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Sample records for neurasthenic syndrome treatment

  1. Not in the mind of neurasthenic lazybones but in the cell nucleus: patients with chronic fatigue syndrome have increased production of nuclear factor kappa beta.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Bosmans, Eugene

    2007-08-01

    There is now some evidence that chronic fatigue syndrome is accompanied by an activation of the inflammatory response system and by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. Nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkappabeta) is the major upstream, intracellular mechanism which regulates inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators. In order to examine the role of NFkappabeta in the pathophysiology of CFS, this study examines the production of NFkappabeta p50 in unstimulated, 10 ng/mL TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and 50 ng/mL PMA (phorbolmyristate acetate) stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of 18 unmedicated patients with CFS and 18 age-sex matched controls. The unstimulated (F=19.4, df=1/34, p=0.0002), TNF-alpha-(F=14.0, df=1/34, p=0.0009) and PMA-(F=7.9, df=1/34, p=0.008) stimulated production of NFkappabeta were significantly higher in CFS patients than in controls. There were significant and positive correlations between the production of NFkappabeta and the severity of illness as measured with the FibroFatigue scale and with symptoms, such as aches and pain, muscular tension, fatigue, irritability, sadness, and the subjective feeling of infection. The results show that an intracellular inflammatory response in the white blood cells plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CFS and that previous findings on increased oxidative stress and inflammation in CFS may be attributed to an increased production of NFkappabeta. The results suggest that the symptoms of CFS, such as fatigue, muscular tension, depressive symptoms and the feeling of infection reflect a genuine inflammatory response in those patients. It is suggested that CFS patients should be treated with antioxidants, which inhibit the production of NFkappabeta, such as curcumin, N-Acetyl-Cysteine, quercitin, silimarin, lipoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids.

  2. The making of 'American': race and nation in neurasthenic discourse.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brad

    2007-06-01

    This paper considers the underexamined racial and nationalistic components of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century neurasthenic discourse to propose that neurasthenia was as much a discourse of modern American identity as it was a discourse of disease. By closely reading the medical and general texts which helped to popularize it, and by scrutinizing the context of its vogue and supposed subsequent decline, this paper shows how neurasthenia was intimately bound up with the era's politics of race, nationalism and citizenship. Countering traditional understandings of the disease, this study suggests that neurasthenia did not simply anticipate but was pre-eminently preoccupied with the questions and crises of modernity; that it was not, after all, a quintessentially Victorian but a fundamentally modernist discourse, and a paradigmatic example of how the construction of a neurotic American subject was necessarily and inevitably a construction of a modern American subject. PMID:18589928

  3. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  5. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  6. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  7. Treatment of Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wirrell, Elaine C

    2016-06-01

    Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation). Sodium channel agents-including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin and lamotrigine-should be avoided, as they typically exacerbate seizures. Several agents in development may show promise, specifically fenfluramine and cannabidiol, but they need further evaluation in randomized, controlled trials. In addition to prophylactic treatment, all patients need home-rescue medication and a status epilepticus protocol that can be carried out in their local hospital. Families must be counselled on non-pharmacologic strategies to reduce seizure risk, including avoidance of triggers that commonly induce seizures (including hyperthermia, flashing lights and patterns). In addition to addressing seizures, holistic care for a patient with Dravet syndrome must involve a multidisciplinary team that includes specialists in physical, occupational and speech therapy, neuropsychology, social work and physical medicine. PMID:27264138

  8. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs. PMID:24043501

  9. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs.

  10. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treatment and support—which may include teachers, childcare providers, coaches, therapists, and other family members. Taking ... and discipline that is effective with their particular child. Top of Page For More Information Additional information ...

  11. Treatment-refractory Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kious, Brent M; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Shprecher, David R

    2016-10-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition marked by tics and frequently associated with psychiatric comorbidities. While most cases are mild and improve with age, some are treatment-refractory. Here, we review strategies for the management of this population. We begin by examining the diagnosis of TS and routine management strategies. We then consider emerging treatments for refractory cases, including deep brain stimulation (DBS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and novel pharmacological approaches such as new vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 inhibitors, cannabinoids, and anti-glutamatergic drugs. PMID:26875502

  12. [The treatment of secondary Sjogren syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vultur, Florina; Borda, Angela; Horvath, Karin; Máté-István, Ildikó

    2010-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease witch affects mostly lachrymal and salivary glands. The exocrinopathy can be encountered alone (primary Sjogren syndrome) or in association with other autoimmune disorders (secondary Sjogren syndrome). Visual prognosis of the patients with secondary Sjogren syndrome depends on the early diagnosis, applied therapy follow-up controls along with an effective collaboration between ophthalmologist and rheumatologist. We present therapeutic options in secondary Sjogren syndrome: hygiene and protective measures, medical nonspecific substitution treatment, treatment to stimulate tear secretion, autoimmune disease-specific medical treatment and surgery.

  13. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2006-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) located within taut bands of skeletal muscle fibers. Treating the underlying etiologic lesion responsible for MTrP activation is the most important strategy in MPS therapy. If the underlying pathology is not given the appropriate treatment, the MTrP cannot be completely and permanently inactivated. Treatment of active MTrPs may be necessary in situations in which active MTrPs persist even after the underlying etiologic lesion has been treated appropriately. When treating the active MTrPs or their underlying pathology, conservative treatment should be given before aggressive therapy. Effective MTrP therapies include manual therapies, physical therapy modalities, dry needling, or MTrP injection. It is also important to eliminate any perpetuating factors and provide adequate education and home programs to patients so that recurrent or chronic pain can be avoided.

  14. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  15. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  16. Treatment of night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Tarves, Ellen P

    2011-12-01

    Although treatment research for NES remains limited, several options are available for patients whose symptoms require clinical attention. Pharmacotherapy has received the most empirical support of the proposed treatments. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the initial results from pilot studies with CBT, behavioral therapy, and phototherapy, and an extended controlled trial of progressive muscle relaxation would be useful. In their comprehensive review of the field, Striegel-Moore and colleagues have questioned the clinical utility of NES as a diagnostic entity and stress the very limited nature of treatment studies to date. Research in this field has to provide a systematic examination of the approaches described here, as well as others yet to be identified. This pursuit seems warranted given that persons suffering with the cluster of symptoms identified as NES are approaching health care providers for relief and are often frustrated by the lack of recognition of this syndrome. Future studies should test a wider variety of medications that would target serotonin or the circadian timing of eating. Additionally, trials comparing and combining medication treatments and CBT (or progressive muscle relaxation alone) would also be useful in addressing which treatment should be used as a first line treatment. With NES being considered for inclusion as a Feeding and Eating Condition Not Elsewhere Classified (FEC-NEC) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, it is likely that more clinical attention and studies will address these important issues in the coming years.

  17. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations. Symptoms predominantly occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Recent European epidemiological studies reported an overall prevalence of RLS up to 10%, with a female preponderance. The prevalence rates reported in south-eastern Europe are lower, as are those in Asiatic populations. Although the aetiopathogenesis of RLS is still unknown, the rapid and dramatic improvement of RLS with dopaminergic compounds suggests a dopaminergic system dysfunction as the basic mechanism. Extensive data are available for l-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists, especially for pramipexole and ropinirole. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in RLS cases that present intermittent symptoms. PMID:20123560

  18. Treatments for Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei; Goost, Hans; Lin, Xiang-Bo; Burger, Christof; Paul, Christian; Wang, Zeng-Li; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Jiang, Zhi-Chao; Welle, Kristian; Kabir, Koroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many treatments for shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) are available in clinical practice; some of which have already been compared with other treatments by various investigators. However, a comprehensive treatment comparison is lacking. Several widely used electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. The outcome measurements were the pain score and the Constant–Murley score (CMS). Direct comparisons were performed using the conventional pair-wise meta-analysis method, while a network meta-analysis based on the Bayesian model was used to calculate the results of all potentially possible comparisons and rank probabilities. Included in the meta-analysis procedure were 33 randomized controlled trials involving 2300 patients. Good agreement was demonstrated between the results of the pair-wise meta-analyses and the network meta-analyses. Regarding nonoperative treatments, with respect to the pain score, combined treatments composed of exercise and other therapies tended to yield better effects than single-intervention therapies. Localized drug injections that were combined with exercise showed better treatment effects than any other treatments, whereas worse effects were observed when such injections were used alone. Regarding the CMS, most combined treatments based on exercise also demonstrated better effects than exercise alone. Regarding surgical treatments, according to the pain score and the CMS, arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) together with treatments derived from it, such as ASD combined with radiofrequency and arthroscopic bursectomy, showed better effects than open subacromial decompression (OSD) and OSD combined with the injection of platelet-leukocyte gel. Exercise therapy also demonstrated good performance. Results for inconsistency, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression all supported the robustness and reliability of these network meta-analyses. Exercise and other exercise-based therapies, such as kinesio taping

  19. New Treatments for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    D’Alò, Francesco; Greco, Mariangela; Criscuolo, Marianna; Voso, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Although best supportive care continues to have an important role in the management of MDS, to date the therapeutic approach is diversified according to the IPSS risk group, karyotype, patient’s age, comorbidities, and compliance. Hematopoietic growth factors play a major role in lower risk MDS patients, and include high dose erithropoiesis stimulating agents and thrombopoietic receptor agonists. Standard supportive care should also include iron chelating therapy to reduce organ damage related to iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients. Biologic therapies have been introduced in MDS, as lenalidomide, which has been shown to induce transfusion independence in most lower risk MDS patients with del5q. Hypomethylating agents have shown efficacy in INT-2/high risk MDS patients, reducing the risk of leukemic transformation and increasing survival. Other agents under development for the treatment of MDS include histone deacetylase inhibitors, farnesyltransferase inhibitors, clofarabine and ezatiostat. PMID:21415972

  20. [Pharmacologic treatment of Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    Asperger syndrome is associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of communication and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of Asperger syndrome. This article discusses the various medications for the behavioral symptoms of Asperger syndrome, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, self-injury, depression, obsession and so on. Methylphenidate, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizer were introduced.

  1. Non surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maspero, Cinzia; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Kairyte, Laima; Farronato, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity, characterized by skull and facial malformations. Such alterations vary from case to case. Management requires multidisciplinary approach. Two cases of two sisters affected by Crouzon syndrome are described. Treatment was performed by orthopedic and orthodontic devices without surgery. Good esthetics and functional results were obtained. Five-year follow-up records are presented.

  2. Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir It ... ONE 7(1): e29914. HHS Special Webinar on Lyme Disease Persistence frame support disabled and/or not supported ...

  3. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  4. Treatment Approaches in Down's Syndrome: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Philip J.; Ward, James

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews research into treatment approaches in Down's Syndrome. Pharmacological treatments reviewed include thyroid therapy, 5-hydroxytryptophan, vitamin therapy, and cell therapy. Other treatments considered are movement patterning, early intervention, and facial surgery. Early educational intervention is seen as the most effective…

  5. Treatment of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S; Mejía, A; Neyro, J L

    2015-01-01

    The vagina, vulva, vestibule, labia majora/minora, and bladder trigone have a high concentration of estrogen receptors; therefore, they are a sensitive biological indicator of serum levels of these hormones in women. The estrogen loss in postmenopausal women produces a dysfunction called genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The principal therapeutic goal in the genitourinary syndrome of menopause is to relieve symptoms. Treatment options, as well as local and systemic hormonal treatment are changes in lifestyle and non-hormonal treatments mainly based on the use of moisturizers and lubricants. New treatments that have recently appeared are ospemifeme, the first selective hormone receptor modulator for dyspareunia and vulvovaginal atrophy treatment, and the use of vaginal laser. This review has been written with the intention of giving recommendations on the prevention and treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. PMID:26366797

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  7. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  8. Examination and Treatment of Cuboid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Durall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Cuboid syndrome is thought to be a common source of lateral midfoot pain in athletes. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search was performed via PubMed (through June 2010) using the search terms cuboid, syndrome, subluxed, locked, fault, dropped, peroneal, lateral, plantar, and neuritis with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations. Retrieved articles were hand searched for additional relevant references. Results: Cuboid syndrome is thought to arise from subtle disruption of the arthrokinematics or structural congruity of the calcaneocuboid joint, although the precise pathomechanic mechanism has not been elucidated. Fibroadipose synovial folds (or labra) within the calcaneocuboid joint may play a role in the cause of cuboid syndrome, but this is highly speculative. The symptoms of cuboid syndrome resemble those of a ligament sprain. Currently, there are no definitive diagnostic tests for this condition. Case reports suggest that cuboid syndrome often responds favorably to manipulation and/or external support. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines regarding cuboid syndrome are lacking. Consequently, the diagnosis of cuboid syndrome is often based on a constellation of signs and symptoms and a high index of suspicion. Unless contraindicated, manipulation of the cuboid should be considered as an initial treatment. PMID:23016051

  9. Non surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maspero, Cinzia; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Kairyte, Laima; Farronato, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity, characterized by skull and facial malformations. Such alterations vary from case to case. Management requires multidisciplinary approach. Two cases of two sisters affected by Crouzon syndrome are described. Treatment was performed by orthopedic and orthodontic devices without surgery. Good esthetics and functional results were obtained. Five-year follow-up records are presented. PMID:25209230

  10. Asperger Syndrome and Medication Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2007-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurobiological disorder whose core clinical symptoms include impairment in social interaction, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. AS is often accompanied by coexisting neuropsychiatric disorders, including…

  11. [Laron syndrome: Presentation, treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Latrech, Hanane; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Laron syndrome is a rare cause of short stature due to an abnormality of growth hormone receptor (GHR). It is characterized by poor phenotype-genotype correlation and geographic predilection essentially in the Mediterranean rim, the Middle East and Indian subcontinent. This syndrome corresponds to an endogenous and exogenous complete insensitivity of GH and manifests by early hypoglycemia, an extremely severe short stature and dysmorphic features contrasting with high levels of circulating GH. To date, treatment with recombinant IGF1 is the only treatment option that has improved the terrible prognosis in these patients but does not actually realize the conditions for genuine replacement therapy. PMID:26564390

  12. [Noonan's syndrome and growth hormone treatment].

    PubMed

    Castinetti, F; Reynaud, R; Brue, T

    2008-09-01

    Noonan's syndrome is a clinical entity associating short stature, facial dysmorphy and congenital cardiomyopathy. In 50 % of cases, PTPN11 mutations are found, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations of other genes (KRAS, SOS1) were also recently reported. Short stature could be due to GH deficiency, abnormal neurosecretory function or GH insensitivity. GH treatment induces height gain, even if only few studies reported data on final height. Response to GH varies, depending on the presence of PTPN11 mutations. No cardiac adverse effects were reported to date with GH treatment in Noonan's syndrome. PMID:18954855

  13. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarva, Harini; Deik, Andres; Severt, William Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments. Methods We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies), of which we reviewed 109. Non-English reports without English abstracts were excluded. Results Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Discussion The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo-controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care. PMID:25506043

  14. Treatment strategy for Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Hiranuma, S; Takiguchi, N; Ito, K; Maruyama, M; Nagahama, T; Kawano, T; Nagai, K; Nishikage, T; Noguchi, N; Takamatsu, S; Kawamura, T; Teramoto, K; Iwai, T; Arii, S

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a potentially mortal condition. Rapid and correct diagnosis, and urgent surgical treatment with esophagectomy is indicated, but conservative and other surgical treatments have also been reported recently. The treatment strategies for esophageal rupture are discussed here, based on our experiences with four cases during the last 10 years. They were admitted urgently and each was treated by a different method. Three of them underwent emergency operations, one undergoing primary closure of the ruptured esophagus, another received a T-tube insertion from the ruptured site with omental flap, and the third an esophagogastrectomy. The fourth case was treated conservatively. All patients survived and were discharged 36-144 days post treatment. One of them was readmitted for debridement of necrotic rib. In conclusion, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of esophageal rupture is crucial for a subsequent successful treatment. Conservative treatment or operation including esophagectomy will be determined by the severity of the condition.

  15. Treatment strategy for Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Hiranuma, S; Takiguchi, N; Ito, K; Maruyama, M; Nagahama, T; Kawano, T; Nagai, K; Nishikage, T; Noguchi, N; Takamatsu, S; Kawamura, T; Teramoto, K; Iwai, T; Arii, S

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a potentially mortal condition. Rapid and correct diagnosis, and urgent surgical treatment with esophagectomy is indicated, but conservative and other surgical treatments have also been reported recently. The treatment strategies for esophageal rupture are discussed here, based on our experiences with four cases during the last 10 years. They were admitted urgently and each was treated by a different method. Three of them underwent emergency operations, one undergoing primary closure of the ruptured esophagus, another received a T-tube insertion from the ruptured site with omental flap, and the third an esophagogastrectomy. The fourth case was treated conservatively. All patients survived and were discharged 36-144 days post treatment. One of them was readmitted for debridement of necrotic rib. In conclusion, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of esophageal rupture is crucial for a subsequent successful treatment. Conservative treatment or operation including esophagectomy will be determined by the severity of the condition. PMID:15209751

  16. [Experience of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pertsov, V I; Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    In The Clinic of Cathedra of The Catastrophes Medicine, Military Medicine, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 53 patients, ageing 23-65 yrs, were treated for diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) of neuropathic and mixed forms. Diagnostic-treatment algorithm was proposed for determination of level and degree of a circulation and neuropathic disorders, introduction of which have promoted optimization of surgical and local treatment, improvement of the complex treatment results in patients, suffering DFS. A new method of treatment application, using combined preparation of hyaluronic acid with the sodium succinic, have permitted to achieve a complete healing of the ulcer defect.

  17. Treatment of repetitive use carpal tunnel syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chadwick F.; Vangsness, C. Thomas; Anderson, Thomas; Good, Wayne

    1995-05-01

    In 1990, a randomized, double-blind study was initiated to evaluate the use of an eight-point conservative treatment program in carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 160 patients were delineated with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. These patients were then divided into two groups. Both groups were subjected to an ergonomically correct eight-point work modification program. A counterfeit low level laser therapy unit was utilized in Group A, while an actual low level laser therapy unit was utilized in Group B. The difference between Groups A and B was statistically significant in terms of return to work, conduction study improvement, and certain range of motion and strength studies.

  18. Multidisciplinary treatment approach in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hylton, Joseph B; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Anderson, Gary C; De Felippe, Nanci L O

    2012-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a common genetic disorder with high penetrance and phenotypic variability. First and second branchial arches are affected in TCS, resulting in craniofacial and intraoral anomalies such as: severe convex facial profile; mid-face hypoplasia; microtia; eyelid colobomas; mandibular retrognathism; cleft palate; dental hypoplasia; heterotopic teeth; maxillary transverse hypoplasia; anterior open bite; and Angle Class II molar relationship. A high incidence of caries is also a typical finding in TCS patients. Nonetheless, even simple dental restorative procedures can be challenging in this patient population due to other associated medical conditions, such as: congenital heart defects; decreased oropharyngeal airways; hearing loss; and anxiety toward treatment. These patients often require a multidisciplinary treatment approach, including: audiology; speech and language pathology; otorhinolaryngology; general dentistry; orthodontics; oral and maxillofacial surgery; and plastic and reconstructive surgeries to improve facial appearance. This paper's purpose was to present a current understanding of Treacher Collins syndrome etiology, phenotype, and current treatment approaches.

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations. PMID:27419327

  20. SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR KYPHOSCOLIOSIS IN COHEN SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    IMAGAMA, SHIRO; TSUJI, TAICHI; OHARA, TETSUYA; KATAYAMA, YOSHITO; GOTO, MANABU; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; KAWAKAMI, NORIAKI

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cohen syndrome is a very rare disease. Complication by spinal deformity has been reported, but management and surgery for spinal deformity in Cohen syndrome has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to examine the outcome of surgical treatment for kyphoscoliosis of Cohen syndrome with a literature review. The patient was a 14-year-old male with the characteristics of Cohen syndrome: truncal obesity, mental retardation, arachnodactyly, microcephalia, and a facial malformation. Scoliosis was conservatively treated with a brace at 13 years of age, but the spinal deformity rapidly progressed within a year. Plain radiographs before surgery showed scoliosis of 47° (T5-T11) and 79° (T11-L3), and kyphosis of 86° (T7-L1). One-stage anteroposterior corrective fusion of T4-L3 was scheduled after 2-week Halo traction. Postoperative respiratory management was carefully performed because of Cohen syndrome-associated facial malformation, obesity, and reduced muscle tonus. Respiration was managed with intubation until the following day and no respiratory problems occurred. After surgery, thoracolumbar scoliosis was 28° (correction rate: 65%). Kyphosis was markedly improved from 86° to 20°, achieving a favorable balance of the trunk. The outcome is favorable at 6.5 years after surgery. In conclusion, Cohen syndrome is often complicated by spinal deformity, particularly kyphosis, that is likely to progress even in adulthood. In our patient, spinal deformity progressed within a short period, even with brace treatment. Surgery should be required before progression to the severe spinal deformity with careful attention to general anesthesia. PMID:24640185

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Alvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-10-23

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  3. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride in BMS treatment. Methods The subjects were treated with amisulpride (50 mg/day) for 24 weeks. Efficacy assessment included a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HASM-A), and the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Efficacy Index (CGI-EI). Results The treatment regimens resulted in a significant improvement in burning mouth symptoms from baseline at week 24, as indicated by the quantitative mean illness duration VAS score, HAM-D, and HAM-A. Amisulpride appears to be effective and patients show a rapid response to treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered in these patients. Conclusions Amisulpride is effective and well tolerated as a short-term treatment. It is particularly efficacious at the start of treatment and has shorter response latency. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed for further assessment of the efficacy of amisulpride in BMS treatment. PMID:22719802

  4. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, B. N.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing's syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole. PMID:27335521

  5. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, B N; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing's syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole. PMID:27335521

  6. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, B N; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing's syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole.

  7. What's New in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for myelodysplastic syndromes What`s new in myelodysplastic syndrome research and treatment? Genetics and ... research unfolds, it may be used to design new drugs or eventually in developing gene therapy. This ...

  8. Surgical and prosthetic treatment for microphthalmia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wavreille, O; François Fiquet, C; Abdelwahab, O; Laumonier, E; Wolber, A; Guerreschi, P; Pellerin, P

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of prosthetic treatment and orbital expansion in the management of microphthalmia syndromes. We did a retrospective single-centre study of all cases of microphthalmia treated between 1989 and 2010. The patients were divided into three groups: isolated microphthalmia, microphthalmia associated with micro-orbitism, and complex microphthalmia syndrome. To evaluate the results a score was computed for each patient by assessing the length of the palpebral fissure, the depth of the conjunctival fornix, and local complications together with an evaluation of the satisfaction of patients and their families. Forty-four children were included (27 boys and 17 girls). Twenty-seven had unilateral microphthalmia (61%) and 17 bilateral microphthalmia (39%). Twelve patients were lost to follow up. The mean duration of follow-up was 12 years (range 4-21). Management involved an ocular conformer in only 31 patients (71%). The treatment was deemed satisfactory in all except 10 children. Surgical treatment with orbital expansion permitted good symmetry of the orbital cavities with a final mean difference of 9% (range 3-17) compared with the initial 16.8% (range 13.6-20.3). The prosthetic treatment gives satisfactory results. Despite limited indications and difficult follow-up, our experience emphasises the value of surgical treatment for severe micro-orbitism.

  9. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  10. lennox-Gastaut syndrome: an updateon treatment.

    PubMed

    Carmant, Lionel; Whiting, Sharon

    2012-11-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic encephalopathy. Few current treatment options are effective in improving seizure control. This paper reviews the available treatments of LGS and discusses a new option in Canada, rufinamide. It is a wide spectrum anticonvulsant, approved in a number of countries for the treatment of LGS. In a randomized controlled trial in the LGS population, adjunctive rufinamide therapy has been shown to offer significantly greater reduction in total seizure frequency and tonic-atonic seizure frequency in comparison to placebo. Efficacy has been assessed over three years and appears to be sustained. Most adverse events were cognitive (e.g. somnolence) or gastrointestinal in nature and in many cases transient or mild. based on the efficacy and safety data on rufinamide obtained to date, this medication will provide additional benefits to patients with LGS in Canada and is an important consideration for our patients in the adjunctive treatment setting. PMID:23227575

  11. Arthroscopic treatment of iliotibial band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Courtney H; Barber, F Alan

    2014-02-01

    Lateral knee pain in athletes is commonly seen in the sports medicine clinic, and the diagnosis of iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is frequently made. Although conservative management including rest from activity, equipment modification, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and physical therapy is the mainstay of treatment initially, refractory cases do exist. Multiple surgical techniques have been described including an arthroscopic technique. Arthroscopic release of the ITB attachment to the lateral femoral epicondyle and resection of the lateral synovial recess for recalcitrant ITB syndrome comprise a valid option that can have a good outcome. This option avoids the complications associated with open surgery and allows for a complete arthroscopic knee examination. Division or lengthening of the ITB band itself is not a necessary step in this technique.

  12. Arthroscopic Treatment of Iliotibial Band Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cowden, Courtney H.; Barber, F. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Lateral knee pain in athletes is commonly seen in the sports medicine clinic, and the diagnosis of iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is frequently made. Although conservative management including rest from activity, equipment modification, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and physical therapy is the mainstay of treatment initially, refractory cases do exist. Multiple surgical techniques have been described including an arthroscopic technique. Arthroscopic release of the ITB attachment to the lateral femoral epicondyle and resection of the lateral synovial recess for recalcitrant ITB syndrome comprise a valid option that can have a good outcome. This option avoids the complications associated with open surgery and allows for a complete arthroscopic knee examination. Division or lengthening of the ITB band itself is not a necessary step in this technique. PMID:24843846

  13. Churg-Strauss Syndrome following PTU Treatment.

    PubMed

    Quax, R A M; Swaak, A J G; Baggen, M G A

    2009-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a frequently prescribed drug in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The use of PTU is, however, accompanied by numerous potentially serious side effects including vasculitis. PTU-related vasculitides can present as haematuria, pulmonary haemorrhage, or cutaneous lesion together with aspecific symptoms such as fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and fatigue. Cerebral involvement is seldom observed. We present a 49-year-old female with Graves' disease and asthma, who developed paresis of the proximal extremities, eosinophilia, pulmonary, and cutaneous lesions following treatment with PTU. A cerebral vasculitis consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Although cerebral involvement is seldom observed with PTU treatment, cerebral vasculitis should be considered in patients developing CNS symptoms.

  14. Premenstrual Syndrome: Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Ruth J.

    1985-01-01

    There has been much confusion in the literature over the definition, diagnosis and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). This article discusses definitions of PMS, incidence, etiology and symptomatology. Diagnosis depends on the timing of symptoms rather than the type. Symptoms commonly occur during the late premenstruum; at ovulation and during the premenstruum; or at ovulation, gradually increasing in severity throughout the luteal phase. To diagnose PMS, three consecutive menstrual cycles must be charted, the symptoms must be limited to the luteal phase, and there must be a complete absence of symptoms for at least one week in the postmenstruum. Rational treatment programs for mild, moderate and severe PMS are proposed. The role of progesterone in treatment is discussed. PMID:21274209

  15. Advances in Tourette syndrome: diagnoses and treatment.

    PubMed

    Serajee, Fatema J; Mahbubul Huq, A H M

    2015-06-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal or phonic tic, and often one or more comorbid psychiatric disorders. Premonitory sensory urges before tic execution and desire for "just-right" perception are central features. The pathophysiology involves cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and possibly dopaminergic system. TS is considered a genetic disorder but the genetics is complex and likely involves rare mutations, common variants, and environmental and epigenetic factors. Treatment is multimodal and includes education and reassurance, behavioral interventions, pharmacologic, and rarely, surgical interventions. PMID:26022170

  16. Advances in Tourette syndrome: diagnoses and treatment.

    PubMed

    Serajee, Fatema J; Mahbubul Huq, A H M

    2015-06-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal or phonic tic, and often one or more comorbid psychiatric disorders. Premonitory sensory urges before tic execution and desire for "just-right" perception are central features. The pathophysiology involves cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and possibly dopaminergic system. TS is considered a genetic disorder but the genetics is complex and likely involves rare mutations, common variants, and environmental and epigenetic factors. Treatment is multimodal and includes education and reassurance, behavioral interventions, pharmacologic, and rarely, surgical interventions.

  17. Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS).

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Colin D; Patel, Amit

    2009-11-01

    Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) is a severe form of epilepsy that usually starts in early to mid childhood and is characterized by multiple seizure types, abnormal electroencephalogram with slow spike-and-wave discharges and cognitive problems. Numerous approaches are currently used to treat LGS, including use of conventional antiepileptic drugs (most commonly sodium valproate, lamotrigine and topiramate), other drug interventions (corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin) and nonpharmacologic treatments (ketogenic diet, corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation). Rufinamide is the most recent antiepileptic drug to have shown efficacy in the treatment of LGS. Despite the variety of therapeutic options, there have been only five double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs in LGS and none of these were head-to-head comparison trials. The evidence supporting the use of available treatments for LGS is, therefore, not robust. Here, we review the evidence supporting the use of specific therapies in LGS and provide recommendations on how to set appropriate treatment goals, select treatments and minimize polypharmacy. A suggested treatment algorithm is presented and discussed. Sodium valproate is recommended for first-line therapy; if seizures persist, alternative interventions should be trialed on an individually tailored basis.

  18. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Presentation and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Karol; Jones, Hendree E

    2016-01-01

    The increase in opioid use among the general population is reflected in pregnant women and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) statistics. This increase has produced an unprecedented focus on NAS from both the political-judicial sphere and the medical community. Under the banner of fetal protection, judges and prosecutors have implemented punitive approaches against women who use prescribed and nonprescribed opioids during pregnancy, including arrest, civil commitment, detention, prosecution, and loss of custody or termination of parental rights. Within the medical community, questions have been raised regarding protocols to detect prenatal drug exposure at delivery, NAS treatment protocols, the need for quality-improvement strategies to standardize care and reduce length of stay for mother and infant, and the benefits of engaging the mother in the care of her infant. It is not uncommon for the expression of strong discordant views on these issues both between and among these political-judicial and medical constituencies. Closely examining the issues often reveal a lack of understanding of substance use disorders, their treatment, and the occurrence and treatment of NAS. This study provides an in-depth examination of NAS, including variations in presentation and factors that impact the efficacy of treatment, and also identifying questions that remain unanswered. Finally, 4 key areas on which future research should focus to guide both medical care and public policy are discussed. PMID:26974659

  19. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

    2011-02-08

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.

