq, Saud A

    2012-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with irreversible disability in a significant proportion of patients. At present, there is no treatment to halt or reverse the progression of established disability. In an effort to develop cell therapy-based strategies for progressive MS, we investigated the pre-clinical efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitors (MSC-NPs) as an autologous source of stem cells. MSC-NPs consist of a subpopulation of bone marrow MSCs with neural progenitor and immunoregulatory properties, and a reduced capacity for mesodermal differentiation, suggesting that this cell population may be appropriate for clinical application in the CNS. We investigated whether MSC-NPs could promote repair and recovery after intrathecal injection into mice with EAE. Multiple injections of MSC-NPs starting at the onset of the chronic phase of disease improved neurological function compared to controls, whereas a single injection had no effect on disease scores. Intrathecal injection of MSC-NPs correlated with reduced immune cell infiltration, reduced area of demyelination, and increased number of endogenous nestin-positive progenitor cells in EAE mice. These observations suggest that MSC-NPs may influence the rate of repair through effects on endogenous progenitors in the spinal cord. This study supports the use of autologous MSC-NPs in MS patients as a means of promoting CNS repair.

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of Notch1 Expression by Nkx6.1 in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells during Ventral Spinal Cord Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Tzatzalos, Evangeline; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Grumet, Martin; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in maintaining and determining neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate, yet the transcriptional mechanism controlling Notch1 specific expression in NSPCs remains incomplete. Here, we show transcription factor Nkx6.1 interacts with a cis-element (CR2, an evolutionarily conserved non-coding fragment in the second intron of Notch1 locus) and regulates the expression of Notch1 in ventral NSPCs of the developing spinal cord. We show that the Notch1 expression is modulated by the interaction of Nkx6.1 with a 139 bp enhancer sequence within CR2. Knockdown or overexpression of Nkx6.1 leads to down- or up-regulated Notch1 expression, respectively. In CR2-GFP transgenic mouse, GFP expression was found prominent in the ventricular zone and neural progenitor cells from embryonic day 9.5 to postnatal day 7. GFP+ cells were mainly neural progenitors for interneurons and not for motoneurons or glial cells. Moreover, GFP expression persisted in a subset of ependymal cells in the adult spinal cord, suggesting that CR2 is active in both embryonic and adult NSPCs. Together our data reveal a novel mechanism of Notch1 transcriptional regulation in the ventral spinal cord by Nkx6.1 via its binding with Notch1 enhancer CR2 during embryonic development. PMID:27924849

  16. Osmolarity regulates chondrogenic differentiation potential of synovial fluid derived mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Karri L; Krawetz, Roman J

    2012-06-08

    Cartilage is one of few tissues where adult stem/progenitor cells have not been putatively identified. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that a sub-population of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) derived from the synovial fluid may be able to affect some degree of cartilage repair both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo, however this does not appear to be the case in patients with arthritis. Previously, it has been found that synovial fluid osmolarity is decreased in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and these changes in osmolarity have been linked to changes in chondrocyte gene regulation. However, it is yet unknown if changes in osmolarity regulate the gene expression in synovial fluid MPCs (sfMPCs), and by extension, chondrogenesis of this cell population. In the present study we have collected synovial fluid samples from normal, OA and RA knee joints, quantified the osmolarity of the fluid and modified the culture/differentiation media to span a range of osmolarities (264-375 mOsm). Chondrogenesis was measured with Alcian blue staining of cultures in addition to quantitative PCR (qPCR) using probes to Sox9, ACAN and Col2A1. Overall, sfMPCs from arthritic joints demonstrated decreased chondrogenic potential compared to sfMPCs isolated from normal synovial fluid. Furthermore, the sfMPCs retained increased chondrogenic potential if differentiated under the same osmolarity conditions for which they were initially derived within. In conclusion, it does appear the synovial fluid osmolarity regulates the chondrogenic potential of sfMPCs, however, further study is required to elucidate the mechanism by which the changes in osmolarity are sensed by the cells and regulate chondrogenic gene expression.

  17. Oral keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells: specific markers, molecular signaling pathways and potential uses.

    PubMed

    Calenic, Bogdan; Greabu, Maria; Caruntu, Constantin; Tanase, Cristiana; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Oral keratinocyte stem cells reside in the basal layers of the oral epithelium, representing a minor population of cells with a great potential to self-renew and proliferate over the course of their lifetime. As a result of the potential uses of oral keratinocyte stem cells in regenerative medicine and the key roles they play in tissue homeostasis, inflammatory conditions, wound healing and tumor initiation and progression, intense scientific efforts are currently being undertaken to identify, separate and reprogram these cells. Although currently there is no specific marker that can characterize and isolate oral keratinocyte stem cells, several suggestions have been made. Thus, different stem/progenitor-cell subpopulations have been categorized based on combinations of positive and/or negative membrane-surface markers, which include integrins, clusters of differentiation and cytokeratins. Important advances have also been made in understanding the molecular pathways that govern processes such as self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation, wound healing and programmed cell death. A thorough understanding of stem-cell biology and the molecular players that govern cellular fate is paramount in the quest for using stem-cell-derived therapies in the treatment of various oral pathologies. The current review focuses on recent advances in understanding the molecular signaling pathways coordinating the behavior of these cells and in identifying suitable markers used for their isolation and characterization. Special emphasis will also be placed on the roles played by oral keratinocyte stem and progenitor cells in normal and diseased oral tissues and on their potential uses in the fields of general medicine and dentistry.

  18. Brain self-protection: the role of endogenous neural progenitor cells in adult brain after cerebral cortical ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Piao, Chun-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Wen-Ping; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Duan, Wei-Ming; Gonzalez-Toledo, Maria E; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2010-04-23

    Convincing evidence has shown that brain ischemia causes the proliferation of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of adult brain. The role of brain ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation, however, has remained unclear. Here we have determined whether brain ischemia-induced amplification of the NSCs/NPCs in adult brain is required for brain self-protection. The approach of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), an inhibitor for cell proliferation, for the first 7days after brain ischemia was used to block ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation. We observed that ICV infusion of Ara-C caused a complete blockade of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SVZ and a dramatic reduction of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SGZ. Additionally, as a result of the inhibition of ischemia-induced NSC/NPC pool amplification, the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 was significantly reduced, the infarction size was significantly enlarged, and neurological deficits were significantly worsened after focal brain ischemia. We also found that an NSC/NPC-conditioned medium showed neuroprotective effects in vitro and that adult NSC/NPC-released brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are required for NSC/NPC-conditioned medium-induced neuroprotection. These data suggest that NSC/NPC-generated trophic factors are neuroprotective and that brain ischemia-triggered NSC/NPC proliferation is crucial for brain protection. This study provides insights into the contribution of endogenous NSCs/NPCs to brain self-protection in adult brain after ischemia injury.

  19. CXCR7 Participates in CXCL12-mediated Cell Cycle and Proliferation Regulation in Mouse Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Xu, P.; Qiu, L.; Zhang, M.; Huang, Y.; Zheng, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell cycle regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is an essential process for neurogenesis, neural development, and repair after brain trauma. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, CXCL12) and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 are well known in regulating the migration and survival of NPCs. The effects of CXCL12 on NPCs proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and their associated signaling pathways remain unclear. Cyclin D1 is a protein required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle and a known downstream target of β-catenin. Therefore, cyclin D1 plays critical roles of cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and survival in NPCs. Methods: Primary mouse NPCs (mNPCs) were derived from brain tissues of wild-type, Cxcr4 knockout, or Cxcr7 knockout mice at mouse embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5). Flow cytometry was used to perform cell cycle analysis by quantitation of DNA content. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate mRNA and protein expressions, respectively. Ki67 immunostaining and TUNEL assay were used to assess the proliferation and survival of mNPCs, respectively. Results: CXCL12 pretreatment led to the shortening of G0/G1 phase and lengthening of S phase, suggesting that CXCL12 regulates cell cycle progression in mNPCs. Consistently, CXCL12 treatment increased the expression of CyclinD1 and β-catenin, and promoted proliferation and survival of mNPCs. Cxcr7 knockout of mNPCs blocked CXCL12-mediated mNPCs proliferation, whereas Cxcr4 knockout mNPC did not significantly effect CXCL12- mediated mNPCs proliferation. Conclusion: CXCR7 plays an important role in CXCL12-mediated mNPC cell cycle regulation and proliferation. PMID:27573194

  20. NKCC1 knockdown decreases neuron production through GABA(A)-regulated neural progenitor proliferation and delays dendrite development.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephanie Z; Taylor, M Morgan; Wu, Sharon; Ikeda-Matsuo, Yuri; Kubera, Cathryn; Bordey, Angélique

    2012-09-26

    Signaling through GABA(A) receptors controls neural progenitor cell (NPC) development in vitro and is altered in schizophrenic and autistic individuals. However, the in vivo function of GABA(A) signaling on neural stem cell proliferation, and ultimately neurogenesis, remains unknown. To examine GABA(A) function in vivo, we electroporated plasmids encoding short-hairpin (sh) RNA against the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1 (shNKCC1) in NPCs of the neonatal subventricular zone in mice to reduce GABA(A)-induced depolarization. Reduced GABA(A) depolarization identified by a loss of GABA(A)-induced calcium responses in most electroporated NPCs led to a 70% decrease in the number of proliferative Ki67(+) NPCs and a 60% reduction in newborn neuron density. Premature loss of GABA(A) depolarization in newborn neurons resulted in truncated dendritic arborization at the time of synaptic integration. However, by 6 weeks the dendritic tree had partially recovered and displayed a small, albeit significant, decrease in dendritic complexity but not total dendritic length. To further examine GABA(A) function on NPCs, we treated animals with a GABA(A) allosteric agonist, pentobarbital. Enhancement of GABA(A) activity in NPCs increased the number of proliferative NPCs by 60%. Combining shNKCC1 and pentobarbital prevented the shNKCC1 and the pentobarbital effects on NPC proliferation, suggesting that these manipulations affected NPCs through GABA(A) receptors. Thus, dysregulation in GABA(A) depolarizing activity delayed dendritic development and reduced NPC proliferation resulting in decreased neuronal density.

  1. Human Neural Progenitor Transplantation Rescues Behavior and Reduces α-Synuclein in a Transgenic Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Natalie R S; Marsh, Samuel E; Ochaba, Joseph; Shelley, Brandon C; Davtyan, Hayk; Thompson, Leslie M; Steffan, Joan S; Svendsen, Clive N; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2017-02-22

    Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB. However, examination of clinically relevant human NSCs in these models is hindered by the challenges of xenotransplantation and the confounding effects of immunosuppressant drugs on pathology and behavior. To address this challenge, we developed an immune-deficient transgenic model of DLB that lacks T-, B-, and NK-cells, yet exhibits progressive accumulation of human α-syn (h-α-syn)-laden inclusions and cognitive and motor impairments. We demonstrate that clinically relevant human neural progenitor cells (line CNS10-hNPCs) survive, migrate extensively and begin to differentiate preferentially into astrocytes following striatal transplantation into this DLB model. Critically, grafted CNS10-hNPCs rescue both cognitive and motor deficits after 1 and 3 months and, furthermore, restore striatal dopamine and glutamate systems. These behavioral and neurochemical benefits are likely achieved by reducing α-syn oligomers. Collectively, these results using a new model of DLB demonstrate that hNPC transplantation can impact a broad array of disease mechanisms and phenotypes and suggest a cellular therapeutic strategy that should be pursued. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  2. CXCL12 N-terminal end is sufficient to induce chemotaxis and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Thais R M; Galindo, Layla T; Barnabe, Gabriela F; Ariza, Carolina B; Mello, Luiz E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Porcionatto, Marimélia A

    2013-09-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) respond to injury after brain injuries secreting IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10, as well as chemokine members of the CC and CXC ligand families. CXCL12 is one of the chemokines secreted at an injury site and is known to attract NSC-derived neuroblasts, cells that express CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4. Activation of CXCR4 by CXCL12 depends on two domains located at the N-terminal of the chemokine. In the present work we aimed to investigate if the N-terminal end of CXCL12, where CXCR4 binding and activation domains are located, was sufficient to induce NSC-derived neuroblast chemotaxis. Our data show that a synthetic peptide analogous to the first 21 amino acids of the N-terminal end of CXCL12, named PepC-C (KPVSLSYRCPCRFFESHIARA), is able to promote chemotaxis of neuroblasts in vivo, and stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of CXCR4+ cells in vitro, without affecting NSC fate. We also show that PepC-C upregulates CXCL12 expression in vivo and in vitro. We suggest the N-terminal end of CXCL12 is responsible for a positive feedback loop to maintain a gradient of CXCL12 that attracts neuroblasts from the subventricular zone into an injury site.

  3. Transcription-associated processes cause DNA double-strand breaks and translocations in neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Schwer, Bjoern; Wei, Pei-Chi; Chang, Amelia N; Kao, Jennifer; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M; Alt, Frederick W

    2016-02-23

    High-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS) studies of activated B cells have revealed that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) capable of translocating to defined bait DSBs are enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of active genes. We used the HTGTS approach to investigate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in primary neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We report that breakpoint junctions indeed are enriched around TSSs that were determined to be active by global run-on sequencing analyses of NSPCs. Comparative analyses of transcription profiles in NSPCs and B cells revealed that the great majority of TSS-proximal junctions occurred in genes commonly expressed in both cell types, possibly because this common set has higher transcription levels on average than genes transcribed in only one or the other cell type. In the latter context, among all actively transcribed genes containing translocation junctions in NSPCs, those with junctions located within 2 kb of the TSS show a significantly higher transcription rate on average than genes with junctions in the gene body located at distances greater than 2 kb from the TSS. Finally, analysis of repair junction signatures of TSS-associated translocations in wild-type versus classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ)-deficient NSPCs reveals that both C-NHEJ and alternative end-joining pathways can generate translocations by joining TSS-proximal DSBs to DSBs on other chromosomes. Our studies show that the generation of transcription-associated DSBs is conserved across divergent cell types.

  4. 532 nm Low-Power Laser Irradiation Facilitates the Migration of GABAergic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mouse Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Yumi; Shin, Hyeryun; Kawai, Hideki D.; Yamanoha, Banri; Kogure, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Accumulating evidence has shown that low-power laser irradiation (LLI) affects cell proliferation and survival, but little is known about LLI effects on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Here we investigate whether transcranial 532 nm LLI affects NSPCs in adult murine neocortex and in neurospheres from embryonic mice. Study Design/Materials and Methods We applied 532 nm LLI (Nd:YVO4, CW, 60 mW) on neocortical surface via cranium in adult mice and on cultured cells from embryonic mouse brains in vitro to investigate the proliferation and migration of NSPCs and Akt expression using immunohistochemical assays and Western blotting techniques. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated that 532 nm LLI significantly facilitated the migration of GABAergic NSPCs that were induced to proliferate in layer 1 by mild ischemia. In vitro experiments using GABAergic NSPCs derived from embryonic day 14 ganglionic eminence demonstrated that 532 nm LLI for 60 min promoted the migration of GAD67-immunopositive NSPCs with a significant increase of Akt expression. Meanwhile, the LLI induced proliferation, but not migration, of NSPCs that give rise to excitatory neurons. Conclusion It is concluded that 532 nm LLI promoted the migration of GABAergic NSPCs into deeper layers of the neocortex in vivo by elevating Akt expression. PMID:25919297

  5. Rationale and Methodology of Reprogramming for Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Induced Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zuojun; Guo, Fuzheng; Biswas, Sangita; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-04-20

    Great progress has been made regarding the capabilities to modify somatic cell fate ever since the technology for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was discovered in 2006. Later, induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) were generated from mouse and human cells, bypassing some of the concerns and risks of using iPSCs in neuroscience applications. To overcome the limitation of viral vector induced reprogramming, bioactive small molecules (SM) have been explored to enhance the efficiency of reprogramming or even replace transcription factors (TFs), making the reprogrammed cells more amenable to clinical application. The chemical induced reprogramming process is a simple process from a technical perspective, but the choice of SM at each step is vital during the procedure. The mechanisms underlying cell transdifferentiation are still poorly understood, although, several experimental data and insights have indicated the rationale of cell reprogramming. The process begins with the forced expression of specific TFs or activation/inhibition of cell signaling pathways by bioactive chemicals in defined culture condition, which initiates the further reactivation of endogenous gene program and an optimal stoichiometric expression of the endogenous pluri- or multi-potency genes, and finally leads to the birth of reprogrammed cells such as iPSCs and iNPCs. In this review, we first outline the rationale and discuss the methodology of iPSCs and iNPCs in a stepwise manner; and then we also discuss the chemical-based reprogramming of iPSCs and iNPCs.

  6. Cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase promotes migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamanoue, Makoto; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohsawa, Keiko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuburaya, Kayo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Ogata, Toru; Takamatsu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can migrate toward sites of injury, but the migration activity of NPCs is insufficient to regenerate damaged brain tissue. In this study, we showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38) is expressed in doublecortin-positive adult NPCs. Experiments using the p38 inhibitor SB203580 revealed that endogenous p38 participates in NPC migration. To enhance NPC migration, we generated a cell-permeable wild-type p38 protein (PTD-p38WT) in which the HIV protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused to the N-terminus of p38. Treatment with PTD-p38WT significantly promoted the random migration of adult NPCs without affecting cell survival or differentiation; this effect depended on the cell permeability and kinase activity of the fusion protein. These findings indicate that PTD-p38WT is a novel and useful tool for unraveling the roles of p38, and that this protein provides a reasonable approach for regenerating the injured brain by enhancing NPC migration. PMID:27067799

  7. Definition of genetic events directing the development of distinct types of brain tumors from postnatal neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Falk; Meyer, Katharina; Braun, Sebastian; Ek, Sara; Spang, Rainer; Pfenninger, Cosima V; Artner, Isabella; Prost, Gaëlle; Chen, Xinbin; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Judkins, Alexander R; Englund, Elisabet; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2012-07-01

    Although brain tumors are classified and treated based upon their histology, the molecular factors involved in the development of various tumor types remain unknown. In this study, we show that the type and order of genetic events directs the development of gliomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid-like tumors from postnatal mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC). We found that the overexpression of specific genes led to the development of these three different brain tumors from NSC/NPCs, and manipulation of the order of genetic events was able to convert one established tumor type into another. In addition, loss of the nuclear chromatin-remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors led to increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, a central cytoplasmic unfolded protein response (UPR) component, suggesting a role for the UPR in these tumors. Consistent with this, application of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib led to an increase in apoptosis of human cells with reduced SMARCB1 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that the order of genetic events determines the phenotypes of brain tumors derived from a common precursor cell pool, and suggest that the UPR may represent a therapeutic target in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

  8. Comparison of Neurite Outgrowth Induced by Erythropoietin (EPO) and Carbamylated Erythropoietin (CEPO) in Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong Hoon; Lee, In Young; Choi, Miyeon; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Son, Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    A previous animal study has shown the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and its non-erythropoietic carbamylated derivative (CEPO) on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of EPO on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and to compare the ability of EPO and CEPO promoting dendrite elongation in cultured hippocampal neural progenitor cells. Two-month-old male BALB/c mice were given daily injections of EPO (5 U/g) for seven days and were sacrificed 12 hours after the final injection. Proliferation assays demonstrated that EPO treatment increased the density of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) compared to that in vehicle-treated controls. Functional differentiation studies using dissociated hippocampal cultures revealed that EPO treatment also increased the number of double-labeled BrdU/microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) neurons compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Both EPO and CEPO treatment significantly increased the length of neurites and spine density in MAP2(+) cells. In summary, these results provide evidences that EPO and CEPO promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. These suggest that EPO and CEPO could be a good candidate for treating neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety associated with neuronal atrophy and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

  9. Rationale and Methodology of Reprogramming for Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Induced Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zuojun; Guo, Fuzheng; Biswas, Sangita; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Great progress has been made regarding the capabilities to modify somatic cell fate ever since the technology for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was discovered in 2006. Later, induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) were generated from mouse and human cells, bypassing some of the concerns and risks of using iPSCs in neuroscience applications. To overcome the limitation of viral vector induced reprogramming, bioactive small molecules (SM) have been explored to enhance the efficiency of reprogramming or even replace transcription factors (TFs), making the reprogrammed cells more amenable to clinical application. The chemical induced reprogramming process is a simple process from a technical perspective, but the choice of SM at each step is vital during the procedure. The mechanisms underlying cell transdifferentiation are still poorly understood, although, several experimental data and insights have indicated the rationale of cell reprogramming. The process begins with the forced expression of specific TFs or activation/inhibition of cell signaling pathways by bioactive chemicals in defined culture condition, which initiates the further reactivation of endogenous gene program and an optimal stoichiometric expression of the endogenous pluri- or multi-potency genes, and finally leads to the birth of reprogrammed cells such as iPSCs and iNPCs. In this review, we first outline the rationale and discuss the methodology of iPSCs and iNPCs in a stepwise manner; and then we also discuss the chemical-based reprogramming of iPSCs and iNPCs. PMID:27104529

  10. Delivery of In Vivo Acute Intermittent Hypoxia in Neonatal Rodents to Prime Subventricular Zone-derived Neural Progenitor Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Heather H.; Sandhu, Milap S.; Sharififar, Sharareh; Fuller, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Extended culture of neural stem/progenitor cells facilitates in vitro analyses to understand their biology while enabling expansion of cell populations to adequate numbers prior to transplantation. Identifying approaches to refine this process, to augment the production of all CNS cell types (i.e., neurons), and to possibly contribute to therapeutic cell therapy protocols is a high research priority. This report describes an easily applied in vivo “pre-conditioning” stimulus which can be delivered to awake, non-anesthetized animals. Thus, it is a non-invasive and non-stressful procedure. Specifically described are the procedures for exposing mouse or rat pups (aged postnatal day 1-8) to a brief (40-80 min) period of intermittent hypoxia (AIH). The procedures included in this video protocol include calibration of the whole-body plethysmography chamber in which pups are placed during AIH and the technical details of AIH exposure. The efficacy of this approach to elicit tissue-level changes in the awake animal is demonstrated through the enhancement of subsequent in vitro expansion and neuronal differentiation in cells harvested from the subventricular zone (SVZ). These results support the notion that tissue level changes across multiple systems could be observed following AIH, and support the continued optimization and establishment of AIH as a priming or conditioning modality for therapeutic cell populations. PMID:26556530

  11. A Hydrogel Bridge Incorporating Immobilized Growth Factors and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells to Treat Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Ham, Trevor R; Neill, Nicholas; Farrag, Mahmoud; Mohrman, Ashley E; Koenig, Andrew M; Leipzig, Nic D

    2016-04-06

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent, often complete disruption of central nervous system (CNS) function below the damaged region, leaving patients without the ability to regenerate lost tissue. To engineer new CNS tissue, a unique spinal cord bridge is created to deliver stem cells and guide their organization and development with site-specifically immobilized growth factors. In this study, this bridge is tested, consisting of adult neural stem/progenitor cells contained within a methacrylamide chitosan (MAC) hydrogel and protected by a chitosan conduit. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) are recombinantly produced and tagged with an N-terminal biotin. They are immobilized to streptavidin-functionalized MAC to induce either neuronal or oligodendrocytic lineages, respectively. These bridges are tested in a rat hemisection model of SCI between T8 and T9. After eight weeks treatments including chitosan conduits result in a significant reduction in lesion area and macrophage infiltration around the lesion site (p < 0.0001). Importantly, neither immobilized IFN-γ nor PDGF-AA increased macrophage infiltration. Retrograde tracing demonstrates improved neuronal regeneration through the use of immobilized growth factors. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrates that immobilized growth factors are effective in differentiating encapsulated cells into their anticipated lineages within the hydrogel, while qualitatively reducing glial fibrillary acid protein expression.