  20. The Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Kirsten; De Lee, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder routinely encountered by healthcare providers. Although not life-threatening, this chronic disorder reduces patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. IBS is no longer considered a diagnosis of exclusion that can only be made after performing a battery of expensive diagnostic tests. Rather, IBS should be confidently diagnosed in the clinic at the time of the first visit using the Rome III criteria and a careful history and physical examination. Treatment options for IBS have increased in number in the past decade and clinicians should not be limited to using only fiber supplements and smooth muscle relaxants. Although all patients with IBS have symptoms of abdominal pain and disordered defecation, treatment needs to be individualized and should focus on the predominant symptom. This paper will review therapeutic options for the treatment of IBS using a tailored approach based on the predominant symptom. Abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea are the four main symptoms that can be addressed using a combination of dietary interventions and medications. Treatment options include probiotics, antibiotics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and agents that modulate chloride channels and serotonin. Each class of agent will be reviewed using the latest data from the literature. PMID:21180545

  1. Radial Tunnel Syndrome, Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Jupiter, Jess B

    2015-07-01

    Radial tunnel syndrome is a disease which we should consider it in elbow and forearm pains. It is diagnosed with lateral elbow and dorsal forearm pain may radiate to the wrist and dorsum of the fingers. The disease is more prevalent in women with the age of 30 to 50 years old. It occurs by intermittent compression on the radial nerve from the radial head to the inferior border of the supinator muscle, without obvious extensor muscle weakness. Compression could happen in five different sites but the arcade of Frose is the most common area that radial nerve is compressed. To diagnosis radial tunnel syndrome, clinical examination is more important than paraclinic tests such as electrodiagnsic test and imaging studies. The exact site of the pain which can more specified by rule of nine test and weakness of the third finger and wrist extension are valuable physical exams to diagnosis. MRI studies my show muscle edema or atrophy along the distribution of the posterior interosseous nerve. Although non-surgical treatments such as rest, NSAIDs, injections and physiotherapy do not believe to have permanent relief, but it is justify undergoing them before surgery. Surgery could diminish pain and symptoms in 67 to 93 percents of patients completely.

  2. Radial Tunnel Syndrome, Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Jupiter, Jess B

    2015-01-01

    Radial tunnel syndrome is a disease which we should consider it in elbow and forearm pains. It is diagnosed with lateral elbow and dorsal forearm pain may radiate to the wrist and dorsum of the fingers. The disease is more prevalent in women with the age of 30 to 50 years old. It occurs by intermittent compression on the radial nerve from the radial head to the inferior border of the supinator muscle, without obvious extensor muscle weakness. Compression could happen in five different sites but the arcade of Frose is the most common area that radial nerve is compressed. To diagnosis radial tunnel syndrome, clinical examination is more important than paraclinic tests such as electrodiagnsic test and imaging studies. The exact site of the pain which can more specified by rule of nine test and weakness of the third finger and wrist extension are valuable physical exams to diagnosis. MRI studies my show muscle edema or atrophy along the distribution of the posterior interosseous nerve. Although non-surgical treatments such as rest, NSAIDs, injections and physiotherapy do not believe to have permanent relief, but it is justify undergoing them before surgery. Surgery could diminish pain and symptoms in 67 to 93 percents of patients completely. PMID:26213698

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Conclusions Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists. PMID:22457686

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; Drossman, D A

    1998-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common medical disorder characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction. It is associated with significant disability and health care costs. A practical approach to diagnosis is the symptom-based Rome criteria. Management of patients has been helped by recent findings relating to the epidemiology, pathophysiology and psychosocial contributions of the disorder. Dysregulation of intestinal motor, sensory and central nervous system function is currently believed to be the basis for IBS symptoms. Symptoms are due to both abnormal intestinal motility and enhanced visceral sensitivity. Psychosocial factors are not a cause but can affect the illness experience and clinical outcome. Finally, treatment involves an effective physician-patient relationship and an integrated pharmacologic and behavioral approach that is determined by the needs of the patient, the type and severity of the symptoms and the degree of disability. PMID:14988758

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; Drossman, D A

    1997-02-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common disorder characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain with diarrhea and/or constipation. It is associated with significant disability and health care costs. A practical approach to diagnosis utilizes the symptom-based Rome criteria. Management of patients has been helped by recent findings relating to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Dysregulation of intestinal motor functions, sensory functions and central nervous system functions is currently believed to be the basis for irritable bowel symptoms. Symptoms are a result of both abnormal intestinal motility and enhanced visceral sensitivity. Psychosocial factors can affect the illness experience and the clinical outcome. An effective physician-patient relationship is required for a successful outcome. Individualized treatment involves an integrated pharmacologic and behavioral approach determined by the predominant symptom type, the severity of the symptoms and the degree of disability. PMID:9048508

  7. Fibromyalgia syndrome in need of effective treatments.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Tsilioni, Irene; Arbetman, Lauren; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Stewart, Julia M; Gleason, Rae M; Russell, Irwin J

    2015-11-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, idiopathic condition of widespread musculoskeletal pain, affecting primarily women. It is clinically characterized by chronic, nonarticular pain and a heightened response to pressure along with sleep disturbances, fatigue, bowel and bladder abnormalities, and cognitive dysfunction. The diagnostic criteria have changed repeatedly, and there is neither a definitive pathogenesis nor reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Clinical and laboratory studies have provided evidence of altered central pain pathways. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of neuroinflammation with stress peptides triggering the release of neurosenzitizing mediators. The management of FMS requires a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, and pain management. Here we review recent data on the pathogenesis and propose new directions for research and treatment. PMID:26306765

  8. The Frey syndrome: a simple, effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Hays, L L; Novack, A J; Worsham, J C

    1982-01-01

    The benign but socially embarrassing problem of gustatory sweating and flushing (Frey syndrome) has been studied in the past in search of a simple but effective treatment. Twenty-two patients participated in clinical trials of glycopyrrolate on an investigational basis, 17 of which have been followed up for four to five years. Double-blind comparisons of the efficacy and side effects of topical scopolamine (solution and cream) and glycopyrrolate (roll-on lotion, solution, and cream) are also presented. The use of 1% glycopyrrolate roll-on lotion and cream were associated with an average of three days of complete control of gustatory sweating and a remarkably low incidence of side effects.

  9. Frey's syndrome: treatment with topical glycopyrrolate.

    PubMed

    May, J S; McGuirt, W F

    1989-01-01

    Gustatory sweating and flushing of the facial skin, or Frey's syndrome, is fairly common after parotidectomy. The most likely mechanism is aberrant reinnervation of the sweat glands of the face by the severed parotid parasympathetic nerve fibers. A survey of 61 patients having undergone parotidectomy yielded 29 (47.5%) with gustatory sweating. Twenty-three percent (14 patients) considered the symptoms severe. In a double-blind study, five of those 14 patients were alternately treated with topically applied placebo and with glycopyrrolate (an anticholinergic agent) as 0.5% lotion, 2% lotion, and 2% cream. All five patients showed some improvement with the test preparations, but had longer lasting and more effective lessening of symptoms with the 2% glycopyrrolate preparations. There were no adverse side effects. We therefore believe that the topical application of a 2% glycopyrrolate preparation is a safe and effective treatment for severe gustatory sweating following parotidectomy.

  10. [Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Treatment of secondary glomerulopathy].

    PubMed

    Caletti, María G; Gallo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the most severe complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). In 1996, the histological sequence of changes in patients with long lasting oligoanuric periods was clarified. In the last years different therapeutic schemes have been proposed in order to slacken the development of terminal CRF in different renal conditions secondary to diabetes and other diseases. Some of these cases can suffer the onset of renal failure at adolescence. In this review, response to two treatment schemes in different patients with HUS and proteinuria with or without hypertension or renal failure is commented. Early indication of poor sodium diet and strict control of protein intake at the very moment of hospital discharge is strongly recommended, as well as angiotensin II conversion inhibiting enzymes (iACE) at the appearance of proteinuria.

  11. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Etiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bellato, Enrico; Marini, Eleonora; Castoldi, Filippo; Barbasetti, Nicola; Mattei, Lorenzo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Blonna, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is mainly characterized by pain, fatigue, and sleep disruption. The etiology of fibromyalgia is still unclear: if central sensitization is considered to be the main mechanism involved, then many other factors, genetic, immunological, and hormonal, may play an important role. The diagnosis is typically clinical (there are no laboratory abnormalities) and the physician must concentrate on pain and on its features. Additional symptoms (e.g., Raynaud's phenomenon, irritable bowel disease, and heat and cold intolerance) can be associated with this condition. A careful differential diagnosis is mandatory: fibromyalgia is not a diagnosis of exclusion. Since 1990, diagnosis has been principally based on the two major diagnostic criteria defined by the ACR. Recently, new criteria have been proposed. The main goals of the treatment are to alleviate pain, increase restorative sleep, and improve physical function. A multidisciplinary approach is optimal. While most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids have limited benefit, an important role is played by antidepressants and neuromodulating antiepileptics: currently duloxetine (NNT for a 30% pain reduction 7.2), milnacipran (NNT 19), and pregabalin (NNT 8.6) are the only drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, nonpharmacological treatments should be associated with drug therapy. PMID:23213512

  12. [Operative treatment of lateral hyperpressure syndrome of the patella].

    PubMed

    Franke, J; Riede, D; Rudolph, F

    1980-04-01

    The lateral hyperpressure syndrome of the patella according to Ficat is characterized as a main cause of chondropathia patellae. Symptoms and course as well as roentgenology of this syndrome are illustrated. The logical method of treatment of this syndrome is the lateral release-operation according to Viernstein and Weigert. With this operation we gained good and very good results in 77 per cent of the 30 operated knee-joints.

  13. Evaluation of treatments for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Nathan J

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are complex conditions and pose significant challenges to clinicians and patients. This chapter explores available treatments for MPS and FM in the context of pathophysiology, clinical evidence, and experimental support. This information may prove to be helpful in designing individualized treatment for patients with these complex syndromes. New treatments should be critically and carefully evaluated as they appear.

  14. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life.

  15. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used. PMID:26760182

  16. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Evaluation and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Teresa F.; Day, Deborah O.

    Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) is characterized by a significant caretaker, usually a mother, deliberately inducing and/or falsely reporting illness in a child. The potentially fatal outcome of undetected MSBP makes the understanding of this syndrome gravely important. Early detection and effective intervention can be accomplished through the…

  17. Emerging hepatic syndromes: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Gaetano; Privitera, Graziella; Purrello, Francesco; Demma, Shirin; Crisafulli, Emanuele; Spadaro, Luisa; Koukias, Nikolaos; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2016-10-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly due to complications of portal hypertension. In this article, we review the current understanding on the pathophysiology, the diagnostic criteria and the available therapeutic options for patients with emerging hepatic syndromes in cirrhosis, namely the hepatorenal, hepato-adrenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome. The hepatorenal syndrome is a well-recognized complication of advanced cirrhosis and is usually associated with an accelerated course to death unless liver transplantation is performed. The hepatopulmonary syndrome is often missed in the evaluation of patients with cirrhosis; however, early recognition is essential for the efficient management of individual patients. The hepato-adrenal syndrome, although not fully characterized, offers an exciting field for research and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:27273018

  18. What Are the Treatments for Symptoms in Klinefelter Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits with their health care provider. Treatment for Infertility Between 95% and 99% of XXY men are ... et al. (1999). Klinefelter's syndrome in the male infertility clinic. Human Reproduction , 14 (4), 946-952. [top] ...

  19. Drug-Hypersensitivity Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Rose L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder that results in mucocutaneous symptoms ranging in severity from mild pruritus to life-threatening skin and mucosal loss, with different nomenclature depending on the severity of the symptoms. The purpose of this article is to review the recent advances in understanding the pathology of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, as well as current recommendations for both medical and wound management. PMID:24527369

  20. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  1. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  2. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  3. [Treatment of diabetes in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pelikánova, T

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a typical feature of metabolic syndrome (MeTS) and one of its independent diagnostic criteria. The term includes impaired glucose homeostasis (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although glycaemic control has been shown to lower the risk of microvascular events, the effect of intensive glycaemic control on macrovascular outcomes is less clear. Epidemiological studies show hyperglycaemia, particularly the postprandial one, to be a clear risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity. However, the intervention studies are less conclusive. The large interventional studies published in 2008 and 2009 (UKPDS, VADT, ACCORD, ADVANCE, RECORD) advocate the controlling of nonglycemic risk factors (through blood pressure control, lipid lowering with statin therapy, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modifications) as the primary strategies for reducing the burden of CV disease in people with diabetes, and demonstrated the need for individualized approach to the patients' care in terms of blood glucose control. The patients with shorter duration of type 2 diabetes and without established atherosclerosis might reap CV benefit from intensive glycemic control. Conversely, it is possible that potential risks of intensive glycaemic control (hypoglycaemia) may outweigh its benefits in other patients, such as those with a very long duration ofdiabetes, known history of severe hypoglycemia, advanced atherosclerosis, and advanced age/frailty. According to the latest recommendations of the Czech Diabetes Society that are in line with the European and US standards the best way to protect type 2 diabetic patients against coronary and cerebrovascular disease is to target all cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure treatment, including lipid-lowering with statins, aspirin prophylaxis, smoking cessation, and healthy lifestyle behaviors hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and other symptoms of metabolic syndrome

  4. Acute compartment syndrome in children: contemporary diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bae, D S; Kadiyala, R K; Waters, P M

    2001-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose in a child, with delays in diagnosis leading to disastrous outcomes. Thirty-six cases of compartment syndrome in 33 pediatric patients were treated at the authors' institution from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1997. There were 27 boys and 6 girls, with nearly equal upper and lower extremity involvement. Approximately 75% of these patients developed compartment syndrome in the setting of fracture. Pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness were relatively unreliable signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome in these children. An increasing analgesia requirement in combination with other clinical signs, however, was a more sensitive indicator of compartment syndrome: all 10 patients with access to patient-controlled or nurse-administered analgesia during their initial evaluation demonstrated an increasing requirement for pain medication. With early diagnosis and expeditious treatment, >90% of the patients studied achieved full restoration of function.

  5. Landau-Kleffner syndrome and CSWS syndrome: treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Arts, Willem F M; Aarsen, Femke K; Scheltens-de Boer, Marjan; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E

    2009-08-01

    This study reports results of therapy with immunoglobulin in children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) or the syndrome of continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS syndrome). In a prospective study, children diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 with either LKS or CSWS syndrome were treated soon after diagnosis with intravenous courses of immunoglobulin (IVIg). We compared the results with those reported in the literature and with data from a retrospective survey of our earlier patients. Six children (two girls), aged 4-9 years, were included. Three had LKS, and three had CSWS syndrome. One child-with typical LKS-had been treated with prednisone before (without response). No patient had seizures during IVIg treatment and follow-up. Their electroencephalography (EEG) findings did not improve. Neuropsychological improvement occurred in one child with CSWS syndrome. Three children did not show any beneficial effect; they were subsequently treated with steroids, one with a clearly positive result. We conclude that successful treatment of LKS and CSWS syndrome with IVIg occurs occasionally. However, the improvement cannot always be clearly attributed to this. It might also reflect the natural course of the disease. Although the temporal relation between IVIg treatment and clinical improvement cannot be denied in individual patients, its real value remains to be determined.

  6. Paraneoplastic Syndromes: An Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pelosof, Lorraine C.; Gerber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent medical advances have improved the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes. These disorders arise from tumor secretion of hormones, peptides, or cytokines or from immune cross-reactivity between malignant and normal tissues. Paraneoplastic syndromes may affect diverse organ systems, most notably the endocrine, neurologic, dermatologic, rheumatologic, and hematologic systems. The most commonly associated malignancies include small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gynecologic tumors, and hematologic malignancies. In some instances, the timely diagnosis of these conditions may lead to detection of an otherwise clinically occult tumor at an early and highly treatable stage. Because paraneoplastic syndromes often cause considerable morbidity, effective treatment can improve patient quality of life, enhance the delivery of cancer therapy, and prolong survival. Treatments include addressing the underlying malignancy, immunosuppression (for neurologic, dermatologic, and rheumatologic paraneoplastic syndromes), and correction of electrolyte and hormonal derangements (for endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes). This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes, with emphasis on those most frequently encountered clinically. Initial literature searches for this review were conducted using PubMed and the keyword paraneoplastic in conjunction with keywords such as malignancy, SIADH, and limbic encephalitis, depending on the particular topic. Date limitations typically were not used, but preference was given to recent articles when possible. PMID:20810794

  7. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Andrew G.; Shen, Xin-Ming; Selcen, Duygu; Sine, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The congenital myasthenic syndromes are diverse disorders linked by abnormal signal transmission at the motor endplate that stem from defects in single or multiple proteins. Multiple endplate proteins are affected by mutations of single enzymes required for protein glycosylation, and deletion of PREPL exerts its effect by activating adaptor protein 1. Finally, neuromuscular transmission is also impaired in some congenital myopathies. The specific diagnosis of some syndromes is facilitated by clinical clues pointing to a disease gene. In absence of such clues, exome sequencing is a useful tool for finding the disease gene. Deeper understanding of disease mechanisms come from structural and in vitro electrophysiologic studies of the patient endplate, and from engineering the mutant and wild-type gene into a suitable expression system that can be interrogated by appropriate electrophysiologic and biochemical studies. Most CMS are treatable. Importantly, however, some medication beneficial in one syndrome can be detrimental in another. PMID:25792100

  8. [Hepatopulmonary syndrome in children: evaluation and treatment].

    PubMed

    Rovira Amigo, S; Martín de Vicente, C; Bueno Recio, J; Bueno Aribayos, J; Ortega López, J; Girona Comas, J; Moreno Galdó, A

    2009-09-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a rare disease that affects patients of any age with acute or chronic liver disease. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of hypoxemia and the demonstration of an intrapulmonary shunting by echocardiography with contrast or perfusion lung scanning. Pulmonary angiography is useful to demonstrate macroscopic arteriovenous communications. We describe five paediatric cases with a different natural history and evolution. Two of them were diagnosed with hepatopulmonary syndrome type 1, another two with type 2 and a fifth one with type 1 and 2, which required a different therapeutic approach in each case. PMID:19640816

  9. Rituximab for treatment of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J; Cohn, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that occurs in 2%-3% of patients with neuroblastoma. The cause of this syndrome is believed to be immune mediated, but the exact mechanism still remains unclear. There is an urgent need to improve our current strategies for treating patients with OMS, as many patients have significant long-term neurologic deficits and behavior disorders with current treatment approaches. Therapies that have shown to improve symptoms in these patients have ranged from ACTH and corticosteroids, to intravenous gammaglobulin and plasmapheresis. We report our experience with Rituximab in a patient with neuroblastoma and OMS.

  10. PFAPA syndrome: a review on treatment and outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanoni, Federica; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Hofer, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA syndrome) is the most common cause of periodic fever in childhood. The current pharmacological treatment includes corticosteroids, which usually are efficacious in the management of fever episodes, colchicine, for the prophylaxis of febrile episodes, and other medication for which efficacy has not been proven so far. Tonsillectomy is an option for selected patients. Usually PFAPA syndrome resolves during adolescence, but there is increasing evidence that this condition may persist into adulthood. PMID:27349388

  11. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2011-02-15

    Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

  12. Botulinum toxin for treatment of Harlequin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manhães, Roberta K J V; Spitz, Mariana; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe

    2016-02-01

    We described a patient with Harlequin syndrome, a rare neurological condition, characterized by unilateral facial sweating and flushing, who had a good response to botulinum toxin application. She had been submitted to sympathectomy a few years, however she still complained of excessive sweating in the regions mentioned and intense flushing. PMID:26750113

  13. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  14. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  15. Etanercept in the treatment of SAPHO syndrome: Which place?

    PubMed Central

    Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Hachimi, Hicham; Kadi, Nadira; Berrada, Khadija; Tizniti, Siham; Harzy, Taoufik

    2014-01-01

    Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis syndrome (SAPHO) is a rare disease combining skin, bone, and joint manifestations. Its treatment remains a debated issue in the absence of a valid therapeutic strategy. The experience with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)-blocking agents is still small but encouraging. This therapy is reserved for refractory cases. The most commonly used agent is infliximab. Only few cases treated by etanercept have been reported in the literature. We report a new case treated by this biologic therapy and discuss its place in the treatment of SAPHO syndrome. A 30-year-old male, with a history of left clavicular osteitis that required surgical bone biopsy to rule out infection and malignancy, was admitted to the rheumatology department because of recurrent anterior chest pain, lower limb arthralgia, and sacroiliac pain. Laboratory findings revealed an inflammatory syndrome. Conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) scan of the sternocostoclavicular region showed sclerosis and hyperostosis of the left clavicle. Right sacroiliitis was diagnosed based on the radiographic findings. Moreover, the patient reported palmoplantar pustulosis, thereby strengthening the diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome. As conventional treatment based on methotrexate, corticosteroids, and zoledronic acid was not effective, etanercept was initiated with good and rapid clinical and biological improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of SAPHO syndrome are challenging due to the heterogeneity of symptoms and unknown pathogenesis. Etanercept can be an effective therapy, especially in refractory cases. Further studies are needed in order to establish a therapeutic strategy.

  16. Treatment strategies for the infertile polycystic ovary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Samer; Burke, Yechiel Z; Kol, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Infertility is a prevalent presenting feature of PCOS, and approximately 75% of these women suffer infertility due to anovulation. Lifestyle modification is considered the first-line treatment and is associated with improved endocrine profile. Clomiphene citrate (CC) should be considered as the first line pharmacologic therapy for ovulation induction. In women who are CC resistant, second-line treatment should be considered, as adding metformin, laparoscopic ovarian drilling or treatment with gonadotropins. In CC treatment failure, Letrozole could be an alternative or treatment with gonadotropins. IVF is considered the third-line treatment; the 'short', antagonist-based protocol is the preferred option for PCOS patients, as it is associated with lower risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (specifically by using a gonadotropin--releasing hormone agonist as ovulation trigger), but with comparable outcomes as the long protocol.

  17. Advances in understanding and treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    McNaught, Kevin St P; Mink, Jonathan W

    2011-12-01

    Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that was first clearly described in France in 1885. This disorder is characterized by sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal or phonic tics), often preceded by premonitory sensations or urges. Some individuals also have psychiatric comorbidities, notably attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome occurs worldwide, in all races and ethnicities, in both sexes and in children as well as in adults. Estimates of its prevalence in children vary, with rates of up to 1% being reported, but rates of 0.3-0.8% are thought to accurately reflect the occurrence of the disorder. Research has led to progress in many aspects of Tourette syndrome, although many questions and unmet needs remain. For example, except for rare cases, the genetic basis remains elusive. The anatomical and neuronal changes in the brain that underlie Tourette syndrome are also unclear, although the evidence increasingly implicates alterations in basal ganglia function. Treatment is often unnecessary for individuals with mild tics, but for those with moderate to severe forms of the syndrome, some drugs are available, albeit frequently ineffective. Behavioral and surgical therapies, in particular deep brain stimulation, are currently undergoing development and show promising results. This Review examines the history of Tourette syndrome and describes its clinical presentation. The article also provides an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this disorder. Current treatment strategies and potential future therapies are also discussed. PMID:22064610

  18. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; de Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Aluisio Martins; de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome. The objective of the treatment was to improve the patient's dental relationships and consequently his quality of life. This was achieved by maxillary expansion and extraction of the mandibular central incisors and maxillary deciduous canines. The teeth were aligned and leveled with a fixed orthodontic appliance. Satisfactory results were obtained at the end of treatment, with substantial improvement in dental esthetics, occlusal function, and facial profile.

  19. Advances in the Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, Randi J.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Ono, Michele Y.; Tartaglia, Nicole; Lachiewicz, Ave; Kronk, Rebecca; Delahunty, Carol; Hessl, David; Visootsak, Jeannie; Picker, Jonathan; Gane, Louise; Tranfaglia, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The FMR1 mutations can cause a variety of disabilities, including cognitive deficits, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and other socioemotional problems, in individuals with the full mutation form (fragile X syndrome) and distinct difficulties, including primary ovarian insufficiency, neuropathy and the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, in some older premutation carriers. Therefore, multigenerational family involvement is commonly encountered when a proband is identified with a FMR1 mutation. Studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 pathway antagonists in animal models of fragile X syndrome have demonstrated benefits in reducing seizures, improving behavior, and enhancing cognition. Trials of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists are beginning with individuals with fragile X syndrome. Targeted treatments, medical and behavioral interventions, genetic counseling, and family supports are reviewed here. PMID:19117905

  20. Fragile X syndrome. Molecular and clinical insights and treatment issues.

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, R J

    1997-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation that is known. The prevalence of mental retardation from this syndrome ranges from 1 in 1,250 to 1 in 4,000 in the general population, although the prevalence of female carriers has been reported to be as high as 1 in 259. The discovery of the FMR1 gene mutation in 1991 has simplified diagnosis, enhanced our understanding of the spectrum of involvement in the fragile X syndrome, and stimulated research regarding the normal function of the FMR1 protein in brain development. Advances have also occurred in the treatment of the fragile X syndrome, and psychopharmacologic and educational interventions are reviewed here. Images Figure 1. PMID:9109330

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data.

  2. Patellofemoral syndrome: diagnostic pointers and individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Labotz, Michele

    2004-07-01

    Most patients who have patellofemoral syndrome can be successfully treated once contributing factors are identified during history taking and physical examination. After pain and inflammation are treated, patients are encouraged to start activities that do not provoke pain. Exercise programs should be implemented that address underlying strength and flexibility deficits. Return to play primarily relies on advancement of pain-free activity, with some allowance for patients' competitive goals. Patients remaining symptomatic after compliance with a structured rehabilitation program or those with indicators of other intra-articular pathology should be referred to an orthopedist. PMID:20086418

  3. Surfactant treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Herce, J.; de Lucas, N.; Carrillo, A.; Bustinza, A.; Moral, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine prospectively the efficacy of surfactant in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
STUDY DESIGN—Twenty patients, 1 month to 16 years of age, diagnosed with an acute pulmonary disease with severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) (13 with systemic or pulmonary disease and seven with cardiac disease) were treated with one to six doses of 50-200 mg/kg of porcine surfactant administered directly into the trachea. The surfactant was considered to be effective when the PaO2/FiO2 improved by > 20%.
RESULTS—After initial surfactant administration the PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly in patients with systemic or pulmonary disease from 68 to 111, and the oxygenation index (OI) diminished significantly from 36.9 to 27.1. The PaO2/FiO2 and OI did not improve in children with cardiac disease. The improvement of the patients who survived was greater than that of those who died.
CONCLUSIONS—Surfactant moderately improves oxygenation in some children with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to pulmonary or systemic disease.

 PMID:10325705

  4. [Factors influencing psychotherapeutic treatment outcome of various syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Zepf, Siegfried

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated specific and unspecific factors influencing the psychotherapeutic treatment of various syndromes using a questionnaire which systematically replicated the Consumer Reports Study performed in the USA in 1994. The authors were particularly concerned with the degree to which certain psychotherapeutic methods - psychoanalysis, depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy - produced differing results following treatment of syndromes. Using cluster-analysis, two groups of syndromes could be distinguished: Patients with depressive symptoms, stress-related disorders and/or relationship problems (depression-group) and patients with anxiety disorders and/or eating-related disorders (anxiety-group). With the help of cart-analysis (Classification and Regression Trees) it was possible to identify factors influencing the improvement of symptoms. The method of treatment had not a specific effect on the improvement of symptoms. In both groups the most important predictor was the length of treatment. Furthermore in the depression group the sex of the patients and a possible restriction of the treatment by the health insurance companies influenced the treatment results and in the anxiety group the frequency of treatment and the age of the patients. PMID:15551189

  5. Asperger Syndrome: Treatment and Intervention. Some Guidelines for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    This guide provides assessment, education, and treatment strategies for children with Asperger syndrome. It discusses assessment, and provides guidelines for securing and implementing services and determines appropriate placement. The following recommendations are also provided for general intervention strategies: (1) skills, concept, appropriate…

  6. [Diagnosis and treatment of Lynch syndrome].

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Toni; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Böhm, Jan; Kuopio, Teijo; Järvinen, Heikki J; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) refers to an autosomal dominant genetic predisposition to develop colon cancer or cancers or the uterine corpus, stomach, urinary tract, ovaries, small intestine, mammary gland or bile ducts at a young age. The predisposition to cancer is caused by a germline mutation in one of the genes of the mismatch repair (MMR) system. International recommendations suggest immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue from at least those having developed colorectal cancer or endometrial cancer at an age of less than 70 years. This would allow the selection of patients to be referred for gene testing as well as identification of mutation carriers, for whom a regular colonoscopy follow-up is arranged at an interval of 2 to 3 years. PMID:26951027

  7. Psychopathology and treatment of night eating syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Vinai, P; Allison, K C; Cardetti, S; Carpegna, G; Ferrato, N; Masante, D; Vallauri, P; Ruggiero, G M; Sassaroli, S

    2008-06-01

    The article reviews the international literature about psychopathological aspects and treatments of Night Eating Syndrome (NES). Studies were found using Medline; data from recent international books and conferences about ED are included, but single case descriptions are not included in the study. NES seems to be consistently related to mood disorders and anxiety. There is a low overlap between other eating disorders, including binge eating disorder (BED), and NES. The relationship between the syndrome and substance abuse is unclear and needs further study. Sleep architecture seems not to be severely altered among those with NES. A limited number of treatment studies for NES have been published or presented. Most of the literature focuses on pharmacological treatment, with fewer psychotherapeutic approaches reported at this time. Larger, multi-site treatment studies would serve to confirm the findings of this first wave of clinical trials.

  8. [Current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N V; Chernenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Modern definition, classifications, diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are presented together with results of treatment of 30 patients with irritable bowel syndrome with the new selective calcium-channel blocker dicetel. PMID:11881362

  9. TARGETED TREATMENTS IN AUTISM AND FRAGILE X SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Gürkan, C. Kağan; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of a constellation of symptoms that sometimes occur as part of a complex disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavioral domains. It is a highly disabling disorder and there is a need for treatment targeting the core symptoms. Although autism is accepted as highly heritable, there is no genetic cure at this time. Autism is shown to be linked to several genes and is a feature of some complex genetic disorders, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X premutation involvement, tuberous sclerosis and Rett syndrome. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) covers autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD-NOS) and the etiologies are heterogeneous. In recent years, targeted treatments have been developed for several disorders that have a known specific genetic cause leading to autism. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among disorders, targeted treatments developed for a specific disorder may be helpful in ASD of unknown etiology. Examples of this are two drug classes developed to treat FXS, Arbaclofen, a GABAB agonist, and mGluR5 antagonists, and both may be helpful in autism without FXS. The mGluR5 antagonists are also likely to have a benefit in the aging problems of fragile X premutation carriers, the fragile X –associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and the Parkinsonism that can occur in aging patients with fragile X syndrome. Targeted treatments in FXS which has a well known genetic etiology may lead to new targeted treatments in autism. PMID:23162607

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: A concise review of current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Bryant, Ginelle A; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Maki, Erik D; Miesner, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders causing patients to seek medical treatment. It is relatively resource intensive and the source of significant morbidity. Recent insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS has given clinicians more options than ever to contend with this disorder. The purpose of our paper is to review older, “classic” treatments for IBS as well as newer agents and “alternative” therapies. We discuss the evidence base of these drugs and provide context to help develop appropriate treatment plans for IBS patients. PMID:25083054

  11. [Possibilities of treatment of dystonic syndromes with akineton].

    PubMed

    Karabanov, A V; Illarioshkin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of dystonia is a complex problem of current neurology due to the etiological and neurochemical heterogeneity of this clinical syndrome. Central cholinolytics is a most effective group of drugs for patients with dystonia and dystonic tremor. The authors present the results of the successful treatment with biperiden (akineton), a centrally active anticholinergic drug with additional peripheral choline- and ganglion-blocking effect in cervical dystonia. The time of response to treatment and duration of clinical effect, its possible predictors are analyzed. Perspectives of using cholinolytics in treatment of different forms of dystonic hyperkineses are discussed.

  12. Post-treatment lyme syndrome and central sensitization.

    PubMed

    Batheja, Shweta; Nields, Jenifer A; Landa, Alla; Fallon, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Central sensitization is a process that links a variety of chronic pain disorders that are characterized by hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli and pain in response to non-noxious stimuli. Among these disorders, treatments that act centrally may have greater efficacy than treatments acting peripherally. Because many individuals with post-treatment Lyme syndrome (PTLS) have a similar symptom cluster, central sensitization may be a process mediating or exacerbating their sensory processing. This article reviews central sensitization, reports new data on sensory hyperarousal in PTLS, explores the potential role of central sensitization in symptom chronicity, and suggests new directions for neurophysiologic and treatment research. PMID:24026711

  13. Treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes with prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes continue to challenge our clinical acumen and skills. Prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon alpha 2b are three of the oldest agents that allow control of eosinophilia and its devastating clinical consequences. They still work. As our experience with them has grown, it has become evident that use of these agents in combination will control eosinophilia in most patients. Moreover, with time, the doses can frequently be reduced. Even with the advent of newer agents for treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes, these three medications still afford an excellent, cost-effective avenue for disease management.

  14. Treatment timing and multidisciplinary approach in Apert syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Maria Teresa; Ierardo, Gaetano; Ladniak, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Caporlingua, Alessandro; Raponi, Ingrid; Silvestri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Summary Apert syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia and symmetric syndactyly of hands and feet. Abnormalities associated with Apert syndrome include premature fusion of coronal sutures system (coronal sutures and less frequently lambdoid suture) resulting in brachiturricephalic dismorphism and impaired skull base growth. After this brief explanation it is clear that these anatomical abnormalities may have a negative impact on the ability to perform essential functions. Due to the complexity of the syndrome a multidisciplinary (respiratory, cerebral, maxillo-mandibular, dental, ophthalmic and orthopaedic) approach is necessary in treating the psychological, aesthetic and functional issues. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different functional issues and surgical methods trying to enhance results through a treatment plan which includes different specialities involved in Apert syndrome treatment. Reduced intellectual capacity is associated to the high number of general anaesthesia the small patients are subject to. Therefore the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment plan in these patients has established integrated and tailored surgical procedures based on the patients’ age in order to reduce the number of general anaesthesia, thus simplifying therapy for both Apert patients and their family members. PMID:26330906

  15. [Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)--pathophysiology, diagnostics, and treatment].

    PubMed

    Rek, Marta; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Wranicz, Jerzy K; Ptaszyński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the most common presentation of orthostatic intolerance. The syndrome is described as a multifactorial affliction. Main symptoms consist of persistent orthostatic tachycardia (heart rate increase at least 30 beats/min, lasting at least 10 min after assumic vertical position) with high noradrenalin serum concentration (measured in stand-up position). Additionally patients with POTS tend to have lover total blood volume. POTS is generally classified into dysatonomia disorders Symptoms in patients affected with POTS are chronic. The syndrome occurs predominantly in young women (approximately 80%). Due to complexity and variable intensity of symptoms POTS can severely impair daily activity and quality of life in otherwise healthy people. The correct diagnosis and identification of potential pathophysiological mechanisms of POTS is necessary before treatment administration. Adequate therapy can significantly reduce symptoms giving the patients a chance for a normal life.

  16. Bone marrow edema syndrome in postpartal women: treatment with iloprost.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Nicholas; Meizer, Roland; Meraner, Dominik; Becker, Stephan; Meizer, Elizabeth; Landsiedl, Franz

    2009-04-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head in pregnant women is a rare disease resulting in disabling coxalgia, beginning in the last 3 months of pregnancy and persisting for several months after parturition. The parenteral administration of the vasoactive drug iloprost constitutes a new approach to the treatment of painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip of pregnant women. Six postpartal women (8 hips) with bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head were treated with iloprost followed by 3 weeks of partial weight-bearing. Relief from pain, restoration of functional capacity, and normalization of the MRI signal pattern were rapidly achieved, thus avoiding the need for surgical intervention. As the substance is contraindicated in pregnancy, therapy may begin only some days after parturition, with a short discontinuation in breastfeeding.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of SAPHO syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SONG, XINGHUA; SUN, WENWEN; MENG, ZHAOWEI; GONG, LU; TAN, JIAN; JIA, QIANG; YU, CHUNSHUI; YU, TIELIAN

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports a rare case of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome in an adult male. The 42-year-old man complained of skin lesions, chest pain and lumbago. Laboratory evaluations demonstrated an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased levels of C-reactive protein. Computerized tomography, bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple bone lesions. A diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome was made. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alendronate sodium and steroids were administered, which resulted in clinical improvement. The current case study demonstrates that skin manifestation and multiple imaging modalities are important in generating a definite diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome, and that early treatment is vital for a positive outcome. PMID:25009594

  18. Eculizumab for the treatment of preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burwick, R M; Feinberg, B B

    2013-02-01

    Severe preeclampsia with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Occurrence at an extremely premature gestational age is most challenging as there are dichotomous imperatives: delivery as definitive therapy for maternal health vs. prolongation of pregnancy to avoid prematurity and associated morbidities. We describe a patient presenting with severe preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome at 26 weeks gestation that was treated with Eculizumab, a targeted inhibitor of complement protein C5, which resulted in marked clinical improvement and complete normalization of lab parameters. Pregnancy was prolonged 17 days, likely resulting in a reduction of neonatal morbidity with its associated short and long-term health care costs. Successful use of Eculizumab in this case suggests that complement inhibition may be an effective treatment strategy for severe preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. PMID:23228435

  19. [Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Clinical manifestations. Treatment].

    PubMed

    Exeni, Ramón A

    2006-01-01

    Clinical manifestation are described in children with epidemic HUS. The intestinal involvement in the prodromic period, is outlined and the most common disturbances such acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, leucocitosis hypertension, neurological, pancreatic and cardiac manifestations are described. We discuss the acid-base and electrolyte disturbances, metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia. The etiopathogenic treatment and the control of renal sequelae are also discussed.

  20. [PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT VERTEBROGENIC PAIN SYNDROMES].

    PubMed

    Klymenko, O; Belska, I

    2015-01-01

    The results of studying the pathogenetic features of back pain at vertebrogenic of Spine, and disorders of life of patients in relation to it. Application of therapy with the standard treatment and the complex medicine of the vitamins B. PMID:27089720

  1. Myofascial pain syndrome and its suggested role in the pathogenesis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Helgard P

    2002-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic muscle pain disorder in one or more muscles or groups of muscles accompanied by local and referred pain, decreased range of motion, weakness, and often autonomic phenomena. Patients are readily recognized by their history of muscle pain and the presence of myofascial trigger points, which are specific areas of hyperirritability in a muscle that cause local and referred pain on palpation. Failure to recognize MPS often leads to over-investigation, unnecessary medical intervention, and iatrogenic harm with serious cost implications. The purpose of this review is to present clinically relevant data regarding myofascial pain syndrome and to discuss its possible role in the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

  2. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  3. [TREATMENT DILEMMAS IN BEHÇET'S SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Zeller, Lior; Ling, Edoard; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory systemic disorder, characterized by a relapsing and remitting course, it manifests with oral and genital ulcerations, skin lesions, uveitis, vasculitis, central nervous system and gastrointestinal involvement. The main histopathological finding is widespread vasculitis of the arteries and veins. Therapy is variable and depends largely on the severity of the disease and organ involvement. There is common practice to treat with anticoagulation in patients suffering from vessel thrombosis, but there are no control trials to support this tendency. Anticoagulation treatment can cause major bleeding events in patients suffering from aneurysms. In this case report we describe a treatment dilemma in a patient suffering from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary aneurysms. PMID:27215119

  4. Ibrutinib and Azacitidine for Treatment of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-26

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  5. Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Lynnette K.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Findling, James W.; Murad, M. Hassan; Newell-Price, John; Savage, Martin O.; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome. Participants: Participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The European Society for Endocrinology co-sponsored the guideline. Evidence: The Task Force used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned three systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Consensus Process: The Task Force achieved consensus through one group meeting, several conference calls, and numerous e-mail communications. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Treatment of Cushing's syndrome is essential to reduce mortality and associated comorbidities. Effective treatment includes the normalization of cortisol levels or action. It also includes the normalization of comorbidities via directly treating the cause of Cushing's syndrome and by adjunctive treatments (eg, antihypertensives). Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line approach. The choice of second-line treatments, including medication, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation therapy (for corticotrope tumors), must be individualized to each patient. PMID:26222757

  6. History of Nephrotic Syndrome and Evolution of its Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Abhijeet; Kaskel, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The recognition, evaluation, and early treatment of nephrotic syndrome in infants and children originate from physicians dating back to Hippocrates. It took nearly another 1000 years before the condition was described for its massive edema requiring treatment with herbs and other remedies. A rich history of observations and interpretations followed over the course of centuries until the recognition of the combination of clinical findings of foamy urine and swelling of the body, and measurements of urinary protein and blood analyses showed the phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome that were eventually linked to the early anatomic descriptions from first kidney autopsies and then renal biopsy analyses. Coincident with these findings were a series of treatment modalities involving the use of natural compounds to a host of immunosuppressive agents that are applied today. With the advent of molecular and precision medicine, the field is poised to make major advances in our understanding and effective treatment of nephrotic syndrome and prevent its long-term sequelae. PMID:27303658

  7. History of Nephrotic Syndrome and Evolution of its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Abhijeet; Kaskel, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The recognition, evaluation, and early treatment of nephrotic syndrome in infants and children originate from physicians dating back to Hippocrates. It took nearly another 1000 years before the condition was described for its massive edema requiring treatment with herbs and other remedies. A rich history of observations and interpretations followed over the course of centuries until the recognition of the combination of clinical findings of foamy urine and swelling of the body, and measurements of urinary protein and blood analyses showed the phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome that were eventually linked to the early anatomic descriptions from first kidney autopsies and then renal biopsy analyses. Coincident with these findings were a series of treatment modalities involving the use of natural compounds to a host of immunosuppressive agents that are applied today. With the advent of molecular and precision medicine, the field is poised to make major advances in our understanding and effective treatment of nephrotic syndrome and prevent its long-term sequelae. PMID:27303658

  8. Molding of top skull in the treatment of Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weimin; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jianbin; Weiping, Shen

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Apert syndrome have bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, along with a distinguishing feature of their many deformity, called tower skull. Surgical correction of this deformity is the mainstay of treatment. We describe 3 patients molded top skull after front bone osteotomy orbital bar advancement. This successfully restricted growth of their top skull while allowing growth in other dimensions. Utilization of top-skull molding after cranial surgery shows promise of satisfaction in this setting.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  10. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  11. [Surgical treatment of micro-ophthalmic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Pellerin, P; Mouriaux, F; Dhellemmes-Defoort, S; Guilbert, F

    1997-10-01

    The complex embryology of the oculo-orbito-palpebral region is responsible for a number of heterogeneous clinicopathological situations, associating variable proportions of the three components of the malformation: micro-anophthalmia, microblepharism, micro-orbitism. Application of the double principle of skin expansion for the eyelids and distraction of the callus for the orbit, as early as possible (first year of life), is possible by means of a device which consists of a combination of an intraorbital expansion balloon, an antireflux valve to avoid effective pressure losses in the balloon, and an injection site for progressive filling of the expansion balloon. The response to these treatments is excellent for cases of simple microphthalmia and micro-orbitism; in complex craniofacial malformations, it generally only partially resolves the problem, but provides a precious complement to the quality of the final repair.

  12. [Pharmaceutical treatment of irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Inoue, M

    1992-11-01

    In the treatment of IBS best results could be obtained by implementing a comprehensive program for the patients. This might include a through examination, an explanation of the condition to the patients, psychologic managements, and correction of any bad habits, as well as drug therapy. The aim of drug therapy of IBS is the relief of the symptoms: such as abdominal pain, disturbed bowel function, anxiety or depression. As there is no drug which is effective in relieving the entire range of symptoms, drug should be chosen according to specific symptoms. Tranquilizers and antispasmodics may be the most commonly used drugs, however their efficacy is limited. To postprandial pain antispasmodics or trimebutine are most effective when prescribed before meal. Antidepressant are beneficial for the depressive state. Bulking agents are preferable mainly in relieving constipation, and loperamide is effective in treating diarrhea. PMID:1363124

  13. Transient neurologic syndrome after spinal anesthesia with epidural steroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cöcelli, L. Pirbudak; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Karakurum, Gunhan; Avci, Neslihan; Gül, Rauf; Öner, Ünsal

    2009-01-01

    Background: Transient neurologic syndrome (TNS) is a rare complication of spinal and epidural anesthesia. It is defined as paradoxic postoperative back pain radiating to the lower extremities with no neurologic deficits. Because it is a self-limited disease, the treatment is usually symptomatic and consists of NSAIDs and injections of a neuromuscular-blocking drug at the trigger points. The syndrome may be resistant to this treatment regimen and may last for several months, resulting in a long convalescence. Case summary: A 63-year-old Turkish woman (height, 165 cm; weight, 71 kg) underwent hemorrhoidectomy in the jackknife position using spinal anesthesia. No adverse events occurred during puncture or surgery or in the immediate postoperative recovery period. Recovery from the sensory and motor block was normal. Twenty-four hours after surgery, lower limb and plantar pain developed with no sensory or motor deficit. Neurologic examination revealed normal motor and sensory function. Electroneuromyography showed partial denervation potential of muscles innervated by the left sciatic nerve. The symptoms were suggestive of TNS. Combination oral NSAID treatment with amitriptyline (25 mg/d) and gabapentin (1200 mg/d) was initiated. Because the pain still persisted 6 weeks after surgery, epidural steroid injection with triamcinolone acetate (80 mg) with isotonic saline was administered, resulting in definite pain relief (visual analog scale score = 0). Conclusions: Epidural steroid treatment was effective in this patient with TNS resistant to treatment with NSAIDs, amitriptyline, and gabapentin. Future studies are needed to evaluate this treatment. PMID:24683240

  14. Chronic pain syndromes, mechanisms, and current treatments.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Justin; Ibrahim, Mohab; Patwardhan, Amol

    2015-01-01

    Although acute pain is a physiological response warning the human body of possible harm, chronic pain can be a pathological state associated with various diseases or a disease in itself. In the United States alone, around one-third of the population has experienced a chronic pain condition and annual cost to the society is in the range of 500-600 billion dollars.(1) It should be noted that if at all this is a very modest estimate, it surpasses the costs associated with cancer, heart disease, and diabetes combined.(1) Unfortunately, despite these humongous costs, the treatment of chronic pain is inadequate.(1) Chronic pain affects individuals in a variety of forms, and below we highlight some of the most common chronic pain conditions seen in a pain clinic. Most of these disorders are difficult to treat and typically require multimodal therapy including pharmacotherapy, behavioral modification, and targeted interventions. We have summarized the scope of each disorder, clinical features, proposed mechanisms, and current therapies for them (Table 1).

  15. Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) include a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders, the spectrum of which ranges from the mildest form, ie, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome to more severe phenotypes, ie, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Three interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists have been tested in adults and children with CAPS, ie, anakinra, a recombinant homolog of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist; rilonacept, a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domains of IL-1 receptor I and the IL-1 adaptor protein, IL-1RAcP, attached to a human immunoglobulin G molecule; and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. Following rapid clinical development, rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in adults and children. This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, and gout. Finally, this review covers some issues addressed by very recent and ongoing work regarding treatment indications, from orphan diseases to common disorders, continuous versus intermittent treatment, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal dosages of the different drugs, as well as the need for Phase IV trials, exhaustive registries, and long-term follow-up of several patient cohorts.

  16. Treatment-Resistant Depression and Mortality after Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Robert M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), especially following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Evidence from recent clinical trials suggests that treatment-resistant depression may be associated with a particularly high risk of mortality or cardiac morbidity in post-ACS patients. This manuscript reviews this evidence, and considers possible explanations for this relationship. Directions for future research are also considered, with particular emphasis on efforts to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to develop more efficacious treatments for depression in patients with CHD. PMID:19289455

  17. [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with dicetelium and spasmomen].

    PubMed

    Nedogoda, S V; Parshev, V V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical efficacy of new spasmolytics--pinaverium bromide (dicetel, Solvay Pharma) and otilonium bromide (spasmomen, Menarini-Berlin-Chemie)--in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Effects appearing during the treatment with anxiolytic drug tofisopam (grandaxin, Egis) after using dicetel and spasmomen were also studied. The results indicate marked clinical efficiency of dicetel and spasmomen which improve vegetative functions and psychoemotional status. Grandaxin provides further improvement of clinical symptoms and additionally corrects psychoemotional status. PMID:11220900

  18. Takotsubo Syndrome-Scientific Basis for Current Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Omerovic, Elmir

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is characterized by severe reversible left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormality in the absence of explanatory coronary lesion. Despite an increasing number of patients diagnosed with TS worldwide, there are no randomized clinical trials. In mild cases, no treatment or a short course of limited anticoagulation therapy may be sufficient. Positive inotropic and vasodilating agents should be avoided. In severe cases with refractory cardiogenic shock, early treatment with mechanical support using venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or a LV assist device should be considered. PMID:27638027

  19. Work-Related Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome can be a debilitating disorder, which, in its earliest stages, can be prevented by aggressive rehabilitation based on reactivation. It is critical to follow international criteria on making the diagnosis; overdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate interventions and further disability. When present, early recognition with reactivation is the cornerstone of treatment. This article presents a phased approach to treatment that suggests movements of nonresponders quickly to more integrated levels of care. Some commonly used invasive interventions, such as sympathectomy and spinal cord stimulation, have not been proved effective; these unproven and potentially harmful therapies should be avoided.

  20. Current options for treatment of hypothenar hammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hui-Chou, Helen G; McClinton, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare vascular condition resulting from injury to the ulnar artery at the level of Guyon canal. The ulnar artery at the wrist is the most common site of arterial aneurysms of the upper extremity and is particularly prone to injury. Signs and symptoms include a palpable mass, distal digital embolization to long, ring, or small fingers, pain, cyanosis, pallor, coolness, and recurrent episodes of vasospasm. Modalities for diagnosis, evaluation, and surgical planning include duplex study, contrast arteriography, and computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Management includes medical, nonoperative, or operative treatments. Appropriate treatment options are reviewed. PMID:25455356

  1. [Pyridostigmine in the treatment of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Can, Ilknur; Tholakanahalli, Venkatakrishna

    2014-09-01

    A 34-year-old female patient was admitted with the complaints of inability to stand upright, palpitations, dizziness, and fatigue in the upright posture for the last one year. She was found to stand upright for less than one minute without symptoms. Tilt table testing showed that, compared to baseline her heart rate increased 55 beats/min in the fifth minute of the test with the symptoms of palpitations, fatigue and sweating without any significant change in her blood pressure. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was diagnosed, and pyridostigmine treatment was started. Four months after treatment her symptoms were relieved so that she was able to function as a nurse.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  3. Kawasaki syndrome: issues in etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rauch, A M

    1989-01-01

    To date several infectious agents have been proposed to cause KS, but none of these agents have been consistently demonstrated in KS. Epidemiologic studies suggest that host factors, including age, race, and sex, play an important role in KS. One hypothesis is that primary infection or activation of a latently infecting agent may play a role in KS; the other factors may be related to KS by activating such an agent. The 13 to 30 days between rug or carpet cleaning and onset of KS may represent an incubation or induction period for an infectious agent. The presence of certain epidemiologic risk factors and infectious agents in some outbreaks and not in others is puzzling (Table 4). Nevertheless, there are precedents for intermittently occurring epidemiologic risk factors, as with hepatitis, in which enteral and parenteral transmission can occur with the associated risk factors for each mode of transmission. The mechanisms by which the intermittently associated epidemiologic risk factors of antecedent illness and exposure to recently shampooed or spot-cleaned rugs or carpets relate to KS remain unknown. Similarly, how living near a body of water relates to KS awaits further clarification. The cause of KS remains a fascinating and controversial question, and the answer continues to grow in importance with the increasing health impact of this disease. As more data accumulate, high-dose IVIG therapy appears to brighten the outlook for KS patients as we await identification of the cause of this disease and more definitive treatment. Because we have just begun to use this therapy in KS, it is most important that any adverse effects that may occur be brought to the attention of the medical community. One question regarding KS will remain unanswered for years, that is, long-term sequelae of the disease in both treated and untreated patients. There have been a few anecdotal reports of onset of exertional angina in children several years after onset of KS. Histopathologic

  4. [Treatment experience with metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Petrányi, Gyula

    2005-05-22

    Based on the favourable international experience with metformin in the most common female endocrine disease, the polycystic ovary syndrome, which has insulin resistance in the background, the author's treatment advice has been this in such cases since early 2002: for sexually active women who do not want to become pregnant for the time being, anti-androgenic contraceptive pill; for those who do not want to take contraceptives, contraceptives are contraindicated, or who do want to conceive, metformin. 44/71 non-diabetic patients opted for metformin treatment. A 3 to 30 month follow-up period of 25 patients could be evaluated. Seven patients had transient vertigo, diarrhoea or abdominal discomfort at the beginning of the treatment. The severity of acne of 21 patients diminished significantly by three months and the acne score fell close to the half value by six months. Body hair of 17 women with hypertrichosis diminished significantly by six months. Menstrual cycles of 8/13 patients became regular by three months; a further woman became pregnant and continued metformin throughout pregnancy. Her blood pressure remained normal despite suffering from pre-eclampsia during all of her previous pregnancies. The average body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio did not change significantly during the follow-up. Apart from few initial, transient side effects, disadvantages of the treatment were not found. Long-term metformin treatment resulted in significant improvement of the symptoms of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  5. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education. PMID:25963463

  6. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.

  7. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fresé, Michael P.; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies. PMID:18317547

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: a mild disorder; purely symptomatic treatment.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    (1) Patients frequently complain of occasional bowel movement disorders, associated with abdominal pain or discomfort, but they are rarely due to an underlying organ involvement. Even when patients have recurrent symptoms, serious disorders are no more frequent in these patients than in the general population, unless other manifestations, anaemia, or an inflammatory syndrome is also present; (2) There is currently no way of radically modifying the natural course of recurrent irritable bowel syndrome; (3) The effects of antispasmodics on abdominal pain have been tested in about 20 randomised controlled trials. Pinaverium and peppermint essential oil have the best-documented efficacy and only moderate adverse effects. Antispasmodics with marked atropinic effects do not have a favourable risk-benefit balance; (4) Tricylic antidepressants seem to have only modest analgesic effects in this setting. In contrast, their adverse effects are frequent and they have somewhat negative risk-benefit balances. Nor has the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) been demonstrated; (5) Alosetron and tegaserod carry a risk of potentially life-threatening adverse effects and therefore have negative risk-benefit balances; (6) Seeds of plants such as psyllium and ispaghul, as well as raw apples and pears, have a limited impact on constipation and pain. Osmotic laxatives are effective on constipation. Symptomatic treatments for constipation can sometimes aggravate abdominal discomfort; (7) Loperamide has been poorly assessed in patients with recurrent irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. It modestly slows bowel movement but does not relieve pain or abdominal discomfort; (8) Dietary measures have not been tested in comparative trials. Some patients are convinced that certain foods provoke a recurrence of irritable bowel syndrome, but restrictive diets carry a risk of nutritional deficiencies; (9) Various techniques intended to control emotional and

  9. Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Blaes, Franz; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare and primarily immune-mediated disease in children and adults. The main symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, the symptoms also include irritability, and, over a long-term course, learning and behavioural disturbances. OMS can be idiopathic, parainfectious or occur as a paraneoplastic (tumour-associated) syndrome. Paraneoplastic OMS in children is almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, whereas in adults, small cell lung cancer and breast cancer are the main underlying tumours. An autoimmune pathophysiology is suspected because childhood OMS patients have functionally active autoantibodies, proinflammatory changes in the cytokine network and immunotherapy responses. Children appear to respond regularly to immunosuppressive treatment. However, although the neurological symptoms show a good response, most children continue to show neuropsychological disturbances.

  10. [Treatment of renal vein thrombosis associated with nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Funami, M; Takaba, T; Tanaka, H; Murakami, A; Kadokura, M; Hori, G; Ishii, J

    1988-06-01

    Renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity in which true incidence is unknown. The disease occurs most frequently in patients with nephrotic syndrome, but it also can occur in the presence of other hypercoagulable state. Two cases of renal vein thrombosis with nephrotic syndrome which were treated by thrombectomy are reported here. One patient was successfully treated by renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombectomy before developing severe pulmonary embolism. The other was treated by renal vein thrombectomy by which fatal shock was able to be prevented. In those cases, immediate operation was indicated, primarily to prevent additional, possibly fatal, pulmonary embolism and also to improve perfusion of the kidney. In the hope of salvaging the kidney, thrombectomy may be the treatment of choice for acute renal vein thrombosis, complication of pulmonary embolism and inferior vena cava thrombosis, right renal vein thrombosis without collateral flow and acute renal vein thrombosis with shock.

  11. Cushing’s syndrome in childhood: update on genetics, treatment, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the genes associated with Cushing’s syndrome in children, as well as to familiarize the clinician with recent treatment guidelines and outcome data for children with Cushing’s syndrome. Recent findings The list of genes associated with Cushing’s syndrome continues to grow. In addition, treatment for childhood Cushing’s syndrome is evolving. As long-term follow-up data on children becomes available, clinicians need to be aware of the issues that require attention. Summary Knowledge of the specific genetic causes of Cushing’s syndrome has potential implications for treatment, surveillance, and counseling. Advances in surgical technique, radiation modalities, and medical therapies offer the potential for additional treatment options in Cushing’s syndrome. Early identification and management of post-treatment morbidities in children treated for Cushing’s syndrome is crucial in order to optimize care. PMID:25517021

  12. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of uncommon tremor syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a standard therapy for the treatment of select cases of medication refractory essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease however the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of DBS in other uncommon and complex tremor syndromes has not been well established. Traditionally, the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus has been considered the main target for medically intractable tremors; however alternative brain regions and improvements in stereotactic techniques and hardware may soon change the horizon for treatment of complex tremors. Areas covered: In this article, we conducted a PubMed search using different combinations between the terms ‘Uncommon tremors’, ‘Dystonic tremor’, ‘Holmes tremor’ ‘Midbrain tremor’, ‘Rubral tremor’, ‘Cerebellar tremor’, ‘outflow tremor’, ‘Multiple Sclerosis tremor’, ‘Post-traumatic tremor’, ‘Neuropathic tremor’, and ‘Deep Brain Stimulation/DBS’. Additionally, we examined and summarized the current state of evolving interventions for treatment of complex tremor syndromes. Expert c ommentary: Recently reported interventions for rare tremors include stimulation of the posterior subthalamic area, globus pallidus internus, ventralis oralis anterior/posterior thalamic subnuclei, and the use of dual lead stimulation in one or more of these targets. Treatment should be individualized and dictated by tremor phenomenology and associated clinical features. PMID:27228280

  13. Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: overview and recent findings

    PubMed Central

    van Rijckevorsel, Kenou

    2008-01-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare, age-related syndrome, characterized by multiple seizure types, a specific electro-encephalographic pattern, and mental regression. However, published data on the etiology, evolution, and therapeutic approach of LGS are contradictory, partly because the precise definition of LGS used in the literature varies. In the most recent classification, LGS belongs to the epileptic encephalopathies and is highly refractory to all antiepileptic drugs. Numerous treatments, medical and non-medical, have been proposed and results mostly from open studies or case series have been published. Sometimes, patients with LGS are included in a more global group of patients with refractory epilepsy. Only 6 randomized double-blind controlled trials of medical treatments, which included patients with LGS, have been published. Overall, treatment is rarely effective and the final prognosis remains poor in spite of new therapeutic strategies. Co-morbidities need specific treatment. This paper summarizes the definition, diagnosis and therapeutic approach to LGS, including not only recognized antiepileptic drugs, but also “off label” medications, immune therapy, diet, surgery and some perspectives for the future. PMID:19337447

  14. [Etiologic treatment of sicca syndrome. What can the rheumatologist offer?].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castro, Monica; Silva, Lucía; Otón, Teresa; Andreu, Jose Luis

    2010-09-01

    No effective treatment has been documented for the glandular primary Sjögren syndrome (PSS) despite the development of oral and biologic agents that have significant activity against other autoimmune disorders. Some disease-modifying agents have been empirically evaluated for the treatment of PSS. Targeting B cells also seems very promising in SSP because of the B-cell hyperactivity recognized in this desease. This article reviews existing data on the use of disease-modifying therapy for glandular of SSP. To date, published studies and trials of oral DMARDs for the treatment of SSP have shown disappointing results. B-cell modulation is clearly a promising therapy for PSS. Many challenges in trial design and execution are evident from the studies reviewed. PMID:21794756

  15. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodkin, Michael B; Bellew, Lawrence J

    2014-11-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with many symptoms including orthostatic intolerance, fatigue, palpitations, and cognitive dysfunction. Treatment, which typically consists of exercise, increased dietary sodium and fluids, compression garments, and medications for orthostatic intolerance, frequently produces unsatisfactory results. The authors report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6-year history of severe fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, heat intolerance, cognitive dysfunction, and diffuse pain. She had previously injured her jaw on an obstacle course. Results of a standing test were consistent with POTS. After standard medical therapy was unsuccessful, the patient was referred for osteopathic manipulative treatment. At her 18-month follow-up, the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. Physicians should consider osteopathic evaluation and manipulative treatment when caring for patients with POTS.

  16. Magnesium for Treatment of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mijalski, Christina; Dakay, Katarina; Miller-Patterson, Cameron; Saad, Ali; Silver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We describe 2 cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) with refractory headache aborted by intravenous magnesium. Case 1 is a 53-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS presented with refractory headache and persistent vasospasm, despite aggressive treatment with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and systemic corticosteroids. Subsequently, she experienced dramatic relief of symptoms with intravenous magnesium therapy. She continued oral maintenance therapy and remained symptom free. Case 2 is a 71-year-old female with bilateral temporo-occipital infarcts due to RCVS, presented with refractory headache and persistent vasospasm on transcranial Doppler (TCD), despite aggressive treatment with CCBs. She experienced dramatic relief of symptoms with intravenous magnesium and resolution of vasospasm on TCD. Magnesium may be beneficial for the treatment of refractory headaches in patients with RCVS. Future studies are needed to determine whether it should be considered as a first-line agent. PMID:27366294

  17. Endoscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome: A comprehensive technique.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C E; Leon, H O; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive approach to the endoscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome developed by the Arthroscopic Group of the Orthopedic Service of Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba. The surgical technique involves treatment of the heel spur and plantar fasciitis commonly found in calcaneal spur syndrome, but it also addresses adjacent calcaneal periostitis and allows decompression of the nerve to the abductor digiti quinti. Medial endoscopy and lateral instrumentation are used in a sequential approach with exposure and debridement of the posterior roof of the calcaneal arch, followed by removal of the calcaneal spur, lateral to medial release of the medial 75% of the plantar fascia, and if necessary, debridement of the calcaneal tuberosity periosteum. This technique was used in a prospective case series from June 1997 to May 1998 to treat a select group of 38 feet in 30 patients who reported unacceptable levels of pain despite 5 months of conservative treatment, which included an aggressive 8-week physical therapy program prescribed by the treating physician. Good to excellent results were obtained at 3 months postoperatively in all patients with regard to pain relief and return to normal activity, although 5 patients required a short course of physical therapy to resolve symptoms brought on by sports, trauma, or impact loading before 1-year follow-up, at which time all patients reported good to excellent results. Complications included 3 superficial wound infections cured by oral antibiotics and 2 transient lateral paresthesias that resolved with rest and nonsteroidal inflammatory medications. The described technique may provide a useful method for treating refractory heel spur syndrome and warrants further study.