  12. Functional Recovery from Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation Combined with Treadmill Training in Mice with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Syoichi; Nishimura, Soraya; Iwai, Hiroki; Sugai, Keiko; Zhang, Liang; Shinozaki, Munehisa; Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Liu, Meigen; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Most studies targeting chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have concluded that neural stem/progenitor cell (NS/PC) transplantation exerts only a subclinical recovery; this in contrast to its remarkable effect on acute and subacute SCI. To determine whether the addition of rehabilitative intervention enhances the effect of NS/PC transplantation for chronic SCI, we used thoracic SCI mouse models to compare manifestations secondary to both transplantation and treadmill training, and the two therapies combined, with a control group. Significant locomotor recovery in comparison with the control group was only achieved in the combined therapy group. Further investigation revealed that NS/PC transplantation improved spinal conductivity and central pattern generator activity, and that treadmill training promoted the appropriate inhibitory motor control. The combined therapy enhanced these independent effects of each single therapy, and facilitated neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells and maturation of central pattern generator activity synergistically. Our data suggest that rehabilitative treatment represents a therapeutic option for locomotor recovery after NS/PC transplantation, even in chronic SCI. PMID:27485458

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wetsel, Rick A.; Wang, Dachun; Calame, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from preimplantation blastocysts and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated from somatic cell sources are pluripotent and capable of indefinite expansion in vitro. They provide a possible unlimited source of cells that could be differentiated into lung progenitor cells for potential clinical use in pulmonary regenerative medicine. Because of inherent difficulties in deriving endodermal cells from undifferentiated cell cultures, applications using lung epithelial cells derived from ES and iPS cells have lagged behind similar efforts devoted to other tissues, such as the heart and spinal cord. However, during the past several years, significant advances in culture, differentiation, and purification protocols, as well as in bioengineering methodologies, have fueled enthusiasm for the development of stem cell–based lung therapeutics. This article provides an overview of recent research achievements and discusses future technical challenges that must be met before the promise of stem cell applications for lung disease can be realized. PMID:21226612

  14. Sam68 promotes self-renewal and glycolytic metabolism in mouse neural progenitor cells by modulating Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Bielli, Pamela; Compagnucci, Claudia; Cesari, Eleonora; Volpe, Elisabetta; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Sette, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) dictates neurogenesis and proper brain development. We found that the RNA- binding protein Sam68 (Khdrbs1) is strongly expressed in neurogenic areas of the neocortex and supports the self-renewing potential of mouse NPCs. Knockout of Khdrbs1 constricted the pool of proliferating NPCs by accelerating their cell cycle exit and differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. Sam68 function was linked to regulation of Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing. Binding of Sam68 to an intronic polyadenylation site prevents its recognition and premature transcript termination, favoring expression of a functional enzyme. The lower ALDH1A3 expression and activity in Khdrbs1-/- NPCs results in reduced glycolysis and clonogenicity, thus depleting the embryonic NPC pool and limiting cortical expansion. Our study identifies Sam68 as a key regulator of NPC self-renewal and establishes a novel link between modulation of ALDH1A3 expression and maintenance of high glycolytic metabolism in the developing cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20750.001 PMID:27845622

  15. Altered regulation of the Spry2/Dyrk1A/PP2A triad by homocysteine impairs neural progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rabaneda, Luis G; Geribaldi-Doldán, Noelia; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Carrasco, Manuel; Martínez-Salas, José M; Verástegui, Cristina; Castro, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia reduces neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain. Homocysteine (Hcy) inhibits postnatal neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation by specifically impairing the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-Erk1/2-cyclin E signaling pathway. We demonstrate herein that the inhibition of FGFR-dependent NPC proliferation induced by Hcy is mediated by its capacity to alter the cellular methylation potential. Our results show that this alteration modified the expression pattern and activity of Sprouty2 (Spry2), a negative regulator of the above mentioned pathway. Both elevated concentrations of Hcy and methyltransferase activity inhibition induced Spry2 promoter demethylation in NPC cultures leading to a sustained upregulation of the expression of Spry2 mRNA and protein. In addition, protein levels of two kinases responsible for Spry2 activation/deactivation were altered by Hcy: Spry2 kinase Dyrk1A levels diminished while Spry2 phosphatase PP2A increased, leading to changes in the phosphorylation pattern, activity and stability of Spry2. In conclusion, Hcy inhibits NPC proliferation by indirect mechanisms involving alterations in DNA methylation, gene expression, and Spry2 function, causing FGFR signaling impairment.

  16. Establishment of a Human Neuronal Network Assessment System by Using a Human Neuron/Astrocyte Co-Culture Derived from Fetal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kazuyuki; Miura, Yuji; Sawada, Kohei; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Using human cell models mimicking the central nervous system (CNS) provides a better understanding of the human CNS, and it is a key strategy to improve success rates in CNS drug development. In the CNS, neurons function as networks in which astrocytes play important roles. Thus, an assessment system of neuronal network functions in a co-culture of human neurons and astrocytes has potential to accelerate CNS drug development. We previously demonstrated that human hippocampus-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (HIP-009 cells) were a novel tool to obtain human neurons and astrocytes in the same culture. In this study, we applied HIP-009 cells to a multielectrode array (MEA) system to detect neuronal signals as neuronal network functions. We observed spontaneous firings of HIP-009 neurons, and validated functional formation of neuronal networks pharmacologically. By using this assay system, we investigated effects of several reference compounds, including agonists and antagonists of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors, and sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, on neuronal network functions using firing and burst numbers, and synchrony as readouts. These results indicate that the HIP-009/MEA assay system is applicable to the pharmacological assessment of drug candidates affecting synaptic functions for CNS drug development.

  17. Feline neural progenitor cells II: use of novel plasmid vector and hybrid promoter to drive expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor transgene.

    PubMed

    You, X Joann; Yang, Jing; Gu, Ping; Liew, Chee Gee; Klassen, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    Sustained transgene expression is required for the success of cell transplant-based gene therapy. Most widely used are lentiviral-based vectors which integrate into the host genome and thereby maintain sustained transgene expression. This requires integration into the nuclear genome, and potential risks include activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Plasmids have been used; however lack of sustained expression presents an additional challenge. Here we used the pCAG-PyF101-eGFP plasmid to deliver the human GDNF gene to cat neural progenitor cells (cNPCs). This vector consists of a CAGG composite promoter linked to the polyoma virus mutant enhancer PyF101. Expression of an episomal eGFP reporter and GDNF transgene were stably maintained by the cells, even following induction of differentiation. These genetically modified cells appear suitable for use in allogeneic models of cell-based delivery of GDNF in the cat and may find veterinary applications should such strategies prove clinically beneficial.

  18. Large-scale generation of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells/early neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    D’Aiuto, Leonardo; Zhi, Yun; Kumar Das, Dhanjit; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Johnson, Jon W; McClain, Lora; MacDonald, Matthew L; Di Maio, Roberto; Schurdak, Mark E; Piazza, Paolo; Viggiano, Luigi; Sweet, Robert; Kinchington, Paul R; Bhattacharjee, Ayantika G; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonka, Vishwajit L

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to perform high-throughput screening of novel drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Such screenings require a robust and scalable method for generating large numbers of mature, differentiated neuronal cells. Currently available methods based on differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs) or directed differentiation of adherent culture systems are either expensive or are not scalable. We developed a protocol for large-scale generation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs)/early neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) and their differentiation into neurons. Our scalable protocol allows robust and cost-effective generation of NSCs/eNPCs from iPSCs. Following culture in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and BDNF, NSCs/eNPCs differentiate predominantly into vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) positive neurons. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that iPSC-derived neurons express ligand-gated channels and other synaptic proteins and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicate that these channels are functional. The robust and cost-effective differentiation protocol described here for large-scale generation of NSCs/eNPCs and their differentiation into neurons paves the way for automated high-throughput screening of drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25629202

  19. Birth of neural progenitors during the embryonic period of sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail brain

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Mouriec, Karen; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between E3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3 to E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were post-mitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express PCNA, a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance. PMID:22628012

  20. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Carrie J; Smith, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. PMID:26767185

  1. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    The bovine rumen epidermis is a keratinized multilayered tissue that experiences persistent cell turnover. Because of this constant cell turnover, epidermal stem cells and their slightly more differentiated daughter cells, epidermal progenitor cells, must exist in the stratum basale of rumen epidermis. To date, these 2 epidermal cell populations and any unique cellular markers they may possess remain completely uncharacterized in the bovine rumen. An important first step in this new research area is the demonstration of the relative abundance and existence of markers for these cells in rumen tissue. A related second step is to document rumen epidermal proliferative responses to an extrinsic signal such as nutrient concentration within the rumen. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extrinsic effect of diet on (1) gene expression of 6 potential rumen epidermal stem or progenitor cell markers and (2) rumen epidermal cell proliferation within the stratum basale. Twelve preweaned Holstein heifers were fed either a restricted diet (R) or an enhanced diet (EH). Animals on R received a milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg of powder dry matter (DM)/d (20.9% crude protein, 29.8% fat, DM basis) and EH received MR at 1.08kg of powder dry matter/d (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). All calves had access to a 20% crude protein starter and were weaned during wk 7 of the experiment. Lifetime DM intake was 0.73kg of DM/calf per day for R (5.88 Mcal of net energy/calf per day) and 1.26kg of DM/calf per day for EH (10.68 Mcal of net energy/calf per day). Twenty-four hours before slaughter heifers received an intravenous dose of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Heifers were slaughtered at 8 wk of age, and rumen samples from the ventral sac region were obtained and stored in RNA preservative and processed for routine histology. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to analyze relative abundance of genes. Candidate

  2. Characterization of thrombopoietin (TPO)-responsive progenitor cells in adult mouse bone marrow with in vivo megakaryocyte and erythroid potential.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ashley P; Kauppi, Maria; Metcalf, Donald; Di Rago, Ladina; Hyland, Craig D; Alexander, Warren S

    2012-02-14

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells are the progeny of hematopoietic stem cells that coordinate the production of precise numbers of mature blood cells of diverse functional lineages. Identification of cell-surface antigen expression associated with hematopoietic lineage restriction has allowed prospective isolation of progenitor cells with defined hematopoietic potential. To clarify further the cellular origins of megakaryocyte commitment, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo megakaryocyte and platelet potential of defined progenitor populations in the adult mouse bone marrow. We show that megakaryocytes arise from CD150(+) bipotential progenitors that display both platelet- and erythrocyte-producing potential in vivo and that can develop from the Flt3(-) fraction of the pregranulocyte-macrophage population. We define a bipotential erythroid-megakaryocyte progenitor population, the CD150(+)CD9(lo)endoglin(lo) fraction of Lin(-)cKit(+)IL7 receptor alpha(-)FcγRII/III(lo)Sca1(-) cells, which contains the bulk of the megakaryocyte colony-forming capacity of the bone marrow, including bipotential megakaryocyte-erythroid colony-forming capacity, and can generate both erythrocytes and platelets efficiently in vivo. This fraction is distinct from the CD150(+)CD9(hi)endoglin(lo) fraction, which contains bipotential precursors with characteristics of increased megakaryocytic maturation, and the CD150(+)CD9(lo)endoglin(hi) fraction, which contains erythroid lineage-committed cells. Finally, we demonstrate that bipotential erythroid-megakaryocyte progenitor and CD150(+)CD9(hi)endoglin(lo) cells are TPO-responsive and that the latter population specifically expands in the recovery from thrombocytopenia induced by anti-platelet serum.

  3. Adrenomedullary progenitor cells: Isolation and characterization of a multi-potent progenitor cell population.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rubin de Celis, Maria Fernandez; Pellegata, Natalia S; Bornstein, Stefan R; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2015-06-15

    The adrenal is a highly plastic organ with the ability to adjust to physiological needs by adapting hormone production but also by generating and regenerating both adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tissue. It is now apparent that many adult tissues maintain stem and progenitor cells that contribute to their maintenance and adaptation. Research from the last years has proven the existence of stem and progenitor cells also in the adult adrenal medulla throughout life. These cells maintain some neural crest properties and have the potential to differentiate to the endocrine and neural lineages. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the existence of adrenomedullary multi potent progenitor cells, their isolation and characterization, their differentiation potential as well as their clinical potential in transplantation therapies but also in pathophysiology.

  4. Peripheral Blood Endothelial Progenitors as Potential Reservoirs of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Della Bella, Silvia; Brambilla, Lucia; Bellinvia, Monica; Bergamo, Elisa; Clerici, Mario; Villa, Maria L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The cellular reservoirs of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the exact nature of the putative KSHV-infected circulating precursor of spindle cells of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) still remain poorly defined. Because KS spindle cells are thought to be of endothelial origin, and because mature endothelial cells do not sustain persistent KSHV-infection, our attention was focalized on circulating hematopoietic precursors able to differentiate into endothelial lineage. Methods and Findings Late endothelial progenitor cells (late-EPCs) were cultured from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 16 patients with classic KS. The presence and load of KSHV genomes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in DNA extracted from cells and supernatants of late-EPC cultures obtained from 7 patients. Endothelial colonies cultured from the peripheral blood of KS patients were found to satisfy all requisites to be defined late-EPCs: they appeared from the CD14-negative fraction of adherent cells after 11–26 days of culture, could be serially expanded in vitro, expressed high levels of endothelial antigens but lacked leukocyte markers. Late-EPC cultures were found to harbor KSHV-DNA at variable levels and to retain the virus after multiple passages in cells as well as in supernatants, suggesting that a quote of KSHV lytic infection may spontaneously occur. Lytic phase induction or hypoxia could amplify virus release in supernatants. Conclusion Our results suggest that circulating endothelial progenitors from KS patients are KSHV-infected and support viral productive replication and may therefore represent potential virus reservoirs and putative precursors of KS spindle cells. PMID:18231605

  5. MUTATIONS IN KATNB1 CAUSE COMPLEX CEREBRAL MALFORMATIONS BY DISRUPTING ASYMMETRICALLY DIVIDING NEURAL PROGENITORS

    PubMed Central

    Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay; Schaffer, Ashleigh E.; Chabu, Chiswili; Henegariu, Octavian; Vonhoff, Fernando; Akgümüş, Gözde Tuğce; Nishimura, Sayoko; Han, Wenqi; Tu, Shu; Baran, Burcin; Gumus, Hakan; Dilber, Cengiz; Zaki, Maha S.; Hossni, Heba AA; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Kayserili, Hülya; Spencer, Emily G.; Rosti, Rasim O.; Schroth, Jana; Per, Hüseyin; Cağlar, Caner; Cağlar, Cagri; Dölen, Duygu; Baranoski, Jacob F.; Kumandaş, Sefer; Minja, Frank J.; Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Mane, Shrikant M.; Lifton, Richard P.; Xu, Tian; Keshishian, Haig; Dobyns, William B; Chi, Neil C.; Šestan, Nenad; Louvi, Angeliki; Bilgüvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Günel, Murat

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Exome sequencing analysis of over 2,000 children with complex malformations of cortical development identified 5 independent homozygous deleterious mutations in KATNB1, encoding the regulatory subunit of the microtubule severing enzyme katanin. Mitotic spindle formation is defective in patient-derived fibroblasts, a consequence of disrupted interactions of mutant KATNB1 with KATNA1, the catalytic subunit of katanin, and other microtubule associated proteins. Loss of KATNB1 orthologs in zebrafish (katnb1) and flies (kat80) results in microcephaly, recapitulating the human phenotype. In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, kat80 loss specifically affects the asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, which display supernumerary centrosomes and spindle abnormalities during mitosis, leading to cell cycle progression delays and reduced cell numbers. Furthermore, kat80 depletion results in dendritic arborization defects in sensory and motor neurons, affecting neural architecture. Taken together, we provide insight into the mechanisms by which KATNB1 mutations cause human cerebral cortical malformations, demonstrating its fundamental role during brain development. PMID:25521378

  6. Notch signaling induces retinal stem-like properties in perinatal neural retina progenitors and promotes symmetric divisions in adult retinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Balenci, Laurent; van der Kooy, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating retinal stem cell (RSC) activity is fundamental for future stem cell-based therapeutic purposes. By combining gain and loss of function approaches, we addressed whether Notch signaling may play a selective role in retinal stem versus retinal progenitor cells in both developing and adult eyes. Inhibition of either Notch or fibroblast growth factor signaling reduced proliferation of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells, and inhibited RSC self-renewal. Conversely, exogenous Delta-like 3 and direct intrinsic Notch activation stimulated expansionary symmetric divisions in adult RSCs with the concomitant upregulation of Hes5. Knocking down Hes5 expression specifically decreased the numbers, but not the diameters, of adult RSC primary spheres, indicating that HES5 is the downstream effector of Notch receptor in controlling adult RSC proliferation. In addition, constitutive Notch activation induced retinal stem-like asymmetric self-renewal properties, with no expansion (no symmetrical division) in perinatal neural retina progenitor cells. These findings highlight central roles of Notch signaling activity in regulating the modes of division of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells.

  7. Systemic Injection of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice with Chronic EAE

    PubMed Central

    Donegà, Matteo; Giusto, Elena; Cossetti, Chiara; Schaeffer, Julia; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are a promising stem cell source for transplantation approaches aiming at brain repair or restoration in regenerative neurology. This directive has arisen from the extensive evidence that brain repair is achieved after focal or systemic NPC transplantation in several preclinical models of neurological diseases. These experimental data have identified the cell delivery route as one of the main hurdles of restorative stem cell therapies for brain diseases that requires urgent assessment. Intraparenchymal stem cell grafting represents a logical approach to those pathologies characterized by isolated and accessible brain lesions such as spinal cord injuries and Parkinson's disease. Unfortunately, this principle is poorly applicable to conditions characterized by a multifocal, inflammatory and disseminated (both in time and space) nature, including multiple sclerosis (MS). As such, brain targeting by systemic NPC delivery has become a low invasive and therapeutically efficacious protocol to deliver cells to the brain and spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates affected by experimental chronic inflammatory damage of the central nervous system (CNS). This alternative method of cell delivery relies on the NPC pathotropism, specifically their innate capacity to (i) sense the environment via functional cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine receptors; (ii) cross the leaking anatomical barriers after intravenous (i.v.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection; (iii) accumulate at the level of multiple perivascular site(s) of inflammatory brain and spinal cord damage; and (i.v.) exert remarkable tissue trophic and immune regulatory effects onto different host target cells in vivo. Here we describe the methods that we have developed for the i.v. and i.c.v. delivery of syngeneic NPCs in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), as model of chronic CNS inflammatory demyelination, and envisage

  8. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing; Chen, Guian; Fan, Dongsheng; Deng, Min

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  9. Neural stem cells: properties and therapeutic potentials for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il-Shin; Jung, Kwangsoo; Kim, Miri; Park, Kook In

    2010-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their ability to self-renew, to differentiate into cells of all glial and neuronal lineages throughout the neuraxis, and to populate developing or degenerating central nervous system (CNS) regions. The recognition that NSCs propagated in culture could be reimplanted into the mammalian brain, where they might integrate appropriately throughout the mammalian CNS and stably express foreign genes, has unveiled a new role for neural transplantation and gene therapy and a possible strategy for addressing the CNS manifestations of diseases that hitherto had been refractory to intervention. An intriguing phenomenon with possible therapeutic potentials has begun to emerge from our observations of the behavior of NSCs in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. During phases of active neurodegeneration, factors seem to be transiently elaborated to which NSCs may respond by migrating to degenerating regions and differentiating specifically towards replacement of dying neural cells. NSCs may attempt to repopulate and reconstitute ablated regions. These 'repair mechanisms' may actually reflect the reexpression of basic developmental principles that may be harnessed for therapeutic ends. In addition, NSCs may serve as vehicles for gene delivery and appear capable of simultaneous neural cell replacement and gene therapy (e.g. with factors that might enhance neuronal differentiation, neurites outgrowth, proper connectivity, and/or neuroprotection). When combined with certain synthetic biomaterials, NSCs may be even more effective in 'engineering' the damaged CNS towards reconstitution. We have also cultured human NSCs or progenitors as neurospheres which were derived from fetal cadavers at 13 weeks of gestation, and transplanted them into HI-injured immature brains to investigate their therapeutic potentials in this type of model.