  18. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Jose-Ramon; Ballesteros, Javier; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacological treatment with placebo or other treatment in individuals with diagnosis of FXS syndrome and assessed the efficacy and/or safety of the treatments. Studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases using the terms fragile X and treatment. Risk of bias of the studies was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Results The search identified 276 potential articles and 14 studies satisfied inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 studies on folic acid (9 with crossover design, only 1 of them with good methodological quality and low risk of bias) did not find in general significant improvements. A small sample size trial assessed dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD and found some improvements in those taking methylphenidate, but the length of follow-up was too short. Two studies on L-acetylcarnitine, showed positive effects and no side effects in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD. Finally, one study on patients with an additional diagnosis of autism assessed ampakine compound CX516 and found no significant differences between treatment and placebo. Regarding safety, none of the studies that assessed that area found relevant side effects, but the number of patients included was too small to detect side effects with low incidence. Conclusion Currently there is no robust evidence to support recommendations on pharmacological treatments in patients with FXS in general or in those

  19. Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of ureteral stump syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Husain; Eltiraifi, Abdelmoniem E.; Alomar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to highlight the advantages and the feasibility of treating ureteral stump syndrome (USS) by different minimally invasive procedures. Materials and Methods: Four patients with USS who were treated by different minimally invasive surgery approaches depending on their presentation and findings on radiologic investigations. Results: Three patients had complete resolution of their symptoms, whereas the fourth patient had persistence of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgery is a valid treatment option for patients with USS with possible less morbidity than conventional open surgical excision. PMID:26692664

  20. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners. PMID:27483702

  1. Early treatment with eculizumab in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garjau, Maria; Azancot, María; Ramos, Rosa; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Montero, Maria Angeles; Serón, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by complement system dysregulation leading to uncontrolled complement activation and thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of an adult patient with plasmaphaeresis-resistant aHUS and hypertension treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. Eculizumab was shown to completely inhibit haemolysis, normalize thrombocyte levels and increase diuresis. Full recovery of renal function was not possible due to irreversible renal damage prior to eculizumab initiation. These findings highlight the importance of early treatment with eculizumab in patients with poor response to standard therapy, in order to avoid irreversible renal damage.

  2. Early treatment with eculizumab in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garjau, Maria; Azancot, María; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Montero, Maria Angeles; Serón, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by complement system dysregulation leading to uncontrolled complement activation and thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of an adult patient with plasmaphaeresis-resistant aHUS and hypertension treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. Eculizumab was shown to completely inhibit haemolysis, normalize thrombocyte levels and increase diuresis. Full recovery of renal function was not possible due to irreversible renal damage prior to eculizumab initiation. These findings highlight the importance of early treatment with eculizumab in patients with poor response to standard therapy, in order to avoid irreversible renal damage. PMID:26069743

  3. Treatment considerations in carpal tunnel syndrome with coexistent Dupuytren's disease.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, M; Kleinert, H E

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-nine patients with involvement of 31 hands presented with coexisting carpal tunnel syndrome and ipsilateral Dupuytren's disease. Analysis of the patient population showed a high proportion of women, dominant hand involvement, and repetitive manual trauma. Various treatment combinations were used and the results evaluated. Simultaneous surgical excision of Dupuytren's contracture and carpal tunnel release gave compromised long-term results, particularly among the women. To minimize complications, it is advised that carpal tunnel release not be performed at the same time as excision of Dupuytren's contracture.

  4. [A new treatment: thermal therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akinori; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-06-01

    Thermal therapy using far-infrared ray dry sauna was performed for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and low-grade fever were dramatically improved on two patients. And prednisolone administration was discontinued and became socially rehabilitated 6 months after discharge. On other 11 patients with CFS, physical symptoms such as fatigue and pain improved, too. Furthermore, we reported that repeated thermal therapy had relaxation effect and diminishes appetite loss and subjective complaints in mildly depressed patients. These results suggest that repeated thermal therapy may be a promising method for the treatment of CFS.

  5. [Sanatorium-based treatment of lumbar quadrate myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Avershin, V A; Oleĭnikov, B V; Pil'kevich, R P; Sofel', S A; Kniazhishche, A N; Grebenkin, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes experience gained in the Central Military Sanatorium, Sochi, in the field of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with myofascial pain syndrome affecting the quadratum lumborum muscle. Conditions facilitating development of triggering myofascial structures in these muscles are analysed and methods of their diagnosis are discussed. The proposed compression test allows active trigger structures to be identified in the quadratum lumborum muscle. Detailed description of the method of myofascial meridional reflexotherapy is presented (ischemic compression of condensed trigger structures or points with dry needling, taking account of the breathing act). The authors emphasize the importance of correction of structural disproportions responsible for the formation of myofascial trigger structures.

  6. Use of ketoconazole in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Berselli, M E; Tagliaferri, M

    1986-12-01

    The therapeutic value of ketoconazole for long term treatment of patients with Cushing's syndrome was studied. Seven patients with Cushing's disease and one with an adrenal adenoma received 600-800 mg/day ketoconazole for 3-13 months. Plasma ACTH, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels and urinary cortisol, 17-ketosteroid, and tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol excretion were determined periodically during the treatment period. Plasma ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH stimulation were determined before and during treatment. Rapid and subsequently persistent clinical improvement occurred in each patient; plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid and cortisol excretion decreased soon after the initiation of treatment, subsequently remaining normal or nearly so throughout the treatment period. Urinary tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol excretion increased significantly. Plasma cortisol levels decreased. Plasma ACTH levels did not change, and individual plasma ACTH and cortisol increments in response to CRH were comparable before and during treatment. The cortisol response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia improved in one patient and was restored to normal in another. The seven patients tested recovered normal adrenal suppressibility in response to a low dose of dexamethasone during ketoconazole treatment. Ketoconazole is effective for long term control of hypercortisolism of either pituitary or adrenal origin. Its effect appears to be mediated by inhibition of adrenal 11 beta-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, and it, in some unknown way, prevents the expected rise in ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease.

  7. Treatment of primary Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Alain; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by sicca and systemic manifestations. In this Review, we summarize the available data on topical and systemic medications, according to clinical signs and disease activity, and we describe the ongoing studies using biologic drugs in the treatment of pSS. Expanding knowledge about the epidemiology, classification criteria, systemic activity scoring (ESSDAI) and patient-reported outcomes (ESSPRI) is driving active research. Treatment decisions are based on the evaluation of symptoms and extraglandular manifestations. Symptomatic treatment is usually appropriate, whereas systemic treatment is reserved for systemic manifestations. Sicca is managed by education, environment modification, elimination of contingent offending drugs, artificial tears, secretagogues and treatments for complications. Mild systemic signs such as fatigue are treated by exercise. Pain can require short-term moderate-dose glucocorticoid therapy and, in some cases, disease-modifying drugs. Severe and acute systemic manifestations indicate treatment with glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressant drugs. The role for biologic agents is promising, but no double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) proving the efficacy of these drugs are available. Targets for new treatments directed against the immunopathological mechanisms of pSS include epithelial cells, T cells, B-cell overactivity, the interferon signature, proinflammatory cytokines, ectopic germinal centre formation, chemokines involved in lymphoid cell homing, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:27411907

  8. [Botulinum toxin for the treatment of pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Couto, Marina; Costa, João; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M; Sampaio, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Although botulinum toxin (BoNT) is being used for therapeutic purposes for more than 20 years, the list of potential new indications continues to increase and includes various pain syndromes. The pain relief experienced by patients with dystonia and spasticity from intramuscular BoNT injections suggested that other chronic skeletal-muscles pain conditions may also benefit. BoNT inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction thereby reducing striatal muscle contractions and the proposed analgesic property was initially attributed to muscular relaxation. A specific analgesic BoNT effect is difficult to conclude from studies where pain is conditioned by other associated symptoms like dystonia, muscle contraction or spasticity. One alternative is to critically appraise clinical trials where BoNT was studied as the active intervention and pain evaluated as an outcome. From this analysis there is convincing evidence for the effectiveness of BoNT in the treatment of pain associated with cervical dystonia. For all other pain syndromes there have been relatively few, small sized, placebo-controlled studies (myofascial pain syndrome, chronic neck and low back pain, piriformis syndrome and fibromyalgia) and the results of these studies have been contradictory or non conclusive. To establish the analgesic properties of BoNT there is a need for appropriately designed, exploratory randomized controlled studies in well accepted human models of nociceptive or neuropathic pain. This does not exclude the subsequent need to conduct pragmatic trials to evaluate the effectiveness of BoNT in conditions where the improvement of pain or any associated clinical sign or symptom may be of clinical relevance. PMID:17058384

  9. Treatment of Hyperthyroidism in Down Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Fawzi E.; Al-Busairi, Waleed A.; Al-Mulla, Fatema A.

    1999-01-01

    A case of an institutionalized adult male with Down syndrome and hyperthyroidism is reported. After treatment with radioactive iodine, he was found to be markedly hypothyroid when he was reviewed 11 weeks later. Three treatment options for hyperthyroidism in Down syndrome are reviewed: surgery, medical treatments, and radiotherapy. (Author/CR)

  10. Treatment prostheses in TMJ dysfunction-pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1978-06-01

    Various types of acrylic resin therapeutic prostheses commonly used in the treatment of TMJ dysfunction-pain syndrome were described. Each design was related to recent data concerning optimum condylar positions in the fossae, the physiologic condylar suspension system, and individual treatment objectives for repositioning the mandibular condyles. For example, alteration of the vertical dimension of occlusion is a popular treatment procedure that is empirical in nature and is usually used without TMJ radiographs or a differential diagnosis. It can violate the physiologic requirements of the interocclusal distance or the speaking space and does not necessarily move the condyles forward as has been commonly thought. The dangers of empirical treatment procedures for a multicausal dysfunction syndrome have been pointed out. An example was cited where the mandible was moved forward for a long period of time with a repositioning prosthesis; this produced pathologic TMJ remodeling and continued pain. It was recommended that specific mandibular repositioning be based on the type of condylar displacement observed on the radiographs. Sometimes the condyles should be retruded, and other times they should be repositioned anteriorly or occasionally inferiorly on one side. Long-standing use of any acrylic resin repositioning prosthesis is contraindicated, particularly without close supervision. Acrylic resin anterior bite plates (with a minimum opening of 1 mm) were recommended for the relief of acute trismus or intractable pain. Usually the prosthesis is used in conjunction with heat and drug therapy. This type of prothesis can also be utilized to deprogram the muscles when a strong habit of eccentric occlusion develops as a result of missing teeth. (This should be confirmed by TMJ radiographs.) Occasionally atypical pain is present and a differential diagnosis can be established between TMJ dysfunction or neurologic etiology by the physiologic response to bite plate therapy

  11. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in China: A review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic, functional gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence rate in the general population, and it is common among the Chinese population. The pathophysiology, etiology and pathogenesis of IBS are poorly understood, with no evidence of inflammatory, anatomic, metabolic, or neoplastic factors to explain the symptoms. Treatment approaches are mainly focused on symptom management to maintain everyday functioning and to improve quality of life for patients with IBS. However, prescribed medications often result in significant side effects, and many IBS sufferers (particularly Chinese) do not improve. Instead of taking a variety of conventional medications, many have turned to taking traditional Chinese medicine or integrated Chinese and Western medicine for remedy. A number of clinical trials have shown that Chinese herbal, acupuncture or integrative therapies presented improved treatment outcomes and reduced side effects in IBS patients. The purpose of this review article is to examine the treatment approaches of IBS that have been published in recent years, especially in China, to assess the possible differences in treating IBS between China and other countries. This would provide some useful information of unique treatment approach in clinical practice for physicians in the management of IBS in China, thus offering more treatment options for IBS patients with potentially better treatment outcomes while reducing the medical cost burden. PMID:25741137

  12. Treatment of scorpion envenoming syndrome -- need for scientific magnanimity.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K Radha Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Scorpion envenoming syndrome results in a severe autonomic storm with a massive release of catecholamines, increased levels of angiotensin II, an increase in glucagon, cortisol, thyroid hormones; either suppressed insulin levels or hyperinsulinaemia (insulin resistance), hyperglycaemia; increased circulating free fatty acid levels. These hormonal alterations could be responsible for the pathogenesis of a variety of clinical manifestations. Under these conditions, scorpion envenoming syndrome with myocardial damage, cardiovascular disturbances, peripheral circulatory failure, respiratory and cardiac pulmonary oedema, and many other clinical manifestations resulting in a syndrome of fuel-energy deficits and an inability to use the existing metabolic substrates by vital organs causing multisystem organ failure and death. Based on animal experiments in which insulin administration reversed the metabolic and ECG changes induced by scorpion envenoming and treating the poisonous scorpion sting victims with insulin, we consider that insulin has a primary metabolic role in preventing and reversing the cardiovascular, haemodynamic, and neurological manifestations and pulmonary oedema induced by scorpion envenoming. Administration of insulin-glucose infusion to scorpion sting victims appears to be the physiological basis for the control of the metabolic response when that has become a determinant to survival. The mordality of treatment is continuous infusion of regular crystalline insulin at the rate of 0.3 U/g glucose and glucose at the rate of 0.1g/kg body weight/hour, with supplementation of potassium as needed and maintenance of fluid, electrolytes and acid-base balance is required. This treatment should be given at the earliest on admission and continued for the next 48-72 hours. Antiscorpion serum could also be given independently or along with insulin-glucose infusion. PMID:24475558

  13. Kallmann syndrome in women: from genes to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Smolarczyk, Roman; Katulski, Krzysztof; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2013-04-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) can be characterized as genetic disorder marked by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Franz Jozef Kallmann was the first who described this disease in 1944. He suggested, that this disease has hereditary background. At present, six genes are regarded as causal genes of KS. These genes can be listed in chronological order: KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, CHD7, PROKR2 and PROK2. The sensitivity of molecular testing of KS is only about 30%. Diagnosis based on clinical findings is therefore such important. Cardinal features of patients with KS include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia. Some non-reproductive, non-olfactory symptoms can also be present, depending on the genetic form of disease. Some patients with KS present midline cranial anomalies (cleft lip, cleft palate and imperfect fusion). Sometimes patients can also suffer from missing teeth (dental agenesis). Optic problems, such as colour blindness or optic atrophy also can occur in KS patients. Very characteristic symptom in KS patients is mirror movements of the upper limbs (imitation synkinesis for contralateral limbs). The type of treatment in women with KS depends on the goal of therapy. After the diagnosis of syndrome, the main goal of the treatment is to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristic (estrogen-progestin therapy). The further goal in some patients can be related to enable fertility (gonadotropin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy). PMID:23368665

  14. Basal cell naevus syndrome: an update on genetics and treatment.

    PubMed

    John, A M; Schwartz, R A

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that stems from mutations in multiple genes, most commonly patched 1 (PTCH1). The classic triad of symptoms consists of basal cell carcinomas, jaw keratocysts and cerebral calcifications, although there are many other systemic manifestations. Because of the broad range of symptoms and development of several types of tumours, early diagnosis and close monitoring are essential to preserve quality of life. Targeting treatment is often difficult because of tumour prevalence. Newer inhibitors of the hedgehog signalling pathway and proteins involved in proliferative growth have shown therapeutic promise. In addition, preventive medications are being devised. We propose a method for determining appropriate treatment for cutaneous tumours. PMID:26409035

  15. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations.

  16. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations. PMID:26106453

  17. Testosterone Supplementation Therapy in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical complex of risk factors including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and insulin resistance whose presence increases the likelihood of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. With a quarter of the American adult population affected, MetS has been referred to as the most significant public health threat of the 21st century. While lifestyle modification and weight loss are recommended, no specific pharmacological treatment is known. Given that low levels of testosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS and an inverse relationship exists between circulating testosterone and the development of MetS, it is tempting to speculate that men with MetS may benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). As such, this review seeks to examine the role of testosterone and the use of TST as a treatment modality in men with MetS. PMID:25387223

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  19. Pathogenesis and Individualized Treatment for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Rui; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the major causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis and the progress of individualized treatment for POTS in children. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE. Study Selection: The original articles and critical reviews about POTS were selected for this review. Results: Studies have shown that POTS might be related to several factors including hypovolemia, high catecholamine status, abnormal local vascular tension, and decreased skeletal muscle pump activity. In addition to exercise training, the first-line treatments mainly include oral rehydration salts, beta-adrenoreceptor blockers, and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists. However, reports about the effectiveness of various treatments are diverse. By analyzing the patient's physiological indexes and biomarkers before the treatment, the efficacy of medication could be well predicted. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of POTS is multifactorial, including hypovolemia, abnormal catecholamine state, and vascular dysfunction. Biomarker-directed individualized treatment is an important strategy for the management of POTS children. PMID:27625098

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  1. Venous Thromboembolism Following Dantrolene Treatment for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS. However, the adverse effects of dantrolene treatment for NMS have not yet been evaluated thoroughly. Here we report a young male patient with bipolar I disorder who developed NMS after rapid tranquilization with haloperidol. Dantrolene was given intravenously for the treatment of NMS. However, fever accompanied with local tenderness, hardness with clear border and swelling with heat over the patient’s left forearm occurred on the sixth day of dantrolene treatment. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) over intravenous indwelling site at the patient’s forearm was noted and confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. The patient’s VTE recovered after heparin and warfarin thrombolytic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the possible relationship between dantrolene use and VTE in a patient with antipsychotic treatment. Although the causal relationship and the underlying pathogenesis require further studies, dantrolene should be used with caution for patients with NMS. PMID:27776396

  2. Recent trends in the treatment of testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bum Sik; Ahn, Tai Young

    2007-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age and is characterized by typical symptoms and deficiency in serum testosterone levels. TDS is a result of the interaction of hypothalamo-pituitary and testicular factors. Now, treatment of TDS with testosterone is still controversial due to a lack of large, controlled clinical trials on efficacy. The risks of treatment with testosterone appear to be minimal, although long-term studies on the safety of testosterone therapy are lacking. The aim of the therapy is to establish a physiological concentration of serum testosterone in order to correct the androgen deficiency, relieve its symptoms and prevent long-term sequelae. All of the available products, despite their varying pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, are able to reach this goal. Newer testosterone patches seem not to cause severe skin irritation. Testosterone gels minimize the skin irritation while providing flexibility in dosing and a low discontinuation rate. Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is free of liver toxicity. Recent formulation of oral TU markedly increased shelf-live, a major drawback in the older preparation. Producing swings in testosterone levels rising rapidly to the supraphysiological range is not the case with the new injectable long-acting preparation of TU. To be able to rapidly react and stop treatment in cases where side-effects and contraindications are detected, the short-acting transdermal and oral delivery modes have certain advantages. However, there is no evidence that the use of an injectable long-acting TU in men with TDS has limitations in clinical application for this reason. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone is still controversial because of a lack of well designed long-term trials, although some recent studies suggest positive effects on various body systems. Only a few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of hCG (human

  3. New treatments for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810

  4. The chronic syndromes after previous treatment of pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-09-01

    Ultimately, almost all patients who are appropriately treated for pituitary tumours enter a chronic phase with control or cure of hormonal excess, adequate treatment of pituitary insufficiency and relief of mass effects. This phase is associated with improvement of initial signs and symptoms, but also with the persistent consequences of the initial disease and associated treatments. Pituitary insufficiency is a common denominator in many of these patients, and is associated with a reduction in quality of life, despite adequate endocrine substitution. Hypothalamic dysfunction can be present in patients previously treated for visual impairments caused by large suprasellar adenomas, or craniopharyngiomas. In addition to hypopituitarism, these patients can have multisystem morbidities caused by altered hypothalamic function, including weight gain and disturbed regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Mortality can also be affected. Patients cured of Cushing disease or acromegaly have chronic multisystem morbidities (in the case of Cushing disease, also affecting mortality) caused by irreversible effects of the previous excesses of cortisol in Cushing disease and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in acromegaly. In addition to early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumours, research should focus on the amenability of these chronic post-treatment syndromes to therapeutic intervention, to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:27259177

  5. Kleine–Levin syndrome: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare sleep disorder mainly affecting teenage boys in which the main features are intermittent hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia, and in some cases hypersexuality. Each episode is of brief duration varying from a week to 1–2 months and affected people are entirely asymptomatic between episodes. No definite cause has been identified, and no effective treatments are available even though illness is having well-defined clinical features. Multiple relapses occur every few weeks or months, and the condition may last for a decade or more before spontaneous resolution. In this study, PubMed was searched and appropriate articles were reviewed to highlight etiology, clinical features, and management of KLS. On the basis of this knowledge, practical information is offered to help clinicians about how to investigate a case of KLS, and what are the possible treatment modalities available currently for the treatment during an episode and interepisodic period for prophylaxis. Comprehensive research into the etiology, pathophysiology, investigation, and treatments are required to aid the development of disease-specific targeted therapies. PMID:21264130

  6. Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the Elderly: Treatment Options and Personalized Management.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Sonja; Wiesinger, Petra; Stauder, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are typical diseases of the elderly, with a median age of 68-75 years at initial diagnosis. Demographic changes producing an increased proportion of elderly in our societies mean the incidence of MDS will rise dramatically. Considering the increasing number of treatment options, ranging from best supportive care to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), decision making is rather complex in this cohort of patients. Moreover, aspects of the aging process also have to be considered in therapy planning. Treatment of elderly MDS patients is dependent on the patient's individual risk and prognosis. Comorbidities play an essential role as predictors of survival and therapy tolerance. Age-adjusted models and the use of geriatric assessment scores are described as a basis for individualized treatment algorithms. Specific treatment recommendations for the different groups of patients are given. Currently available therapeutic agents, including supportive care, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), immune-modulating agents, hypomethylating agents, and HSCT are described in detail and discussed with a special focus on elderly MDS patients. The inclusion of elderly patients in clinical trials is of utmost importance to obtain data on efficacy and safety in this particular group of patients. Endpoints relevant for the elderly should be integrated, including maintenance of quality of life and functional activities as well as evaluation of use of healthcare resources.

  7. Sunct syndrome. Report of a case and treatment update

    PubMed Central

    Mayor-Subirana, Gemma; Camps-Font, Octavi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjuntival injection and tearing (SUNCT) is considered a rare trigeminal autonomic cephalgias, a group of primary headache disorders characterized by brief episodes of severe unilateral headache in the distribution territory of the trigeminal nerve, accompanied by prominent ipsilateral and cranial parasympathetic autonomic features. The present report describes a SUNCT syndrome in a 64-year-old male who had been diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia several years ago. The patient reported stabbing pain in the orbital zone and in the left upper maxillary region, of great intensity, brief duration, and a frequency of 20-100 attacks a day. Pain episodes were accompanied by conjunctival injection and tearing. Based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and a magnetic resonance imaging scan, episodic SUNCT syndrome was diagnosed and pharmacological treatment with topiramate was started. This reduced the intensity and number of attacks to 3-6 a day. Key words:Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias, SUNCT, Cluster headache, topiramate. PMID:26155359

  8. Use of metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Ricchieri, Federica; Lanzoni, Chiara

    2010-07-01

    Metformin is quite an old drug, but it is optimal for the control of glycemia in Type 2 diabetes. It was reported, 15 years ago, that insulin resistance was abnormally high in most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Starting from that moment, increasing numbers of studies were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of metformin in controlling and/or modulating several aspects of PCOS, which is the most common cause of menstrual irregularity, inesthetisms and infertility. Metformin induces higher glucose uptake, thus inducing a lower synthesis/secretion of insulin. Such an effect permits the possible restoration of the normal biological functions that are severely affected by the compensatory hyperinsulinemia reactive to the increased peripheral insulin resistance. These are the basis of the many positive effects of this drug, such as the restoration of menstrual cyclicity, ovulatory cycles and fertility, because abnormal insulin levels affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian function, as well as the use of glucose in peripheral tissues. Metformin improves the impairments typically observed in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, reducing the possible evolution towards metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes; and when pregnancy occurs, it consistently reduces the risk of gestational diabetes, eclampsia and hypertension. PCOS seems to be the perfect physiopathological condition that might have higher benefits from metformin administration, obviously after Type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the many aspects of PCOS and on the possible issues of this disease for which metformin might be a putative optimal treatment.

  9. Dental Treatment of a Child with Pallister-Killian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Didinen, Serhan; Atabek, Didem; Kip, Gülay; Patır Münevveroğlu, Aslı; Tulunoğlu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder with an incidence estimated around 1/25000. PKS is a multiple congenital anomaly deficit syndrome caused by mosaic tissue limited tetrasomy for chromosome 12p. The presented report is the first confirmed case with PKS in Turkey. This report focuses on the orofacial clinical manifestations of an 6-year-old boy with PKS who was referred to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic, Gazi University. It has been learned that the PKS was diagnosed 1 year after birth. Due to intellectual disability, it was decided to make the dental treatments under moderate sedation. Although significant tongue thrust and anterior open bite were determined, any oral appliances could not be applied because of the 2 epilepsy seizures in the last 2 years. The aim was to treat decayed teeth and set good oral hygiene in the patient's mouth. Still, there is a probability for epilepsy seizures. If epileptic seizures stop permanently, we can apply an oral appliance to block tongue thrust. The patient is now under control. In cases of systemic and oral findings such as PKS, conducting medical and dental approaches together will increase the life quality of patients. PMID:26998367

  10. Successful treatment for West syndrome with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Inaba, Yuji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Kurata, Takashi; Niimi, Taemi; Saito, Shoji; Shiba, Naoko; Nishimura, Takafumi; Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Sakashita, Kazuo; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Ichikawa, Motoki; Koike, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Several immune mechanisms are suspected in the unknown etiology of West syndrome (WS). We report a male infant who suffered from WS and X-linked T-B+NK- severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) with a missense mutation of the IL2RG gene (c.202G>A, p.Glu68Lys). He promptly began vitamin B6 and valproic acid treatment, but infantile spasms (IS) and hypsarrhythmia persisted. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and the change to topiramate (TPM) at 7 months of age resulted in the rapid resolution of IS. The CD4/8 ratio in his peripheral blood increased from 0.04-0.09 to 0.20-1.95 following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A and the ability of B lymphocytes to produce antibodies improved as well. Electroencephalogram findings became normal 1 month after UCBT. Thus, we consider that T-cell dysfunction and/or impairments in T-B cell interactions due to X-SCID may have played important roles in the onset of WS. Immune-modulating therapies along with the administration of TPM effectively treated this severe epileptic syndrome in our patient.

  11. Neuroembolization of metastatic Merkel cell cancer to the face for treatment of Kasabach–Merritt syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Huang; Roychowdhury, Sudipta; Nissenblatt, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Kasabach–Merritt syndrome is defined as a consumptive thrombocytopenia in the presence of a highly vascular tumor. Multiple treatment options, including transarterial embolization, have been described. We demonstrate that transarterial embolization is a viable option in the treatment of a rapidly progressive and debilitating Merkel cell tumor metastasizing to the head and neck presenting with Kasabach–Merritt syndrome. PMID:23329724

  12. Stuttering Treatment for a School-Age Child with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…

  13. [Recommendation of the Czech Society of Endocrinology for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome in adults].

    PubMed

    Kršek, M; Cáp, J; Hána, V; Marek, J; Ceské Lékařské Společnosti J E Purkyně, Za Výbor České Endokrinologické Společnosti

    2013-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare disorder with variable aetiology which is connected with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early determination of correct aetiology and early treatment are essential for a decrease of morbidity and mortality of patients. Present article introduces review and current recommendation of Czech Society of Endocrinology for the treatment of Cushings syndrome.

  14. Controlled trial of azathioprine in treatment of steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome of childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, T M; Cameron, J S; Chantler, C; Counahan, R; Ogg, C S; Soothill, J F

    1977-01-01

    A controlled trial of azathioprine treatment of steroid-responsive frequent-relapsing nephrotic syndrome of childhood failed to show a therapeutic effect on the stability of remission after withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment. PMID:879831

  15. Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Moreschi, Alexandre Heitor; de Macedo, Guilherme Baroni; Moschetti, Laura; Machado, Eduardo Lopes; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi

    2009-04-01

    Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax.

  16. Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Moreschi, Alexandre Heitor; de Macedo, Guilherme Baroni; Moschetti, Laura; Machado, Eduardo Lopes; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi

    2009-04-01

    Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax. PMID:19466278

  17. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, René; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. PMID:24847788

  18. Review of targeted treatments in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J

    2016-08-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the leading single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is due to a loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which leads to molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in these patients. Improvements in our understanding of its pathophysiology have led to the development of numerous targeted treatments in FXS as highlighted by metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor modulators. This review will summarize relevant pre-clinical data and results from clinical trials in human subjects with FXS. It will also highlight upcoming studies and future directions for clinical trials as well. PMID:27672538

  19. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Magge, Suma

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs increases the delivery of readily fermentable substrates and water to the distal small intestine and colon—which results in luminal distention and gas—the reduction of FODMAPs in a patient’s diet may improve functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This paper will review the pathophysiology of IBS and the role of FODMAPs for the treatment of this condition. PMID:24672410

  20. Review of targeted treatments in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the leading single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is due to a loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which leads to molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in these patients. Improvements in our understanding of its pathophysiology have led to the development of numerous targeted treatments in FXS as highlighted by metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor modulators. This review will summarize relevant pre-clinical data and results from clinical trials in human subjects with FXS. It will also highlight upcoming studies and future directions for clinical trials as well.

  1. Review of targeted treatments in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the leading single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is due to a loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which leads to molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in these patients. Improvements in our understanding of its pathophysiology have led to the development of numerous targeted treatments in FXS as highlighted by metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor modulators. This review will summarize relevant pre-clinical data and results from clinical trials in human subjects with FXS. It will also highlight upcoming studies and future directions for clinical trials as well. PMID:27672538

  2. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammatory reaction as well as moderation of visceral sensation. Melatonin is commonly given orally. It is categorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a dietary supplement. Melatonin treatment has an extremely wide margin of safety though it may cause minor adverse effects, such as headache, rash and nightmares. Melatonin was touted as a potential effective candidate for IBS treatment. Putative role of melatonin in IBS treatment include analgesic effects, regulator of gastrointestinal motility and sensation to sleep promoter. Placebo-controlled studies in melatonin suffered from heterogeneity in methodology. Most studies utilized 3 mg at bedtime as the standard dose of trial. However, all studies had consistently showed improvement in abdominal pain, some showed improvement in quality of life of IBS patients. Melatonin is a relatively safe drug that possesses potential in treating IBS. Future studies should focus on melatonin effect on gut mobility as well as its central nervous system effect to elucidate its role in IBS patients.

  3. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  4. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS. PMID:25729433

  5. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Kurt; Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS.