  10. TNF-α Affects Human Cortical Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation through the Autocrine Secretion of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Yongxiang; Jia, Beibei; Sun, Lijun; Zheng, Jialin; Peng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a crucial effector of immune responses in the brain that participates in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that TNF-α negatively regulates embryonic and adult neurogenesis. However, the effect of TNF-α on cell fate decision in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has rarely been studied. Our previous studies have shown that recombinant TNF-α enhances astrogliogenesis and inhibits neurogenesis of human NPCs through the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway. In the current study, we further elucidated the specific mechanism involved in TNF-α-induced astrogliogenesis. We found that TNF-α activated STAT3 at delayed time points (6 h and 24 h), whereas conditioned medium collected from TNF-α-treated NPCs induced an immediate STAT3 activation. These data suggest TNF-α plays an indirect role on STAT3 activation and the subsequent NPC differentiation. Further, we showed that TNF-α induced abundant amounts of the IL-6 family cytokines, including Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6), in human NPCs. TNF-α-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and astrogliogenesis were abrogated by the addition of neutralizing antibody for LIF, but not for IL-6, revealing a critical role of autocrine secretion of LIF in TNF-α-induced STAT3 activation and astrogliogenesis. This study generates important data elucidating the role of TNF-α in neurogenesis and may provide insight into new therapeutic strategies for brain inflammation. PMID:23236394

  11. Assessing Cell Cycle Progression of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Mouse Developing Brain after Genotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Olivier; Bery, Amandine; Roque, Telma; Desmaze, Chantal; Boussin, François D.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebral cortex are generated during brain development from different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC), which form a pseudostratified epithelium lining the lateral ventricles of the embryonic brain. Genotoxic stresses, such as ionizing radiation, have highly deleterious effects on the developing brain related to the high sensitivity of NSPC. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved depends on the characterization of the DNA damage response of these particular types of cells, which requires an accurate method to determine NSPC progression through the cell cycle in the damaged tissue. Here is shown a method based on successive intraperitoneal injections of EdU and BrdU in pregnant mice and further detection of these two thymidine analogues in coronal sections of the embryonic brain. EdU and BrdU are both incorporated in DNA of replicating cells during S phase and are detected by two different techniques (azide or a specific antibody, respectively), which facilitate their simultaneous detection. EdU and BrdU staining are then determined for each NSPC nucleus in function of its distance from the ventricular margin in a standard region of the dorsal telencephalon. Thus this dual labeling technique allows distinguishing cells that progressed through the cell cycle from those that have activated a cell cycle checkpoint leading to cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. An example of experiment is presented, in which EdU was injected before irradiation and BrdU immediately after and analyzes performed within the 4 hr following irradiation. This protocol provides an accurate analysis of the acute DNA damage response of NSPC in function of the phase of the cell cycle at which they have been irradiated. This method is easily transposable to many other systems in order to determine the impact of a particular treatment on cell cycle progression in living tissues. PMID:24837791

  12. Assessing cell cycle progression of neural stem and progenitor cells in the mouse developing brain after genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Olivier; Bery, Amandine; Roque, Telma; Desmaze, Chantal; Boussin, François D

    2014-05-07

    Neurons of the cerebral cortex are generated during brain development from different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC), which form a pseudostratified epithelium lining the lateral ventricles of the embryonic brain. Genotoxic stresses, such as ionizing radiation, have highly deleterious effects on the developing brain related to the high sensitivity of NSPC. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved depends on the characterization of the DNA damage response of these particular types of cells, which requires an accurate method to determine NSPC progression through the cell cycle in the damaged tissue. Here is shown a method based on successive intraperitoneal injections of EdU and BrdU in pregnant mice and further detection of these two thymidine analogues in coronal sections of the embryonic brain. EdU and BrdU are both incorporated in DNA of replicating cells during S phase and are detected by two different techniques (azide or a specific antibody, respectively), which facilitate their simultaneous detection. EdU and BrdU staining are then determined for each NSPC nucleus in function of its distance from the ventricular margin in a standard region of the dorsal telencephalon. Thus this dual labeling technique allows distinguishing cells that progressed through the cell cycle from those that have activated a cell cycle checkpoint leading to cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. An example of experiment is presented, in which EdU was injected before irradiation and BrdU immediately after and analyzes performed within the 4 hr following irradiation. This protocol provides an accurate analysis of the acute DNA damage response of NSPC in function of the phase of the cell cycle at which they have been irradiated. This method is easily transposable to many other systems in order to determine the impact of a particular treatment on cell cycle progression in living tissues.

  13. Microcarrier-Expanded Neural Progenitor Cells Can Survive, Differentiate, and Innervate Host Neurons Better When Transplanted as Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lifeng; Lim, Yu Ming; Chen, Allen K; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve K W; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an excellent cell source for transplantation therapy due to their availability and ethical acceptability. However, the traditional method of expansion and differentiation of hESCs into NPCs in monolayer cultures requires a long time, and the cell yield is low. A microcarrier (MC) platform can improve the expansion of hESCs and increase the yield of NPCs. In this study, for the first time, we transplanted microcarrier-expanded hESC-derived NPCs into the striatum of adult NOD-SCID IL2Rgc null mice, either as single cells or as cell aggregates. The recipient mice were perfused, and the in vivo survival, differentiation, and targeted innervation of the transplanted cells were assessed by immunostaining. We found that both the transplanted single NPCs and aggregate NPCs were able to survive 1 month posttransplantation, as revealed by human-specific neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and human nuclear antigen staining. Compared to the single cells, the transplanted cell aggregates showed better survival over a 3-month period. In addition, both the transplanted single NPCs and the aggregate NPCs were able to differentiate into DCX-positive immature neurons and Tuj1-positive neurons in vivo by 1 month posttransplantation. However, only the transplantation of aggregate NPCs was shown to result in mature neurons at 3 months posttransplantation. Furthermore, we found that the cell aggregates were able to send long axons to innervate their targets. Our study provides preclinical evidence that the use of MCs to expand and differentiate hESC-derived NPCs and transplantation of these cells as aggregates produce longer survival in vivo.

  14. Role of low voltage activated calcium channels in neuritogenesis and active migration of embryonic neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Louhivuori, Lauri M; Louhivuori, Verna; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Hakala, Elina; Jansson, Linda C; Nordström, Tommy; Castrén, Maija L; Akerman, Karl E

    2013-04-15

    The central role of calcium influx and electrical activity in embryonic development raises important questions about the role and regulation of voltage-dependent calcium influx. Using cultured neural progenitor cell (NPC) preparations, we recorded barium currents through voltage-activated channels using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique and monitored intracellular free calcium concentrations with Fura-2 digital imaging. We found that NPCs as well as expressing high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels express functional low-threshold voltage-dependent calcium channels in the very early stages of differentiation (5 h to 1 day). The size of the currents recorded at -50 versus -20 mV after 1 day in differentiation was dependent on the nature of the charge carrier. Peak currents measured at -20 mV in the presence 10 mM Ca2+ instead of 10 mM Ba2+ had a tendency to be smaller, whereas the nature of the divalent species did not influence the amplitude measured at -50 mV. The T-type channel blockers mibefradil and NNC 55-0396 significantly reduced the calcium responses elicited by depolarizing with extracellular potassium, while the overall effect of the HVA calcium channel blockers was small at differentiation day 1. At differentiation day 20, the calcium responses were effectively blocked by nifedipine. Time-lapse imaging of differentiating neurospheres cultured in the presence of low-voltage-activated (LVA) blockers showed a significant decrease in the number of active migrating neuron-like cells and neurite extensions. Together, these data provide evidence that LVA calcium channels are involved in the physiology of differentiating and migrating NPCs.

  15. Senescence Mediated by p16INK4a Impedes Reprogramming of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells into Neural Crest Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Juan; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.; Chen, Shuangling; Tighe, Sean; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xin; Chen, Szu-Yu; Su, Chen-Wei; Zhu, Ying-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) have limited proliferative capacity due to “contact-inhibition” at G1 phase. Such contact-inhibition can be delayed from Day 21 to Day 42 by switching EGF-containing SHEM to LIF/bFGF-containing MESCM through transient activation of LIF-JAK1-STAT3 signaling that delays eventual nuclear translocation of p16INK4a. Using the latter system, we have reported a novel tissue engineering technique by implementing 5 weekly knockdowns with p120 catenin (p120) and Kaiso siRNAs since Day 7 to achieve effective expansion of HCEC monolayers to a transplantable size with a normal HCEC density, through reprogramming of HCECs into neural crest progenitors by activating p120-Kaiso-RhoA-ROCK-canonical BMP signaling. Herein, we noted that a single knockdown with p120-Kaiso siRNAs at Day 42 failed to achieve such reprogramming when contact inhibition transitioned to senescence with nuclear translocation of p16INK4a. In contrast, 5 weekly knockdowns with p120-Kaiso siRNAs since Day 7 precluded senescence mediated by p16INK4a by inducing nuclear translocation of Bmi1 because of sustained activation of JAK2-STAT3 signaling downstream of p120-Kaiso-RhoA-ROCK signaling. STAT3 or Bmi1 siRNA impeded nuclear exclusion of p16INK4a and suppressed the reprogramming induced by p120-Kaiso siRNAs, suggesting that another important engineering strategy of HCEC lies in prevention of senescence mediated by nuclear translocation of p16INK4a. PMID:27739458

  16. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M.; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain. PMID:26528139

  17. Transcription-associated processes cause DNA double-strand breaks and translocations in neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, Bjoern; Wei, Pei-Chi; Chang, Amelia N.; Kao, Jennifer; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS) studies of activated B cells have revealed that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) capable of translocating to defined bait DSBs are enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of active genes. We used the HTGTS approach to investigate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in primary neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We report that breakpoint junctions indeed are enriched around TSSs that were determined to be active by global run-on sequencing analyses of NSPCs. Comparative analyses of transcription profiles in NSPCs and B cells revealed that the great majority of TSS-proximal junctions occurred in genes commonly expressed in both cell types, possibly because this common set has higher transcription levels on average than genes transcribed in only one or the other cell type. In the latter context, among all actively transcribed genes containing translocation junctions in NSPCs, those with junctions located within 2 kb of the TSS show a significantly higher transcription rate on average than genes with junctions in the gene body located at distances greater than 2 kb from the TSS. Finally, analysis of repair junction signatures of TSS-associated translocations in wild-type versus classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ)–deficient NSPCs reveals that both C-NHEJ and alternative end-joining pathways can generate translocations by joining TSS-proximal DSBs to DSBs on other chromosomes. Our studies show that the generation of transcription-associated DSBs is conserved across divergent cell types. PMID:26873106

  18. Electric field-controlled directed migration of neural progenitor cells in 2D and 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoting; Li, Wenfei; Young, Fraser; Gao, Runchi; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing

    2012-02-16

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) occur naturally in vivo and play a critical role during tissue/organ development and regeneration, including that of the central nervous system(1,2). These endogenous EFs are generated by cellular regulation of ionic transport combined with the electrical resistance of cells and tissues. It has been reported that applied EF treatment can promote functional repair of spinal cord injuries in animals and humans(3,4). In particular, EF-directed cell migration has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types(5,6), including neural progenitor cells (NPCs)(7,8). Application of direct current (DC) EFs is not a commonly available technique in most laboratories. We have described detailed protocols for the application of DC EFs to cell and tissue cultures previously(5,11). Here we present a video demonstration of standard methods based on a calculated field strength to set up 2D and 3D environments for NPCs, and to investigate cellular responses to EF stimulation in both single cell growth conditions in 2D, and the organotypic spinal cord slice in 3D. The spinal cordslice is an ideal recipient tissue for studying NPC ex vivo behaviours, post-transplantation, because the cytoarchitectonic tissue organization is well preserved within these cultures(9,10). Additionally, this ex vivo model also allows procedures that are not technically feasible to track cells in vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level. It is critically essential to evaluate cell behaviours in not only a 2D environment, but also in a 3D organotypic condition which mimicks the in vivo environment. This system will allow high-resolution imaging using cover glass-based dishes in tissue or organ culture with 3D tracking of single cell migration in vitro and ex vivo and can be an intermediate step before moving onto in vivo paradigms.

  19. Short Term Morphine Exposure In Vitro Alters Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells and Promotes Apoptosis via Mu Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Dafna; Cohen-Yeshurun, Ayelet; Avidan, Alexander; Ozersky, Vladislav; Shohami, Esther; Leker, Ronen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic morphine treatment inhibits neural progenitor cell (NPC) progression and negatively effects hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effect of acute opioid treatment on cell development and its influence on NPC differentiation and proliferation in vitro is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of a single, short term exposure of morphine on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NPCs and the mechanism involved. Methods Cell cultures from 14-day mouse embryos were exposed to different concentrations of morphine and its antagonist naloxone for 24 hours and proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis were studied. Proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and cell fate was studied with immunocytochemistry. Results Cells treated with morphine demonstrated decreased BrdU expression with increased morphine concentrations. Analysis of double-labeled cells showed a decrease in cells co-stained for BrdU with nestin and an increase in cells co-stained with BrdU and neuron-specific class III β-tubuline (TUJ1) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant increase in caspase-3 activity was observed in the nestin- positive cells. Addition of naloxone to morphine-treated NPCs reversed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of morphine. Conclusions Short term morphine exposure induced inhibition of NPC proliferation and increased active caspase-3 expression in a dose dependent manner. Morphine induces neuronal and glial differentiation and decreases the expression of nestin- positive cells. These effects were reversed with the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Our results demonstrate the effects of short term morphine administration on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs and imply a mu-receptor mechanism in the regulation of NPC survival. PMID:25072277

  20. Electrospun SF/PLCL nanofibrous membrane: a potential scaffold for retinal progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Ni, Ni; Chen, Junzhao; Yao, Qinke; Shen, Bingqiao; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Mengyu; Wang, Zi; Ruan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Mo, Xiumei; Shi, Wodong; Ji, Jing; Fan, Xianqun; Gu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible polymer scaffolds are promising as potential carriers for the delivery of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in cell replacement therapy for the repair of damaged or diseased retinas. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), a novel scaffold, on the biological behaviour of RPCs in vitro. To assess the cell-scaffold interaction, RPCs were cultured on SF/PLCL scaffolds for indicated durations. Our data revealed that all the SF/PLCL scaffolds were thoroughly cytocompatible, and the SF:PLCL (1:1) scaffolds yielded the best RPC growth. The in vitro proliferation assays showed that RPCs proliferated more quickly on the SF:PLCL (1:1) than on the other scaffolds and the control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that RPCs grown on the SF:PLCL (1:1) scaffolds preferentially differentiated toward retinal neurons, including, most interestingly, photoreceptors. In summary, we demonstrated that the SF:PLCL (1:1) scaffolds can not only markedly promote RPC proliferation with cytocompatibility for RPC growth but also robustly enhance RPCs’ differentiation toward specific retinal neurons of interest in vitro, suggesting that SF:PLCL (1:1) scaffolds may have potential applications in retinal cell replacement therapy in the future. PMID:26395224

  1. Potential manipulation of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Fadini, G P; Avogaro, A

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk through its negative impact on vascular endothelium. Although glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity account for endothelial cell damage, endothelial repair is also affected by diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. For these reasons, EPCs are thought to have a protective impact within the cardiovascular system. In addition, EPCs appear to modulate the functioning of other organs, providing neurotropic signals and promoting repair of the glomerular endothelium. The exact mechanisms by which EPCs provide cardiovascular protection are unknown and the definition of EPCs is not standardized. Notwithstanding these limitations, the literature consistently indicates that EPCs are altered in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and in virtually all diabetic complications. Moreover, experimental models suggest that EPC-based therapies might help prevent or reverse the features of end-organ complications. This identifies EPCs as having a novel pathogenic role in diabetes and being a potential therapeutic target. Several ways of favourably modulating EPCs have been identified, including lifestyle intervention, commonly used medications and cell-based approaches. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of EPC pathophysiology and the potential for EPC modulation in diabetes.

  2. Neural stem/progenitor cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes, reduce inflammation, and ameliorate learning deficits after transplantation in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudaki, Paraskevi N; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Stamatakis, Antonios; Kouroupi, Georgia; Xingi, Evangelia; Stylianopoulou, Fotini; Matsas, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system has limited capacity for regeneration after traumatic injury. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach while insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has neuroprotective properties following various experimental insults to the nervous system. We have previously shown that NPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector for IGF-I overexpression have an enhanced ability to give rise to neurons in vitro but also in vivo, upon transplantation in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we studied the regenerative potential of NPCs, IGF-I-transduced or not, in a mouse model of hippocampal mechanical injury. NPC transplantation, with or without IGF-I transduction, rescued the injury-induced spatial learning deficits as revealed in the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, it had beneficial effects on the host tissue by reducing astroglial activation and microglial/macrophage accumulation while enhancing generation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells. One or two months after transplantation the grafted NPCs had migrated towards the lesion site and in the neighboring myelin-rich regions. Transplanted cells differentiated toward the oligodendroglial, but not the neuronal or astrocytic lineages, expressing the early and late oligodendrocyte markers NG2, Olig2, and CNPase. The newly generated oligodendrocytes reached maturity and formed myelin internodes. Our current and previous observations illustrate the high plasticity of transplanted NPCs which can acquire injury-dependent phenotypes within the host CNS, supporting the fact that reciprocal interactions between transplanted cells and the host tissue are an important factor to be considered when designing prospective cell-based therapies for CNS degenerative conditions.

  3. N-cadherin promotes recruitment and migration of neural progenitor cells from the SVZ neural stem cell niche into demyelinated lesions.

    PubMed

    Klingener, Michael; Chavali, Manideep; Singh, Jagdeep; McMillan, Nadia; Coomes, Alexandra; Dempsey, Peter J; Chen, Emily I; Aguirre, Adan

    2014-07-16

    Discrete cellular microenvironments regulate stem cell pools and their development, as well as function in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Although the signaling elements modulating neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) niche are fairly well understood, the pathways activated following injury and the resulting outcomes, are less clear. In the present study, we used mouse models of demyelination and proteomics analysis to identify molecular cues present in the adult SVZ niche during injury, and analyzed their role on NPCs in the context of promoting myelin repair. Proteomic analysis of SVZ tissue from mice with experimental demyelination identified several proteins that are known to play roles in NPC proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Among the proteins found to be upregulated were members of the N-cadherin signaling pathway. During the onset of demyelination in the subcortical white matter (SCWM), activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SVZ NPCs stimulates the interaction between N-cadherin and ADAM10. Upon cleavage and activation of N-cadherin signaling by ADAM10, NPCs undergo cytoskeletal rearrangement and polarization, leading to enhanced migration out of the SVZ into demyelinated lesions of the SCWM. Genetically disrupting either EGFR signaling or ADAM10 inhibits this pathway, preventing N-cadherin regulated NPC polarization and migration. Additionally, in vivo experiments using N-cadherin gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that N-cadherin enhances the recruitment of SVZ NPCs into demyelinated lesions. Our data revealed that EGFR-dependent N-cadherin signaling physically initiated by ADAM10 cleavage is the response of the SVZ niche to promote repair of the injured brain.

  4. Upregulation of Slc38a1 Gene Along with Promotion of Neurosphere Growth and Subsequent Neuronal Specification in Undifferentiated Neural Progenitor Cells Exposed to Theanine.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Ogura, Masato; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Kutsukake, Takaya; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    We have shown marked promotion of both cluster growth and neuronal specification in pluripotent P19 cells with overexpression of solute carrier 38a1 (Slc38a1), which is responsible for membrane transport of glutamine. In this study, we evaluated pharmacological profiles of the green tea amino acid ingredient theanine, which is a good substrate for glutamine transporters, on proliferation and neuronal specification in neural progenitor cells from embryonic rat neocortex. Sustained exposure to theanine, but not glutamine, accelerated the growth of neurospheres composed of proliferating cells and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reducing activity at concentrations of 1-100 μM in undifferentiated progenitor cells. Such prior exposure to theanine promoted spontaneous and induced commitment to a neuronal lineage with concomitant deteriorated astroglial specification. Selective upregulation was seen in the expression of Slc38a1 in progenitor cells cultured with theanine. Similarly significant increases in cluster growth and MTT reducing activity were found in P19 cells cultured with theanine for 4 days. Luciferase activity was doubled in a manner sensitive to the deletion of promoter regions in P19 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid of the Slc38a1 promoter after sustained exposure to theanine for 4 days. Overexpression of X-box binding protein-1 led to a marked increase in luciferase activity in P19 cells transfected with the Slc38a1 reporter plasmid. These results suggest that theanine accelerates cellular proliferation and subsequent neuronal specification through a mechanism relevant to upregulation of Slc38a1 gene in undifferentiated neural progenitor cells.

  5. Cystein-serine-rich nuclear protein 1, Axud1/Csrnp1, is essential for cephalic neural progenitor proliferation and survival in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Feijóo, Carmen G; Sarrazin, Andres F; Allende, Miguel L; Glavic, Alvaro

    2009-08-01

    The CSRNP (cystein-serine-rich nuclear protein) family has been conserved from Drosophila to human. Although knockout mice for each of the mammalian proteins have been generated, their function during vertebrate development has remained elusive. As an alternative to obtain insights on CSRNP's role in development, we have analysed the expression pattern and function of one member of this family, axud1, during zebrafish development. Our expression analysis indicates that axud1 is expressed from cleavage to larval stages in a dynamic pattern, becoming restricted after gastrulation to anterior regions of the developing neuraxis and later on concentrated predominantly in proliferating domains of the brain. Knockdown analysis using antisense morpholinos shows that reducing Axud1 levels impairs neural progenitor cell proliferation and survival, revealing an essential function of this gene for the growth of cephalic derivatives. The brain growth phenotypes elicited by decreasing Axud1 expression are specific and independent of anterior-posterior patterning events, initial establishment of neural progenitors, or neural differentiation occurring in this tissue. However, Axud1 is necessary for six3.1 expression and is positively regulated by sonic hedgehog. Phylogenetic examination shows that axud1 is likely to be the ortholog of the only member of this family present in Drosophila, as well as to the previously described mouse CSRNP1 and to human AXUD1 (Axin upregulated-1). Thus, we provide evidence as to the role of axud1 in brain growth in vertebrates.

  6. Foxa2 identifies a cardiac progenitor population with ventricular differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Bardot, Evan; Calderon, Damelys; Santoriello, Francis; Han, Songyan; Cheung, Kakit; Jadhav, Bharati; Burtscher, Ingo; Artap, Stanley; Jain, Rajan; Epstein, Jonathan; Lickert, Heiko; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Sharp, Andrew J.; Dubois, Nicole C.

    2017-01-01

    The recent identification of progenitor populations that contribute to the developing heart in a distinct spatial and temporal manner has fundamentally improved our understanding of cardiac development. However, the mechanisms that direct atrial versus ventricular specification remain largely unknown. Here we report the identification of a progenitor population that gives rise primarily to cardiovascular cells of the ventricles and only to few atrial cells (<5%) of the differentiated heart. These progenitors are specified during gastrulation, when they transiently express Foxa2, a gene not previously implicated in cardiac development. Importantly, Foxa2+ cells contribute to previously identified progenitor populations in a defined pattern and ratio. Lastly, we describe an analogous Foxa2+ population during differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Together, these findings provide insight into the developmental origin of ventricular and atrial cells, and may lead to the establishment of new strategies for generating chamber-specific cell types from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:28195173

  7. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  8. Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Grafted into the Adult Epileptic Brain Restrain Seizures in Rat Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  9. Novel stem/progenitor cells with neuronal differentiation potential reside in the leptomeningeal niche

    PubMed Central

    Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Chiamulera, Christian; Bersan, Emanuela; Malpeli, Giorgio; Johansson, Jan; Lisi, Veronica; Bonetti, Bruno; Fumagalli, Guido; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Krampera, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells capable of generating neural differentiated cells are recognized by the expression of nestin and reside in specific regions of the brain, namely, hippocampus, subventricular zone and olfactory bulb. For other brain structures, such as leptomeninges, which contribute to the correct cortex development and functions, there is no evidence so far that they may contain stem/precursor cells. In this work, we show for the first time that nestin-positive cells are present in rat leptomeninges during development up to adulthood. The newly identified nestin-positive cells can be extracted and expanded in vitro both as neurospheres, displaying high similarity with subventricular zone–derived neural stem cells, and as homogeneous cell population with stem cell features. In vitro expanded stem cell population can differentiate with high efficiency into excitable cells with neuronal phenotype and morphology. Once injected into the adult brain, these cells survive and differentiate into neurons, thus showing that their neuronal differentiation potential is operational also in vivo. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that a specific population of immature cells endowed of neuronal differentiation potential is resident in the leptomeninges throughout the life. As leptomeninges cover the entire central nervous system, these findings could have relevant implications for studies on cortical development and for regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders. PMID:19228261

  10. Control of the Normal and Pathological Development of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells by the PC3/Tis21/Btg2 and Btg1 Genes.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Tirone, Felice

    2015-12-01

    The PC3/Tis21/Btg2 and Btg1 genes are transcriptional cofactors belonging to the Btg/Tob family, which regulate the development of several cell types, including neural precursors. We summarize here the actions of these genes on neural precursors in the adult neurogenic niches and the cognitive defects associated when their expression is altered. We consider also recent findings implicating them in neural and non-neural tumors, since common developmental mechanisms are involved. PC3/Tis21 is required for the regulation of the maturation of stem and progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ), by controlling both their exit from the cell cycle and the ensuing terminal differentiation. Such actions are effected by regulating the expression of several genes, including cyclin D1, BMP4, Id3. In cerebellar precursors, however, PC3/Tis21 regulates chiefly their migration rather than proliferation or differentiation, with important implications for the onset of medulloblastoma, the cerebellar tumor. In fact PC3/Tis21 is a medulloblastoma-suppressor, as its overexpression in cerebellar precursors inhibits this tumor; PC3/Tis21 shows anti-tumor activity also in non-neural tumors. Btg1 presents a different functional profile, as it controls proliferation in adult stem/progenitor cells of dentate gyrus and SVZ, where is required to maintain their self-renewal and quiescence, but is apparently devoid of a direct control of their terminal differentiation or migration. Notably, physical exercise in Btg1-null mice rescues the loss of proliferative capability occurring in older stem cells. Both genes could be further investigated as therapeutical targets, namely, Btg1 in the process of aging and PC3/Tis21 as a tumor-suppressor.

  11. Phloroglucinol Inhibits the in vitro Differentiation Potential of CD34 Positive Cells into Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yi-Hong; Lee, Jun-Hee; Jung, Seok-Yun; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Inhibiting the bioactivities of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) results in significant inhibition of neovessel formation during tumor angiogenesis. To investigate the potential effect of phloroglucinol as an EPC inhibitor, we performed several in vitro functional assays using CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB). Although a high treatment dose of phloroglucinol did not show any cell toxicity, it specifically induced the cell death of EPCs under serum free conditions through apoptosis. In the EPC colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA), we observed a significant decreased in the small EPC-CFUs for the phloroglucinol group, implying that phloroglucinol inhibited the early stage of EPC commitment. In addition, in the in vitro expansion assay using CD34+ cells, treatment with phloroglucinol was shown to inhibit endothelial lineage commitment, as demonstrated by the decrease in endothelial surface markers of EPCs including CD34+, CD34+/CD133+, CD34+/CD31+ and CD34+/CXCR4+. This is the first report to demonstrate that phloroglucinol can inhibit the functional bioactivities of EPCs, indicating that phloroglucinol may be used as an EPC inhibitor in the development of biosafe anti-tumor drugs that target tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24116289

  12. Aging of Stem and Progenitor Cells: Mechanisms, Impact on Therapeutic Potential, and Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-02-01

    It was once suggested that adult or tissue-specific stem cells may be immortal; however, several recently published data suggest that their efficacy is limited by natural aging in common with most other somatic cell types. Decreased activity of stem cells in old age raises questions as to whether the age of the donor should be considered during stem cell transplantation and at what age the donor stem cells should be harvested to ensure the largest possible number of viable, functional, and non-altered stem cells. Although stem cells remain active into old age, changes in stem cells and their microenvironments inhibit their regenerative potential. The impact of aging on stem cell populations differs between tissues and depends on a number intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including systemic changes associated with immune system alterations. In this review, we describe key mechanisms of stem and progenitor cell aging and techniques that are currently used to identify signs of stem cells aging. Furthermore, we focus on the impact of aging on the capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and clinical use of stem cells. Finally, we detail the aging of embryonic, mesenchymal, and induced pluripotent stem cells, with particular emphasis on aging mechanisms and rejuvenation.

  13. Hematopoietic Progenitors from Early Murine Fetal Liver Possess Hepatic Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Satish; Mukhopadhyay, Asok

    2008-01-01

    Bipotential hepatoblasts differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes during liver development. It is believed that hepatoblasts originate from endodermal tissue. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of hepatic progenitor cells in the hematopoietic compartment at an early stage of liver development. Flow cytometric analysis showed that at early stages of liver development, approximately 13% of CD45+ cells express Δ-like protein-1, a marker of hepatoblasts. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase-PCR data suggest that many hepatic genes are expressed in these cells. Cell culture experiments confirmed the hepatic differentiation potential of these cells with the loss of the CD45 marker. We observed that both hematopoietic activity in Δ-like protein-1+ cells and hepatic activity in CD45+ cells were high at embryonic day 10.5 and declined thereafter. Clonal analysis revealed that the hematopoietic fraction of fetal liver cells at embryonic day 10.5 gave rise to both hepatic and hematopoietic colonies. The above results suggest a common source of these two functionally distinct cell lineages. In utero transplantation experiments confirmed these results, as green fluorescent protein-expressing CD45+ cells at the same stage of development yielded functional hepatocytes and hematopoietic reconstitution. Since these cells were unable to differentiate into cytokeratin-19-expressing cholangiocytes, we distinguished them from hepatoblasts. This preliminary study provides hope to correct many liver diseases during prenatal development via transplantation of fetal liver hematopoietic cells. PMID:18988804

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Field of Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yohei; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Fukui, Tomoaki; Patel, Kunj G; Walker, Garth N; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate blood supply frequently impedes the viability of tissue-engineered constructs in the initial phase after implantation, and can lead to improper cell integration or cell death. Vascularization using stem cells has continued to evolve as a potential solution to this problem. In this review, we summarize studies that utilize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for musculoskeletal regeneration. This review will also highlight recent concepts for EPC identification in conjunction with the development of EPC biology research. EPCs promote bone regeneration in animal models through a variety of mechanisms. By differentiating toward endothelial cell lineages and osteoblasts, EPCs stimulate vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Moreover, EPCs influence supporting cells through the secretion of growth factors and cytokines. Phase I/II clinical trials have applied circulating CD34+ cells/EPCs to nonunion bone fractures and have exhibited promising results including accelerated bone healing. Similar mechanisms of angiogenesis and osteogenesis are proposed for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptured tissue derived CD34+ cells, and thus EPCs have implied a critical role at the site of tendon-bone integration. EPCs are an emerging strategy among other cell-based therapies in the field of orthopaedics for the promotion of musculoskeletal regeneration.

  15. A comparison of the tube forming potentials of early and late endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nana; Akahori, Taichi; Komaki, Motohiro; Li, Qin; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Abe, Mayumi; Amagasa, Teruo; Morita, Ikuo

    2008-02-01

    The identification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has revolutionized approaches to cell-based therapy for injured and ischemic tissues. However, the mechanisms by which EPCs promote the formation of new vessels remain unclear. In this study, we obtained early EPCs from human peripheral blood and late EPCs from umbilical cord blood. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also used. Cells were evaluated for their tube-forming potential using our novel in vitro assay system. Cells were seeded linearly along a 60 mum wide path generated by photolithographic methods. After cells had established a linear pattern on the substrate, they were transferred onto Matrigel. Late EPCs formed tubular structures similar to those of HUVECs, whereas early EPCs randomly migrated and failed to form tubular structures. Moreover, late EPCs participate in tubule formation with HUVECs. Interestingly, late EPCs in Matrigel migrated toward pre-existing tubular structures constructed by HUVECs, after which they were incorporated into the tubules. In contrast, early EPCs promote sprouting of HUVECs from tubular structures. The phenomena were also observed in the in vivo model. These observations suggest that early EPCs cause the disorganization of pre-existing vessels, whereas late EPCs constitute and orchestrate vascular tube formation.

  16. Tropism and Induction of Cytokines in Human Embryonic-Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors upon Inoculation with Highly- Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Praphet, Reunkeaw; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction caused by neurovirulent influenza viruses is a dreaded complication of infection, and may play a role in some neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson-like diseases and encephalitis lethargica. Although CNS infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been demonstrated, it is unknown whether H5N1 infects neural progenitor cells, nor whether such infection plays a role in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. To pursue this question, we infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells in vitro with H5N1 virus, and studied the resulting cytopathology, cytokine expression, and genes involved in the differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (BG01) were maintained and differentiated into the neural progenitors, and then infected by H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Thailand/CUK2/04) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. At 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-infection (hpi), cytopathic effects were observed. Then cells were characterized by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, supernatants quantified for virus titers, and sampled cells studied for candidate genes.The hNPCs were susceptible to H5N1 virus infection as determined by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. The infection was characterized by a significant up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression, while expressions of IFN-α2, IFN-β1, IFN-γ and IL-6 remained unchanged compared to mock-infected controls. Moreover, H5N1 infection did not appear to alter expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers of hNPCs, such as β-III tubulin and GFAP, respectively. The results indicate that hNPCs support H5N1 virus infection and may play a role in the neuroinflammation during acute viral encephalitis.

  17. Yolk Sac Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells from New World Mice (Necromys lasiurus) with Multipotent Differential Potential

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea; Will, Sônia Elisabete; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:24918429

  18. Gene Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: Promise and Potential Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung-Rok; Natanson, Hannah; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2016-08-02

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have great therapeutic potential because of their ability to both self-renew and differentiate. It has been proposed that, given their unique properties, a small number of genetically modified HSPCs could accomplish lifelong, corrective reconstitution of the entire hematopoietic system in patients with various hematologic disorders. Scientists have demonstrated that gene addition therapies-targeted to HSPCs and using integrating retroviral vectors-possess clear clinical benefits in multiple diseases, among them immunodeficiencies, storage disorders, and hemoglobinopathies. Scientists attempting to develop clinically relevant gene therapy protocols have, however, encountered a number of unexpected hurdles because of their incomplete knowledge of target cells, genomic control, and gene transfer technologies. Targeted gene-editing technologies using engineered nucleases such as ZFN, TALEN, and/or CRISPR/Cas9 RGEN show great clinical promise, allowing for the site-specific correction of disease-causing mutations-a process with important applications in autosomal dominant or dominant-negative genetic disorders. The relative simplicity of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in particular, has sparked an exponential increase in the scientific community's interest in and use of these gene-editing technologies. In this minireview, we discuss the specific applications of gene-editing technologies in human HSPCs, as informed by prior experience with gene addition strategies. HSPCs are desirable but challenging targets; the specific mechanisms these cells evolved to protect themselves from DNA damage render them potentially more susceptible to oncogenesis, especially given their ability to self-renew and their long-term proliferative potential. We further review scientists' experience with gene-editing technologies to date, focusing on strategies to move these techniques toward implementation in safe and effective clinical trials.

  19. Regulation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in the Post-stroke Rat Brain and In Vitro Ischemia: Implications for Chemokine-Mediated Neural Progenitor Cell Migration and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Umadevi V; Hatcher, James F; Ayvaci, Emine R; Klemp, Abby; Dempsey, Robert J

    2016-08-15

    Cerebral ischemia evokes abnormal release of proteases in the brain microenvironment that spatiotemporally impact angio-neurogenesis. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), a cell surface and secreted protease, has been implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling by regulating cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis through modifying the functions of the major chemokine stromal-derived factor, SDF1. To elucidate the possible association of DPPIV in ischemic brain, we examined the expression of DPPIV in the post-stroke rat brain and under in vitro ischemia by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). We further investigated the effects of DPPIV on SDF1 mediated in vitro chemotactic and angiogenic functions. DPPIV protein and mRNA levels were significantly upregulated during repair phase in the ischemic cortex of the rat brain, specifically in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. In vitro exposure of Neuro-2a neuronal cells and rat brain endothelial cells to OGD resulted in upregulation of DPPIV. In vitro functional analysis showed that DPPIV decreases the SDF1-mediated angiogenic potential of rat brain endothelial cells and inhibits the migration of Neuro-2a and neural progenitor cells. Western blot analyses revealed decreased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and AKT in the presence of DPPIV. DPPIV inhibitor restored the effects of SDF1. Proteome profile array screening further revealed that DPPIV decreases matrix metalloproteinase-9, a key downstream effector of ERK-AKT signaling pathways. Overall, delayed induction of DPPIV in response to ischemia/reperfusion suggests that DPPIV may play an important role in endogenous brain tissue remodeling and repair processes. This may be mediated through modulation of SDF1-mediated cell migration and angiogenesis.

  20. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment. PMID:26634434

  1. Poly-L-ornithine enhances migration of neural stem/progenitor cells via promoting α-Actinin 4 binding to actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongfei; Yu, Anyong; Chen, Jingyu; Yuan, Jichao; Yin, Yi; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Tan, Liang; Yang, Yang; Lan, Chuan; Chen, Weixiang; Feng, Hua; Hu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) for brain restoration after injury is a promising regenerative therapeutic strategy. This strategy involves enhancing proliferation, migration and neuronal differentation of NSPCs. To date, the lack of biomaterials, which facilitate these processes to enhance neural regeneration, is an obstacle for the cell replacement therapies. Our previous study has shown that NSPCs grown on poly-L-ornithine (PO) could proliferate more vigorously and differentiate into more neurons than that on Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and Fibronectin (FN). Here, we demonstrate that PO could promote migration of NSPCs in vitro, and the underlying mechanism is PO activates α-Actinins 4 (ACTN4), which is firstly certified to be expessed in NSPCs, to promote filopodia formation and therefore enhances NSPCs migration. Taken together, PO might serve as a better candidate for transplanted biomaterials in the regenerative therapeutic strategy, compared with PLL and FN. PMID:27874083

  2. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-08-01

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  3. Impact of the Autism-Associated Long Noncoding RNA MSNP1AS on Neuronal Architecture and Gene Expression in Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Jessica J.; Grepo, Nicole; Wilkinson, Brent; Evgrafov, Oleg V.; Knowles, James A.; Campbell, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MSNP1AS (moesin pseudogene 1, antisense) as a functional element revealed by genome wide significant association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MSNP1AS expression was increased in the postmortem cerebral cortex of individuals with ASD and particularly in individuals with the ASD-associated genetic markers on chromosome 5p14.1. Here, we mimicked the overexpression of MSNP1AS observed in postmortem ASD cerebral cortex in human neural progenitor cell lines to determine the impact on neurite complexity and gene expression. ReNcell CX and SK-N-SH were transfected with an overexpression vector containing full-length MSNP1AS. Neuronal complexity was determined by the number and length of neuronal processes. Gene expression was determined by strand-specific RNA sequencing. MSNP1AS overexpression decreased neurite number and neurite length in both human neural progenitor cell lines. RNA sequencing revealed changes in gene expression in proteins involved in two biological processes: protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. These data indicate that overexpression of the ASD-associated lncRNA MSNP1AS alters the number and length of neuronal processes. The mechanisms by which MSNP1AS overexpression impacts neuronal differentiation may involve protein synthesis and chromatin structure. These same biological processes are also implicated by rare mutations associated with ASD, suggesting convergent mechanisms. PMID:27690106

  4. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate.

  5. ZIKA virus elicits P53 activation and genotoxic stress in human neural progenitors similar to mutations involved in severe forms of genetic microcephaly and p53

    PubMed Central

    Ghouzzi, Vincent El; Bianchi, Federico T; Molineris, Ivan; Mounce, Bryan C; Berto, Gaia E; Rak, Malgorzata; Lebon, Sophie; Aubry, Laetitia; Tocco, Chiara; Gai, Marta; Chiotto, Alessandra MA; Sgrò, Francesco; Pallavicini, Gianmarco; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Passemard, Sandrine; Vignuzzi, Marco; Gressens, Pierre; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence from the current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and recent studies in animal models indicate a strong causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly. ZIKV infection induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in proliferating neural progenitors. However, the mechanisms leading to these phenotypes are still largely obscure. In this report, we explored the possible similarities between transcriptional responses induced by ZIKV in human neural progenitors and those elicited by three different genetic mutations leading to severe forms of microcephaly in mice. We found that the strongest similarity between all these conditions is the activation of common P53 downstream genes. In agreement with these observations, we report that ZIKV infection increases total P53 levels and nuclear accumulation, as well as P53 Ser15 phosphorylation, correlated with genotoxic stress and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, increased P53 activation and apoptosis are induced not only in cells expressing high levels of viral antigens but also in cells showing low or undetectable levels of the same proteins. These results indicate that P53 activation is an early and specific event in ZIKV-infected cells, which could result from cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight a small group of P53 effector proteins that could act as critical mediators, not only in ZIKV-induced microcephaly but also in many genetic microcephaly syndromes. PMID:27787521

  6. Impact of the Autism-Associated Long Noncoding RNA MSNP1AS on Neuronal Architecture and Gene Expression in Human Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jessica J; Grepo, Nicole; Wilkinson, Brent; Evgrafov, Oleg V; Knowles, James A; Campbell, Daniel B

    2016-09-28

    We previously identified the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MSNP1AS (moesin pseudogene 1, antisense) as a functional element revealed by genome wide significant association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MSNP1AS expression was increased in the postmortem cerebral cortex of individuals with ASD and particularly in individuals with the ASD-associated genetic markers on chromosome 5p14.1. Here, we mimicked the overexpression of MSNP1AS observed in postmortem ASD cerebral cortex in human neural progenitor cell lines to determine the impact on neurite complexity and gene expression. ReNcell CX and SK-N-SH were transfected with an overexpression vector containing full-length MSNP1AS. Neuronal complexity was determined by the number and length of neuronal processes. Gene expression was determined by strand-specific RNA sequencing. MSNP1AS overexpression decreased neurite number and neurite length in both human neural progenitor cell lines. RNA sequencing revealed changes in gene expression in proteins involved in two biological processes: protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. These data indicate that overexpression of the ASD-associated lncRNA MSNP1AS alters the number and length of neuronal processes. The mechanisms by which MSNP1AS overexpression impacts neuronal differentiation may involve protein synthesis and chromatin structure. These same biological processes are also implicated by rare mutations associated with ASD, suggesting convergent mechanisms.

  7. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  8. MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 regulates neural stem cell expansion and transition to intermediate progenitors in the developing mouse neocortex.

    PubMed

    Bian, Shan; Hong, Janet; Li, Qingsong; Schebelle, Laura; Pollock, Andrew; Knauss, Jennifer L; Garg, Vidur; Sun, Tao

    2013-05-30

    During development of the embryonic neocortex, tightly regulated expansion of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their transition to intermediate progenitors (IPs) are critical for normal cortical formation and function. Molecular mechanisms that regulate NSC expansion and transition remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA) miR-17-92 cluster is required for maintaining proper populations of cortical radial glial cells (RGCs) and IPs through repression of Pten and Tbr2 protein. Knockout of miR-17-92 and its paralogs specifically in the developing neocortex restricts NSC proliferation, suppresses RGC expansion, and promotes transition of RGCs to IPs. Moreover, Pten and Tbr2 protectors specifically block silencing activities of endogenous miR-17-92 and control proper numbers of RGCs and IPs in vivo. Our results demonstrate a critical role for miRNAs in promoting NSC proliferation and modulating the cell-fate decision of generating distinct neural progenitors in the developing neocortex.