  6. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammatory reaction as well as moderation of visceral sensation. Melatonin is commonly given orally. It is categorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a dietary supplement. Melatonin treatment has an extremely wide margin of safety though it may cause minor adverse effects, such as headache, rash and nightmares. Melatonin was touted as a potential effective candidate for IBS treatment. Putative role of melatonin in IBS treatment include analgesic effects, regulator of gastrointestinal motility and sensation to sleep promoter. Placebo-controlled studies in melatonin suffered from heterogeneity in methodology. Most studies utilized 3 mg at bedtime as the standard dose of trial. However, all studies had consistently showed improvement in abdominal pain, some showed improvement in quality of life of IBS patients. Melatonin is a relatively safe drug that possesses potential in treating IBS. Future studies should focus on melatonin effect on gut mobility as well as its central nervous system effect to elucidate its role in IBS patients. PMID:24627586

  7. Premenstrual syndrome. Evidence-based treatment in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Sue

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength of evidence for treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to derive a set of practical guidelines for managing PMS in family practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An advanced MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1990 to December 2001. The Cochrane Library and personal contacts were also used. Quality of evidence in studies ranged from level I to level III, depending on the intervention. MAIN MESSAGE: Good scientific evidence shows that calcium carbonate (1200 mg/d) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for PMS. The most commonly used therapies (including vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, and oral contraceptives) are based on inconclusive evidence. Other treatments for which there is inconclusive evidence include aerobic exercise, stress reduction, cognitive therapy, spironolactone, magnesium, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various hormonal regimens, and a complex carbohydrate-rich diet. Although evidence for them is inconclusive, it is reasonable to recommend healthy lifestyle changes given their overall health benefits. Progesterone and bromocriptine, which are still widely used, are ineffective. CONCLUSION: Calcium carbonate should be recommended as first-line therapy for women with mild-to-moderate PMS. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be considered as first-line therapy for women with severe affective symptoms and for women with milder symptoms who have failed to respond to other therapies. Other therapies may be tried if these measures fail to provide adequate relief. PMID:12489244

  8. Current treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-10-01

    For patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), the consensus is to treat those who develop thrombosis with long-term oral anticoagulation therapy and to prevent obstetric manifestations by use of aspirin and heparin. These recommendations are based on data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Despite this body of knowledge, areas of uncertainty regarding the management of APS exist where evidence is scarce or nonexistent. In other words, for a subset of patients the course of management is unclear. Some examples are patients with 'seronegative' APS, those who do not fulfil the formal (clinical or serological) classification criteria for definite APS, and those with recurrent thrombotic events despite optimal anticoagulation. Other challenges include the treatment of clinical manifestations not included in the classification criteria, such as haematologic manifestations (thrombocytopenia and haemolytic anaemia), neurologic manifestations (chorea, myelitis and multiple sclerosis-like lesions), and nephropathy and heart valve disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), as well as the possible withdrawal of anticoagulation treatment in selected cases of thrombotic APS in which assays for aPL become persistently negative. This Review focuses on the current recommendations for thrombotic and obstetric manifestations of APS, as well as the management of difficult cases. Some aspects of treatment, such as secondary prophylaxis of venous thrombosis, are based on strong evidence--the 'lights' of APS treatment. Conversely, other areas, such as the treatment of non-criteria manifestations of APS, are based only on expert consensus or common sense and remain the 'shadows' of APS therapy. PMID:26122952

  9. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to risperidone treatment in a child with Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vurucu, Sebahattin; Congologlu, Ayhan; Altun, Demet; Unay, Bulent; Akin, Ridvan

    2009-03-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, episodic hyperpnea, psychomotor retardation, abnormal ocular movements, cerebellar vermian hypoplasia, and molar tooth sign on magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an uncommon and potentially fatal idiosynchratic reaction of antipsychotic drugs, in which the clinical scenario encompass muscular rigidity, hyperthermia, autonomic dysfunction, altered consciousness, high creatinine phosphokinase levels, and leukocytosis. This report describes a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to risperidone in a child with Joubert syndrome.

  10. Piriformis Syndrome in Fibromyalgia: Clinical Diagnosis and Successful Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Siddiq, Md Abu Bakar; Khasru, Moshiur Rahman; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2014-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis muscle or sciatic nerve. In this paper, we describe piriformis and fibromyalgia syndrome in a 30-year-old young lady, an often missed diagnosis. We also focus on management of the piriformis syndrome. PMID:25328750

  11. Piriformis syndrome in fibromyalgia: clinical diagnosis and successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Md Abu Bakar; Khasru, Moshiur Rahman; Rasker, Johannes J

    2014-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis muscle or sciatic nerve. In this paper, we describe piriformis and fibromyalgia syndrome in a 30-year-old young lady, an often missed diagnosis. We also focus on management of the piriformis syndrome.

  12. Use of alternative treatments by chronic fatigue syndrome discordant twins.

    PubMed

    Afari; Eisenberg; Herrell; Goldberg; Kleyman; Ashton; Buchwald

    2000-03-21

    Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been faced with difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments. Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of alternative treatments may be common in these patients. Our primary objective was to compare the prevalence and patterns of alternative medicine use among twins who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CFS criteria to that of their non-CFS co-twins. Secondary goals were to assess how often alternative medicine use was discussed with physicians and the perceived benefit of these therapies. Methods: Sixty-three twin pairs discordant for CFS completed a survey about their use of 22 alternative therapies. Matched pair odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine differences in the use between CFS twins and their non-CFS co-twins. Results: 91% of twins with CFS and 71% of non-CFS twins had used at least 1 alternative treatment in their lifetime. Twins with CFS were more likely to use homeopathy, mega-vitamins, herbal therapies, biofeedback, relaxation/meditation, guided imagery, massage therapy, energy healing, religious healing by others, and self-help groups than their non-CFS counterparts. A large proportion of all twins found alternative therapies helpful; however, only 42% of those with CFS and 23% of those without CFS discussed their use of alternative medicine with a physician. Conclusions: Individuals with CFS frequently used alternative medical treatments yet rarely communicated this use to their medical doctor. Future research should ascertain the usefulness of alternative practices in the management of CFS.

  13. New antiplatelet agents in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sabouret, Pierre; Taiel-Sartral, Magali

    2014-03-01

    Effective antagonism of the P2Y12 platelet receptor is central to the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, especially in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting. According to consensus guidelines, early revascularization and intensive antiplatelet therapy are key to reducing the complications that arise from myocardial ischaemia and the recurrence of cardiovascular events. Until recently, clopidogrel was the key P2Y12 antagonist advocated, but due to several limitations as an antiplatelet agent, newer drugs with more predictable, rapid and potent effects have been developed. Prasugrel and ticagrelor are now the recommended first-line agents in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation ACS and ST-segment elevation ACS, due to large-scale randomized trials that demonstrated net clinical benefit of these agents over clopidogrel, as stated in the European guidelines. Although no study has directly compared the two agents, analysis of the data to date suggests that certain patient types, such as diabetics, those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or renal failure and the elderly may have a better outcome with one agent over the other. Further studies are needed to confirm these differences and answer pending questions regarding the use of these drugs to optimize efficacy while minimizing adverse events, such as bleeding. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current P2Y12 receptor antagonists in the treatment of ACS, with a focus on issues of appropriate agent selection, timing of treatment, bleeding risk and the future role of personalized treatment using platelet function and genetic testing. PMID:24630752

  14. Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): treatment options and considerations.

    PubMed

    Vilke, Gary M; Bozeman, William P; Dawes, Donald M; Demers, Gerard; Wilson, Michael P

    2012-04-01

    The term Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) has traditionally been used in the forensic literature to describe findings in a subgroup of patients with delirium who suffered lethal consequences from their untreated severe agitation.(1-5) Excited delirium syndrome, also known as agitated delirium, is generally defined as altered mental status and combativeness or aggressiveness. Although the exact signs and symptoms are difficult to define precisely, clinical findings often include many of the following: tolerance to significant pain, rapid breathing, sweating, severe agitation, elevated temperature, delirium, non-compliance or poor awareness to direction from police or medical personnel, lack of fatiguing, unusual or superhuman strength, and inappropriate clothing for the current environment. It has become increasingly recognized that individuals displaying ExDS are at high risk for sudden death, and ExDS therefore represents a true medical emergency. Recently the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) published the findings of a white paper on the topic of ExDS to better find consensus on the issues of definition, diagnosis, and treatment.(6) In so doing, ACEP joined the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) in recognizing ExDS as a medical condition. For both paramedics and physicians, the difficulty in diagnosing the underlying cause of ExDS in an individual patient is that the presenting clinical signs and symptoms of ExDS can be produced by a wide variety of clinical disease processes. For example, agitation, combativeness, and altered mental status can be produced by hypoglycemia, thyroid storm, certain kinds of seizures, and these conditions can be difficult to distinguish from those produced by cocaine or methamphetamine intoxication.(7) Prehospital personnel are generally not expected to differentiate between the multiple possible causes of the patient's presentation, but rather simply to recognize that the patient has a medical emergency

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: current and future treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Creatsas, George

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The pivotal endocrine abnormalities of this syndrome are insulin resistance and ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal hypersensitivity to hormonal stimulation. PCOS may manifest itself as early as the first decade of life by premature pubarche or menarche. Oligoamenorrhea in the first postpubarchal years, although very common, may be an early symptom of PCOS, especially in overweight girls with hirsutism or acne. Girls with low birth weight as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus or premature cardiovascular disease are at high risk for developing PCOS. Circulating bioavailable testosterone levels are usually elevated, while total testosterone may be normal due to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. The typical sonographic appearance of PCOS ovaries consists of high ovarian volume (>10 mL) and the presence of 12 or more follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter. However, this finding is not specific, since it may occur in >20% of healthy girls. The therapeutic goals in adolescents with PCOS is first to restore bodyweight and menses and to reduce the signs of hyperandrogenism. The reduction of bodyweight in this young age group may require the collaboration of the pediatrician, dietitian, and psychotherapist. The adolescent should be urged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with the aim to maintain a normal body mass index throughout adolescence and adult life. The choice of medical therapy depends on the clinical presentation. Oral contraceptives are a good option when acne and hirsutism are the principal complaints. Adolescents with isolated cycle irregularity may be placed on a cyclical progestin regimen to induce withdrawal bleeding. Metformin, by decreasing insulin resistance, alleviates many of the hormonal disturbances and restores menses in a considerable proportion of patients. It may be used alone or in combination with oral

  17. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lazaraki, Georgia; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Katsinelos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional disorder that reduces patients’ quality of life. It is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disordered defecation in the absence of identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Alteration in neurohumoral mechanisms and psychological factors, bacterial overgrowth, genetic factors, gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and immune system factors are currently believed to influence the pathogenesis of IBS. It is possible that there is an interaction of one or more of these etiologic factors leading to heterogeneous symptoms of IBS. IBS treatment is predicated upon the patient’s most bothersome symptoms. Despite the wide range of medications and the high prevalence of the disease, to date no completely effective remedy is available. This article reviews the literature from January 2008 to July 2013 on the subject of IBS peripherally acting pharmacological treatment. Drugs are categorized according to their administration for IBS-C, IBS-D or abdominal pain predominant IBS. PMID:25083060

  18. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Chey, William D; Lembo, Anthony J

    2015-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Lifestyle modifications that aim to improve exercise, sleep, diet, and stress may be warranted. Recent data suggest that a gluten-free diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may benefit some patients. For patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, treatment options include the synthetic peripheral μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide, antispasmodic agents, antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists, and the gut-specific antibiotic rifaximin. Ongoing research is evaluating the use of probiotics. For patients with constipation-predominant IBS, therapeutic strategies may include dietary fiber, laxatives, and the prosecretory agents lubiprostone and linaclotide. Research is continuing to optimize the use of available agents and evaluating new approaches to further improve the care of patients with IBS. PMID:26491416

  19. Acute Coronary Syndromes in Women: Recent Treatment Trends and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Garth

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and internationally, women experience farranging differences with respect to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction (MI). Women suffer from more comorbidities than men, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and poor mental health. They some-times exhibit atypical MI presentation symptoms and are overall less likely to present with chest pain. Women are more likely than men to encounter delays between the onset of symptoms and arrival at the hospital or to guideline treatment. The use of various surgical and pharmacological treatments, including revascularization approaches, also differs. Women, on average, have worse outcomes than men following MI, with more complications, higher mortality rates, and poorer recovery. Internationally, outcomes are similar despite various differences in health care and culture in non-US countries. In this review, we detail differences regarding ACS and MI in women, describing their complex correlations and discussing their possible causes. Educational approaches that are tailored to women might help to reduce the incidence of ACS and MI, as well as outcomes following hospitalization. Although outcomes following acute MI have been improving over the years, women may require special consideration in order to see continued improvement.

  20. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C. Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Bytzer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were mostly female (89%), and mean age (SD) was 35.1 (8.2) years. Microbiological response, evaluated 2 weeks post-treatment, was observed in 15 of 25 patients (60%), all by MZ. Clinical response, defined as adequate relief of symptoms, was observed in 7 of 22 patients (32%), all by MZ. In a logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted. PMID:23091195

  1. Possible estuary-associated syndrome: symptoms, vision, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R C; Hudnell, H K

    2001-01-01

    The human illness designated as possible estuarine-associated syndrome (PEAS) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been associated with exposure to estuaries inhabited by toxin-forming dinoflagellates, including members of the fish-killing toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC), Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae. Humans may be exposed through direct contact with estuarine water or by inhalation of aerosolized or volatilized toxin(s). The five cases reported here demonstrate the full spectrum of symptoms experienced during acute and chronic stages of this suspected neurotoxin-mediated illness. The nonspecific symptoms most commonly reported are cough, secretory diarrhea, headache, fatigue, memory impairment, rash, difficulty in concentrating, light sensitivity, burning skin upon water contact, muscle ache, and abdominal pain. Less frequently encountered symptoms are upper airway obstruction, shortness of breath, confusion, red or tearing eyes, weakness, and vertigo. Some patients experience as few as four of these symptoms. The discovery that an indicator of visual pattern-detection ability, visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), is sharply reduced in affected individuals has provided an objective indicator that is useful in diagnosing and monitoring PEAS. VCS deficits are present in both acute and chronic PEAS, and VCS recovers during cholestyramine treatment coincident with symptom abatement. Although PEAS cannot yet be definitively associated with TPC exposure, resolution with cholestyramine treatment suggests a neurotoxin-mediated illness. PMID:11401768

  2. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Chey, William D.; Lembo, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Lifestyle modifications that aim to improve exercise, sleep, diet, and stress may be warranted. Recent data suggest that a gluten-free diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may benefit some patients. For patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, treatment options include the synthetic peripheral μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide, antispasmodic agents, antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists, and the gut-specific antibiotic rifaximin. Ongoing research is evaluating the use of probiotics. For patients with constipation-predominant IBS, therapeutic strategies may include dietary fiber, laxatives, and the prosecretory agents lubiprostone and linaclotide. Research is continuing to optimize the use of available agents and evaluating new approaches to further improve the care of patients with IBS. PMID:26491416

  3. Heel spur syndrome. Pathomechanics and nonsurgical treatment. Biomechanics Graduate Research Group for 1988.

    PubMed

    Scherer, P R

    1991-02-01

    In this study, the authors review the multitude of suspected etiologies of heel spur syndrome, propose a new pathomechanical theory, and apply a treatment plan to 84 patients with 133 painful heels. The study investigates whether there is a common foot type to the syndrome and whether factors such as sex, age, occupation, and weight influence incidence or treatment. A subgroup is established, consisting of subjects who only received mechanical treatment, to determine if a change in foot position can relieve symptoms.

  4. [Anorexia nervosa with refeeding syndrome: prevention and treatment of RS].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Makiko; Okajima, Yoshirou; Takano, Eisuke; Kato, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RS), seen in the early stages of anorexia nervosa (AN) treatment, has not been paid sufficient attention regarding its strong association with poor outcomes. This report describes a case of AN restriction type (AN-R) with sequent RS appearance despite the introduction of progressive and careful low-calorie nutrition, and discusses RS treatment. The patient was a 16-year-old female. She was first diagnosed with AN at the age of 14 when she went on a diet, admitted into pediatrics, and recovered: however, AN recurred after she started high school, and her weight decreased to 31.8 kg. She was admitted to pediatrics again, refused to receive treatment, discharged from the hospital, and introduced to our department. Soon after she came to us, her weight went down to 29.6 kg, and continued to decrease to 26.8 kg. She was recommended to receive inpatient care, but she firmly refused. A few days later, her experience of loss of consciousness made her agree to receive inpatient care. At this time, she was already weakened and had difficulty performing voluntary body movements as well as excretion. She was treated carefully and placed on 125 kcal/day. On the 6th day of treatment, severe liver damage was observed, her serum phosphorus level went down to 2.0 mg/dL, and she was diagnosed with RS. The lowest concentration of serum phosphorus observed was 1.3 mg/dL with blood abnormality and delirium; however, our strict management with intravascular phosphorus administration supported her increased dietary intake, and the patient was able to leave the hospital on the 54th day after admission. Based on this experience, the pathogenesis of RS was overviewed, and RS prevention as well as treatment was discussed. It has been reported that low phosphorus levels are observed in approximately one quarter of AN patients, and, thus, immediate action and treatment of hypophosphatemia are necessary when considering RS occurrence. In this study, the observed serum

  5. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-05-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  6. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  7. [Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment].

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra; Paleari, Julieta; Durán, María Nöel; Rudy, Tamara; Califano, Ines; Barbosa, Nicolas; Parera, Ignacio Casas

    2007-01-01

    A case of Frey syndrome (FS) secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during realtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is intracutaneous injection of BTX type A which blocks acetylcholine release at the sweat glands. A 30-year-old man, with thyroid medullar carcinoma diagnosed in 2002 received 6 cicles of cisplatin plus doxorubicin previous to the thyroidectomy with anterolateral neck dissection. During surgery the left ramus marginalis mandibulae was damaged. Two years later the patient referred sweating in submaxillar region during meals. CT scan demonstrated the absence of left submaxillar gland. Minor's test disclosed the affected area and BTX type A was injected (2.5 U/cm2/17 points). A twenty-one-day control showed a 95% reduction of the affected skin area. Persistent efficacy was observed up to one year follow-up time when he was reinjected. The FS, also known as "gustatory hyperhidrosis", was probably first reported by M. Duphenix in 1757. Lucja Frey considered its physiopathology as a disorder of both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. In our case the FS was caused by a misdirected regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers that arrised from the nervus lingualis rami ganglionares of the nervus trigeminus. After nerve injury the colinergic parasympathetic fibers seek out colinergic receptors--sympathetic receptors of the skin--innervating sweat glands and small skin vessels. All previous cases were located at masseter region post-parotidectomy. We have not found any description of FS in the submaxillary region. The self-assessed efficacy of the treatment with a hyperhidrosis disease severity scale revealed a very satisfied patient at 20 months follow

  8. Emerging pharmacologic treatment options for fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L; Davenport, Matthew H; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Caused by a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene and the subsequent deficiency in fragile X mental retardation protein, patients with FXS experience a range of physical, behavioral, and intellectual debilitations. The FXS field, as a whole, has recently met with some challenges, as several targeted clinical trials with high expectations of success have failed to elucidate significant improvements in a variety of symptom domains. As new clinical trials in FXS are planned, there has been much discussion about the use of the commonly used clinical outcome measures, as well as study design considerations, patient stratification, and optimal age range for treatment. The evidence that modification of these drug targets and use of these failed compounds would prove to be efficacious in human clinical study were rooted in years of basic and translational research. There are questions arising as to the use of the mouse models for studying FXS treatment development. This issue is twofold: many of the symptom domains and molecular and biochemical changes assessed and indicative of efficacy in mouse model study are not easily amenable to clinical trials in people with FXS because of the intolerability of the testing paradigm or a lack of noninvasive techniques (prepulse inhibition, sensory hypersensitivity, startle reactivity, or electrophysiologic, biochemical, or structural changes in the brain); and capturing subtle yet meaningful changes in symptom domains such as sociability, anxiety, and hyperactivity in human FXS clinical trials is challenging with the currently used measures (typically parent/caregiver rating scales). Clinicians, researchers, and the pharmaceutical industry have all had to take a step back and critically evaluate the way we think about how to best optimize future investigations into pharmacologic FXS treatments. As new clinical

  9. The Efficacy of Social Skills Treatment for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lisa M.; Caterino, Linda C.; Chao, Janet; Shaknai, Dina; De Simone, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome present with significant social skills deficits, which may contribute to clinical problems such as anxiety, depression, and/or other behavioral disorders. This article provides a description of the nature of Asperger Syndrome and provides possible treatment interventions, specifically focusing on the efficacy of…

  10. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  11. Adult nephrotic syndrome: non-specific strategies for treatment.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, John A; Gracey, David M; Pussell, Bruce A

    2008-02-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, the nephrotic syndrome presents a range of potentially serious complications. These include thrombo-embolism, infection and hyperlipidaemia. Despite the prevalence of the nephrotic state among renal patients, there has been little prospective analysis of the therapeutic approach to these potentially life-threatening events even though their pathogenesis has been examined in some detail. Most of these complications are more prevalent once the albumin concentration falls below 20 g/L and it is recognized that restoration of serum albumin significantly diminishes their frequency. However, this may be difficult to achieve, especially in adults. The problems of thrombo-embolism and infection are of immediate concern but, in persistent cases, the additional issues of hyperlipidaemia and loss of bone density also require consideration for therapy. Thus, in addition to specific attempts to reduce proteinuria, it is recommended that high-risk nephrotic patients receive anticoagulation, pneumococcal vaccination and lipid lowering therapy. Strategies for the preservation of bone density should also be considered, particularly in patients who receive high-dose corticosteroids. Among a range of non-specific treatments for proteinuria, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors appear best in terms of efficacy and safety. Prospective trials are required to clarify the longitudinal impact of these generic strategies on the protection of the persistently nephrotic patient.

  12. Use of osteopathic manipulative treatment for iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, Robert N

    2005-12-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) has long been recognized as one of the most common lower-extremity injuries in athletes, especially in long-distance runners. Conservative therapy, including rest, ice, heat, stretching, and the use of anti-inflammatory medications, has been effective in helping athletes return to full competition, but athletes still miss much time in their sports because of ITBFS. The author presents a case of a 30-year-old distance runner with ITBFS whose symptoms were reduced with the help of osteopathic manipulative treatment, specifically the counterstrain technique. This technique allows for relief of pain at a tender point by moving the affected body part into its position of greatest comfort, aiding in the reduction of proprioceptor activity. In the present case, the tender point was located from 0 to 3 cm (most commonly 2 cm) proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle. There is no prior documentation of the osteopathic manipulation of this specific tender point. Thus, this case report reflects an initial identification of the distal iliotibial band tender point and a new therapeutic modality for ITBFS.

  13. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

  14. Treatment of acute thoracic aortic syndromes using endovascular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Uğuz, Emrah; Canyiğit, Murat; Hıdıroğlu, Mete; Şener, Erol

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Acute thoracic aortic syndrome (ATAS) is a novel term to define emergency aortic conditions with common clinical features and challenges. Traditional management of ATAS includes surgical replacement of the aorta and is correlated with high perioperative mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate our experience and outcomes in patients presenting with ATAS, managed by endovascular techniques. METHODS This cohort consisted of 31 consecutive patients (24 males; mean age, 57.5±13.81 years; range, 19–84 years) with acute thoracic aortic pathologies who underwent endovascular repair between January 2011 and January 2015. The study was designed as a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data. RESULTS Complicated acute type-B aortic dissection was the most common pathology (35.5%). All aortic stent-grafts (n=37) and dissection stents (n=9) were implanted with 100% procedural success. The overall in-hospital mortality was 9.7%. The mean follow-up duration of patients who were alive at 30 days was 25.9±11.49 months (3–53 months). So far, there have been no late deaths after 30 days. CONCLUSION In the high-risk setting of ATAS, endovascular procedures come forward as novel therapeutic strategies with promising results. Endovascular repair of ATAS can be considered as a first-line treatment alternative under emergency conditions with encouraging results, particularly when conventional surgical repair cannot be implemented due to prohibitive comorbidities. PMID:27113420

  15. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Searching for the Cause and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome became known nationally in l985 with a pseudoepidemic in a Nevada resort community. Initially and erroneously linked to the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of this puzzling syndrome and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  16. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon.

  17. Iliotibial band syndrome in runners: innovations in treatment.

    PubMed

    Fredericson, Michael; Wolf, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the most common cause of lateral knee pain in runners. It is an overuse injury that results from repetitive friction of the iliotibial band (ITB) over the lateral femoral epicondyle, with biomechanical studies demonstrating a maximal zone of impingement at approximately 30 degrees of knee flexion. Training factors related to this injury include excessive running in the same direction on a track, greater-than-normal weekly mileage and downhill running. Studies have also demonstrated that weakness or inhibition of the lateral gluteal muscles is a causative factor in this injury. When these muscles do not fire properly throughout the support phase of the running cycle, there is a decreased ability to stabilise the pelvis and eccentrically control femoral abduction. As a result, other muscles must compensate, often leading to excessive soft tissue tightness and myofascial restrictions. Initial treatment should focus on activity modification, therapeutic modalities to decrease local inflammation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and in severe cases, a corticosteroid injection. Stretching exercises can be started once acute inflammation is under control. Identifying and eliminating myofascial restrictions complement the therapy programme and should precede strengthening and muscle re-education. Strengthening exercises should emphasise eccentric muscle contractions, triplanar motions and integrated movement patterns. With this comprehensive treatment approach, most patients will fully recover by 6 weeks. Interestingly, biomechanical studies have shown that faster-paced running is less likely to aggravate ITBS and faster strides are initially recommended over a slower jogging pace. Over time, gradual increases in distance and frequency are permitted. In the rare refractory case, surgery may be required. The most common procedure is releasing or lengthening the posterior aspect of the ITB at the location of peak tension over the

  18. Intracranial growing teratoma syndrome: clinical characteristics and treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae-Yong; Choi, Jung-Won; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Choe, Gheeyoung; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Kim, Il-Han; Cho, Byung-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and radiological characteristics, as well as the treatment outcomes, for the rare phenomenon known as intracranial growing teratoma syndrome (iGTS). One hundred seventy patients diagnosed with intracranial germ cell tumours (GCT) between 1997 and 2008 were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Thorough reviews of medical records, brain magnetic resonance images (MRI), pathological findings and tumour markers [alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG)] were performed to identify the incidence of iGTS cases and to clarify their clinical characteristics. Eleven out of the 170 intracranial GCT patients (6.5%) were identified as having iGTS. All instances of iGTS originated from non-germinomatous GCT (NGGCT), with incidence rate of 21% (11/52). Six iGTS cases developed from mixed GCTs, four from immature teratomas (ITs) and one from yolk sac tumour. All 11 iGTS patients showed honeycomb-shaped multi-cystic growth patterns on MRI, which is a typical characteristic of iGTS. Surgical excision was performed in all patients, and complete excision was possible in nine patients. Eight of them are alive with no evidence of recurrence; however, two patients who had residual masses died owing to progression of iGTS. Early recognition and suspicion of iGTS, during or after adjuvant therapy of NGGCT, is crucial to ensure that surgical intervention can be performed in a timely manner. Early radical excision may be the treatment of choice for better iGTS prognosis. PMID:20532955

  19. Autoimmune Syndromes Presenting as a Paraneoplastic Manifestation of Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clinical Features, Course, Treatment and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Bradley T; Foltz, Lynda; Leitch, Heather A

    2016-05-10

    Autoimmune manifestations (AIM) are reported in up to 10-30% of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients; this association is not well defined. We present herein a retrospective chart review of single center MDS patients for AIM, a case discussion and a literature review. Of 252 MDS patients examined, 11 (4.4%) had AIM around MDS diagnosis. International Prognostic Scoring System scores were: low or intermediate (int)-1 (n=7); int-2 or high (n=4). AIM were: culture negative sepsis (n=7); inflammatory arthritis (n=3); vasculitis (n=4); sweats; pericarditis; polymyalgia rheumatica (n=2 each); mouth ulcers; pulmonary infiltrates; suspicion for Behcet's; polychondritis and undifferentiated (n=1 each). AIM treatment and outcome were: prednisone +/- steroid sparing agents, n=8, ongoing symptoms in 5; azacitidine (n=3), 2 resolved; and observation, n=1, ongoing symptoms. At a median follow up of 13 months, seven patients are alive. In summary, 4.4% of MDS patients presented with concomitant AIM. MDS should remain on the differential diagnosis of patients with inflammatory symptoms. PMID:27499837

  20. Holmium laser use in the treatment of selected dry eye syndrome complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1996-03-01

    The authors present initial results of treatment selected complications of dry eye syndrome with holmium laser. The lacrimal puncta obliteration and coagulation of the corneal ulcer surface were done.

  1. Invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Zernikow, Boris; Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Maier, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    This review aimed to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents. Studies on children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome that evaluated the effects of invasive treatment were identified in PubMed (search March 2013). Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Articles reported on a total of 173 children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome. Generally, many studies lack methodological quality. The invasive treatments applied most often were singular sympathetic blocks, followed by epidural catheters and continuous sympathetic blocks. Rarely, spinal cord stimulation and pain-directed surgeries were reported. An individual patient frequently received more than one invasive procedure. Concerning outcome, for approximately all patients, an improvement in pain and functional disability was reported. However, these outcomes were seldom assessed with validated tools. In conclusion, the evidence level for invasive therapies in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents is weak.

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the United States. No one remedy works for all patients, so there’s a great medical need to ...

  3. Corticosteroid Injections Versus Manual Physical Therapy for Treatment of the Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Summaries for Patients Corticosteroid Injections Versus Manual Physical Therapy for Treatment of the Shoulder Impingement Syndrome The ... Outcome of Subacromial Corticosteroid Injection Compared With Manual Physical Therapy for the Management of the Unilateral Shoulder Impingement ...

  4. Dyskinesia as a new adverse effect of hormonal treatment in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sukhudyan, Biayna G; Dimova, Petia S; Capuano, Alessandro; Vigevano, Federico

    2014-03-01

    West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy. Despite potential side effects, hormonal therapy remains the main treatment for West syndrome. Here, we report on 10 patients receiving steroid treatment who presented with unusual, mostly hyperkinetic, movements. Facial grimacing, repetitive mouth opening, adduction and abduction of upper and lower extremities, and periodical strabismus in different combinations were observed in all patients, independent of formulation, dose, duration, and efficacy of treatment. Symptoms disappeared in sleep and reappeared immediately on arousal. Dyskinesias stopped gradually after a month of discontinuation of treatment. Repeated EEGs did not show corresponding epileptiform activity. We conclude that these abnormal movements can be attributed to side effects of hormonal treatment.

  5. Successful diuretics treatment of protein-losing enteropathy in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Suda, Kenji; Seki, Yoshitaka; Yanagi, Tadahiro; Yoshimoto, Hironaga; Kudo, Yoshiyuki; Iemura, Motofumi; Tanikawa, Ken; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-04-01

    There are few reports on successful high-dose spironolactone treatment of refractory protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) caused by Fontan procedure. We report successful diuretics treatment with spironolactone and furosemide at standard dose, of refractory PLE in a patient with Noonan syndrome and repaired congenital heart disease. This is the first successful application of diuretics treatment in a patient with refractory PLE without Fontan procedure. This case illustrates that diuretics treatment can be the first-line treatment of PLE regardless of the causative physiology, and can be effective in refractory PLE with Noonan syndrome.