  9. Tfap2a and Foxd3 regulate early steps in the development of the neural crest progenitor population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Der; Melville, David B; Montero-Balaguer, Mercedes; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Knapik, Ela W

    2011-12-01

    The neural crest is a stem cell-like population exclusive to vertebrates that gives rise to many different cell types including chondrocytes, neurons and melanocytes. Arising from the neural plate border at the intersection of Wnt and Bmp signaling pathways, the complexity of neural crest gene regulatory networks has made the earliest steps of induction difficult to elucidate. Here, we report that tfap2a and foxd3 participate in neural crest induction and are necessary and sufficient for this process to proceed. Double mutant tfap2a (mont blanc, mob) and foxd3 (mother superior, mos) mob;mos zebrafish embryos completely lack all neural crest-derived tissues. Moreover, tfap2a and foxd3 are expressed during gastrulation prior to neural crest induction in distinct, complementary, domains; tfap2a is expressed in the ventral non-neural ectoderm and foxd3 in the dorsal mesendoderm and ectoderm. We further show that Bmp signaling is expanded in mob;mos embryos while expression of dkk1, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, is increased and canonical Wnt targets are suppressed. These changes in Bmp and Wnt signaling result in specific perturbations of neural crest induction rather than general defects in neural plate border or dorso-ventral patterning. foxd3 overexpression, on the other hand, enhances the ability of tfap2a to ectopically induce neural crest around the neural plate, overriding the normal neural plate border limit of the early neural crest territory. Although loss of either Tfap2a or Foxd3 alters Bmp and Wnt signaling patterns, only their combined inactivation sufficiently alters these signaling gradients to abort neural crest induction. Collectively, our results indicate that tfap2a and foxd3, in addition to their respective roles in the differentiation of neural crest derivatives, also jointly maintain the balance of Bmp and Wnt signaling in order to delineate the neural crest induction domain.

  10. Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Werner Zhang, Dong H.

    2014-07-14

    We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.

  11. Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential: the CD105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shuji; Otsuru, Satoru; Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Uchibe, Kenta; Hofmann, Ted J; Zhang, Kairui; Wapner, Keith L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Horwitz, Edwin M; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-12-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area expressing tenogenic phenotype but also trans-differentiated into chondrogenic cells in the degenerative lesion that underwent ectopic endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, the micromass culture of the inTPCs rapidly underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins or TGFβs. The cells isolated from human ruptured tendon tissues also showed connective tissue progenitor properties and exhibited stronger chondrogenic ability than bone marrow stromal cells. The mouse inTPCs contained two subpopulations one positive and one negative for CD105, a coreceptor of the TGFβ superfamily. The CD105-negative cells showed superior chondrogenic potential in vitro and induced larger chondroid degenerative lesions in mice as compared to the CD105-positive cells. These findings indicate that tendon progenitor cells are recruited to the injured site of tendons and have a strong chondrogenic potential and that the CD105-negative population of these cells would be the cause for chondroid degeneration in injured tendons. The newly identified cells recruited to the injured tendon may provide novel targets to develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate tendon repair.

  12. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  13. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Jody J; Ema, Masatsugu; Haigh, Katharina; Gertsenstein, Marina; Greer, Peter; Rossant, Janet; Nagy, Andras; Wagner, Erwin F

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the modulators of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/Flk1 signaling cascade. To functionally characterize this pathway, VEGF-A stimulation of endothelial cells was performed. VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Fps/Fes in VEGF-A/Flk1 signaling events. Addition of a myristoylation consensus sequence to Fps/Fes resulted in VEGF-A-independent membrane localization of Fps/Fes in endothelial cells. Expression of the activated Fps/Fes protein in Flk1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells rescued their contribution to the developing vascular endothelium in vivo by using ES cell-derived chimeras. Activated Fps/Fes contributed to this rescue event by restoring the migratory potential to Flk1 null progenitors, which is required for movement of hemangioblasts from the primitive streak region into the yolk sac proper. Activated Fps/Fes in the presence of Flk1 increased the number of hemangioblast colonies in vitro and increased the number of mesodermal progenitors in vivo. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may act synergistically with Flk1 to modulate hemangioblast differentiation into the endothelium. We have also demonstrated that activated Fps/Fes causes hemangioma formation in vivo, independently of Flk1, as a result of increasing vascular progenitor density.

  14. An interneuron progenitor maintains neurogenic potential in vivo and differentiates into GABAergic interneurons after transplantation in the postnatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Hong, Peiwei; Gao, Hui; Chen, Yuntian; Yang, Qi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Hedong

    2016-01-11

    Dysfunction of cortical GABAergic interneurons are involved in numerous neurological disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism; and replenishment of these cells by transplantation strategy has proven to be a feasible and effective method to help revert the symptoms in several animal models. To develop methodology of generating transplantable GABAergic interneurons for therapy, we previously reported the isolation of a v-myc-induced GABAergic interneuron progenitor clone GE6 from embryonic ganglionic eminence (GE). These cells can proliferate and form functional inhibitory synapses in culture. Here, we tested their differentiation behavior in vivo by transplanting them into the postnatal rat forebrain. We found that GE6 cells migrate extensively in the neonatal forebrain and differentiate into both neurons and glia, but preferentially into neurons when compared with a sister progenitor clone CTX8. The neurogenic potential of GE6 cells is also maintained after transplantation into a non-permissive environment such as adult cortex or when treated with inflammatory cytokine in culture. The GE6-derived neurons were able to mature in vivo as GABAergic interneurons expressing GABAergic, not glutamatergic, presynaptic puncta. Finally, we propose that v-myc-induced human interneuron progenitor clones could be an alternative cell source of transplantable GABAergic interneurons for treating related neurological diseases in future clinic.

  15. Fate Specification of Neural Plate Border by Canonical Wnt Signaling and Grhl3 is Crucial for Neural Tube Closure.

    PubMed

    Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Mochida, Kyoko; Ellwanger, Kristina; Niehrs, Christof; Matsuo, Isao

    2015-06-01

    During primary neurulation, the separation of a single-layered ectodermal sheet into the surface ectoderm (SE) and neural tube specifies SE and neural ectoderm (NE) cell fates. The mechanisms underlying fate specification in conjunction with neural tube closure are poorly understood. Here, by comparing expression profiles between SE and NE lineages, we observed that uncommitted progenitor cells, expressing stem cell markers, are present in the neural plate border/neural fold prior to neural tube closure. Our results also demonstrated that canonical Wnt and its antagonists, DKK1/KREMEN1, progressively specify these progenitors into SE or NE fates in accord with the progress of neural tube closure. Additionally, SE specification of the neural plate border via canonical Wnt signaling is directed by the grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) transcription factor. Thus, we propose that the fate specification of uncommitted progenitors in the neural plate border by canonical Wnt signaling and its downstream effector Grhl3 is crucial for neural tube closure. This study implicates that failure in critical genetic factors controlling fate specification of progenitor cells in the neural plate border/neural fold coordinated with neural tube closure may be potential causes of human neural tube defects.

  16. Effect of Ionic Diffusion on Extracellular Potentials in Neural Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Halnes, Geir; Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo; Keller, Daniel; Pettersen, Klas H.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2016-01-01

    Recorded potentials in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is a standard measure of population activity in neural tissue. Computational models that simulate the relationship between the ECS potential and its underlying neurophysiological processes are commonly used in the interpretation of such measurements. Standard methods, such as volume-conductor theory and current-source density theory, assume that diffusion has a negligible effect on the ECS potential, at least in the range of frequencies picked up by most recording systems. This assumption remains to be verified. We here present a hybrid simulation framework that accounts for diffusive effects on the ECS potential. The framework uses (1) the NEURON simulator to compute the activity and ionic output currents from multicompartmental neuron models, and (2) the electrodiffusive Kirchhoff-Nernst-Planck framework to simulate the resulting dynamics of the potential and ion concentrations in the ECS, accounting for the effect of electrical migration as well as diffusion. Using this framework, we explore the effect that ECS diffusion has on the electrical potential surrounding a small population of 10 pyramidal neurons. The neural model was tuned so that simulations over ∼100 seconds of biological time led to shifts in ECS concentrations by a few millimolars, similar to what has been seen in experiments. By comparing simulations where ECS diffusion was absent with simulations where ECS diffusion was included, we made the following key findings: (i) ECS diffusion shifted the local potential by up to ∼0.2 mV. (ii) The power spectral density (PSD) of the diffusion-evoked potential shifts followed a 1/f2 power law. (iii) Diffusion effects dominated the PSD of the ECS potential for frequencies up to several hertz. In scenarios with large, but physiologically realistic ECS concentration gradients, diffusion was thus found to affect the ECS potential well within the frequency range picked up in experimental

  17. Oral mucosal progenitor cell clones resist in vitro myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Davies, Lindsay C; Stephens, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Progenitor cells derived from the oral mucosa lamina propria (OMLP-PCs) demonstrate an ability to differentiate into tissue lineages removed from their anatomical origin. This clonally derived population of neural-crest cells have demonstrated potential to differentiate along mesenchymal and neuronal cell lineages.

  18. Neural progenitor number is regulated by nuclear factor-kappaB p65 and p50 subunit-dependent proliferation rather than cell survival.

    PubMed

    Young, Kaylene M; Bartlett, Perry F; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2006-01-01

    The number of cells generated by a proliferating stem or precursor cell can be influenced both by proliferation and by the degree of cell death/survival of the progeny generated. In this study, the extent to which cell survival controls progenitor number was examined by comparing the growth characteristics of neurosphere cultures derived from mice lacking genes for the death-inducing Bcl-2 homologue Hara Kiri (Hrk), apoptosis-associated protein 1 (Apaf1), or the prosurvival nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) subunits p65, p50, or c-rel. We found no evidence that Hrk or Apaf1, and by inference the mitochondrial cell death pathway, are involved in regulating the number of neurosphere-derived progeny. However, we identified the p65p50 NFkappaB dimer as being required for the normal growth and expansion of neurosphere cultures. Genetic loss of both p65 and p50 NFkappaB subunits resulted in a reduced number of progeny but an increased proportion of neurons. No effect on cell survival was observed. This suggests that the number and fate of neural progenitor cells are more strongly regulated by cell cycle control than survival.

  19. Long-term expression of beta-glucuronidase by genetically modified human neural progenitor cells grafted into the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Buchet, Delphine; Serguera, Ché; Zennou, Véronique; Charneau, Pierre; Mallet, Jacques

    2002-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease caused by beta-glucuronidase (beta-glu) deficiency. This deficiency results in the lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in all tissues and affects a wide range of organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). Gene transfer is a promising approach to therapy for MPS VII because it allows extensive delivery of the enzyme to the affected tissues. We studied neurotransplantation of primary human cells to supply beta-glucuronidase to the CNS. Human neural progenitor cells (HNPC) were amplified and cotransduced with two lentiviral vectors, one encoding the green fluorescent protein and the other the human beta-glu. We show that these cells strongly expressed both transgenes in culture. When grafted into the mouse striatum, HNPC differentiated into neurons and astrocytes and expressed the two transgenes for at least 6 months. This study therefore paves the way for the treatment of MPS VII by long-term delivery of the appropriate enzyme.

  20. Isolation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from both the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of a single adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weixiang; Patzlaff, Natalie E.; Jobe, Emily M.; Zhao, Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) demonstrate ongoing neurogenesis, and multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in these two regions exhibit different intrinsic properties. However, investigation of the mechanisms underlying such differences has been limited by a lack of efficient methods for isolating NSCs, particularly from the adult DG. Here we describe a protocol that enables us to isolate self-renewing and multipotent NSCs from the SVZ and the DG of the same adult mouse. The protocol involves the microdissection of the SVZ and DG from one adult mouse brain, isolation of NSCs from specific regions, and cultivation of NSCs in vitro. The entire procedure takes 2 to 3 hours. Since only one mouse is needed for each cell isolation procedure, this protocol will be particularly useful for studies with limited availability of mice, such as mice that contain multiple genetic modifications. PMID:23080272

  1. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi inhibition of Sbds in murine hematopoietic progenitors impairs their hematopoietic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, Amy S.; Gregory, Alyssa D.; Woloszynek, Jill R.; Liu, Fulu

    2007-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, multilineage hematopoietic dysfunction, and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Bone marrow dysfunction is present in nearly all patients with SDS, with neutropenia being the most common abnormality. The majority of patients with SDS have mutations in the Shwachman Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene. We have developed a strategy to examine the consequences of lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of Sbds on hematopoiesis. Here, we report that both Sbds RNA and protein expression can be efficiently inhibited in primary murine hematopoietic cells using lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Inhibition of Sbds results in a defect in granulocytic differentiation in vitro and impairs myeloid progenitor generation in vivo. In addition, short-term hematopoietic engraftment was impaired, which is due in part to reduced homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the bone marrow. Finally, we show that inhibition of Sbds is associated with a decrease in circulating B lymphocytes, despite evidence of normal B lymphopoiesis. These data provide the first evidence that loss of Sbds is sufficient to induce abnormalities in hematopoiesis. PMID:17638857

  2. Cardiomyogenic potential of mesenchymal progenitors derived from human circulating CD14+ monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takafumi; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Yasuoka, Hidekata; Kawakami, Yutaka; Ogawa, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yasuo; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kuwana, Masataka

    2005-12-01

    Previously, we reported a unique CD14+CD45+CD34+type I collagen+ cell fraction derived from human circulating CD14+ monocytes, named monocyte-derived mesenchymal progenitors (MOMPs). These primitive cells differentiate along mesenchymal lineages, including bone, cartilage, fat, and skeletal muscle. Here, we demonstrate that CD14+ monocytes generate MOMPs that differentiate into cardiomyocytes. MOMPs labeled with a fluorescent marker and co-cultivated with rat cardiomyocytes for 4 weeks expressed the cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factors Nkx2.5, GATA-4, eHAND, and MEF2 and the hematopoietic/monocytic markers CD45 and CD14 within 10 days and retained their proliferative capacity for up to 16 days. A subpopulation of MOMPs subsequently expressed the cardiomyocyte-specific markers micro-sarcomeric actinin, troponin I, and atrial natriuretic peptide on day 21. Furthermore, fluorescence-labeled, spontaneously beating cells that formed gap junctions with adjacent rat cardiomyocytes appeared in these cultures and these cells exhibited electrophysiological properties typical of ventricular myocytes. The co-cultivation of human MOMPs with rat GFP-tagged cardiomyocytes resulted in the generation of human cardiomyocytes lacking green fluorescent protein (GFP) staining, suggesting that our observations could not solely be explained by cell fusion. Our results demonstrate for the first time that human circulating CD14+ monocytes include progenitors capable of proliferating and differentiating along the cardiomyogenic lineage via their differentiation into MOMPs.

  3. A free-radical scavenger protects the neural progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular zone of the hippocampus from cell death after X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Ogura, Masatoshi; Natsume, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2010-11-12

    It has been elucidated that cognitive dysfunction following cranial radiotherapy might be linked to the oxidative stress-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis that is mediated by proliferating neural stem or progenitor cells. The novel free-radical scavenger edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. Previously, we reported that the free-radical scavenger, edaravone, which is currently used to treat patients with brain ischemia, protected cultured human neural stem cells (NSCs) from radiation-induced cell death; the protective effect was observed more significantly in NSCs than in brain tumor cells. Here, in animal models, we demonstrate that edaravone protects neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from cell death after irradiation. Moreover, edaravone protected spatial memory retention deficits as determined by Morris water maze tests. Our study may shed some light on the beneficial effects of free-radical scavengers in impaired neurogenesis following cranial radiation therapy.

  4. Adlayer-mediated antibody immobilization to stainless steel for potential application to endothelial progenitor cell capture.

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, Pasquale; Neves, Miguel A D; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Romaschin, Alexander; Chung, Timothy; Kim, Sa Rang; Thompson, Michael

    2015-05-19

    This work describes the straightforward surface modification of 316L stainless steel with BTS, S-(11-trichlorosilylundecanyl)-benzenethiosulfonate, a thiol-reactive trichlorosilane cross-linker molecule designed to form intermediary coatings with subsequent biofunctionalization capability. The strategy is more specifically exemplified with the immobilization of intact antibodies and their Fab' fragments. Both surface derivatization steps are thoroughly characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antigen binding capability of both types of biofunctionalized surfaces is subsequently assessed by fluorescence microscopy. It was determined that BTS adlayers achieve robust immobilization of both intact and fragmented antibodies, while preserving antigen binding activity. Another key finding was the observation that the Fab' fragment immobilization strategy would constitute a preferential option over that involving intact antibodies in the context of in vivo capture of endothelial progenitor cells in stent applications.

  5. Recent Progress in Endothelial Progenitor Cell Culture Systems: Potential for Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    TAKIZAWA, Shunya; NAGATA, Eiichiro; NAKAYAMA, Taira; MASUDA, Haruchika; ASAHARA, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in endothelial repair and angiogenesis due to their abilities to differentiate into endothelial cells and to secrete protective cytokines and growth factors. Consequently, there is considerable interest in cell therapy with EPCs isolated from peripheral blood to treat various ischemic injuries. Quality and quantity-controlled culture systems to obtain mononuclear cells enriched in EPCs with well-defined angiogenic and anti-inflammatory phenotypes have recently been developed, and increasing evidence from animal models and clinical trials supports the idea that transplantation of EPCs contributes to the regenerative process in ischemic organs and is effective for the therapy of ischemic cerebral injury. Here, we briefly describe the general characteristics of EPCs, and we review recent developments in culture systems and applications of EPCs and EPC-enriched cell populations to treat ischemic stroke. PMID:27041632

  6. MicroRNA-21 coordinates human multipotent cardiovascular progenitors therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Richart, Adèle; Loyer, Xavier; Néri, Tui; Howangyin, Kiave; Guérin, Coralie L; Ngkelo, Anta; Bakker, Wineke; Zlatanova, Ivana; Rouanet, Marie; Vilar, José; Lévy, Bernard; Rothenberg, Marc; Mallat, Ziad; Pucéat, Michel; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Published clinical trials in patients with ischemic diseases show limited benefit of adult stem cell-based therapy, likely due to their restricted plasticity and commitment toward vascular cell lineage. We aim to uncover the potent regenerative ability of MesP1/stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1)-expressing cardiovascular progenitors enriched from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Injection of only 10(4) hESC-derived SSEA-1(+) /MesP1(+) cells, or their progeny obtained after treatment with VEGF-A or PDGF-BB, was effective enough to enhance postischemic revascularization in immunodeficient mice with critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, the rate of incorporation of hESC-derived SSEA-1(+) /MesP1(+) cells and their derivatives in ischemic tissues was modest. Alternatively, these cells possessed a unique miR-21 signature that inhibited phosphotase and tensin homolog (PTEN) thereby activating HIF-1α and the systemic release of VEGF-A. Targeting miR-21 limited cell survival and inhibited their proangiogenic capacities both in the Matrigel model and in mice with CLI. We next assessed the impact of mR-21 in adult angiogenesis-promoting cells. We observed an impaired postischemic angiogenesis in miR-21-deficient mice. Notably, miR-21 was highly expressed in circulating and infiltrated monocytes where it targeted PTEN/HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling and cell survival. As a result, miR-21-deficient mice displayed an impaired number of infiltrated monocytes and a defective angiogenic phenotype that could be partially restored by retransplantation of bone marrow-derived cells from wild-type littermates. hESC-derived SSEA-1(+) /MesP1(+) cells progenitor cells are powerful key integrators of therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic milieu and miR-21 is instrumental in this process as well as in the orchestration of the biological activity of adult angiogenesis-promoting cells.

  7. Magnesium Elevation Promotes Neuronal Differentiation While Suppressing Glial Differentiation of Primary Cultured Adult Mouse Neural Progenitor Cells through ERK/CREB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wang; Jiang, Mujun; Li, Mei; Jin, Congli; Xiao, Songhua; Fan, Shengnuo; Fang, Wenli; Zheng, Yuqiu; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the influence of magnesium elevation on fate determination of adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) and the underlying mechanism in vitro. Adult neurogenesis, which is the generation of functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted anatomical regions in mammals. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion in mammals, and its elevation in the brain has been shown to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity in vivo. However, the effects of magnesium on fate determination of aNPCs, which are vital processes in neurogenesis, remain unknown. NPCs isolated from the dentate gyrus of adult C57/BL6 mice were induced to differentiate in a medium with varying magnesium concentrations (0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mM) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD0325901. The proportion of cells that differentiated into neurons and glial cells was evaluated using immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to determine the expression of β-III tubulin (Tuj1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The activation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was examined by Western blot to reveal the underlying mechanism. Magnesium elevation increased the proportion of Tju1-positive cells and decreased the proportion of GFAP-positive cells. Also, the expression of Tuj1 was upregulated, whereas the expression of GFAP was downregulated. Moreover, magnesium elevation enhanced the activation of both ERK and CREB. Treatment with PD0325901 reversed these effects in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium elevation promoted neural differentiation while suppressing glial cell differentiation, possibly via ERK-induced CREB activation. PMID:28280456

  8. High neuronal/astroglial differentiation plasticity of adult rat hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells in response to the effects of embryonic and adult cerebrospinal fluids

    PubMed Central

    Peirouvi, T.; Yekani, F.; Azarnia, M.; Massumi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (hipp-NS/PCs) of the adult mammalian brain are important sources of neuronal and gial cell production. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the plasticity of these cells in neuronal/astroglial differentiations. To this end, the differentiation of the hipp-NS/PCs isolated from 3-month-old Wistar rats was investigated in response to the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) including E13.5, E17-CSF and the adult cerebrospinal fluid (A-CSF), all extracted from rats. CSF samples were selected based on their effects on cell behavioral parameters. Primary cell culture was performed in the presence of either normal or high levels of KCL in a culture medium. High levels of KCL cause cell depolarization, and thus the activation of quiescent NSCs. Results from immunocytochemistry (ICC) and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sRT-PCR) techniques showed that in E-CSF-treated groups, neuronal differentiation increased (E17>E13.5). In contrast, A-CSF decreased and increased neuronal and astroglial differentiations, respectively. Cell survivability and/or proliferation (S/P), evaluated by an MTT assay, increased by E13.5 CSF, but decreased by both E17 CSF and A-CSF. Based on the results, it is finally concluded that adult rat hippocampal proliferative cells are not restricted progenitors but rather show high plasticity in neuronal/astroglial differentiation according to the effects of CSF samples. In addition, using high concentrations of KCL in the primary cell culture led to an increase in the number of NSCs, which in turn resulted in the increase in neuronal or astroglial differentiations after CSF treatment. PMID:27175157

  9. Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-04-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on

  10. Fibronectin and Cyclic Strain Improve Cardiac Progenitor Cell Regenerative Potential In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Choudhary, Shohini; Fierro, Marcos J.; Christman, Karen L.; Taylor, W. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have rapidly advanced to clinical trials, yet little is known regarding their interaction with the microenvironment. Signaling cues present in the microenvironment change with development and disease. This work aims to assess the influence of two distinct signaling moieties on CPCs: cyclic biaxial strain and extracellular matrix. We evaluate four endpoints for improving CPC therapy: paracrine signaling, proliferation, connexin43 expression, and alignment. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (about 900 pg/mL) was secreted by CPCs cultured on fibronectin and collagen I. The application of mechanical strain increased vascular endothelial growth factor A secretion 2–4-fold for CPCs cultured on poly-L-lysine, laminin, or a naturally derived cardiac extracellular matrix. CPC proliferation was at least 25% higher on fibronectin than that on other matrices, especially for lower strain magnitudes. At 5% strain, connexin43 expression was highest on fibronectin. With increasing strain magnitude, connexin43 expression decreased by as much as 60% in CPCs cultured on collagen I and a naturally derived cardiac extracellular matrix. Cyclic mechanical strain induced the strongest CPC alignment when cultured on fibronectin or collagen I. This study demonstrates that culturing CPCs on fibronectin with 5% strain magnitude is optimal for their vascular endothelial growth factor A secretion, proliferation, connexin43 expression, and alignment. PMID:27610140

  11. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  12. Single-cell analysis reveals a nestin+ tendon stem/progenitor cell population with strong tenogenic potentiality

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi; Hu, Jia-jie; Yang, Long; Zheng, Ze-Feng; An, Cheng-rui; Wu, Bing-bing; Zhang, Can; Shen, Wei-Liang; Liu, Huan-huan; Chen, Jia-lin; Heng, Boon Chin; Guo, Guo-ji; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The repair of injured tendons remains a formidable clinical challenge because of our limited understanding of tendon stem cells and the regulation of tenogenesis. With single-cell analysis to characterize the gene expression profiles of individual cells isolated from tendon tissue, a subpopulation of nestin+ tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) was identified within the tendon cell population. Using Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and immunofluorescence assays, we found that nestin expression was activated at specific stages of tendon development. Moreover, isolated nestin+ TSPCs exhibited superior tenogenic capacity compared to nestin− TSPCs. Knockdown of nestin expression in TSPCs suppressed their clonogenic capacity and reduced their tenogenic potential significantly both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, these findings provide new insights into the identification of subpopulations of TSPCs and illustrate the crucial roles of nestin in TSPC fate decisions and phenotype maintenance, which may assist in future therapeutic strategies to treat tendon disease. PMID:28138519

  13. RNA in situ hybridization characterization of non-enzymatic derived bovine intervertebral disc cell lineages suggests progenitor cell potential.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Petra; Yerden, Rachel; Kocsis, Victoria; Lufkin, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a meritorious target for therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine approaches, however, controversy over what defines the precise identity of mature IVD cells and lack of single cell based quality control measures is of concern. Bos taurus and human IVDs are histologically more similar than is Mus musculus. The mature bovine IVD is well suited as model system for technology development to be translated into therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine applications. We present a reproducible non-enzymatic protocol to isolate cell progenitor populations of three distinct areas of the mature bovine IVD. Bovine specific RNA probes were validated in situ and employed to assess fate changes, heterogeneity, stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential of the cultures. Quality control measures with single cell resolution like RNA in situ hybridization to assess culture heterogeneity (PISH) followed by optimization of culture conditions could be translated to human IVD cell culture to increase the safety of cell based regenerative medicine.

  14. Expression of chondrogenic potential of mouse trunk neural crest cells by FGF2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Ido, Atsushi; Ito, Kazuo

    2006-02-01

    There is a significant difference between the developmental patterns of cranial and trunk neural crest cells in the amniote. Thus, whereas cranial neural crest cells generate bone and cartilage, trunk neural crest cells do not contribute to skeletal derivatives. We examined whether mouse trunk neural crest cells can undergo chondrogenesis to analyze how the difference between the developmental patterns of cranial and trunk neural crest cells arises. Our present data demonstrate that mouse trunk neural crest cells have chondrogenic potential and that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 is an inducing factor for their chondrogenesis in vitro. FGF2 altered the expression patterns of Hox9 genes and Id2, a cranial neural crest cell marker. These results suggest that environmental cues may play essential roles in generating the difference between developmental patterns of cranial and trunk neural crest cells.

  15. The carboxy-terminus of p63 links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Sahu, Raju; Leu, N. Adrian; Senoo, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 (Trp63) plays a key role in homeostasis and regeneration of the skin. The p63 gene is transcribed from dual promoters, generating TAp63 isoforms with growth suppressive functions and dominant-negative ΔNp63 isoforms with opposing properties. p63 also encodes multiple carboxy (C)-terminal variants. Although mutations of C-terminal variants have been linked to the pathogenesis of p63-associated ectodermal disorders, the physiological role of the p63 C-terminus is poorly understood. We report here that deletion of the p63 C-terminus in mice leads to ectodermal malformation and hypoplasia, accompanied by a reduced proliferative capacity of epidermal progenitor cells. Notably, unlike the p63-null condition, we find that p63 C-terminus deficiency promotes expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a), a factor associated with reduced proliferative capacity of both hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells. These data suggest that the p63 C-terminus plays a key role in the cell cycle progression required to maintain the proliferative potential of stem cells of many different lineages. Mechanistically, we show that loss of Cα, the predominant C-terminal p63 variant in epithelia, promotes the transcriptional activity of TAp63 and also impairs the dominant-negative activity of ΔNp63, thereby controlling p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. We propose that the p63 C-terminus links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells via mechanisms that equilibrate TAp63 and ΔNp63 isoform function. PMID:25503409

  16. Neural network potentials for dynamics and thermodynamics of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriki, Siva; Jindal, Shweta; Bulusu, Satya S.

    2017-02-01

    For understanding the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of metal nanoparticles, one has to go beyond static and structural predictions of a nanoparticle. Accurate description of dynamical properties may be computationally intensive depending on the size of nanoparticle. Herein, we demonstrate the use of atomistic neural network potentials, obtained by fitting quantum mechanical data, for extensive molecular dynamics simulations of gold nanoparticles. The fitted potential was tested by performing global optimizations of size selected gold nanoparticles (Aun, 17 ≤ n ≤ 58). We performed molecular dynamics simulations in canonical (NVT) and microcanonical (NVE) ensembles on Au17, Au34, Au58 for a total simulation time of around 3 ns for each nanoparticle. Our study based on both NVT and NVE ensembles indicate that there is a dynamical coexistence of solid-like and liquid-like phases near melting transition. We estimate the probability at finite temperatures for set of isomers lying below 0.5 eV from the global minimum structure. In the case of Au17 and Au58, the properties can be estimated using global minimum structure at room temperature, while for Au34, global minimum structure is not a dominant structure even at low temperatures.

  17. In Vivo Tracking of Human Neural Progenitor Cells in the Rat Brain Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Not Enhanced by Ferritin Expression.

    PubMed

    Bernau, Ksenija; Lewis, Christina M; Petelinsek, Anna M; Reagan, Matthew S; Niles, David J; Mattis, Virginia B; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Svendsen, Clive N

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth in the field of stem cell research has generated a lot of interest in their therapeutic use, especially in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), unique in their capability to differentiate into cells of the neural lineage, have been widely investigated due to their ability to survive, thrive, and migrate toward injured tissues. Still, one of the major roadblocks for clinical applicability arises from the inability to monitor these cells following transplantation. Molecular imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been explored to assess hNPC transplant location, migration, and survival. Here we investigated whether inducing hNPCs to overexpress ferritin (hNPCs(Fer)), an iron storage protein, is sufficient to track these cells long term in the rat striatum using MRI. We found that increased hypointensity on MRI images could establish hNPC(Fer) location. Unexpectedly, however, wild-type hNPC transplants were detected in a similar manner, which is likely due to increased iron accumulation following transplantation-induced damage. Hence, we labeled hNPCs with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to further increase iron content in an attempt to enhance cell contrast in MRI. SPIO-labeling of hNPCs (hNPCs-SPIO) achieved increased hypointensity, with significantly greater area of decreased T2* compared to hNPC(Fer) (p < 0.0001) and all other controls used. However, none of the techniques could be used to determine graft rejection in vivo, which is imperative for understanding cell behavior following transplantation. We conclude that in order for cell survival to be monitored in preclinical and clinical settings, another molecular imaging technique must be employed, including perhaps multimodal imaging, which would utilize MRI along with another imaging modality.

  18. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-08-21

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment.

  19. Productive infection of human neural progenitor cells by R5 tropic HIV-1: opiate co-exposure heightens infectivity and functional vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Balinang, Joyce M.; Masvekar, Ruturaj R.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective HIV type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Reports of hNPC infection remain controversial. We rigorously examined this question, testing whether hNPC propagated infection and whether HIV affected hNPCs absent their infection. Design and methods Primary hNPCs were characterized over multiple passages. Following R5 HIV-1BaL exposure, p24, Nef, and tat assays monitored infection; a serial dilution approach tested infection transfer to naive hNPCs. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake, population doubling time, and immunostaining assessed proliferation and differentiation. Morphine co-exposure assessed opiate interactions. Supernatant from HIV-1BaL-infected PBMCs (HIVsup), HIV-1BaL, and ultraviolet light-inactivated HIVsup were compared to test effects of inflammatory milieu versus virus or infection per se. Results The hNPCs (CD4_/CD8_/Iba_/CXC3CL1_/CD11b_) were infectable and could transfer infection to naive hNPCs. Infection was partly blocked by maraviroc, implicating CCR5. HIVsup reduced hNPC proliferation and caused premature differentiation into neurons/astroglia. Effects on proliferation were due to soluble factors/viral proteins, not infection per se. Morphine co-exposure exacerbated certain functional consequences of HIVsup, and sustained the infection of hNPCs. Conclusion hNPCs can be infected and propagate virus in vitro. hNPCs or their progeny may represent an underappreciated viral reservoir. Factors from infected cells alter hNPC proliferation and neural cell maturation which likely compromises CNS structure and function. Morphine–HIV interactions may worsen dysfunction and sustain infection. PMID:28099189

  20. Claulansine F promoted the neuronal differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells through Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju-Yang; Ma, Yin-Zhong; Yuan, Yu-He; Zuo, Wei; Chu, Shi-Feng; Liu, Hang; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-09-05

    The persistence of neurogenesis raises the idea that neurons produced by the resident or transplanted neural stem cells could replace the neurons lost from brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, compounds or methods for promoting neuronal differentiation become the focus of neurodegenerative disease therapy research. Claulansine F (Clau F), a newly discovered carbazole alkaloid, has been showed to induce neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. Herein, we studied the effect of Clau F on neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). The current study demonstrated that Clau F initiated neuronal differentiation with a significant increase of TuJ1-positive cells and TuJ1 protein levels. We also found that Clau F promoted the maturity and sustainability of neurons by increasing MAP2-positive cells and MAP2 protein levels. At the same time, Clau F significantly inhibited the proliferation of NS/PCs. The underlying mechanism of Clau F was preliminary explored. Clau F treatment resulted in a profound increase of phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, which led to GSK-3β inhibition and subsequently the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Further, the interaction between β-catenin and p300 in the nucleus was enhanced and the transcription of p300/β-catenin responsive genes were increased significantly (c-jun, fra-1) by Clau F. Importantly, the positive effect of Clau F on neuronal differentiation was abolished by Akti-1/2, a specific inhibitor of Akt-1/2 kinase, which indicated the involvement of Akt/GSK-3β in Clau F-mediated neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, these data suggested that Clau F promoted neuronal differentiation through Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in NS/PCs.

  1. Bioreactor-Based Online Recovery of Human Progenitor Cells with Uncompromised Regenerative Potential: A Bone Tissue Engineering Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Luyten, Frank P.; Papantoniou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of a 3D perfusion culture environment for stem cell expansion has been shown to be beneficial for maintenance of the original cell functionality but due to several system inherent characteristics such as the presence of extracellular matrix, the continued development and implementation of 3D perfusion bioreactor technologies is hampered. Therefore, this study developed a methodology for harvesting a progenitor cell population from a 3D open porous culture surface after expansion in a perfusion bioreactor and performed a functional characterization of the expanded cells. An initial screening showed collagenase to be the most interesting reagent to release the cells from the 3D culture surface as it resulted in high yields without compromising cell viability. Subsequently a Design of Experiment approach was used to obtain optimized 3D harvest conditions by assessing the interplay of flow rate, collagenase concentration and incubation time on the harvest efficiency, viability and single cell fraction. Cells that were recovered with the optimized harvest protocol, by perfusing a 880 U/ml collagenase solution for 7 hours at a flow rate of 4 ml/min, were thereafter functionally analyzed for their characteristics as expanded progenitor cell population. As both the in vitro tri-lineage differentiation capacity and the in vivo bone forming potential were maintained after 3D perfusion bioreactor expansion we concluded that the developed seeding, culture and harvest processes did not significantly compromise the viability and potency of the cells and can contribute to the future development of integrated bioprocesses for stem cell expansion. PMID:26313143

  2. Clinical Trial of Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation in Patients with Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoo, Jeehyun; Kim, Il-Sun; Yun, Seokhwan; Lee, Hyejin; Jung, Kwangsoo; Hwang, Kyujin; Kim, Miri; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Kook In

    2015-01-01

    In a phase I/IIa open-label and nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, we sought to assess the safety and neurological effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) transplanted into the injured cord after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Of 19 treated subjects, 17 were sensorimotor complete and 2 were motor complete and sensory incomplete. hNSPCs derived from the fetal telencephalon were grown as neurospheres and transplanted into the cord. In the control group, who did not receive cell implantation but were otherwise closely matched with the transplantation group, 15 patients with traumatic cervical SCI were included. At 1 year after cell transplantation, there was no evidence of cord damage, syrinx or tumor formation, neurological deterioration, and exacerbating neuropathic pain or spasticity. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade improved in 5 of 19 transplanted patients, 2 (A → C), 1 (A → B), and 2 (B → D), whereas only one patient in the control group showed improvement (A → B). Improvements included increased motor scores, recovery of motor levels, and responses to electrophysiological studies in the transplantation group. Therefore, the transplantation of hNSPCs into cervical SCI is safe and well-tolerated and is of modest neurological benefit up to 1 year after transplants. This trial is registered with Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Registration Number: KCT0000879. PMID:26568892

  3. How Necessary is the Vasculature in the Life of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells? Evidence from Evolution, Development and the Adult Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Koutsakis, Christos; Kazanis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Augmenting evidence suggests that such is the functional dependance of neural stem cells (NSCs) on the vasculature that they normally reside in “perivascular niches”. Two examples are the “neurovascular” and the “oligovascular” niches of the adult brain, which comprise specialized microenvironments where NSCs or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells survive and remain mitotically active in close proximity to blood vessels (BVs). The often observed co-ordination of angiogenesis and neurogenesis led to these processes being described as “coupled”. Here, we adopt an evo-devo approach to argue that some stages in the life of a NSC, such as specification and commitment, are independent of the vasculature, while stages such as proliferation and migration are largely dependent on BVs. We also explore available evidence on the possible involvement of the vasculature in other phenomena such as the diversification of NSCs during evolution and we provide original data on the senescence of NSCs in the subependymal zone stem cell niche. Finally, we will comment on the other side of the story; that is, on how much the vasculature is dependent on NSCs and their progeny. PMID:26909025

  4. Generation of brain tumours in mice by Cre-mediated recombination of neural progenitors in situ with the tamoxifen metabolite endoxifen.

    PubMed

    Benedykcinska, Anna; Ferreira, Andreia; Lau, Joanne; Broni, Jessica; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Henriquez, Nico V; Brandner, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Targeted cell- or region-specific gene recombination is widely used in the functional analysis of genes implicated in development and disease. In the brain, targeted gene recombination has become a mainstream approach to study neurodegeneration or tumorigenesis. The use of the Cre-loxP system to study tumorigenesis in the adult central nervous system (CNS) can be limited, when the promoter (such as GFAP) is also transiently expressed during development, which can result in the recombination of progenies of different lineages. Engineering of transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase fused to a mutant of the human oestrogen receptor (ER) allows the circumvention of transient developmental Cre expression by inducing recombination in the adult organism. The recombination of loxP sequences occurs only in the presence of tamoxifen. Systemic administration of tamoxifen can, however, exhibit toxicity and might also recombine unwanted cell populations if the promoter driving Cre expression is active at the time of tamoxifen administration. Here, we report that a single site-specific injection of an active derivative of tamoxifen successfully activates Cre recombinase and selectively recombines tumour suppressor genes in neural progenitor cells of the subventricular zone in mice, and we demonstrate its application in a model for the generation of intrinsic brain tumours.

  5. Grafting of neural stem and progenitor cells to the hippocampus of young, irradiated mice causes gliosis and disrupts the granule cell layer

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Y; Shinjyo, N; Sato, M; Osato, K; Zhu, C; Pekna, M; Kuhn, H G; Blomgren, K

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation persistently reduces the pool of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which may explain some of the learning deficits observed in patients treated with radiotherapy, particularly pediatric patients. A single dose of 8 Gy irradiation (IR) was administered to the brains of postnatal day 14 (P14) C57BL/6 mice and 1.0 × 105 bromodeoxyuridine-labeled, syngeneic NSPCs were injected into the hippocampus 1 day, 1 week or 6 weeks after IR. Cell survival and phenotype were evaluated 5 weeks after grafting. When grafted 1 day post-IR, survival and neuronal differentiation of the transplanted NSPCs were lower in irradiated brains, whereas the survival and cell fate of grafted cells were not significantly different between irradiated and control brains when transplantation was performed 1 or 6 weeks after IR. A young recipient brain favored neuronal development of grafted cells, whereas the older recipient brains displayed an increasing number of cells developing into astrocytes or unidentified cells. Injection of NSPCs, but not vehicle, induced astrogliosis and reduced thickness of the dorsal blade of the GCL after 5 months. In summary, we demonstrate that age and interval between IR and grafting can affect survival and differentiation of grafted NSPCs. The observed long-term gliosis and degeneration warrant caution in the context of NSPC grafting for therapeutical purposes. PMID:23598403

  6. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide.

  7. TGF-β mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Oka, Kyoko; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Iwata, Junichi; Urata, Mark; Xu, Xun; Bringas, Pablo; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are formed from two cell lineages, myogenic and fibroblastic. Mesoderm-derived myogenic progenitors form muscle cells whereas fibroblastic cells give rise to the supportive connective tissue of skeletal muscles, such as the tendons and perimysium. It remains unknown how myogenic and fibroblastic cell-cell interactions affect cell fate determination and the organization of skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated the functional significance of cell-cell interactions in regulating skeletal muscle development. Our study shows that cranial neural crest (CNC) cells give rise to the fibroblastic cells of the tongue skeletal muscle in mice. Loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells (Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox) results in microglossia with reduced Scleraxis and Fgf10 expression as well as decreased myogenic cell proliferation, reduced cell number and disorganized tongue muscles. Furthermore, TGF-β2 beads induced the expression of Scleraxis in tongue explant cultures. The addition of FGF10 rescued the muscle cell number in Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Thus, TGF-β induced FGF10 signaling has a critical function in regulating tissue-tissue interaction during tongue skeletal muscle development. PMID:20193675

  8. Preservation of Differentiation and Clonogenic Potential of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells during Lyophilization and Ambient Storage

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Sandhya S.; Pyatt, David W.; Carpenter, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450±230 CFU-GM, 430±140 BFU-E, and 50±40 CFU-GEMM per 50 µL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25°C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580±90 CFU-GM (∼40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001), 170±70 BFU-E (∼40%, p<0.0001), and 41±22 CFU-GEMM (∼82%, p = 0.4171), and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513±170 CFU-GM (∼35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0.0001), 112±68 BFU-E (∼26%, p<0.0001), and 36±17 CFU-GEMM (∼82%, p = 0

  9. PSGL-1-mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2-Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2-Fc-stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy.

  10. Telomerase extends a helping hand to progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Sridaran

    2005-01-01

    The idea of a cell-based regeneration therapy for controlling or curing chronic human diseases is highly attractive. However, realization of this idea in the clinic has been hampered by the safety concerns associated with the transplantation of immortalized cells into human patients. An elegant study done by Roy and colleagues shows that neural progenitor cells immortalized by the ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) can give rise to specific types of functionally competent neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the immortalized progenitors maintained their phenotype with no evidence of transformation even several months after transplantation in mouse disease models. Although the potential use of telomerase-immortalized cells in the clinic remains controversial, Roy and colleagues work provides a compelling reason to seriously evaluate the potential use of telomerase-immortalized progenitor cells to treat neurodegenerative and other chronic human illnesses.