  6. Targeted pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorders: fragile X and Rett syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Pati, Sandipan; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Doering, Laurie C.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous and lack effective medications to treat their core symptoms. Studies of syndromic ASDs caused by single gene mutations have provided insights into the pathophysiology of autism. Fragile X and Rett syndromes belong to the syndromic ASDs in which preclinical studies have identified rational targets for drug therapies focused on correcting underlying neural dysfunction. These preclinical discoveries are increasingly translating into exciting human clinical trials. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among ASDs, targeted treatments developed for fragile X and Rett syndromes may be helpful for autism of different etiologies. Here, we review the targeted pharmacological treatment of fragile X and Rett syndromes and discuss related issues in both preclinical studies and clinical trials of potential therapies for the diseases. PMID:25767435

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome: observations on diagnosis, treatment and definition of a new subgroup.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, A; Puchalski, P

    2013-07-01

    Several definitions and sets of diagnostic criteria of complex regional pain syndrome have been proposed, but to date none has been accepted completely. This article presents a specific subtype of the disease, called 'chronic, refractory complex regional pain syndrome' which is extremely severe, disabling and resistant to treatment. It also emphasizes difficulties with diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome because of its variable clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria being insufficiently precise. The necessity to distinguish between criteria for clinical use and for scientific purposes is suggested with a proposal of practical guideline for diagnosing acute complex regional pain syndrome. A review of treatments for complex regional pain syndrome is presented, with opinion on their effectiveness: good in an early stage, less well in chronic and generally poor in the chronic, refractory subtype.

  8. Crouzon syndrome: Virtual planning of surgical treatment by application of internal distractors.

    PubMed

    Rahimov, Chingiz; Asadov, Ruslan; Hajiyeva, Gunel; Verdiyev, Nazim; Novruzov, Zaur; Farzaliyev, Ismayil

    2016-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is one of the frequent pathologies within craniosynostosis syndrome. Current progress in computers and biotechnologies allows improving surgical approach and forecasting final result of reconstruction as well. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome, done by application of virtual planning allowing determining "monobloc" features, type of reconstruction and distraction protocol as well. A 20-year-old female had presented with craniofacial deformity. Clinical and radiological investigation revealed Crouzon syndrome. The "monobloc" creation, cranioplasty and internal distractors positioning, direction and schedule of advancement were done according to preoperative virtual planning data achieved by Materialise Mimics Research software. Nine months postoperative functional and esthetic result and radiological findings showed to be reasonable. That application of virtual simulation significantly allows to determine best direction of distraction and improves postoperative outcomes of surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome. PMID:27563623

  9. Crouzon syndrome: Virtual planning of surgical treatment by application of internal distractors

    PubMed Central

    Rahimov, Chingiz; Asadov, Ruslan; Hajiyeva, Gunel; Verdiyev, Nazim; Novruzov, Zaur; Farzaliyev, Ismayil

    2016-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is one of the frequent pathologies within craniosynostosis syndrome. Current progress in computers and biotechnologies allows improving surgical approach and forecasting final result of reconstruction as well. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome, done by application of virtual planning allowing determining “monobloc” features, type of reconstruction and distraction protocol as well. A 20-year-old female had presented with craniofacial deformity. Clinical and radiological investigation revealed Crouzon syndrome. The “monobloc” creation, cranioplasty and internal distractors positioning, direction and schedule of advancement were done according to preoperative virtual planning data achieved by Materialise Mimics Research software. Nine months postoperative functional and esthetic result and radiological findings showed to be reasonable. That application of virtual simulation significantly allows to determine best direction of distraction and improves postoperative outcomes of surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome. PMID:27563623

  10. Bright light therapy for the treatment of night eating syndrome: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCune, Ashley M; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2015-09-30

    The effect of bright light therapy (BLT) on the symptoms of night eating syndrome was evaluated. Fifteen adults completed two weeks of daily 10,000 lux BLT administered in the morning. Significant reductions were found pre-to-post treatment in night eating symptomatology, mood disturbance, and sleep disturbance. This pilot trial provides preliminary support for the efficacy of BLT for the treatment of night eating syndrome.

  11. Prosthodontic treatment and medical considerations for a patient with Turner syndrome: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline T; Hofstede, Theresa M

    2012-10-01

    This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman affected with Turner's syndrome and subsequently diagnosed with T4 Giant cell reparative granuloma of the right maxillary sinus. The surgical treatment included a maxillectomy and infratemporal fossa dissection followed by a free fibula palatal reconstruction, fibula bone graft of the orbital floor, dental implant placement, and prosthodontic rehabilitation. Prosthodontic planning and treatment considerations in an adult patient with Turner Syndrome are discussed. PMID:22672559

  12. [New alternatives for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Sebastián; Iruretagoyena, Mirentxu; Gutiérrez, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    For years the mainstay of antiphospholipid syndrome treatment has been anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, but the autoimmune nature of the disease, and complications of these therapies, created the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. New therapeutic alternatives inhibit at different levels, the cascade of events leading to the pro-thrombotic state characteristic of the antiphospholipid syndrome. We conducted a literature review of these new treatments, focusing on the pathophysiological bases that support them and their possible clinical applications. PMID:24448861

  13. Serotonin syndrome following levodopa treatment in diffuse Lewy body disease

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Suman; Panda, Akhila Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Kaur, Manmeet

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome results from an acute hyperserotonergic state. It is a rare and potentially fatal complication of drugs that affect the central nervous system serotonin levels. It is characterised by a triad of clinical features comprising altered sensorium, autonomic instability and neuromuscular hyperexcitability, in different combinations. We present an atypical case of serotonin syndrome related to levodopa use in a patient of probable Lewy body dementia. This case highlights the difficulty in diagnosis and management of cases with serotonin syndrome in the absence of history of a known serotonergic drug and the fact that levodopa can contribute to its occurrence. PMID:25246451

  14. Rituximab in the treatment of shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba Toribio, Patricia; Córica Albani, María Emilia; Mayos Pérez, Mercedes; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. We report the case of a patient with non-responding SLS (neither to glucocorticoids nor immunosupresors), who showed remarkable improvement after the onset of treatment with rituximab. Although there is a little evidence, treatment with rituximab could be proposed in SLS when classical treatment fails.

  15. Hemoptysis Complicating Scimitar Syndrome: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelcu, Cosmina; Carette, Marie-France; Parrot, Antoine; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Marsault, Claude; Khalil, Antoine

    2008-07-15

    We report the case of a 24-year-old patient with known scimitar syndrome presenting with hemoptysis. Multidetector CT angiography showed the scimitar vein draining the right lung to the inferior vena cava associated with right lower lobe bronchopulmonary sequestration. The presence of hemoptysis associated with scimitar syndrome is likely secondary to an anomalous systemic arterial blood supply. We treated this patient successfully with transcatheter occlusion of the anomalous feeding arterial vessels.

  16. MELAS syndrome: Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Adesina, Adekunle M; Jones, Jeremy; Scaglia, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. MELAS syndrome is a multi-organ disease with broad manifestations including stroke-like episodes, dementia, epilepsy, lactic acidemia, myopathy, recurrent headaches, hearing impairment, diabetes, and short stature. The most common mutation associated with MELAS syndrome is the m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene encoding the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)). The m.3243A>G mutation results in impaired mitochondrial translation and protein synthesis including the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex subunits leading to impaired mitochondrial energy production. The inability of dysfunctional mitochondria to generate sufficient energy to meet the needs of various organs results in the multi-organ dysfunction observed in MELAS syndrome. Energy deficiency can also stimulate mitochondrial proliferation in the smooth muscle and endothelial cells of small blood vessels leading to angiopathy and impaired blood perfusion in the microvasculature of several organs. These events will contribute to the complications observed in MELAS syndrome particularly the stroke-like episodes. In addition, nitric oxide deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and can contribute to its complications. There is no specific consensus approach for treating MELAS syndrome. Management is largely symptomatic and should involve a multidisciplinary team. Unblinded studies showed that l-arginine therapy improves stroke-like episode symptoms and decreases the frequency and severity of these episodes. Additionally, carnitine and coenzyme Q10 are commonly used in MELAS syndrome without proven efficacy.

  17. Charles Bonnet syndrome: a literature review into diagnostic criteria, treatment and implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D F

    2013-03-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome is a disease of vision which may be mistakenly identified as manifestations of psychosis and consequently be treated by psychiatrists and mental health nurses rather than ophthalmologists. This literature review considers current understanding of the syndrome, its treatment and the role of mental health nurses. The two main findings of the review are that despite a long recognition of the syndrome, diagnostic criteria are not established and that there is no recognized evidence-based medical treatment. As well as this, two novel treatments which may offer future benefits are discussed. Current best practice is identified as identifying the condition and providing reassurance and education, a role that mental health nurses that are aware of Charles Bonnet syndrome can fulfil perhaps better than any other discipline.

  18. Research Thinking of Low-intensity laser For the Treatment of Menopausal Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Z.; Xu, Y. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. H.; Li, L. J.

    2011-02-01

    Female climacteric syndrome is a clinical syndrome due to autonomic nerve dysfunction occurring in women during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, how to pass climacteric period for women without any problems, avoid or reduce the occurrence of climacteric syndrome, prevent geriatric diseases and improve life quality is a key issue now for great attention. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safer method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. By analyzing the relationship between laser technology and traditional acupuncture and moxibustion, the advantage and the existing problems on acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, the application of laser methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of menopausal syndrome was discussed. It's pointed out that the laser acupuncture is safe and effective to treat menopausal syndrome. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome by utilizing the advantage of interdisciplinary intersection. Laser technology will make the development of acupuncture and moxibustion science possess an unprecedented field.

  19. Seizure treatment in Angelman syndrome: A case series from the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shaaya, Elias A; Grocott, Olivia R; Laing, Olivia; Thibert, Ronald L

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common feature of Angelman syndrome (~80-90%), with the most common seizure types including myoclonic, atonic, atypical absence, focal, and generalized tonic-clonic. Seizure types are similar among the various genetic subtypes, but epilepsy in those with maternal deletions is more frequent and more refractory to medication. Treatment with older antiepileptic drugs such as valproic acid and clonazepam is effective, but these medications tend to have less favorable side effect profiles in Angelman syndrome compared with those in newer medications. This study aimed to assess the use of newer antiepileptic drug therapies in individuals with Angelman syndrome followed at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Many of the subjects in this study were on valproic acid therapy prior to their initial evaluation and exhibited increased tremor, decreased balance, and/or regression of motor skills, which resolved after tapering off of this medication. Newer antiepileptic drugs such as levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and clobazam, and to a lesser extent topiramate, appeared to be as effective - if not more so - as valproic acid and clonazepam while offering more favorable side effect profiles. The low glycemic index treatment also provided effective seizure control with minimal side effects. The majority of subjects remained on combination therapy with levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and clobazam being the most commonly used medications, indicating a changing trend when compared with prior studies. PMID:27206232

  20. Effectiveness of conservative treatments for the lumbosacral radicular syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Arianne P.; Ostelo, Raymond W. J. G.; van Os, Ton A. G.; Peul, Wilco C.; Koes, Bart W.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with a lumbosacral radicular syndrome are mostly treated conservatively first. The effect of the conservative treatments remains controversial. To assess the effectiveness of conservative treatments of the lumbosacral radicular syndrome (sciatica). Relevant electronic databases and the reference lists of articles up to May 2004 were searched. Randomised clinical trials of all types of conservative treatments for patients with the lumbosacral radicular syndrome selected by two reviewers. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality and the clinical relevance. Because the trials were considered heterogeneous we decided not to perform a meta-analysis but to summarise the results using the rating system of levels of evidence. Thirty trials were included that evaluated injections, traction, physical therapy, bed rest, manipulation, medication, and acupuncture as treatment for the lumbosacral radicular syndrome. Because several trials indicated no evidence of an effect it is not recommended to use corticosteroid injections and traction as treatment option. Whether clinicians should prescribe physical therapy, bed rest, manipulation or medication could not be concluded from this review. At present there is no evidence that one type of treatment is clearly superior to others, including no treatment, for patients with a lumbosacral radicular syndrome. PMID:17415595

  1. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil. PMID:26956847

  2. Diaphragm pacers as a treatment for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maida Lynn; Tablizo, Mary Anne; Kun, Sheila; Keens, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare syndrome present from birth, and is defined as the failure of automatic control of breathing. All patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome require life-long ventilatory support during sleep, although approximately a third of patients require ventilatory support 24 h per day. Diaphragm pacers offer a modality of ventilatory support that affords congenital central hypoventilation syndrome patients with maximal mobility for full-time ventilatory patients, and they may allow for a more normal lifestyle in the appropriate patient. They may permit tracheostomy decannulation in those requiring only support during sleep. Diaphragm pacing entails surgical placement of an electrode onto the phrenic nerve, connected to a subcutaneous receiver. There is an external battery-operated transmitter and antenna placed on the skin over the receiver. The transmitter emits energy, similar to radio transmission, which is converted into an electrical current by the receiver. This stimulates the phrenic nerve resulting in a diaphragmatic contraction. Settings on the transmitter include respiratory rate and electrical voltage, and are adjusted to give enough tidal volume to allow for adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Therefore, diaphragm pacing is an attractive alternative mode of mechanically assisted ventilation for many patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

  3. International Guidelines for the Management and Treatment of Morquio A Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Berger, Kenneth I; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Kampmann, Christoph; Mackenzie, William G; Raiman, Julian; Villarreal, Martha Solano; Savarirayan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with skeletal and joint abnormalities and significant non-skeletal manifestations including respiratory disease, spinal cord compression, cardiac disease, impaired vision, hearing loss, and dental problems. The clinical presentation, onset, severity and progression rate of clinical manifestations of Morquio A syndrome vary widely between patients. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive nature of the disease, the management of patients with Morquio A syndrome is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving an array of specialists. The current paper presents international guidelines for the evaluation, treatment and symptom-based management of Morquio A syndrome. These guidelines were developed during two expert meetings by an international panel of specialists in pediatrics, genetics, orthopedics, pulmonology, cardiology, and anesthesia with extensive experience in managing Morquio A syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25346323

  4. [Clinical findings, pathogenesis and treatment of Bartter's syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ploier, R; Tulzer, W

    1981-01-01

    In three children Bartter's syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of the typical laboratory findings and the characteristic histological changes of the kidney. Apart from the description of three cases especially the latest pathogenic findings are represented because of their important therapeutic consequences. In one of the patients the therapeutic effect of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor Indomethazin was statistically proved in a balance study performed under inpatient conditions and so it was indirectly proved that the prostaglandines play an essential role in the pathogenesis of Bartter's syndrome. The patients have now received Indomethazin for a period of 11 months up to two and a half years with the result of an impressive improvement of the clinical symptoms and an unequivocal increase of the serum potassium. The fact that despite of normal renin and aldosterone levels there was no complete normalization of the serum potassium level indicates that in addition of prostaglandines probably a superior mechanism plays a part in the origin Bartter's syndrome.

  5. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of genital pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Romito, Silvia; Bottanelli, Mara; Pellegrini, Maria; Vicentini, Silvana; Rizzuto, Niccolò; Bertolasi, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose was to test the effect of botulinum toxin injections on hypertonic pelvic floor muscles of patients suffering from genital pain syndromes. We report two cases of women complaining of a genital pain syndrome resistant to pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation exercises associated with a documented involuntary tonic contraction of the levator ani muscle as a defense reaction triggered by vulvar pain. We performed botulinum toxin injections into the levator ani with the intent to relieve pelvic muscular spasms. Within a few days after the injections both the patients reported a complete resolution of the painful symptomatology, lasting for several months. Our experience suggests that botulinum injections are indicated in patients with genital pain syndrome with documented pelvic muscle hyperactivity, whose symptoms arise not only from genital inflammation and lesions, but also, and sometimes chiefly, from levator ani myalgia.

  6. Distraction osteogenesis as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai Kin; Yang, Yanqi; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To conduct a systematic review to answer the clinical question “What are the effectiveness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) and its complications to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)?”. Methods: A systematic search including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search were done. Relevant articles on MDO were assessed and selected in 3 rounds for final review based on 5 predefined inclusion criteria and followed by a round of critical appraisal. Different types of distraction and their treatment outcomes of OSAS were recorded with standardized form and analyzed. Results: Twelve articles were included in the final review. A total of 256 patients aged 7 days to 60 years were treated with either external or internal MDO, with a mean follow-up period of 6 to 37 months. The average distraction distance of 12 to 29 mm was achieved with various distraction protocols. The success rate for adult patients was 100%, and cure rates were ranged from 82% to 100%. The definition of success or cure for OSAS in children or infants was not defined. Therefore, there were no clearly reported success or cure rates for children/infants in the included studies. However, all studies reported that these patients showed significant improvement in OSAS, with many of them who avoided tracheostomy or had the tracheostomy decannulated. The complication rates were ranged from 0% to 21.4%, with most being from local wound infections or neurosensory disturbances. Conclusion: This systematic review showed that MDO was effective in resolving OSAS in adults with retrognathic mandible. MDO also showed promising results in infants or children with OSAS. From the results of this systematic review, we recommend to define the criteria of success or cure for OSAS surgery in children and infants. We also recommend setting up randomized controlled trials to compare MDO with traditional maxillomandibular

  7. Treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. PMID:22495847

  8. Treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.

  9. [Discussion on strategy of treatment of perimenopausal syndrome with Chinese and Western Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Chen, Yan-xia

    2015-10-01

    Perimenopausal syndrome refers to a series of physical and mental symptoms ,caused by the fluctuation of the sex hormones in the menopause, which is one of the common diseases in gynecology. With the acceleration of the aging population ir the world, it has caused the world's attention. Modern medicine has developed rapidly in the field of basic theory and clinical research, but there are still some problems in the treatment. Clinical treatment is mainly in hormone replacement therapy, but there are some potential risks, adverse reactions and many contraindications, thereby reducing patients' compliance and tolerance. Traditional Chinese medicine under the guidance of the concept of wholism cure perimenopausal syndrome based on syndrome differentiation, which has unique advantages, such as a variety of ways, less side effect, curative effect, which was patients more and more welcome. It is very important for the study to explore the perimenopausal syndrome.

  10. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly.

  11. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly. PMID:26424306

  12. Successful Treatment of Suspected Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome Using Haloperidol in the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic use of cannabis can result in a syndrome of hyperemesis characterized by cyclical vomiting without any other identifiable causes. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is seldom responsive to traditional antiemetic therapies. Despite frequent nausea and vomiting, patients may be reluctant to discontinue use of cannabis. We report a case of severe, refractory CHS with complete resolution of nausea and vomiting after treatment with haloperidol in the outpatient setting. After review of the literature, we believe this is the first reported successful outpatient treatment of CHS and suggests a potential treatment for refractory patients.

  13. Successful Treatment of Suspected Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome Using Haloperidol in the Outpatient Setting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer L; Abernathy, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic use of cannabis can result in a syndrome of hyperemesis characterized by cyclical vomiting without any other identifiable causes. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is seldom responsive to traditional antiemetic therapies. Despite frequent nausea and vomiting, patients may be reluctant to discontinue use of cannabis. We report a case of severe, refractory CHS with complete resolution of nausea and vomiting after treatment with haloperidol in the outpatient setting. After review of the literature, we believe this is the first reported successful outpatient treatment of CHS and suggests a potential treatment for refractory patients. PMID:27597918

  14. Successful Treatment of Suspected Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome Using Haloperidol in the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic use of cannabis can result in a syndrome of hyperemesis characterized by cyclical vomiting without any other identifiable causes. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is seldom responsive to traditional antiemetic therapies. Despite frequent nausea and vomiting, patients may be reluctant to discontinue use of cannabis. We report a case of severe, refractory CHS with complete resolution of nausea and vomiting after treatment with haloperidol in the outpatient setting. After review of the literature, we believe this is the first reported successful outpatient treatment of CHS and suggests a potential treatment for refractory patients. PMID:27597918

  15. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis after Treatment with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yoshio; Matsushiro, Naoki; Nampei, Akihide; Hashimoto, Hideo; Shi, Kenrin

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed Ramsay Hunt syndrome after infliximab treatment. This condition is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion of facial nerve in the host's immunosuppression. She was treated immediately with valaciclovir and hydrocortisone, and the complete recovery was achieved at 6 months after the onset. This is the first report of Ramsay Hunt syndrome as an adverse effect of infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24660085

  16. 5'-Azacitidine for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes after non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Salaroli, Adriano; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Martelli, Maurizio; D'Elia, Gianna Maria; Nanni, Mauro; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Alimena, Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes are possible complications in patients treated for previous hematologic malignancies. Therapeutic strategies in these type of disorders are still not well defined: azacitidine has been recently approved for the treatment of higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes, but few data are published relating possible efficacy in therapy-related dysplastic disorders. We reported here 4 patients treated with azacitidine for therapy related dysplasia after chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  17. Toad Intoxication in the Dog by Rhinella marina : The Clinical Syndrome and Current Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnnides, Stephanie; Green, Tiffany; Eubig, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Oral exposure to the secretions of Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus ) can carry a high fatality rate without early and appropriate treatment. In dogs, the clinical syndrome, which is evident almost immediately, manifests in profuse ptyalism along with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs. Severe cardiac arrhythmias develop less frequently. This review will cover the history, toxicology, and clinical syndrome of Rhinella marina intoxication, and will discuss the recommended therapies for stabilization. PMID:27259028

  18. Dental Treatments under the General Anesthesia in a Child with Keratitis, Ichthyosis, and Deafness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Derelioglu, Sera Sımsek; Yılmaz, Yücel; Keles, Sultan

    2013-01-01

    KID syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by keratitis, ichthyosis, and sensorineural deafness. Although the dermatological, ophthalmologic, and sensorineural defects are emphasized in the literature, oral and dental evaluations are so superficial. In this case report, dental and oral symptoms of a three year and five months old boy with KID syndrome, suffering severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) and dental treatments done under General Anesthesia (GA) were reported. PMID:24151560

  19. Kabuki Syndrome and Anorectal Malformations: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Siminas, Sotirios; Baillie, Colin Tennant; Turnock, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by a distinctive facies, intellectual disability, growth delay, and a variety of skeletal, visceral, and other anomalies, including anorectal malformations (ARMs). We present two cases of female patients with KS, diagnosed and successfully managed at our institution, one with a perineal fistula and one with a rectovestibular fistula. Our report, along with a literature review, shows that the syndrome is usually associated with "low" anomalies, with a potential for a good prognosis. Management of the anorectal anomaly in patients with KS is not essentially different from that in other nonsyndromic patients, taking into account the frequent association of the syndrome with serious congenital heart disease, which might affect the decision-making and timing of the stages of anorectal reconstruction. The frequent occurrence of learning and feeding difficulties makes establishment of toilet training and bowel management rather more challenging, requiring the expertise of a multidisciplinary team. The finding of ARMs in female patients with other characteristics of KS, although inconstant, could support the clinical suspicion for the syndrome until genetic confirmation is available, and should alert the physician for the potential of severe cardiac defects. PMID:26171318

  20. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  1. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine in diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aliyev, R; Vieth, T; Geiger, G

    2010-11-01

    Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS) is known for the difficulties arising from classification. The accompanying pain in skeletal muscles, myofascial peri-articular structures and a number of polymorphic symptoms cannot be separated into complexes of symptoms. The application of principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) helps in analyzing the symptoms of FS to detect a leading syndrome and thereby establish an individual therapy. Medical histories and objective examinations of 25 patients with FS and 22 patients with vertebrogenic pain syndromes were analyzed according to TCM. A questionnaire was used to determine the leading constitutional type according to the 5-elements-theory. Analyses of the results showed that 83% of patients with FS were of constitutional type of the element earth. The following syndromes were found to be important in FS: 1) liver-Qi-stagnation, 2) Yin and blood deficiency of the liver, 3) Yang-weakness of the spleen and kidney, 4) Yin-weakness of the kidney. Applying TCM for FS allows for separating a group of symptoms and thus individual therapy. The determination of the constitutional type according to the 5-elements-theory may be used for a better understanding of the disharmony pattern.

  3. Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome: report of two cases and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratyush; Mittal, Ravi; Mittal, Samarth; Shankar, Vivek

    2014-02-04

    Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome is a rarely reported cause of bowed legs; hence a thorough clinical and radiological examination is needed for its diagnosis. In view of the paucity of reports guiding the treatment of the deformity, we propose a one-level/two-level osteotomy with intramedullary nail fixation as a treatment modality for the tibial bowing.

  4. Clozapine Treatment of Psychosis Associated with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: Benefits and Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladston, S.; Clarke, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Clozapine is licensed for the treatment of psychotic illnesses resistant to other antipsychotic medications. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with a vulnerability to psychotic illness that may be resistant to treatment with conventional typical and atypical antipsychotics. A 32-year-old man with intellectual disability (ID) and a…

  5. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... following PDQ summaries: Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment A sign of ... or laser that directs UVB radiation at the skin. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... following PDQ summaries: Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment A sign of ... or laser that directs UVB radiation at the skin. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of ...

  8. Treatment Options for Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... following PDQ summaries: Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment A sign of ... or laser that directs UVB radiation at the skin. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of ...

  9. Efficacy of Percutaneous Adhesiolysis in the Treatment of Lumbar Post Surgery Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Manchikanti, Kavita N.; Gharibo, Christopher G.; Kaye, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Context Lumbar post-surgery syndrome is common and often results in chronic, persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After failure of conservative treatment, either surgical treatment or a nonsurgical modality of treatment such as epidural injections, percutaneous adhesiolysis is often contemplated in managing lumbar post surgery syndrome. Recent guidelines and systematic reviews have reached different conclusions about the level of evidence for the efficacy of epidural injections and percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing lumbar post surgery syndrome. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all 3 percutaneous adhesiolysis anatomical approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in treating lumbar post-surgery syndrome. Evidence Acquisition Data Sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2014 utilizing multiple databases. Study Selection: A systematic review of randomized trials published from 1966 through October 2014 of all types of epidural injections and percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing lumbar post-surgery syndrome was performed including methodological quality assessment utilizing Cochrane review criteria, Interventional Pain Management Techniques–Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM–QRB), and grading of evidence using 5 levels of evidence ranging from Level I to Level V. Data Extraction: The search strategy emphasized post-surgery syndrome and related pathologies treated with percutaneous adhesiolysis procedures. Results The search criteria yielded 16 manuscripts on percutaneous adhesiolysis assessing post-surgery syndrome. Of these, only 4 randomized trials met inclusion criteria for methodological quality assessment, 3 of them were of high quality; and the fourth manuscript was of low quality. Based on these 3 randomized controlled trials, 2 of them with one-day procedure and one with a 3-day procedure, the level of

  10. [Asperger syndrome in adolescence: The problem and appropriate treatment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keizo

    2007-03-01

    I have described the corresponding method for bullying, independence and interpersonal relationships of company/opposite sex, thinking disorders caused by suffering damage or victimization and withdrawal and violence in the family among the problems in and in response to Asperger syndrome in adolescent cases. Psychotherapy is used for bullying and interpersonal relationship problems. Cognitive therapy and protective correspondence are more effective in bullying than the exposure method. It seems to be more effective to teach and instruct the corresponding principle as well as supportive response because interpersonal relationships are likely to involve failures. Pharmacological therapy was valid in feelings of paranoia and violence. Since the disorder has been recently conceptualized in pervasive developmental disorder, the scope of the subject has increased whereas Asperger syndrome used to be diagnosed in compliance with its classic examples. Therefore, it needs to clarify diagnostic examples based on new concepts, accumulate subject examples and verify the corresponding method with evidence.

  11. [Anemic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: Diagnostic approaches and treatment opportunities].

    PubMed

    Grinshtein, Yu I; Shabalin, V V; Kusaev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a leading cause of anemic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Enhanced hepcidin production mainly stimulated by excess interleukin-6 levels is a key pathodgentic component of ACD (frequently known as anemia of inflammation) by causing the degradation of the transmembrane protein ferroportin, hepcidin impairs iron metabolism. On the basis of the material of recent publications the review gives present-day views on the pathodgenesis of ACD in RA, approaches to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ACD, especially in its concomitance with iron-deficiency anemia, as well as approaches to therapy for the type of anemic syndrome with the complex mechanism for its development. PMID:27458626

  12. The left renal entrapment syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkun; Li, Ming; Jin, Wei; San, Ping; Xu, Ping; Pan, Songlin

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to review 20 patients with left renal vein (LRV) entrapment syndrome. All cases were diagnosed based on ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and renal venography. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Transposition of superior mesenteric artery was performed in three cases, transposition of LRV in two, and stent implantation in the LRV in 15. Stent migration occurred in one case, and stent reimplantation was performed. One case suffered from hematoma after transposition of the superior mesenteric artery, and reoperation was performed. Follow-up was made from 6 months to 6 years after the operation. Abnormalities were not found in the urine test of 18 patients and their symptoms disappeared. Two cases still had microscopic hematuria after exercise. All surgical operations are effective for nutcracker syndrome except excessive invasiveness. Stent may be one of the mainstream therapies because of its minimal invasiveness.

  13. Experience in the use of clobazam in the treatment of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Purcarin, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam is a 1,5-benzodiazepine used successfully worldwide since the 1970s as an anxiolytic and antiepileptic drug. Since its recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the United States in 2011 as adjunctive treatment for Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, it has continued to show sustained efficacy and a better safety and tolerability profile compared with other benzodiazepines. The two randomized, controlled studies that led to the US FDA approval, as well as the follow-up multicenter, open-label study of clobazam, showed ≥50% seizure reduction for more than 50% of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome patients, while none of the other FDA-approved treatments for LGS have demonstrated efficacy rates better than 50%. Clobazam appears to have a safe profile and sustained effectiveness over the first 3 years of use in LGS and other epilepsy syndromes with intractable seizures, which makes it a viable long-term treatment option. PMID:24790647

  14. Work-Related Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gary M; Friedman, Andrew S

    2015-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, and its risk of occurrence in the presence of repetitive, forceful angular hand movements, or vibration, is common. It is critical to make the diagnosis based on appropriate clinical history and findings and with corroborating electrodiagnostic studies. Conservative management should be undertaken with the goal of maintaining employment; surgical decompression can be highly effective, particularly if undertaken early on. PMID:26231963

  15. [Severe Frey syndrome after parotidectomy: treatment with botulinum neurotoxin type A].

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Muscatello, L; Gutierrez-Fonseca, R; Seckin, S; Brasnu, D; Bonan, B

    1999-06-01

    Based upon an inception cohort of 30 patients with severe Frey's syndrome, after conservative parotidectomy, the technique and the results of intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A are presented. The skin surface involved with Frey's syndrome was managed with intracutaneous injection of 2.5 international units of botulinum toxin type A per square centimeter. A minimum follow-up of 16 months was achieved. The only adverse side effect encountered was a temporary paresis of the upper lid noted in 2 patients. Frey's syndrome vanished within 2-5 days from the intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A. Frey's syndrome was controlled in 53.2% of cases (17/30) after the initial injection of botulinum toxin type A. Five of the 13 patients with recurrence of Frey's syndrome elicited to undergo a watch and wait policy due to the lack of discomfort induced by the recurrence. The remaining eight patients with recurrence of Frey's syndrome were successfully managed with a secondary intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A. Such preliminary data, together with the review of the literature suggests, that the intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A should now be the first line treatment option in patients with severe Frey syndrome. PMID:10399528

  16. Pisa syndrome in Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Barone, Paolo; Santangelo, Gabriella; Amboni, Marianna; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Vitale, Carmine

    2016-09-01

    Pisa syndrome is defined as a reversible lateral bending of the trunk with a tendency to lean to one side. It is a frequent and often disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, and has also been described in several atypical forms of parkinsonism and in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders after drug exposure and surgical procedures. Although no consistent diagnostic criteria for Pisa syndrome are available, most investigations have adopted an arbitrary cutoff of at least 10° of lateral flexion for the diagnosis of the syndrome. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Pisa syndrome have not been fully explained. One hypothesis emphasises central mechanisms, whereby Pisa syndrome is thought to be caused by alterations in sensory-motor integration pathways; by contrast, a peripheral hypothesis emphasises the role of anatomical changes in the musculoskeletal system. Furthermore, several drugs are reported to induce Pisa syndrome, including antiparkinsonian drugs. As Pisa syndrome might be reversible, clinicians need to be able to recognise this condition early to enable prompt management. Nevertheless, further research is needed to determine optimum treatment strategies. PMID:27571158

  17. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  18. [Care and social treatment for parent(s) and children with Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the care and social treatment for parent(s) and child with Asperger syndrome. The children with Asperger syndrome are not easily distinguished from children without Asperger syndrome. The diagnosis can be varied depending on perspectives. They are more likely to receive inappropriate intervention due to lack of understanding. They are more likely to develop emotional and conduct problems secondarily. Because their disorders cannot be seen clearly, their difficulties are not identified. It seems that parent(s) and child with Asperger syndrome are hurt by this problem. It is difficult to operate parents' association and self-help group. They should learn it about one's diagnosis. While having a difference, an effort to live together is demanded.