  11. Spatio-temporal Model of Endogenous ROS and Raft-Dependent WNT/Beta-Catenin Signaling Driving Cell Fate Commitment in Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Fiete; Lemcke, Heiko; Ewald, Roland; Rharass, Tareck; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M.

    2015-01-01

    Canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling is a central pathway in embryonic development, but it is also connected to a number of cancers and developmental disorders. Here we apply a combined in-vitro and in-silico approach to investigate the spatio-temporal regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling during the early neural differentiation process of human neural progenitors cells (hNPCs), which form a new prospect for replacement therapies in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental measurements indicate a second signal mechanism, in addition to canonical WNT signaling, being involved in the regulation of nuclear β-catenin levels during the cell fate commitment phase of neural differentiation. We find that the biphasic activation of β-catenin signaling observed experimentally can only be explained through a model that combines Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and raft dependent WNT/β-catenin signaling. Accordingly after initiation of differentiation endogenous ROS activates DVL in a redox-dependent manner leading to a transient activation of down-stream β-catenin signaling, followed by continuous auto/paracrine WNT signaling, which crucially depends on lipid rafts. Our simulation studies further illustrate the elaborate spatio-temporal regulation of DVL, which, depending on its concentration and localization, may either act as direct inducer of the transient ROS/β-catenin signal or as amplifier during continuous auto-/parcrine WNT/β-catenin signaling. In addition we provide the first stochastic computational model of WNT/β-catenin signaling that combines membrane-related and intracellular processes, including lipid rafts/receptor dynamics as well as WNT- and ROS-dependent β-catenin activation. The model’s predictive ability is demonstrated under a wide range of varying conditions for in-vitro and in-silico reference data sets. Our in-silico approach is realized in a multi-level rule-based language, that facilitates the extension and modification of the

  12. Targeting human oligodendrocyte progenitors for myelin repair.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karen C; Polanco, Jessie J; Pol, Suyog U; Sim, Fraser J

    2016-09-01

    Oligodendrocyte development has been studied for several decades, and has served as a model system for both neurodevelopmental and stem/progenitor cell biology. Until recently, the vast majority of studies have been conducted in lower species, especially those focused on rodent development and remyelination. In humans, the process of myelination requires the generation of vastly more myelinating glia, occurring over a period of years rather than weeks. Furthermore, as evidenced by the presence of chronic demyelination in a variety of human neurologic diseases, it appears likely that the mechanisms that regulate development and become dysfunctional in disease may be, in key ways, divergent across species. Improvements in isolation techniques, applied to primary human neural and oligodendrocyte progenitors from both fetal and adult brain, as well as advancements in the derivation of defined progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells, have begun to reveal the extent of both species-conserved signaling pathways and potential key differences at cellular and molecular levels. In this article, we will review the commonalities and differences in myelin development between rodents and man, describing the approaches used to study human oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, as well as heterogeneity within targetable progenitor pools, and discuss the advances made in determining which conserved pathways may be both modeled in rodents and translate into viable therapeutic strategies to promote myelin repair.

  13. Face off against ROS: Tcof1/Treacle safeguards neuroepithelial cells and progenitor neural crest cells from oxidative stress during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore, understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a congenital disorder characterized by severe craniofacial anomalies. An animal model of TCS, generated through mutation of Tcof1, the mouse (Mus musculus) homologue of the gene primarily mutated in association with TCS in humans, has recently revealed significant insights into the pathogenesis of TCS. Apoptotic elimination of neuroepithelial cells including neural crest cells is the primary cause of craniofacial defects in Tcof1 mutant embryos. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that induce tissue-specific apoptosis remains incomplete. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis TCS. Furthermore, we discuss the role of Tcof1 in normal embryonic development, the correlation between genetic and environmental factors on the severity of craniofacial abnormalities, and the prospect for prenatal prevention of craniofacial anomalies.

  14. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main Results Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases.. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  15. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main results. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  16. Stathmin-like 4 is critical for the maintenance of neural progenitor cells in dorsal midbrain of zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-Ju; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2016-01-01

    A delicate balance between proliferating and differentiating signals is necessary to ensure proper growth and neuronal specification. By studying the developing zebrafish brain, we observed a specific and dynamic expression of a microtubule destabilizer gene, stathmin-like 4 (stmn4), in the dorsal midbrain region. The expression of stmn4 was mutually exclusive to a pan-neuronal marker, elavl3 that indicates its role in regulating neurogenesis. We showed the knockdown or overexpression of stmn4 resulted in premature neuronal differentiation in dorsal midbrain. We also generated stmn4 maternal-zygotic knockout zebrafish by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Unexpectedly, only less than 10% of stmn4 mutants showed similar phenotypes observed in that of stmn4 morphants. It might be due to the complementation of the increased stmn1b expression observed in stmn4 mutants. In addition, time-lapse recordings revealed the changes in cellular proliferation and differentiation in stmn4 morphants. Stmn4 morphants displayed a longer G2 phase that could be rescued by Cdc25a. Furthermore, the inhibition of Wnt could reduce stmn4 transcripts. These results suggest that the Wnt-mediated Stmn4 homeostasis is crucial for preventing dorsal midbrain from premature differentiation via the G2 phase control during the neural keel stage. PMID:27819330

  17. Deletion of Rictor in neural progenitor cells reveals contributions of mTORC2 signaling to tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Carson, Robert P; Fu, Cary; Winzenburger, Peggy; Ess, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder with severe neurologic manifestations, including epilepsy, autism, anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TSC is caused by the loss of either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that normally regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. mTOR exists within two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Loss of either TSC gene leads to increased mTORC1 but decreased mTORC2 signaling. As the contribution of decreased mTORC2 signaling to neural development and homeostasis has not been well studied, we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) of Rictor, a key component of mTORC2. mTORC2 signaling is impaired in the brain, whereas mTORC1 signaling is unchanged. Rictor CKO mice have small brains and bodies, normal lifespan and are fertile. Cortical layering is normal, but neurons are smaller than those in control brains. Seizures were not observed, although excessive slow activity was seen on electroencephalography. Rictor CKO mice are hyperactive and have reduced anxiety-like behavior. Finally, there is decreased white matter and increased levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex. Loss of mTORC2 signaling in the cortex independent of mTORC1 can disrupt normal brain development and function and may contribute to some of the neurologic manifestations seen in TSC.

  18. Sex-Specific Effects of Testosterone on the Sexually Dimorphic Transcriptome and Epigenome of Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bramble, Matthew S.; Roach, Lara; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Eskin, Ascia; Ngun, Tuck; Gosschalk, Jason E.; Klein, Steven; Barseghyan, Hayk; Arboleda, Valerie A.; Vilain, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which sex differences in the mammalian brain arise are poorly understood, but are influenced by a combination of underlying genetic differences and gonadal hormone exposure. Using a mouse embryonic neural stem cell (eNSC) model to understand early events contributing to sexually dimorphic brain development, we identified novel interactions between chromosomal sex and hormonal exposure that are instrumental to early brain sex differences. RNA-sequencing identified 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed between XX and XY eNSCs at baseline (FDR = 0.10). Treatment with testosterone-propionate (TP) reveals sex-specific gene expression changes, causing 2854 and 792 transcripts to become differentially expressed on XX and XY genetic backgrounds respectively. Within the TP responsive transcripts, there was enrichment for genes which function as epigenetic regulators that affect both histone modifications and DNA methylation patterning. We observed that TP caused a global decrease in 5-methylcytosine abundance in both sexes, a transmissible effect that was maintained in cellular progeny. Additionally, we determined that TP was associated with residue-specific alterations in acetylation of histone tails. These findings highlight an unknown component of androgen action on cells within the developmental CNS, and contribute to a novel mechanism of action by which early hormonal organization is initiated and maintained. PMID:27845378

  19. Sex-Specific Effects of Testosterone on the Sexually Dimorphic Transcriptome and Epigenome of Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Matthew S; Roach, Lara; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Eskin, Ascia; Ngun, Tuck; Gosschalk, Jason E; Klein, Steven; Barseghyan, Hayk; Arboleda, Valerie A; Vilain, Eric

    2016-11-15

    The mechanisms by which sex differences in the mammalian brain arise are poorly understood, but are influenced by a combination of underlying genetic differences and gonadal hormone exposure. Using a mouse embryonic neural stem cell (eNSC) model to understand early events contributing to sexually dimorphic brain development, we identified novel interactions between chromosomal sex and hormonal exposure that are instrumental to early brain sex differences. RNA-sequencing identified 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed between XX and XY eNSCs at baseline (FDR = 0.10). Treatment with testosterone-propionate (TP) reveals sex-specific gene expression changes, causing 2854 and 792 transcripts to become differentially expressed on XX and XY genetic backgrounds respectively. Within the TP responsive transcripts, there was enrichment for genes which function as epigenetic regulators that affect both histone modifications and DNA methylation patterning. We observed that TP caused a global decrease in 5-methylcytosine abundance in both sexes, a transmissible effect that was maintained in cellular progeny. Additionally, we determined that TP was associated with residue-specific alterations in acetylation of histone tails. These findings highlight an unknown component of androgen action on cells within the developmental CNS, and contribute to a novel mechanism of action by which early hormonal organization is initiated and maintained.

  20. Improving Recovery from Catastrophic Bone Injuries: An Animal Model for Assessing the Bone Reparative Potential of Progenitor Cell Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Col3.6 population (the largest in number) that contain osterix and AP but only very low levels of BSP or other osteogenic markers. However as the 6... osterix -GFP reporter to this two color combination to further refine the osteogenic progenitor population. d. Different tissue sources of progenitor cell...microarray of the SMAA/Col3.6 population does not express osterix or AP. Figure 3: The temporal formations and subsequent loss of bone in the calvarial

  1. Comparative Evaluation for Potential Differentiation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Endothelial-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Dina; Noh, Olfat; Samir, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of vascular remodeling could lead to more effective treatments for ischemic conditions. We aimed to compare between the abilities of both human Wharton jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) and CD34+ to induce angiogenesis in vitro. hMSCs, hEPCs, and CD34+ were isolated from human umbilical cord blood using microbead (MiniMacs). The cells characterization was assessed by flow cytometry following culture and real-time PCR for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to prove stem cells differentiation. The study revealed successful isolation of hEPCs, CD34+, and hMSCs. The hMSCs were identified by gaining CD29+ and CD44+ using FACS analysis. The hEPCs were identified by having CD133+, CD34+, and KDR. The potential ability of hEPCs and CD34+ to differentiate into endothelial-like cells was more than hMSCs. This finding was assessed morphologically in culture and by higher significant VEGFR2 and vWF genes expression (p<0.05) in differentiated hEPCs and CD34+ compared to differentiated hMSCs. hEPCs and CD34+ differentiation into endothelial-like cells were much better than that of hMSCs. PMID:27426085

  2. Isolation and comparative analysis of potential stem/progenitor cells from different regions of human umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Beeravolu, Naimisha; Khan, Irfan; McKee, Christina; Dinda, Sumi; Thibodeau, Bryan; Wilson, George; Perez-Cruet, Mick; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Chaudhry, G Rasul

    2016-05-01

    Human umbilical cord (hUC) blood and tissue are non-invasive sources of potential stem/progenitor cells with similar cell surface properties as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). While they are limited in cord blood, they may be more abundant in hUC. However, the hUC is an anatomically complex organ and the potential of cells in various sites of the hUC has not been fully explored. We dissected the hUC into its discrete sites and isolated hUC cells from the cord placenta junction (CPJ), cord tissue (CT), and Wharton's jelly (WJ). Isolated cells displayed fibroblastoid morphology, and expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105, and showed evidence of differentiation into multiple lineages in vitro. They also expressed low levels of pluripotency genes, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and KLF4. Passaging markedly affected cell proliferation with concomitant decreases in the expression of pluripotency and other markers, and an increase in chondrogenic markers. Microarray analysis further revealed the differences in the gene expression of CPJ-, CT- and WJ-hUC cells. Five coding and five lncRNA genes were differentially expressed in low vs. high passage hUC cells. Only MAEL was expressed at high levels in both low and high passage CPJ-hUC cells. They displayed a greater proliferation limit and a higher degree of multi-lineage differentiation in vitro and warrant further investigation to determine their full differentiation capacity, and therapeutic and regenerative medicine potential.

  3. PSGL-1–mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G.; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I.; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2–Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2–Fc–stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy. PMID:17510705

  4. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Genes Regulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis via miR-25 in Immortalized Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinjin; Yan, Mengling; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Qing; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg) exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs) upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive cells. We also observed that low-dose MeHg exposure increased the mRNA expression of cell cycle regulators. We observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, mRNA levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator-1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2) were significantly elevated, which were correlated with the increase of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number at a concentration as low as 10 nM. Moreover, we examined the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) known as regulatory miRNAs of p53 (i.e., miR-30d, miR-1285, miR-25). We found that the expression of these miRNAs was significantly downregulated upon MeHg treatment. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-25 resulted in significantly reducted p53 protein levels and decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MeHg could induce developmental neurotoxicity in ihNPCs through altering mitochondrial functions and the expression of miRNA. PMID:27941687

  5. Ethanol exposure during neurogenesis induces persistent effects on neural maturation: evidence from an ex vivo model of fetal cerebral cortical neuroepithelial progenitor maturation.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Cynthia; Miranda, Rajesh C

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a significant neuroteratogen. We previously used fetal cortical-derived neurosphere cultures as an ex vivo model of the second trimester ventricular neuroepithelium, and showed that ethanol directly induced fetal stem and progenitor cell proliferation and maturation without inducing death. However, ethanol is defined as a teratogen because of its capacity to persistently disrupt neural maturation beyond a specific exposure period. We therefore utilized a simplified neuronal maturation paradigm to examine the immediate and persistent changes in neuronal migration following ethanol exposure during the phase of neuroepithelial proliferation. Our data indicate that mRNA transcripts for migration-associated genes RhoA, Paxillin (Pxn), and CDC42 were immediately induced following ethanol exposure, whereas dynein light chain, LC8-type 1 (DYNLL1), and growth-associated protein (Gap)-43 were suppressed. With the exception of Gap43, ethanol did not induce persistent changes in the other mRNAs, suggesting that ethanol had an activational, rather than organizational, impact on migration-associated mRNAs. However, despite this lack of persistent effects on these mRNAs, ethanol exposure during the proliferation period significantly increased subsequent neuronal migration. Moreover, differentiating neurons, pretreated with ethanol during the proliferation phase, exhibited reduced neurite branching and an increased length of primary neurites, indicating a persistent destabilization of neuronal maturation. Collectively, our data indicate that ethanol-exposed proliferating neuroepithelial precursors exhibit subsequent differentiation-associated increases in migratory behavior, independent of mRNA transcript levels. These data help explain the increased incidence of cerebral cortical neuronal heterotopias associated with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

  6. Three-dimensional culture of single embryonic stem-derived neural/stem progenitor cells in fibrin hydrogels: neuronal network formation and matrix remodelling.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ana R; Quelhas, Pedro; Oliveira, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P; Amaral, Isabel F

    2016-12-29

    In an attempt to improve the efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) based therapies, fibrin hydrogels are being explored to provide a favourable microenvironment for cell survival and differentiation following transplantation. In the present work, the ability of fibrin to support the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells under monolayer culture was explored. Single mouse ES-NSPCs were cultured within fibrin (fibrinogen concentration: 6 mg/ml) under neuronal differentiation conditions up to 14 days. The ES-NSPCs retained high cell viability and proliferated within small-sized spheroids. Neuronal differentiation was confirmed by an increase in the levels of βIII-tubulin and NF200 over time. At day 14, cell-matrix constructs mainly comprised NSPCs and neurons (46.5% βIII-tubulin(+) cells). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and dopaminergic/noradrenergic neurons were also observed, along with a network of synaptic proteins. The ES-NSPCs expressed matriptase and secreted MMP-2/9, with MMP-2 activity increasing along time. Fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV deposition was also detected. Fibrin gels prepared with higher fibrinogen concentrations (8/10 mg/ml) were less permissive to neurite extension and neuronal differentiation, possibly owing to their smaller pore area and higher rigidity. Overall, it is shown that ES-NSPCs within fibrin are able to establish neuronal networks and to remodel fibrin through MMP secretion and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This three-dimensional (3D) culture system was also shown to support cell viability, neuronal differentiation and ECM deposition of human ES-NSPCs. The settled 3D platform is expected to constitute a valuable tool to develop fibrin-based hydrogels for ES-NSPC delivery into the injured central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of aging on neural stem/progenitor cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Anna C.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Maki, Takakuni; Shindo, Akihiro; Som, Angel T.; Egawa, Naohiro; Itoh, Kanako; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; McNeish, John D.; Holder, Julie C.; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Aging and vascular comorbidities such as hypertension comprise critical co-factors that influence how the brain responds to stroke. Ischemic stress induces neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in younger brains. However, it remains unclear whether these compensatory mechanisms can be maintained even under pathologic hypertensive and aged states. To clarify the age-related remodeling capacity after stroke under hypertensive conditions, we assessed infarct volume, behavioral outcomes, and surrogate markers of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in acute and sub-acute phases after transient focal cerebral ischemia in 3 month old and 12 month old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that 3 and 12 month old SHRs exhibited similar infarction volumes at both 3 and 14 days after focal cerebral ischemia. However, recovery of behavioral deficits (neurological score assessment and adhesive removal test) were significantly less in 12-month-old SHRs compared to 3-month-old SHRs. Concomitantly, numbers of nestin-positive neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) near the infarct border area or subventricular zone in 12-moth-old SHRs were lower than 3-month-old SHRs at day 3. Similarly, numbers of PDGF-R-α-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in corpus callosum was lower in 12-month-old SHRs at day 3. Lower levels of NSPC and OPC numbers were accompanied by lower expression levels of CREB phosphorylation. By day 14 post-ischemia, NSPC and OPC numbers in 12-month-old SHRs recovered to similar levels as in 3-month-old SHRs. But the numbers of proliferating NSPCs (Ki67+nestin+ cells) and proliferating OPCs (Ki67+PDGF-R-α+ cells) remained lower in the older brains even at day 14. Taken together, these findings suggest that aging may also decrease post-stroke compensatory responses for neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis even under hypertensive conditions. PMID:26811151

  8. Effects of Aging on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Anna C; Mandeville, Emiri T; Maki, Takakuni; Shindo, Akihiro; Som, Angel T; Egawa, Naohiro; Itoh, Kanako; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; McNeish, John D; Holder, Julie C; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Aging and vascular comorbidities such as hypertension comprise critical cofactors that influence how the brain responds to stroke. Ischemic stress induces neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in younger brains. However, it remains unclear whether these compensatory mechanisms can be maintained even under pathologically hypertensive and aged states. To clarify the age-related remodeling capacity after stroke under hypertensive conditions, we assessed infarct volume, behavioral outcomes, and surrogate markers of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in acute and subacute phases after transient focal cerebral ischemia in 3- and 12-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that 3- and 12-month-old SHRs exhibited similar infarction volumes at both 3 and 14 days after focal cerebral ischemia. However, recovery of behavioral deficits (neurological score assessment and adhesive removal test) was significantly less in 12-month-old SHRs compared to 3-month-old SHRs. Concomitantly, numbers of nestin(+) neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) near the infarct border area or subventricular zone in 12-month-old SHRs were lower than 3-month-old SHRs at day 3. Similarly, numbers of PDGFR-α(+) oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the corpus callosum were lower in 12-month-old SHRs at day 3. Lower levels of NSPC and OPC numbers were accompanied by lower expression levels of phosphorylated CREB. By day 14 postischemia, NSPC and OPC numbers in 12-month-old SHRs recovered to similar levels as in 3-month-old SHRs, but the numbers of proliferating NSPCs (Ki-67(+)nestin(+) cells) and proliferating OPCs (Ki-67(+)PDGFR-α(+) cells) remained lower in the older brains even at day 14. Taken together, these findings suggest that aging may also decrease poststroke compensatory responses for neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis even under hypertensive conditions.

  9. Differential regulation of proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult rat spinal cord neural stem/progenitors by ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCγ

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Si; Sideris, Alexandra; Sutachan, Jhon J.; Montoya G, Jose V.; Blanck, Thomas J. J.; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has been identified in both normal and injured adult mammalian spinal cord. Yet the signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult spinal cord NSPCs proliferation and commitment toward a neuronal lineage remain undefined. In this study, the role of three growth factor-mediated signaling pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation was examined. Adult spinal cord NSPCs were enriched in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). We observed an increase in the number of cells expressing the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) over time, indicating neuronal differentiation in the culture. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1 and 2/ERK 1 and 2 (MEK/ERK1/2) or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways suppressed active proliferation in adult spinal cord NSPC cultures; whereas neuronal differentiation was negatively affected only when the ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. Inhibition of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated that the blockade of either the ERK1/2 or PLCγ signaling pathways reduced neurite branching of MAP2+ cells derived from the NSPC cultures. Many of the MAP2+ cells expressed synaptophysin and had a glutamatergic phenotype, indicating that over time adult spinal cord NSPCs had differentiated into mostly glutamatergic neurons. Our work provides new information regarding the contribution of these pathways to the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from adult spinal cord cultures, and emphasizes that the contribution of these pathways is dependent on the origin of the NSPCs. PMID:23986655

  10. Glial Progenitors as Targets for Transformation in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ilkanizadeh, Shirin; Lau, Jasmine; Huang, Miller; Foster, Daniel J.; Wong, Robyn; Frantz, Aaron; Wang, Susan; Weiss, William A.; Persson, Anders I.