  19. Clinical picture and treatment implication in a child with Capgras syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Capgras syndrome is a delusional misidentification syndrome characterized by the patient’s belief that his or her relatives have been replaced by impostors. Case presentation Here we describe the clinical picture and the therapeutic approach to an 11-year-old Caucasian girl with Capgras syndrome. A complete psychopathological assessment was conducted during the acute phase, at one month, two months and six months since diagnosis. Conclusion Subsequent follow-up evaluations in this patient allowed us to detect improvements in the psychotic symptoms following treatment with risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, suggesting that this combined therapy may significantly improve the clinical outcome in patients who have Capgras syndrome. PMID:23186382

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  1. Down syndrome and dementia: Is depression a confounder for accurate diagnosis and treatment?

    PubMed

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-12-01

    The past century has seen a dramatic improvement in the life expectancy of people with Down syndrome. However, research has shown that individuals with Down syndrome now have an increased likelihood of early onset dementia. They are more likely than their mainstream peers to experience other significant co-morbidities including mental health issues such as depression. This case study reports a phenomenon in which three individuals with Down syndrome and dementia are described as experiencing a rebound in their functioning after a clear and sustained period of decline. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon is not actually a reversal of the expected dementia trajectory but is an undiagnosed depression exaggerating the true level of functional decline associated with the dementia. The proactive identification and treatment of depressive symptoms may therefore increase the quality of life of some people with Down syndrome and dementia.

  2. Postconcussive Syndrome Following Sports-related Concussion: A Treatment Overview for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Moran, Byron; Tadikonda, Prathima; Sneed, Kevin B; Hummel, Michelle; Guiteau, Sergio; Coris, Eric E

    2015-09-01

    Postconcussive syndrome is an increasingly recognized outcome of sports-related concussion (SRC), characterized by a constellation of poorly defined symptoms. Treatment of PCS is significantly different from that of SRC alone. Primary care physicians often are the first to evaluate these patients, but some are unfamiliar with the available therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of SRC and descriptions of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options to allow primary care physicians to provide evidence-based care to patients experiencing postconcussive syndrome. PMID:26332481

  3. Review of treatment and diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome of the calf: current evidence and best practices.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, John T; Roberts, Craig S; Pugh, Kevin J; Ring, David

    2011-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the calf has received a great deal of attention in the literature. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English-language publications pertaining to compartment syndrome of the leg and calf so that principles, recent evidence, and best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome could be reviewed. Clinical series that reported outcomes and diagnostic criteria were reviewed and summarized. The currently available evidence is limited to level IV and V studies. Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndromes is associated with better results; however, many patients have chronic symptoms after treatment, even when the diagnosis is made promptly and fasciotomy is performed early. Although compartment syndrome of the leg and calf often has been described in the literature, prospective clinical series are lacking, and meaningful outcomes data are scarce. There is a need for further study on functional outcomes of acute compartment syndrome of the calf, with particular attention to diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Treatments for Infertility Resulting from PCOS Skip sharing on social media ... reason for these problems. Before beginning treatment for infertility possibly related to PCOS, be sure that your ...

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Shintani, Tomoko; Abe, Ayumi; Yajima, Ryoto; Takahashi, Nozomi; Ito, Fumie; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for children pertaining to their physical and mental growth. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children has been shown to have different effects as compared to OSAS in adults, including deficits in cognition and neuropsychological functions, hyperactivity, ADHD, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, learning problems and nocturnal enuresis. Hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils is a major cause of OSAS in children; therefore, adenotonsillectomy may decrease the effects of OSAS pertaining to physical and mental growth. It is important to accurately diagnose and appropriately treat OSAS in children to prevent OSAS in their adulthood. PMID:27115764

  6. Short QT Syndrome – Review of Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Rainer; Borggrefe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited cardiac channelopathy characterised by an abnormally short QT interval and increased risk for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of symptoms (syncope or cardiac arrest), family history and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. Mutations of cardiac ion channels responsible for the repolarisation orchestrate electrical heterogeneity during the action potential and provide substrate for triggering and maintaining of tachyarrhythmias. Due to the malignant natural history of SQTS, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line therapy in affected patients. This review summarises current data and addresses the genetic basis and clinical features of SQTS. PMID:26835070

  7. Radioiodine treatment in McCune–Albright syndrome with hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Manohar, Kuruva; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bhansali, Anil

    2012-01-01

    McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is a sporadic disease characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, “café-au-lait” spots and hyperfunctional endocrinopathies. Pathophysiological basis is activating mutation of the gene that encodes the alpha subunit of Gs membrane protein that stimulates the intracellular production of cAMP, conferring autonomous secretion of the gland in particular. One of the uncommon endocrine manifestations is hyperthyroidism. We present a patient who had café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and hyperthyroidism. She was treated with radioactive iodine for the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and subsequently relieved from hyperthyroid features. PMID:22837937

  8. Therapeutic plasma exchange as treatment for propofol infusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, Phillip D; Levin, Valentin; Weissman, Charles; Sprung, Charles L; Rund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS), a rare complication of propofol sedation, is associated with high mortality. There is no specific therapy. A 16-year-old with head injury and status epilepticus is described. Three days after seizure resolution, whilst receiving propofol, he developed severe lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, and hemodynamic instability. Suspected PRIS was treated with a single session of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). This was associated with immediate improvement in hemodynamic status, resolution of lactic acidosis within 24 h, normalization of CPK over 10 days, and a subsequent full recovery. TPE is suggested as a novel therapy for PRIS. PMID:25619501

  9. Treatment of Acromegaly, Cushing Disease and Nelson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John H.; Linfoot, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 we have treated more than 429 patients who had pituitary neoplasms, most of which were hormone-secreting tumors. Long-term follow-up in the large group of patients treated for acromegaly shows a median survival of better than 16 years, with improvement over time. The short-term follow-up results in patients with Cushing* disease, Nelson syndrome and chromophobe adenoma are very encouraging. To compare these excellent results with those following surgical procedures, a large study of patients followed for a long period after the operations is needed. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 6. PMID:7415170

  10. Endovascular treatment of the nutcracker syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Sebastián; Rabellino, Martín; Zander, Tobias; González, Gabriela; Maynar, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    The nutcracker syndrome (NS) is a rare condition characterized by the entrapment of the left renal vein (LRV) between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the aorta. Clinically, it presents with flank pain, hematuria, and symptoms of pelvic venous congestion. Several surgical techniques have been described including left renal vein (LRV) transposition, autotransplantation, LRV bypass, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) transposition, gonadocaval bypass and nephrectomy. More recently, endovascular stenting of the renal vein has been proposed. We present two patients with NS who were successfully managed endovascularly, providing satisfactory mid-term clinical and imaging results.

  11. Treatment of upper airway resistance syndrome in adults: Where do we stand?☆

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana B.M.; Palombini, Luciana O.; Guilleminault, Christian; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Togeiro, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the available literature regarding Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS) treatment. Methods: Keywords “Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome,” “Sleep-related Breathing Disorder treatment,” “Obstructive Sleep Apnea treatment” and “flow limitation and sleep” were used in main databases. Results: We found 27 articles describing UARS treatment. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been the mainstay therapy prescribed but with limited effectiveness. Studies about surgical treatments had methodological limitations. Oral appliances seem to be effective but their efficacy is not yet established. Conclusion: Randomized controlled trials with larger numbers of patients and long-term follow-up are important to establish UARS treatment options. PMID:26483942

  12. Surgical treatment of iliotibial band friction syndrome. A retrospective study of 45 patients.

    PubMed

    Drogset, J O; Rossvoll, I; Grøntvedt, T

    1999-10-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury mainly affecting runners, but also other athletes. The treatment of choice is conservative. If this treatment is unsuccessful, surgical treatment can be performed. The posterior half of the iliotibial band is transsected where it passes over the lateral epicondyle of the femur. Optionally the underlying bursa is removed. Between 1989 and 1996 45 patients were operated in Trondheim. The mean age was 27 (14-46) years. Of the patients, 22 (48.9%) had excellent results, 16 (35.5%) had good results, 6 (13.3%) had fair results and 1 (2.2%) patient had a poor result. One patient had a minor postoperative infection. Had the postoperative result been known beforehand, 75.6% of the patients would have been operated on again. We conclude that surgical treatment of iliotibial band friction syndrome produces good results in patients with insufficient relief of symptoms after conservative treatment.

  13. Laparoscopic transperitoneal gonadal vein ligation for treatment of pelvic congestion secondary to Nutcracker syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Viriyaroj, Vichit; Akranurakkul, Prinya; Muyphuag, Bunlung; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan

    2012-12-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is the term used to describe the patient with clinical symptoms of entrapment of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. Pelvic congestion syndrome, which is a cause of chronic pelvic pain in women, may be due to Nutcracker syndrome. There are many modalities of treatment for Nutcracker syndrome. This is a case report of a 32-year old woman with pelvic congestion syndrome due to Nutcracker syndrome, who subsequently underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal left gonadal vein ligation. She has had complete remission of pain in 4 months after the operation and after 12 months of follow-up. Laparoscopic transperitoneal gonadal vein ligation is an approach that is safe, simple and provides good results for patient with pelvic congestion syndrome secondary to Nutcracker syndrome.

  14. A Review of Treatments for Iliotibial Band Syndrome in the Athletic Population.

    PubMed

    Beals, Corey; Flanigan, David

    2013-01-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury in runners and other long distance athletes with the best management options not clearly established. This review outlines both the conservative and surgical options for the treatment of iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria by focusing on the athletic population in their discussion of the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome, both conservative and surgical. Conservative management consisting of a combination of rest (2-6 weeks), stretching, pain management, and modification of running habits produced a 44% complete cure rate, with return to sport at 8 weeks and a 91.7% cure rate with return to sport at 6 months after injury. Surgical therapy, often only used for refractory cases, consisted of excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band or bursectomy. Those studies focusing on the excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band showed a 100% return to sport rate at both 7 weeks and 3 months after injury. Despite many options for both surgical and conservative treatment, there has yet to be consensus on one standard of care. Certain treatments, both conservative and surgical, in our review are shown to be more effective than others; however, further research is needed to delineate the true pathophysiology of iliotibial band syndrome in athletes, as well as the optimal treatment regimen. PMID:26464876

  15. A Review of Treatments for Iliotibial Band Syndrome in the Athletic Population.

    PubMed

    Beals, Corey; Flanigan, David

    2013-01-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury in runners and other long distance athletes with the best management options not clearly established. This review outlines both the conservative and surgical options for the treatment of iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria by focusing on the athletic population in their discussion of the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome, both conservative and surgical. Conservative management consisting of a combination of rest (2-6 weeks), stretching, pain management, and modification of running habits produced a 44% complete cure rate, with return to sport at 8 weeks and a 91.7% cure rate with return to sport at 6 months after injury. Surgical therapy, often only used for refractory cases, consisted of excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band or bursectomy. Those studies focusing on the excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band showed a 100% return to sport rate at both 7 weeks and 3 months after injury. Despite many options for both surgical and conservative treatment, there has yet to be consensus on one standard of care. Certain treatments, both conservative and surgical, in our review are shown to be more effective than others; however, further research is needed to delineate the true pathophysiology of iliotibial band syndrome in athletes, as well as the optimal treatment regimen.

  16. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM).

  17. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM). PMID:26363497

  18. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  19. [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cataract surgery. Avoidance and treatment of complications].

    PubMed

    Menapace, R

    2012-10-01

    Eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome often exhibit insufficient mydriasis, zonular weakness and pronounced fibrotic capsular shrinkage. This may make cataract surgery as such difficult but also leads to postoperative complications, such as rhexis ovalization or phimosis (capsule contraction syndrome) or progressive zonular weakening with final spontaneous dislocation of the capsule-implant complex (CIC). To avoid or correct for this special techniques and implants may be used: as prophylaxis, intracameral adrenalin and retroiridal capsulorhexis, iris retractors or dilators, various models of capsular tension and bending rings, bimanual capsule ring implantation, capsular bag stabilization with iris retractors or segments and secondary capsulorhexis may be used. Rhexis phimosis may be excised by a special diathermic probe, a subluxated CIC may be sutured to the sclera either in toto or the lens only after removal from the capsule bag, the latter also to the posterior iris surface. When luxated into the vitreous cavity, the CIC may be lifted to the iris plane and refixed as described or exchanged for a new lens sutured into the sulcus or an angle or iris-supported anterior chamber lens.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  1. [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cataract surgery. Avoidance and treatment of complications].

    PubMed

    Menapace, R

    2012-10-01

    Eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome often exhibit insufficient mydriasis, zonular weakness and pronounced fibrotic capsular shrinkage. This may make cataract surgery as such difficult but also leads to postoperative complications, such as rhexis ovalization or phimosis (capsule contraction syndrome) or progressive zonular weakening with final spontaneous dislocation of the capsule-implant complex (CIC). To avoid or correct for this special techniques and implants may be used: as prophylaxis, intracameral adrenalin and retroiridal capsulorhexis, iris retractors or dilators, various models of capsular tension and bending rings, bimanual capsule ring implantation, capsular bag stabilization with iris retractors or segments and secondary capsulorhexis may be used. Rhexis phimosis may be excised by a special diathermic probe, a subluxated CIC may be sutured to the sclera either in toto or the lens only after removal from the capsule bag, the latter also to the posterior iris surface. When luxated into the vitreous cavity, the CIC may be lifted to the iris plane and refixed as described or exchanged for a new lens sutured into the sulcus or an angle or iris-supported anterior chamber lens. PMID:23053332

  2. [The spastic pelvic floor syndrome: its diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Carbognani, P; Spaggiari, L; Soliani, P; Dell'Abate, P; Rusca, M; Pavesi, G; Larini, P; Foggi, E

    1992-01-01

    The spastic pelvic floor syndrome, caused by a paradox contraction of the sphincteric apparatus at defaecation instead of relaxing, leads to constipation with difficult evacuation. Forty patients (15 males and 25 females, average age 49 years, age range 15-78) affected by serious chronic idiopathic constipation, underwent, at our Institute, from June 1989 to September 1990, the following instrumental examinations: anal manometry; electromyography of the pelvic floor; proctogram; intestinal transit time; anorectal endoscopy; in addition, in 6 cases at risk for colorectal cancer, left colonoscopy. Fifteen patients showed dyskinetic functioning of the voluntary sphincteric apparatus. The following diagnostic methods proved to be of fundamental importance: proctogram, which revealed failure to open of the anorectal angle at defaecation (mean values: at rest 88.93 degrees +/- 6.62; at defaecation 88.93 degrees +/- 9.44); electromyography of the pelvic floor, which showed the anomalous contraction of the external anal sphincter. These patients were treated by means of an air inflated endoampullary balloon to evoke the sensation of a stool and its subsequent expulsion. The correct evacuating function was resumed definitely in 9 patients (60%); for the remaining 6 patients, regular sessions of re-education are still necessary. The spastic pelvic floor syndrome is a major cause of constipation and requires an accurate diagnostic method of investigating the correct functioning of the recto-pelvic region by means of the above-mentioned methods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Pharmacological Treatment of Disruptive Behavior in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the “no change” score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief. PMID:20981776

  4. Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 3-10%. in European studies. However, the diagnosis of RLS in primary care remains low and mistreatment is common. Methods The current article reports on the considerations of RLS diagnosis and management that were made during a European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (EURLSSG)-sponsored task force consisting of experts and primary care practioners. The task force sought to develop a better understanding of barriers to diagnosis in primary care practice and overcome these barriers with diagnostic and treatment algorithms. Results The barriers to diagnosis identified by the task force include the presentation of symptoms, the language used to describe them, the actual term "restless legs syndrome" and difficulties in the differential diagnosis of RLS. Conclusion The EURLSSG task force reached a consensus and agreed on the diagnostic and treatment algorithms published here. PMID:21352569

  5. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome. PMID:26181044

  6. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome.

  7. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome associated with stroke.

    PubMed

    Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Kim, Lenise Jihe; Palombini, Luciana de Oliveira; Rizzi, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho

    2015-06-01

    The association between sleep-disordered breathing and stroke has been a subject of increased interest and research. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for stroke incidence and mortality. Moreover, OSA is a common clinical outcome after stroke, directly influencing the patient's recovery. The treatment of choice for OSA is positive airway pressure (PAP) support and the PAP appliance is considered the most recommended clinical management for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular complications. However, the implementation of PAP in stroke patients remains a challenge, considering the increased frequency of motor and language impairments associated with the cerebrovascular event. In the present study, we reviewed the main findings describing the association between stroke and OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. We also discussed the types of OSA treatment, the different options and indications of PAP treatment, PAP adherence and the clinical outcomes after treatment.

  8. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  9. Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Mesmer, Christina; Morley, Stephen; Dowzer, Clare; Hamilton, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This study conducted a systematic review to assess the quality of existing literature on psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome and to quantify the evidence for their efficacy. Three independent reviewers (2 from England, 1 from the United States) coded the quality of 32 studies, 17 of which provided data suitable for meta-analysis.…

  10. Treatment of a Down's Syndrome Patient for Hyperthyroidism With Radioactive Iodine

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Streeter, O. E.; King, G. C.; Mahan, J.; Talley, G.; Lander, C.; Ashayeri, E.

    1986-01-01

    A Down's syndrome patient was hospitalized for evaluation of vomiting, abdominal pain, and a history of weight loss. A subsequent workup revealed that she had hyperthyroidism. The treatment of choice was radioactive iodine therapy. The patient had a history of consistent nausea and incontinence for urine and feces. Special problems posed by the patient and radiation safety are discussed. PMID:2936892

  11. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  12. Psychotherapeutic Treatment in Combination with Relaxation in a Flotation Tank: Effects on "Burn-Out Syndrome"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellgren, Anette; Buhrkall, Hanne; Norlander, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate experiences gained from treatment combining relaxation in flotation tank with psychotherapy for sufferers from "burn-out syndrome". Six people participated in a ten week program. They were all interviewed; the data were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five themes…

  13. [The post-discectomy syndrome: clinical and electroneuromyographic characteristics and methods of treatment].

    PubMed

    Musaev, A V; Guseĭnova, S G; Musaeva, I R

    2008-01-01

    The data of the Azerbaijan Neurosurgical Center, including 2618 case-reports of patients operated on for low back discal hernia between 1997 and 2002, have been analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. PMID:18689008

  14. Inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome: Myth or new treatment target?

    PubMed Central

    Sinagra, Emanuele; Pompei, Giancarlo; Tomasello, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Amvrosiadis, Georgios; Rossi, Francesca; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio; Rizzo, Aroldo Gabriele; Raimondo, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade intestinal inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and this role is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on the spectrum of mucosal inflammation in IBS, highlighting the relationship of this inflammation to the pathophysiology of IBS and its connection to clinical practice. We carried out a bibliographic search in Medline and the Cochrane Library for the period of January 1966 to December 2014, focusing on publications describing an interaction between inflammation and IBS. Several evidences demonstrate microscopic and molecular abnormalities in IBS patients. Understanding the mechanisms underlying low-grade inflammation in IBS may help to design clinical trials to test the efficacy and safety of drugs that target this pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:26900287

  15. Pregabalin in the treatment of Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena Sanjiv; Bokdawala, Rohann Astad

    2013-04-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome is a condition characterised by the presence of visual hallucinations in patients having visual impairment most commonly reported in the seventh decade. We describe a case of a 55-year-old lady who had developed retinopathy causing significant visual loss secondary to diabetes mellitus. She had started seeing images of men for the past 2 months which made her feel uncomfortable and seek psychiatric help. She was aware that the hallucinations were not real but a part of her imagination. A detailed history did not reveal any psychopathology but the patient had several medical complications due to her uncontrolled diabetes. Pregabalin, which was started for her neuropathy, dramatically remitted her symptoms within 2 days.

  16. The Treatment of Night Eating Syndrome: A Review and Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of night eating syndrome, a disorder characterized by evening hyperphagia, morning anorexia, and insomnia, continues to gain attention with its inclusion in the DSM-V. Known treatments for NES include pharmacological, phototherapy, weight loss and dietary, and psychological interventions, which, together with the syndrome's clinical characteristics, support a treatment guiding biobehavioral model. The biobehavioral model proposes that a genetic predisposition, coupled with stress, enhances midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, which results in lower post-synaptic serotonin, dysregulating circadian rhythms and decreasing satiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors should therefore decrease SERT binding, increase postsynaptic serotonin, and restore circadian function and satiety regulation. Psychological interventions may be used to decrease stress as well as address insomnia and circadian rhythm disruptions. Dietary and behavioral interventions may produce beneficial changes in satiety as well as dysregulated eating. Avenues for future treatment outcome studies, including alternative pharmacological and combination therapies, are discussed.

  17. [Comments on treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome by integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Lu; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2003-07-01

    There are obvious advantages of the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine on the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Combining the ancient and present literature with the special epidemic patterns, pathological changes and clinical symptoms of SARS, the paper discussed the methods of application of the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine on the treatment of SARS, and some matters needing attention in clinic.

  18. Botulinum toxin for treatment of Frey's syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Troiano, André R; Robert, Fábio; Iwamoto, Fábio M; Maniglia, João J; Mocellin, Marcos; Werneck, Lineu César

    2003-06-01

    Frey's syndrome is a phenomenon of hemifacial flushing and sweating after gustatory stimulus, usually secondary to surgical trauma over the parotid gland, although other injury mechanisms may be seen. It is accepted as a result of aberrant regeneration of facial autonomic nerve fibers. Treatment evolved from ineffective medical and surgical approaches to botulinum toxin. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin in the treatment of this complication in two patients. PMID:12806506

  19. [Transcatheter delivery of recombinant adenovirus vector containing exogenous aquaporin gene in treatment of Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Zhang, Jieqiong; Fan, Yan; Sun, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a kind of autoimmune disease, whose main clinical symptoms are dry mouth, dry eye and chronic parotid glandular inflammation. The conservative treatments include artificial tears or saliva,oral administration of corticosteroids,and immunosuppressantsl with limited effectiveness. Along with the development of molecular biology, vast attentions are being paid to researches on gene therapy for Sjögren's syndrome, hopefully to bring gospel to patients with Sjögren's syndrome. This article reviews the recent research progresses on transcatheter delivery of recombinant adenovirus vector with aquaporin gene in experimental treatment of Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:27045247

  20. Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: an evidence-based update of immunosuppressive treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Larkins, Nicholas; Kim, Siah; Craig, Jonathan; Hodson, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common paediatric glomerular diseases, with an incidence of around two per 100,000 children per year. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, with 85%-90% of children going into remission with an 8-week course of treatment. Unfortunately, nephrotic syndrome follows a relapsing and remitting course in the majority, with 90% relapsing at least once. About half will progress to frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). Different initial steroid regimens have been evaluated since the first trials in Europe and America in the 1960s. Most trials have been designed to evaluate the optimal duration of the initial therapy, rather than different cumulative doses of corticosteroid, or the management of relapses. Until recently, these data suggested that an initial treatment duration of up to 6 months reduced the number of children developing a relapse, without evidence of increased steroid toxicity. Recently, three large, well-designed randomised control trials were published, which demonstrated no significant reduction in risk of relapse or of developing FRNS by extended treatment compared with 2 or 3 months. While there are few trial data to guide the treatment of individual relapses in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), there is some evidence that a short course of corticosteroid therapy during upper respiratory tract infection may prevent relapse. In patients with FRNS or SDNS who continue to relapse despite low-dose alternate-day steroids a number of non-corticosteroid, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents (cyclophosphamide, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, levamisole, rituximab) have been shown to reduce the risk of relapse and of FRNS. However, there are limited head-to-head data to inform which agent should be preferred. In this article, we review recent data from randomised trials to update paediatricians on the current evidence

  1. Treatment of Sandifer Syndrome with an Amino-Acid–Based Formula

    PubMed Central

    Bamji, Natasha; Berezin, Stuart; Bostwick, Howard; Medow, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the presentation and treatment in two infants who presented with refractory Sandifer syndrome (SS). Study Design We retrospectively reviewed the cases of two infants who presented to our outpatient clinic with SS who were refractory to conventional treatment. Results We report two patients with refractory SS who responded to treatment with hypoallergenic formula. Conclusion It is important to consider a diagnosis of milk protein allergy responsive to hypoallergenic formula in patients with SS who are refractory to conventional antireflux treatment. PMID:26199799

  2. Interdisciplinary Treatment of Maladaptive Behaviors Associated with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Barbara K; Weiss, Karen E; Harrison, Tracy E; Allman, Daniel A; Petersen, Matthew A; Luedkte, Connie A; Fischer, Philip R

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in adolescents and young adults has been increasing during the past decade. Despite this increase, documentation regarding treatment of these patients is just beginning to emerge. In addition, despite a call for a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary approach, no studies have examined the efficacy of such an approach to treatment. This paper describes a case study of a 19-year-old male with debilitating POTS seen at a tertiary clinic for evaluation and subsequent intensive interdisciplinary treatment. The treatment approach is described and outcomes are presented.

  3. Treatment of Sandifer Syndrome with an Amino-Acid-Based Formula.

    PubMed

    Bamji, Natasha; Berezin, Stuart; Bostwick, Howard; Medow, Marvin S

    2015-04-01

    Objective To study the presentation and treatment in two infants who presented with refractory Sandifer syndrome (SS). Study Design We retrospectively reviewed the cases of two infants who presented to our outpatient clinic with SS who were refractory to conventional treatment. Results We report two patients with refractory SS who responded to treatment with hypoallergenic formula. Conclusion It is important to consider a diagnosis of milk protein allergy responsive to hypoallergenic formula in patients with SS who are refractory to conventional antireflux treatment. PMID:26199799

  4. Randomized Multicenter Feasibility Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy for Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Mary P; Anderson, Rodney U; Potts, Jeannette; Payne, Christopher K; Peters, Kenneth M; Clemens, J Quentin; Kotarinos, Rhonda; Fraser, Laura; Cosby, Annamarie; Fortman, Carole; Neville, Cynthia; Badillo, Suzanne; Odabachian, Lisa; Sanfield, Anna; O’Dougherty, Betsy; Halle-Podell, Rick; Cen, Liyi; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J Richard; Kusek, John W; Nyberg, Leroy M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial designed to compare two methods of manual therapy (myofascial physical therapy (MPT) and global therapeutic massage (GTM)) among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Materials and Methods Our goal was to recruit 48 subjects with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome or interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome at six clinical centers. Eligible patients were randomized to either MPT or GTM and were scheduled to receive up to 10 weekly treatments, each 1 hour in duration. Criteria to assess feasibility included adherence of therapists to prescribed therapeutic protocol as determined by records of treatment, adverse events which occurred during study treatment, and rate of response to therapy as assessed by the Patient Global Response Assessment (GRA). Primary outcome analysis compared response rates between treatment arms using Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results Twenty-three (49%) men and 24 (51%) women were randomized over a six month period. Twenty-four (51%) patients were randomized to GTM, 23 (49%) to MPT; 44 (94%) patients completed the study. Therapist adherence to the treatment protocols was excellent. The GRA response rate of 57% in the MPT group was significantly higher than the rate of 21% in the GTM treatment group (p=0.03). Conclusions The goals to judge feasibility of conducting a full-scale trial of physical therapy methods were met. The preliminary findings of a beneficial effect of MPT warrants further study. PMID:19535099

  5. [Metabolic syndrome: jumble syndrome of obesity or specific entity? Which treatment: diet or polypill?].

    PubMed

    Martin-Du Pan, Rémy C; Ruiz, Juan

    2008-02-01

    The reality of metabolic syndrome (MS) as a specific entity is debatable. However, the simple measure of waist circumference (>94 cm in men and >80 cm in women) is useful: (1) to check for insulin resistance by measuring serum levels of fasted glucose and insuline, cholesterol, triglycerides; (2) to look for diseases associated with MS such as hypertension, non alcohoolic steatohepatitis, sleep apnea, polycystic ovary disease, hypogonadism and to measure serum levels of ferritine, ALAT, ASAT, urate acid, CRP hs, testosterone and (3) to make obese people aware of their risk of becoming diabetic and to motivate them to change their life style. The utility of exercise and of various diets is discussed as well as the efficiency of drugs acting on different components of MS such as rimonabant, orlistat, metformin, glitazones, telmisartan and testosterone. The importance of political measures to fight the obesity epidemic is underlined. PMID:18386674

  6. Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms.

  7. Arthroscopic treatment of painful Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome in a professional handball player.

    PubMed

    Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M; Guimaraes, T; Carnesecchi, O; Daggett, M; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2016-09-01

    Sinding-Larsen-Johansson (SLJ) syndrome is a type of osteochondrosis of the distal pole of the patella most often caused by repeated microtrauma. Here, we describe the case of a professional athlete with painful SLJ syndrome treated arthroscopically. A 29-year-old male professional handball player presented with anterior knee pain that persisted after 4 months of an eccentric rehabilitation protocol and platelet-rich plasma injections. Despite this conservative treatment, the patient could not participate in his sport. The SLJ lesion was excised arthroscopically, which led to complete disappearance of symptoms and return to competitive sports after 5 months.

  8. Arthroscopic treatment of painful Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome in a professional handball player.