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent focus on stem-like glioma cells has implicated neural stem cells (NSCs), a minor precursor population restricted to germinal zones, as a potential source of gliomas. In this review, we will focus on the relationship between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), the largest population of cycling glial progenitors in the postnatal brain, and gliomas. Recent studies suggest that OPCs can give rise to gliomas. Furthermore, signaling pathways often associated with NSCs also play key roles during OPC lineage development. Recent advances suggesting that gliomas can undergo a switch from progenitor- to stem-like phenotype after therapy, implicating that an OPC-origin is more likely than previously recognized. Future in-depth studies of OPC biology may shed light on the etiology of OPC-derived gliomas and reveal new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24889528

  11. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Regeneration: Tissue Specificity and Regenerative Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pieber, Thomas Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    It has always been an ambitious goal in medicine to repair or replace morbid tissues for regaining the organ functionality. This challenge has recently gained momentum through considerable progress in understanding the biological concept of the regenerative potential of stem cells. Routine therapeutic procedures are about to shift towards the use of biological and molecular armamentarium. The potential use of embryonic stem cells and invention of induced pluripotent stem cells raised hope for clinical regenerative purposes; however, the use of these interventions for regenerative therapy showed its dark side, as many health concerns and ethical issues arose in terms of using these cells in clinical applications. In this regard, adult stem cells climbed up to the top list of regenerative tools and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) showed promise for regenerative cell therapy with a rather limited level of risk. MSC have been successfully isolated from various human tissues and they have been shown to offer the possibility to establish novel therapeutic interventions for a variety of hard-to-noncurable diseases. There have been many elegant studies investigating the impact of MSC in regenerative medicine. This review provides compact information on the role of stem cells, in particular, MSC in regeneration. PMID:28286525

  12. Neural Progenitor Cells as Models for High-Throughput Screens of Developmental Neurotoxicity: State of the Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro, high-throughput approaches have been widely recommended as an approach to screen chemicals for the potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity and prioritize them for additional testing. The choice of cellular models for such an approach will have important ramificat...

  13. Neural crest induction at the neural plate border in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Milet, Cécile; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2012-06-01

    The neural crest is a transient and multipotent cell population arising at the edge of the neural plate in vertebrates. Recent findings highlight that neural crest patterning is initiated during gastrulation, i.e. earlier than classically described, in a progenitor domain named the neural border. This chapter reviews the dynamic and complex molecular interactions underlying neural border formation and neural crest emergence.

  14. Migratory patterns and developmental potential of trunk neural crest cells in the axolotl embryo.

    PubMed

    Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Selleck, Mark A J; Meulemans, Daniel; Mchedlishvili, Levan; Cerny, Robert; Sobkow, Lidia; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2007-02-01

    Using cell markers and grafting, we examined the timing of migration and developmental potential of trunk neural crest cells in axolotl. No obvious differences in pathway choice were noted for DiI-labeling at different lateral or medial positions of the trunk neural folds in neurulae, which contributed not only to neural crest but also to Rohon-Beard neurons. Labeling wild-type dorsal trunks at pre- and early-migratory stages revealed that individual neural crest cells migrate away from the neural tube along two main routes: first, dorsolaterally between the epidermis and somites and, later, ventromedially between the somites and neural tube/notochord. Dorsolaterally migrating crest primarily forms pigment cells, with those from anterior (but not mid or posterior) trunk neural folds also contributing glia and neurons to the lateral line. White mutants have impaired dorsolateral but normal ventromedial migration. At late migratory stages, most labeled cells move along the ventromedial pathway or into the dorsal fin. Contrasting with other anamniotes, axolotl has a minor neural crest contribution to the dorsal fin, most of which arises from the dermomyotome. Taken together, the results reveal stereotypic migration and differentiation of neural crest cells in axolotl that differ from other vertebrates in timing of entry onto the dorsolateral pathway and extent of contribution to some derivatives.

  15. Retrovirus-Mediated Expression of E2A-PBX1 Blocks Lymphoid Fate but Permits Retention of Myeloid Potential in Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Woodcroft, Mark W.; Nanan, Kyster; Thompson, Patrick; Tyryshkin, Kathrin; Smith, Steven P.; Slany, Robert K.; LeBrun, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor E2A-PBX1 is expressed consequent to chromosomal translocation 1;19 and is an important oncogenic driver in cases of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Elucidating the mechanism by which E2A-PBX1 induces lymphoid leukemia would be expedited by the availability of a tractable experimental model in which enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in hematopoietic progenitors induces pre-B-cell ALL. However, hematopoietic reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow infected with E2A-PBX1-expressing retroviruses consistently gives rise to myeloid, not lymphoid, leukemia. Here, we elucidate the hematopoietic consequences of forced E2A-PBX1 expression in primary murine hematopoietic progenitors. We show that introducing E2A-PBX1 into multipotent progenitors permits the retention of myeloid potential but imposes a dense barrier to lymphoid development prior to the common lymphoid progenitor stage, thus helping to explain the eventual development of myeloid, and not lymphoid, leukemia in transplanted mice. Our findings also indicate that E2A-PBX1 enforces the aberrant, persistent expression of some genes that would normally have been down-regulated in the subsequent course of hematopoietic maturation. We show that enforced expression of one such gene, Hoxa9, a proto-oncogene associated with myeloid leukemia, partially reproduces the phenotype produced by E2A-PBX1 itself. Existing evidence suggests that the 1;19 translocation event takes place in committed B-lymphoid progenitors. However, we find that retrovirus-enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in committed pro-B-cells results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the neoplastic phenotype induced by E2A-PBX1 is determined by the developmental stage of the cell into which the oncoprotein is introduced. PMID:26098938

  16. Representing potential energy surfaces by high-dimensional neural network potentials.

    PubMed

    Behler, J

    2014-05-07

    The development of interatomic potentials employing artificial neural networks has seen tremendous progress in recent years. While until recently the applicability of neural network potentials (NNPs) has been restricted to low-dimensional systems, this limitation has now been overcome and high-dimensional NNPs can be used in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of thousands of atoms. NNPs are constructed by adjusting a set of parameters using data from electronic structure calculations, and in many cases energies and forces can be obtained with very high accuracy. Therefore, NNP-based simulation results are often very close to those gained by a direct application of first-principles methods. In this review, the basic methodology of high-dimensional NNPs will be presented with a special focus on the scope and the remaining limitations of this approach. The development of NNPs requires substantial computational effort as typically thousands of reference calculations are required. Still, if the problem to be studied involves very large systems or long simulation times this overhead is regained quickly. Further, the method is still limited to systems containing about three or four chemical elements due to the rapidly increasing complexity of the configuration space, although many atoms of each species can be present. Due to the ability of NNPs to describe even extremely complex atomic configurations with excellent accuracy irrespective of the nature of the atomic interactions, they represent a general and therefore widely applicable technique, e.g. for addressing problems in materials science, for investigating properties of interfaces, and for studying solvation processes.

  17. Trans-Activation between EphA and FGFR Regulates Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Differential Activation of FRS2α.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahiro; Arai, Daiki; Jing, Xuefeng; Furushima, Kenryo; Chen, Qingfa; Kawakami, Kazuki; Yokote, Hideyuki; Miyajima, Masayasu; Sakaguchi, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ephs and FGFRs belong to a superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing important roles in stem cell biology. We previously reported that EphA4 and FGFR form a heterodimer following stimulation with ligands, trans-activating each other and signaling through a docking protein, FRS2α, that binds to both receptors. Here, we investigated whether the interaction between EphA4 and FGFRs can be generalized to other Ephs and FGFRs, and, in addition, examined the downstream signal mediating their function in embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells. We revealed that various Ephs and FGFRs interact with each other through similar molecular domains. When neural stem/progenitor cells were stimulated with FGF2 and ephrin-A1, the signal transduced from the EphA4/FGFR/FRS2α complex enhanced self-renewal, while stimulation with ephrin-A1 alone induced neuronal differentiation. The downstream signal required for neuronal differentiation appears to be MAP kinase mainly linked to the Ras family of G proteins. MAP kinase activation was delayed and sustained, distinct from the transient activation induced by FGF2. Interestingly, this effect on neuronal differentiation required the presence of FGFRs. Specific FGFR inhibitor almost completely abolished the function of ephrin-A1 stimulation. These findings suggest that the ternary complex of EphA, FGFR and FRS2α formed by ligand stimulation regulates self-renewal and differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells by ligand-specific fine tuning of the downstream signal via FRS2α.

  18. The potential transformation of our species by neural enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul

    2015-01-01

    Neural enhancement represents recovery of function that has been lost due to injury or disease pathology. Restoration of functional ability is the objective. For example, a neuroprosthetic to replace a forearm and hand lost to the ravages of war or industrial accident. However, the same basic constructs used for neural enhancement after injury could amplify abilities that are already in the natural normal range. That is, neural enhancement technologies to restore function and improve daily abilities for independent living could be used to improve so-called normal function to ultimate function. Approaching that functional level by use and integration of technology takes us toward the concept of a new species. This new subspecies--homo sapiens technologicus--is one that uses technology not just to assist but to change its own inherent biological function. The author uses examples from prosthetics and neuroprosthetics to address the issue of the limitations of constructs on the accepted range of human performance ability and aims to provide a cautionary view toward reflection on where our science may take the entire species.

  19. The Potential Transformation of Our Species by Neural Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Neural enhancement represents recovery of function that has been lost due to injury or disease pathology. Restoration of functional ability is the objective. For example, a neuroprosthetic to replace a forearm and hand lost to the ravages of war or industrial accident. However, the same basic constructs used for neural enhancement after injury could amplify abilities that are already in the natural normal range. That is, neural enhancement technologies to restore function and improve daily abilities for independent living could be used to improve so-called normal function to ultimate function. Approaching that functional level by use and integration of technology takes us toward the concept of a new species. This new subspecies—homo sapiens technologicus—is one that uses technology not just to assist but to change its own inherent biological function. The author uses examples from prosthetics and neuroprosthetics to address the issue of the limitations of constructs on the accepted range of human performance ability and aims to provide a cautionary view toward reflection on where our science may take the entire species. PMID:25575224

  20. Tutorial: Neural networks and their potential application in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    A neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of simple, highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks have emerged in the past few years as an area of unusual opportunity for research, development and application to a variety of real world problems. Indeed, neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Examples include reading Japanese Kanji characters and human handwriting, reading a typewritten manuscript aloud, compensating for alignment errors in robots, interpreting very noise'' signals (e.g. electroencephalograms), modeling complex systems that cannot be modelled mathematically, and predicting whether proposed loans will be good or fail. This paper presents a brief tutorial on neural networks and describes research on the potential applications to nuclear power plants.

  1. PKC-dependent ERK phosphorylation is essential for P2X7 receptor-mediated neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, H-K; Chiu, P-H; Sun, S H

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic receptors have been shown to be involved in neuronal development, but the functions of specific subtypes of P2 receptors during neuronal development remain elusive. In this study we investigate the distribution of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in the embryonic rat brain using in situ hybridization. At E15.5, P2X7R mRNA was observed in the ventricular zone and subventricular zone, and colocalized with nestin, indicating that P2X7R might be expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs). P2X7R mRNA was also detected in the subgranular zone and dentate gyrus of the E18.5 and P4 brain. To investigate the roles of P2X7R and elucidate its mechanism, we established NPC cultures from the E15.5 rat brain. Stimulation of P2X7Rs induced Ca2+ influx, inhibited proliferation, altered cell cycle progression and enhanced the expression of neuronal markers, such as TUJ1 and MAP2. Similarly, knockdown of P2X7R by shRNA nearly abolished the agonist-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the expression of TUJ1 and NeuN. Furthermore, stimulation of P2X7R induced activation of ERK1/2, which was inhibited by the removal of extracellular Ca2+ and treatment with blockers for P2X7R and PKC activity. Stimulation of P2X7R also induced translocation of PKCα and PKCγ, but not of PKCβ, whereas knockdown of either PKCα or PKCγ inhibited ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of PKC or p-ERK1/2 also caused a decrease in the number of TUJ1-positive cells and a concomitant increase in the number of GFAP-positive cells. Taken together, the activation of P2X7R in NPCs induced neuronal differentiation through a PKC-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:23907465

  2. Macrobenthos habitat potential mapping using GIS-based artificial neural network models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye; Koo, Bon Joo; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Woo, Han Jun

    2013-02-15

    This paper proposes and tests a method of producing macrobenthos habitat potential maps in Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea based on an artificial neural network. Samples of macrobenthos were collected during field work, and eight control factors were compiled as a spatial database from remotely sensed data and GIS analysis. The macrobenthos habitat potential maps were produced using an artificial neural network model. Macrobenthos habitat potential maps were made for Macrophthalmus dilatatus, Cerithideopsilla cingulata, and Armandia lanceolata. The maps were validated by compared with the surveyed habitat locations. A strong correlation between the potential maps and species locations was revealed. The validation result showed average accuracies of 74.9%, 78.32%, and 73.27% for M. dilatatus, C. cingulata, and A. lanceolata, respectively. A GIS-based artificial neural network model combined with remote sensing techniques is an effective tool for mapping the areas of macrobenthos habitat potential in tidal flats.

  3. Potential of adult neural stem cells in stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Andres, Robert H; Choi, Raymond; Steinberg, Gary K; Guzman, Raphael

    2008-11-01

    Despite state-of-the-art therapy, clinical outcome after stroke remains poor, with many patients left permanently disabled and dependent on care. Stem cell therapy has evolved as a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of stroke in experimental studies, and recent clinical trials have proven its feasibility and safety in patients. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of different cell types, such as embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells, human fetal tissue and genetically engineered cell lines. Adult neural stem cells offer the advantage of avoiding the ethical problems associated with embryonic or fetal stem cells and can be harvested as autologous grafts from the individual patients. Furthermore, stimulation of endogenous adult stem cell-mediated repair mechanisms in the brain might offer new avenues for stroke therapy without the necessity of transplantation. However, important scientific issues need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical steps in cell-based repair to allow the introduction of these experimental techniques into clinical practice. This review describes up-to-date experimental concepts using adult neural stem cells for the treatment of stroke.

  4. Event-Related Potentials Index Neural Response to Eye Contact.

    PubMed

    Naples, Adam J; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2017-04-07

    Sensitivity to eye-contact is a foundation upon which social cognition is built. However, there are no known neural markers characterizing response to reciprocal gaze. Using co-registered EEG and eye-tracking, we measured brain activity while participants viewed faces that responded to their looking patterns. Contingent upon participant gaze, onscreen faces opened their eyes or mouths; in this way we measured brain response to reciprocal eye-contact. We identified two ERP components that were largest in response to reciprocal eye-contact: the N170 and the P300. The magnitude of the components' differences between reciprocal eye-contact and mouth movement predicted self-reported social function. Individuals with greater brain response to reciprocal eye-contact reported more normative scores on measures of autistic traits. These results present the first neural markers of eye-contact, revealing that reciprocal eye-contact is identified in less than 500ms. Furthermore, individual differences in brain response to eye-contact predict meaningful variability in self-reports of social performance.

  5. Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2011-11-01

    Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

  6. The Proliferation Study of Hips Cell-Derived Neuronal Progenitors on Poly-Caprolactone Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Havasi, Parvaneh; Soleimani, Masoud; Morovvati, Hassan; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Nabiuni, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The native inability of nervous system to regenerate, encourage researchers to consider neural tissue engineering as a potential treatment for spinal cord injuries. Considering the suitable characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for tissue regeneration applications, in this study we investigated the adhesion, viability and proliferation of neural progenitors (derived from human iPSCs) on aligned poly-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. Methods Aligned poly-caprolactone nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Through neural induction, neural progenitor cells were derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. After cell seeding on the scaffolds, their proliferation was investigated on different days of culture. Results According to the SEM micrographs, the electrospun PCL scaffolds were aligned along with uniformed morphology. Evaluation of adhesion and viability of neural progenitor cells on plate (control) and PCL scaffold illustrated increasing trends in proliferation but this rate was higher in scaffold group. The statistical analyses confirmed significant differences between groups on 36h and 48h. Discussion Evaluation of cell proliferation along with morphological assessments, staining and SEM finding suggested biocompatibility of the PCL scaffolds and suitability of the combination of the mentioned scaffold and human iPS cells for neural regeneration. PMID:25337369

  7. Crucial Role of Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a Family of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors for Rap1 Small GTPase, in Formation of Apical Surface Adherens Junctions and Neural Progenitor Development in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Edamatsu, Hironori; Nishihara, Kaori; Ikutomo, Junji; Bilasy, Shymaa E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cerebral neocortex development in mammals requires highly orchestrated events involving proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitors and neurons. Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 constitute a unique family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1 small GTPase, which is known to play crucial roles in migration of postmitotic neurons. We previously reported that conditional knockout of Rapgef2 in dorsal telencephalon (Rapgef2-cKO) resulted in the formation of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM) resembling that of subcortical band heterotopia. Here we show that double knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice (Rapgef2/6-dKO) results in marked enlargement of the ECM. While Rapgef2-cKO affects late-born neurons only, Rapgef2/6-dKO affects both early-born and late-born neurons. The Rapgef2-cKO cortex at embryonic day (E) 15.5, and the Rapgef2/6-dKO cortex at E13.5 and E15.5 show disruption of the adherens junctions (AJs) on the apical surface, detachment of radial glial cells (RGCs) from the apical surface and disorganization of the radial glial fiber system, which are accompanied by aberrant distribution of RGCs and intermediate progenitors, normally located in the ventricular zone and the subventricular zone, respectively, over the entire cerebral cortex. Moreover, intrauterine transduction of Cre recombinase into the Rapgef2flox/flox brains also results in the apical surface AJ disruption and the RGC detachment from the apical surface, both of which are effectively suppressed by cotransduction of the constitutively active Rap1 mutant Rap1G12V. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous role of the Rapgef2/6-Rap1 pathway in maintaining the apical surface AJ structures, which is necessary for the proper development of neural progenitor cells. PMID:27390776

  8. Developmental profiling of postnatal dentate gyrus progenitors provides evidence for dynamic cell-autonomous regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Jennifer A.; Yang, Cui-Ping; Kernie, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the most prominent regions in the postnatal mammalian brain where neurogenesis continues throughout life. There is tremendous speculation regarding the potential implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, though it remains unclear to what extent this ability becomes attenuated during normal aging, and what genetic changes in the progenitor population ensue over time. Using defined elements of the nestin promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse that reliably labels neural stem and early progenitors with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a combination of immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, we characterized the progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus and created a developmental profile from postnatal day 7 (P7) until 6 months of age. In addition, we demonstrate that the proliferative potential of these progenitors is controlled at least in part by cell-autonomous cues. Finally, in order to identify what may underlie these differences, we performed stem cell-specific microarrays on GFP-expressing sorted cells from isolated P7 and postnatal day 28 (P28) dentate gyrus. We identified several differentially expressed genes that may underlie the functional differences that we observe in neurosphere assays from sorted cells and differentiation assays at these different ages. These data suggest that neural progenitors from the dentate gyrus are differentially regulated by cell-autonomous factors that change over time. PMID:20014381

  9. The potential of neural transplantation for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment to improve neural structural repair and functional recovery of patients in the clinic. Cell transplantation is a potential strategy to repair and regenerate the injured brain. This review article summarized recent development in cell transplantation studies for post-traumatic brain injury brain repair with varying types of cell sources. It also discussed the potential of neural transplantation to repair/promote recovery of the injured brain following traumatic brain injury. PMID:26981070

  10. Short-Lived Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even short-lived stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of short-lived human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a

  11. p130Cas alters the differentiation potential of mammary luminal progenitors by deregulating c-Kit activity.

    PubMed

    Tornillo, Giusy; Elia, Angela Rita; Castellano, Isabella; Spadaro, Michela; Bernabei, Paola; Bisaro, Brigitte; Camacho-Leal, Maria Del Pilar; Pincini, Alessandra; Provero, Paolo; Sapino, Anna; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola; Cabodi, Sara

    2013-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that defective differentiation of mammary luminal progenitors predisposes to basal-like breast cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, we describe that the adaptor protein p130Cas is a crucial regulator of mouse mammary epithelial cell (MMEC) differentiation. Using a transgenic mouse model, we show that forced p130Cas overexpression in the luminal progenitor cell compartment results in the expansion of luminal cells, which aberrantly display basal cell features and reduced differentiation in response to lactogenic stimuli. Interestingly, MMECs overexpressing p130Cas exhibit hyperactivation of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit. In addition, we demonstrate that the constitutive c-Kit activation alone mimics p130Cas overexpression, whereas c-Kit downregulation is sufficient to re-establish proper differentiation of p130Cas overexpressing cells. Overall, our data indicate that high levels of p130Cas, via abnormal c-Kit activation, promote mammary luminal cell plasticity, thus providing the conditions for the development of basal-like breast cancer. Consistently, p130Cas is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer, further suggesting that p130Cas upregulation may be a priming event for the onset of basal-like breast cancer.

  12. Neural Systems Involved in Fear and Anxiety Measured with Fear-Potentiated Startle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A good deal is now known about the neural circuitry involved in how conditioned fear can augment a simple reflex (fear-potentiated startle). This involves visual or auditory as well as shock pathways that project via the thalamus and perirhinal or insular cortex to the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The BLA projects to the central (CeA) and medial…

  13. RED SUPERGIANTS AS POTENTIAL TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS: SPATIALLY RESOLVED 4.6 {mu}m CO EMISSION AROUND VY CMa AND BETELGEUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nathan; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ryde, Nils E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu

    2009-03-15

    We present high-resolution 4.6 {mu}m CO spectra of the circumstellar environments of two red supergiants (RSGs) that are potential supernova (SN) progenitors: Betelgeuse and VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). Around Betelgeuse, {sup 12}CO emission within {+-}3'' ({+-}12 km s{sup -1}) follows a mildly clumpy b