    PubMed

    Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M; Guimaraes, T; Carnesecchi, O; Daggett, M; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2016-09-01

    Sinding-Larsen-Johansson (SLJ) syndrome is a type of osteochondrosis of the distal pole of the patella most often caused by repeated microtrauma. Here, we describe the case of a professional athlete with painful SLJ syndrome treated arthroscopically. A 29-year-old male professional handball player presented with anterior knee pain that persisted after 4 months of an eccentric rehabilitation protocol and platelet-rich plasma injections. Despite this conservative treatment, the patient could not participate in his sport. The SLJ lesion was excised arthroscopically, which led to complete disappearance of symptoms and return to competitive sports after 5 months. PMID:27450859

  9. [Perioperative treatment of patients with long QT syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krönauer, T; Friederich, P

    2015-08-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by a change in cardiac repolarization due to functional ion channel dysfunction which is associated with an elongation of the QT interval (hence the name) in the electrocardiogram and a predisposition to cardiac rhythm disorders (e.g. torsade de pointes, TdP) as well as cardiac events up to sudden cardiac death. There is a congenital (cLQTS) and an acquired (aLQTS) form of the disease. The prevalence of cLQTS is 1 in 2000 but aLQTS is much more common and includes a grey area due to many asymptomatic patients. The LQTS is, therefore, more common than malignant hyperthermia which is much discussed in anesthesiology and has a reported prevalence in the population of 1:3000. Considering the prevalence of both aLQTS as well as cLQTS the importance of the LQTS seems to be underestimated in current perioperative care. Potential perioperative risks of such patients can be significantly reduced by appropriate patient management. This includes adequate preoperative preparation, the correct choice of anesthetic medication as well as adequate perioperative monitoring and preparedness for immediate pharmaceutical and electrical intervention in case of typical cardiac rhythm disturbances, such as TdP arrhythmia. PMID:26260197

  10. Clinical utility of lenalidomide in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Zahr, Abdallah; Saad Aldin, Ehab; Komrokji, Rami S; Zeidan, Amer M

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of acquired clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias, paradoxical BM hypercellularity, ineffective hematopoiesis, and increased risk of leukemic transformation. Risk stratification, using different prognostic scores and markers, is at the core of MDS management. Deletion 5q [del(5q)] MDS is a distinct class of MDS characterized by the haploinsufficiency of specific genes, microRNAs, and proteins, which has been linked to increased sensitivity to the drug lenalidomide. Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lenalidomide in improving clinical outcomes of patients with del(5q) MDS, including reduction in red blood cell transfusion requirements and improvements in quality of life. Lenalidomide has also demonstrated some activity in non-del(5q) lower-risk MDS as well as higher-risk MDS, especially in combination with other agents. In this paper, we review the pathogenesis of del(5q) MDS, the proposed mechanisms of action of lenalidomide, the major clinical trials that documented the activity of lenalidomide in different MDS populations, potential predictors of benefit from the drug and suggested mechanisms of resistance, and the use of combination strategies to expand the clinical utility of lenalidomide in MDS. PMID:25565910

  11. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  12. Refeeding syndrome: screening, incidence, and treatment during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Russell S

    2013-12-01

    The possible deleterious effects of feeding after a period of prolonged starvation have been known for over 60 years. The resultant biochemical disturbance, symptoms, and signs have been termed the refeeding syndrome (RS). The key to the pathophysiology is the stimulation of insulin release resulting in anabolic activity. Depleted electrolyte and micronutrient stores are overwhelmed and cellular function disrupted. A concise definition of RS is not agreed and hampers interpretation of clinical data. Hypophosphatemia and appearance of tissue edema/pathological fluid shifts are the most often agreed diagnostic criteria. The characteristics of particular patient groups at risk have been recognized for some time, and there are guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence in the UK to aid recognition of individuals at high risk along with protocols for initiating nutrition. Using loose diagnostic criteria, RS appears to occur in 4% of cases of parenteral nutrition (PN) when case records were reviewed by experts in a large study into PN care in the UK. Disappointingly, prescribers recognized only 50% of at risk cases. Early data from a similar study in New Zealand appear to show a similar pattern. Prospective series looking at patients receiving nutrition support in institutions with Nutrition Support Teams have found an incidence of 1-5%. RS is still underrecognized. Patients receiving PN should be counted as being in a high-risk category and feeding protocols to avoid RS applied. Low rates of RS then occur and death from this cause be avoided.

  13. Outcome of metformin treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Bari, N; Islam, M R

    2012-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical diagnosis. During one year period, 50 women suffering from PCOS were treated with either 850 mg/twice daily or 500 mg/thrice daily along with clomiphene citrate and/or letrozole, with advice for exercise and dietary therapy. Diagnosis of the PCOS patients was made by the presence of two out of the following three criteria: (a) oligo and/or anovulation, (b) hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), and (c) polycystic ovaries, with the exclusion of other aetiologies. The mean±SD age of our patients was 26.74±3.85 years, BMI 26.64±2.64 kg/m2, pulse 80.56±4.61 b/min, systolic blood pressure 113.80±4.40 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 76.10±4.77 mmHg, duration of marriage 6.19±3.20 years, and parity was 43(86%) nulliparous and 7(14%) primiparous. Oligomenorrhoea was present in 100%, hypomenorrhoea in 38%, secondary amenorrhoea in 28% and acne in 70% women. Results showed that 92% women followed advice on exercise and dietary therapy, in maximum number of women progesterone level was 31.40 nmol/L (66%), weight loss was 2 kg (44%), menstrual cycle regular (90%) and pregnancy test negative (90%). Only in 5 cases (10%) pregnancy test was positive.

  14. Arterial hypertension in Turner syndrome: a review of the literature and a practical approach for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Demulier, Laurent; De Backer, Julie; De Wolf, Daniel; De Schepper, Jean; Tʼsjoen, Guy; De Backer, Tine

    2015-07-01

    Turner syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder with complete or partial absence of one X chromosome that only occurs in women. Clinical presentation is variable, but congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated diseases that add significantly to the increased morbidity and mortality in Turner syndrome patients. Arterial hypertension is reported in 13-58% of adult Turner syndrome patients and confers an increased risk for stroke and aortic dissection. Hypertension can be present from childhood on and is reported in one-quarter of the paediatric Turner syndrome patients. This article reviews the prevalence and cause of arterial hypertension in Turner syndrome and describes the relationship between blood pressure, aortic dilation and increased cardiovascular risk. We compare current treatment strategies and also propose an integrated practical approach for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in Turner syndrome applicable in daily practice.

  15. Ehlers-danlos syndrome in orthopaedics: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Eric D; Demaio, Marlene; Bodurtha, Joanne

    2012-09-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous connective tissue condition characterized by varying degrees of skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and vascular fragility. Joint dislocations, musculoskeletal pain, atrophic scars, easy bleeding, vessel/viscera rupture, severe scoliosis, and obstetric complications may occur. These manifestations are secondary to abnormal collagen, with specific molecular defects in types I, III, and V collagen; they may also be related to tenascin-X, which has been identified in some patients. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome has been classified into 6 types, with variable degrees of joint instability, skin hyperextensibility, wound healing difficulty, and vascular fragility. Diagnosis begins with recognition of the signs and symptoms of global hypermobility and referring appropriate patients for genetic consultation. It is important to accurately identify patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome to initiate appropriate musculoskeletal treatment, optimize anesthetic and postoperative management, perform appropriate vascular screening, and help families address their concerns with other families and advocacy groups. PMID:23016112

  16. [Pain syndrome in patients with spastic torticollis before and after the treatment with dysport].

    PubMed

    Zalialova, Z A; Abdulgalimova, D M

    2010-01-01

    53 patients with the syndrome of spastic torticollis (ST) were examined to assess the nature and dynamics of pain syndrome during the treatment with dysport. The patient's condition assessment was examined before and 1 month after injection of dysport using Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). The TWSTRS scale includes 3 subscales (severity of torticollis, disability and pain), each of which consists of the attributes estimated for scores. Observations showed that 1 month after injection of dysport with doses ranging from 500 to 1000 units in the affected muscles of the neck pain intensity decreased by an average of 55%, which has averaged 6,2 points of the TWSTRS pain subscale (p<0,01). Observation confirmed that pain is one of the leading complaints in patients with ST. Pathogenetic basis of the pain formation in this disease and prospects of botulinum toxin therapy in pain syndrome correction were discussed. PMID:21389941

  17. Eight year follow-up dental treatment in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ranadheer, E; Nagaraju, K; Suresh, P; Updesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development characterized by variable involvement of the craniofacial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Occurrence of this syndrome is relatively rare with wide variations in the clinical expression. Aspects of speech, appearance, and social well-being along with psychological issues are hampered in these patients. Treating such disabled children poses a great challenge not only in the medical field but also in the dental meadow. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with this syndrome and the dental treatment was carried out with a noteworthy outcome for a period of 8 years. A brief review of etiology, dental anomalies along with prognosis is documented.

  18. Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid.

    PubMed

    Dresse, M F; David, M; Hume, H; Blanchard, H; Russo, P; Van Doesberg, N; Rivard, G E

    1991-01-01

    The Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is characterized by thrombocytopenia and localized coagulopathy associated with a hemangioma. Most techniques applied to eradicate the tumor or accelerate its involution (surgery, radiation therapy, embolization) are invasive and require transfusion of large amounts of blood products. In some cases, medical treatment is the only alternative. Efficacy of steroids and antifibronolytic agents has already been described, but even this approach is associated with the administration of blood products. We report two cases of infants with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with cardiac and hepatic hemangiomas. At admission, both had signs of cardiac failure. They were successfully treated with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Blood products were not required once the diagnosis was made. These observations have important implications for the management of patients with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome because they show that even in severe cases blood transfusions can be avoided by the use of prednisone and EACA.

  19. Habilitational treatment of a child with fetal alcohol syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Valentina; Bartolović, Jelena; Crnković, Maja; Kosicek, Tena; Barisić, Irma

    2014-03-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is defined by a triad of symptoms such as facial dysmorphology, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, and central nervous system dysfunction. It is the result of teratogenic effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy. The prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome is 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. From the neurological point of view, there is a possibility of the central nervous system dysfunction. Structural disjunctions are the consequences of fine and gross motor dysfunction, oculomotor dysfunction, and difficulties in sensorimotor integration. From the functional point view, there are complex cognitive disorders and behavioral disorders, attention disorders and impulse control disorders, learning difficulties, and social communication and perception difficulties. This paper presents a case study of a boy diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome at the age of four, monitored by a team of experts including a physiatrist and neuropediatrician. The boy is also included in polyvalent habilitation treatment provided by a speech therapist, rehabilitator and psychologist. PMID:24974670

  20. Evaluation of treatment efficacy in sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F

    1996-11-01

    The evaluation of treatment efficacy consists in evaluating their efficacy to normalize sleep-related breathing disorders and neuropsychological consequences and witness complaints, patients' compliance, and the risk or side effects to benefits ratio. Polysomnographic studies are the gold standard for assessing the effects of treatments on nocturnal breathing the sleep characteristics, but the timing of control sleep studies must take into account the possible changes in treatment efficacy with time. Determining the effective positive pressure level during split nights or with a multifactorial regression model may be helpful but can result in an underestimation of the pressure setting. The utility of unassisted home sleep recordings during CPAP therapy is limited by the number of signals recorded and the absence of sleep recording. The evaluation of neuropsychological improvements has to be multifactorial to evaluate the subjective and objective effects of SAHS treatments. The compliance to CPAP therapy must be evaluated by pressure counter or time counter measurements rather than on the reported use. CPAP observance can be reliably estimated after the first month of therapy is linked to improvement in diurnal symptoms. As for any disease, SAHS treatment must be adapted to the individual characteristics of the patient and of his or her disease. Therefore, the choice between weight loss, pharyngeal or maxillomandibular surgery, anterior mandibular positioners or tongue retaining devices, nasal CPAP, BiPAP, and tracheostomy depends on the patient's complaints and morbidity risk factors and on the respective side effects to benefits ratio of these therapeutic procedures.

  1. [Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) dependence and the GHB withdrawal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    van Noorden, Martijn S; Kamal, Rama; de Jong, Cor A J; Vergouwen, A C M Ton; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a neurotransmitter that occurs naturally in the brain and is increasingly being used as a 'party drug' because of its relaxing and euphoria-inducing effects. GHB has a limited medical use in the treatment of narcolepsy. GHB-intoxications occur often in non-medical use, and generally result in a coma of short duration. GHB use several times a day can lead to tolerance and dependence. After sudden cessation or reduction of intensive GHB use, a severe withdrawal syndrome may occur with symptoms varying from tremor, anxiety and agitation to autonomic instability, hallucinations and delirium. Treatment of the GHB withdrawal syndrome consists of supportive care and benzodiazepines, often in high doses. The controlled detoxification of GHB using pharmaceutical GHB in an adjusted dose is currently being investigated in the Netherlands. There is no literature concerning the treatment of patients following GHB intoxication or after detoxification.

  2. Successful Treatment of Lower Limb Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Katznelson, Rita; Segal, Shira C; Clarke, Hance

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS. PMID:27445607

  3. [ZHANG Tangfa's characteristics of acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Through collecting and sorting of works, literature and medical cases regarding professor ZHANG Tangfa, it is found that his acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation can be summarized as: tracing the source and paying attention to basic theory, especially the meridian theory and conception vessel and governor vessel; focusing on acupuncture manipulation and emphasizing acupuncture basic skills; highly valuing treating spirit, acquiring and maintaining needling sensation; underlining "three differentiations" that is consisted of syndrome differentiation, disease differentiation and meridian differentiation to guide the clinical prescriptions of acupoints; exploring and ingenious use of scalp acupuncture; being concerned on research of difficult and complicated diseases; advocating comparative studies to optimize the clinical treatment plan; proposing the combination of Chinese and western medicine, including diagnosis, treatment and basic theory, to improve the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture.

  4. Successful Treatment of Lower Limb Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Katznelson, Rita; Segal, Shira C.; Clarke, Hance

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS. PMID:27445607

  5. Treatment considerations in hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, H; Aizenbud, D; Dror, Aizenbud D

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson-Guilford progeria syndrome is an extremely rare condition classified as one of the premature ageing syndromes. This case presents a 16-year-old Israeli female patient, suffering from a variant of Hutchinson-Guilford progeria with a history of treatment with oral biphosphnates. The patient presented with typical cranial and facial features of the syndrome including delayed teeth eruption and root development probably due to insufficient jaw growth and severs retrognatic position of the maxilla and mandible. Orthodontic treatment considerations are described along with those required in light of the previous treatment by oral biphosphonates.All primary teeth were extracted in three appointments while creating as minimal trauma as possible to the surrounding tissue and alveolar bone. For now, the patient refuses to begin the orthodontic treatment course. There are no limitations to conduct any dental procedures in progeria patients, however, extreme caution must be exercised during oral surgery due to the inelasticity of tissues and dermal atrophy. Orthodontic procedure commencement should be early enough to manage the delayed development and eruption of teeth. Patients taking oral biphosphonates should be advised of this potential complication. If orthodontic treatment is considered appropriate, plans should be assessed and modified to include compromises.

  6. Extending Prednisolone Treatment Does Not Reduce Relapses in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kist-van Holthe, Joana E.; van Rijswijk, Nienske; de Mos, Nienke I.; Hop, Wim C.J.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Nauta, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged prednisolone treatment for the initial episode of childhood nephrotic syndrome may reduce relapse rate, but whether this results from the increased duration of treatment or a higher cumulative dose remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 69 hospitals in The Netherlands. We randomly assigned 150 children (9 months to 17 years) presenting with nephrotic syndrome to either 3 months of prednisolone followed by 3 months of placebo (n=74) or 6 months of prednisolone (n=76), and median follow-up was 47 months. Both groups received equal cumulative doses of prednisolone (approximately 3360 mg/m2). Among the 126 children who started trial medication, relapses occurred in 48 (77%) of 62 patients who received 3 months of prednisolone and 51 (80%) of 64 patients who received 6 months of prednisolone. Frequent relapses, according to international criteria, occurred with similar frequency between groups as well (45% versus 50%). In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to the eventual initiation of prednisolone maintenance and/or other immunosuppressive therapy (50% versus 59%), steroid dependence, or adverse effects. In conclusion, in this trial, extending initial prednisolone treatment from 3 to 6 months without increasing cumulative dose did not benefit clinical outcome in children with nephrotic syndrome. Previous findings indicating that prolonged treatment regimens reduce relapses most likely resulted from increased cumulative dose rather than the treatment duration. PMID:23274956

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a predictive marker for POEMS syndrome treatment response: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, S; Sato, Y; Katayama, K; Hanaoka, H; Sawai, S; Beppu, M; Nomura, F; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Iwai, Y; Watanabe, K; Amino, H; Ohwada, C; Takeuchi, M; Sakaida, E; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare multisystem disease characterised by plasma cell dyscrasia and overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is assumed to be useful in monitoring disease activity, because VEGF levels usually decrease after treatment. However, there is no study to investigate whether the extent of decrease in VEGF correlates with clinical outcome. We tested the predictive efficacy of serum VEGF levels in POEMS syndrome. Method This was an institutional review board approved retrospective observational cohort study of 20 patients with POEMS monitored regularly for more than 12 months (median follow-up, 87 months) after treatment onset using our prospectively accumulated database of POEMS from 1999 to 2015. Patients were treated by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation or thalidomide administration. Serum VEGF was measured by ELISA. Outcome measures included clinical and laboratory findings and relapse-free survival. Results Serum VEGF levels decreased rapidly after treatment, and stabilised by 6 months post treatment. Patients with normalised serum VEGF levels (<1040 pg/mL) at 6 months showed prolonged relapse-free survival (HR=12.81, 95% CI 2.691 to 90.96; p=0.0001) and greater later clinical improvement. The rate of serum VEGF reduction over the first 6 months post treatment correlated with increased grip strength, serum albumin levels, and compound muscle action potential amplitudes at 12 months. Conclusions Serum VEGF level at 6 months post treatment is a predicative biomarker for disease activity and prognosis in POEMS syndrome. Serum VEGF could be used as a surrogate endpoint for relapse-free survival or clinical or laboratory improvement of POEMS syndrome for clinical trials. PMID:26560063

  8. Cyclosporin A treatment in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, J; Brandis, M; Helmchen, U; Hoyer, P F; Burghard, R; Ehrich, J H; Zimmerhackl, R B; Klein, W; Wonigeit, K

    1988-11-15

    In a pilot study 23 children with nephrotic syndrome were treated with cyclosporin A (Cs) for 6-45 months. 8 children suffered from steroid dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and had experienced at least one course with cytotoxic drugs, but had relapsed thereafter. 2 children had diabetes mellitus type I with nephrotic syndrome and 13 children had steroid resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Cs was started with 100 mg/m2/day in two doses and increased stepwise to obtain a Cs whole blood trough level of 200-400 ng/ml. In steroid dependent MCNS treatment with Cs reduced relapse rate significantly, and prednisone therapy could be stopped completely. After discontinuation of Cs, relapses reoccurred as frequently as before. Renal function remained unimpaired despite repeated Cs treatment courses up to 38 months. In cases of nephrotic syndrome with diabetes type I Cs treatment led to complete remission without changing the insulin requirement. However, after discontinuation of Cs relapses reoccurred. In steroid resistant FSGS 6 children benefited from Cs treatment: 4 went into complete remission, 2 into partial remission. The 2 children with complete remission relapsed but remained Cs responsive. The remaining 7 children with FSGS did not respond to Cs but continued the course of their disease, with two patients rapidly progressing to terminal renal failure. Side-effects of Cs treatment were mild. It is concluded that Cs is an effective agent in steroid dependent MCNS and can be used as an alternative drug in specific cases like steroid toxicity or diabetes mellitus. In steroid resistant FSGS a trial with Cs seems to be warranted since some cases do respond favorably. To avoid nephrotoxicity treatment with Cs should always be monitored closely by determination of blood levels and renal function.

  9. [The importance of testosterone in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in men].

    PubMed

    Kempisty-Zdebik, Ewa; Zdebik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome is being seen in increasing percentage of men with middle and old age. Besides the typical deterioration of sexual function there is predisposition to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The similarity of the effects of testosterone substitution and the dietary treatment led the authors to a retrospective analysis of patient data treated for testosterone deficiency syndrome. Data on 341 patients aged over 45 years with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome were divided into 5 groups: T--testosterone substitution without additional diet, T-Low-Carb--testosterone and low carbohydrate diet, T-Fat-Low--testosterone and low fat diet, Carb-Low--only low carbohydrate diet, Fat-Low--only low fat diet. We analyzed change in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbAlc, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels within 6 months from the start of observation. The best results of all investigated parameters were obtained in patients treated with testosterone and low-carbohydrate diet and in the group treated with testosterone and low-fat diet. Slightly worse results in the group received the same diets and the worst in the group treated only with testosterone. The improvement obtained in the total testosterone therapy and diet was much greater than the simple sum of the effects of both methods witch suggests the existence of synergies. PMID:22764516

  10. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malahias, Michael Alexander; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Babis, George C; Nikolaou, Vasileios S

    2015-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1-2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Successful treatment of six patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with myoglobulinemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Toru; Matsui, Rei; Hirano, Tadashi; Torichigai, Shinichi; Yotsueda, Hideki; Higashi, Harumichi; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare but potentially lethal, rare reaction to neuroleptics which is characterized by altered levels of consciousness, extrapyramidal effects, autonomic instability, hyperthermia, and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels. The most serious complication of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is acute renal failure. We investigated six cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with myoglobulinemic acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis and effect of hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. The patients were five males and one female with a mean age of 43.5 yr. All of the patients, who developed acute renal failure induced from rhabdomyolysis, had previously received butyrophenone (haloperidol), phenothiazine, benzamide, iminomide, benzisoxazole, antidepressants, and hypnotics (benzodiazepine and barbiturate) for the treatment of schizophrenia. The clinical manifestations of neuroleptic malignant syndrome were characterized by altered consciousness, muscle rigidity and weakness, fever, and excessive perspiration. The peak laboratory data were blood urea nitrogen 102 +/- 26 (mean +/- SD) mg/dL, serum creatinine 9.1 +/- 2.1 mg/dL, serum creatine phosphokinase 229,720 +/- 289,940 IU/L, and all of them developed oliguric acute renal failure. Dantrolene sodium administration was given to five cases and hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration was performed in all of them. The serum creatinine level after hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration was 1.4 +/- 1.0 mg/dL. All patients were successfully cured of acute renal failure by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. As a result, myoglobulinemic acute renal failure associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome was successfully treated by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration.

  12. Nutrition in clinical practice-the refeeding syndrome: illustrative cases and guidelines for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stanga, Z; Brunner, A; Leuenberger, M; Grimble, R F; Shenkin, A; Allison, S P; Lobo, D N

    2008-06-01

    The refeeding syndrome is a potentially lethal complication of refeeding in patients who are severely malnourished from whatever cause. Too rapid refeeding, particularly with carbohydrate may precipitate a number of metabolic and pathophysiological complications, which may adversely affect the cardiac, respiratory, haematological, hepatic and neuromuscular systems leading to clinical complications and even death. We aimed to review the development of the refeeding syndrome in a variety of situations and, from this and the literature, devise guidelines to prevent and treat the condition. We report seven cases illustrating different aspects of the refeeding syndrome and the measures used to treat it. The specific complications encountered, their physiological mechanisms, identification of patients at risk, and prevention and treatment are discussed. Each case developed one or more of the features of the refeeding syndrome including deficiencies and low plasma levels of potassium, phosphate, magnesium and thiamine combined with salt and water retention. These responded to specific interventions. In most cases, these abnormalities could have been anticipated and prevented. The main features of the refeeding syndrome are described with a protocol to anticipate, prevent and treat the condition in adults.

  13. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malahias, Michael Alexander; Johnson, Elizabeth O.; Babis, George C.; Nikolaou, Vasileios S.

    2015-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1–2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26807124

  14. Evaluation of drug treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a therapeutic challenge in part because of the limited understanding of the pathophysiology. The placebo response rate varies in randomized controlled trials from 20 to 70%, and can persist for up to at least 1 year. It is contentious whether dietary fibre and bulking agents relieve the symptoms of IBS; constipation probably improves. Anticholinergic and antispasmodic agents are of questionable benefit in IBS despite positive meta-analyses of poor quality trials. A meta-analysis concluded that the tricyclic antidepressants were superior to placebo in IBS, although the individual trial results were variable. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are of uncertain benefit. Laxatives are used for constipation but probably poorly control the IBS symptom complex. Loperamide is superior to placebo in improvement of diarrhoea but not abdominal pain in IBS. Tegaserod is a well- tolerated aminoguanidine indole derivative of serotonin that is a partial 5HT4–receptor agonist with prokinetic properties; a therapeutic gain over placebo of 5% to 15% has been observed in constipation-predominant IBS in females. Alosetron is a 5HT3-receptor antagonist that is efficacious in females with diarrhoea-predominant IBS, with a 12% to 17% therapeutic gain; the risk of ischaemic colitis is 1 in 350, with very severe constipation occurring in about 1 in 1000. Optimizing study design remains a challenge in IBS. New visceral analgesic and motility modifying agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents are in trials, and hopefully additional efficacious therapeutic options for patients with IBS will soon emerge. PMID:12968980

  15. [Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): medical and social costs of treatment].

    PubMed

    Caletti, María Gracia; Petetta, Daniel; Jaitt, Marisa; Casaliba, Silvia; Gimenez, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is the most frequent cause of renal failure in children, and the second cause of renal transplant. Argentina has the highest incidence of the world. Direct and indirect costs of HUS in its different clinical phases were studied. A retrospective review of all clinical notes of patients attending the hospital during the period 1987-2003 was carried out. Cost of every medical intervention, including diagnostic and therapeutic actions were calculated by the Hospital Department of Costs, according to two criteria: cost per process and cost per patient (considering total processes received each). Indirect costs were estimated according to guidelines established by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INDEC): 1) family costs 2) social expenses afforded by the state, 3) cost of health services. Out of a total sample size of 525 patients, 231 clinical notes of children were selected and studied. The direct cost per patient in the acute period was US dollar 1 500, the total direct cost of care for each patient per year was US dollar 15 399,53; indirect costs per patient and for all year were US dollar 3 004,33 and US dollar 7 354,98 respectively. Total costs during 2005 per patient and per year was US dollar 17 553,39 and US dollar 2 170 477,37 respectively. Our study provides valuable information not only for purposes of health care planning, but also for helping authorities to set priorities in health, and to support the idea of developing preventive actions in a totally preventable condition in Argentina.

  16. Targeted Treatments in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurkan, C. Kagan; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of a constellation of symptoms that sometimes occur as part of a complex disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavioral domains. It is a highly disabling disorder and there is a need for treatment targeting the core symptoms. Although autism is accepted…

  17. A Review of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and the Possible Role of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of This Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jacqueline Mary; Finlayson, Heather; Travlos, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the classification, diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a complex entity that is characterized by different neurovascular signs and symptoms involving the upper limb. TOS is defined as upper extremity symptoms due to compression of the neurovascular bundle in the area of the neck just above the first rib. Compression is thought to occur at one or more of the three anatomical compartments: the interscalene triangle, the costoclavicular space and the retropectoralis minor spaces. The clinical presentation can include both neurogenic and vascular symptoms. TOS can be difficult to diagnose because there is no standardized objective test that can be used and the clinician must rely on history and several positive findings on physical exam. The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve conduction may be a sensitive way to detect pathology in the lower trunks of the brachial plexus which is promising for future research. Treatment options continue to be conservative and surgical. However, for those who have failed physical therapy there is research to suggest that botulinum toxin may help with symptom relief. However, given that there has been conflicting evidence, further research is required using randomized controlled trials. PMID:23202313

  18. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission.

  19. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission. PMID:24684070

  20. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature. PMID:26639643

  1. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature.

  2. A mouse model of the slow channel myasthenic syndrome: Neuromuscular physiology and effects of ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Cossins, J; Lashley, D; Maxwell, S; Liu, W W; Wickens, J R; Martinez-Martinez, P; de Baets, M; Beeson, D

    2013-10-01

    In the slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome mutations in genes encoding the muscle acetylcholine receptor give rise to prolonged ion channel activations. The resulting cation overload in the postsynaptic region leads to damage of synaptic structures, impaired neuromuscular transmission and fatigable muscle weakness. Previously we identified and characterised in detail the properties of the slow channel syndrome mutation εL221F. Here, using this mutation, we generate a transgenic mouse model for the slow channel syndrome that expresses mutant human ε-subunits harbouring an EGFP tag within the M3-M4 cytoplasmic region, driven by a ~1500 bp region of the CHRNB promoter. Fluorescent mutant acetylcholine receptors are assembled, cluster at the motor endplates and give rise to a disease model that mirrors the human condition. Mice demonstrate mild fatigable muscle weakness, prolonged endplate and miniature endplate potentials, and variable degeneration of the postsynaptic membrane. We use our model to investigate ephedrine as a potential treatment. Mice were assessed before and after six weeks on oral ephedrine (serum ephedrine concentration 89 ± 3 ng/ml) using an inverted screen test and in vivo electromyography. Treated mice demonstrated modest benefit for screen hang time, and in measures of compound muscle action potentials and mean jitter that did not reach statistical significance. Ephedrine and salbutamol show clear benefit when used in the treatment of DOK7 or COLQ congenital myasthenic syndromes. Our results highlight only a modest potential benefit of these β2-adrenergic receptor agonists for the treatment of the slow channel syndrome.

  3. [Treatment of Poland syndrome thorax deformity with the lipomodeling technique: about ten cases].

    PubMed

    La Marca, S; Delay, E; Toussoun, G; Ho Quoc, C; Sinna, R

    2013-02-01

    The correct management, with the classic techniques, of the thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome is difficult, with often insatisfactory results. The current surgical treatment involves the use of prothetic material and/or different flaps with their own complications and scares. The experience of our team with fat grafting (we named lipomodeling) in breast reconstruction helped us to propose the correction of the thoracic and mammary deformity by repeated fat transfer sessions. Fat grafting is commonly used in our team since 1998 in various indication of breast surgery. We reviewed retrospectively our ten first cases of thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome treated with only fat grafting. Patients had repeated procedures until obtaining a satisfactory result. The fat was harvested from the thigh, buttocks, and abdomen. There were young patients with a mean age of 16years old (from 12 to 24). The mean follow-up was 51months. An average of 2.9 procedures (1 to 5) with 255cm(3) of fat injection at each procedure was needed to obtain symetry. Hundred percent of the patients were satisfied. No complication was noted. As reported, the reconstruction of the thoracic deformity and the mammary shape can be obtained by fat grafting. The absence of a flap donor site sequelae and the absence an implant allow this technique to be simple, reproductible, and without great complication. These criteria match well the surgical management of this deformity, which is mainly aesthetic. Moreover, the secondary benefit of liposuction of disgracious steatomery helps the acceptance of the procedure. Therefore in our hands, fat grafting to the breast (lipomodeling) is now our first choice treatment in thoracic Poland syndrome deformity. Given the rarity of this syndrome, we recommend a treatment by an operator who makes the learning curve of lipomodeling, and who often deals with Poland syndrome.

  4. [New options in the treatment of painful shoulder syndrome].

    PubMed

    Esparza Miñana, J M; Londoño Parra, M; Villanueva Pérez, V L; De Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint in clinical practice in Primary Care and affects 20% of the general population. The usual form of treatment is based on NSAIDs, rest, rehabilitation and, as an alternative, a local injection into the joint. There are also radiofrequency techniques on the suprascapular nerve in the cases of refractory pain to these therapies. Radiofrequency can be used in two ways: Conventional Radiofrequency, using high temperatures to the target tissue with the aim of producing a thermal neurolysis and Pulsed Radiofrequency where the temperatures are lower and produces a temporary non-destructive blockage; the latter being the most common technique in the management of shoulder pain. Although the analgesic mechanism of action of Radiofrequency is unknown, recent studies have shown that it is safe, effective and Lasting. Radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve is a valid, effective and with few complications in the treatment of shoulder pain refractory to other therapies.

  5. Treatment of the adolescent patient with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Samantha M; Dayal, Molina

    2003-06-01

    Frequently, a multidisciplinary approach is needed in the management of the adolescent with PCOS. Treatment must be provided in a supportive environment. Because adolescent females are concerned about their appearance any image, short-term treatment goals are usually directed toward the amelioration of hirsutism, acne, and irregular menstruation. Although not immediately concerning to the adolescent, the prevention of long-term sequelae from anovulation and hyperinsulinemia is also important. Multiple concomitant therapies are often necessary to address the variety of symptoms and achieve better results. Recent studies have investigated the role of the insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, in the treatment of PCOS. Although most studies show a benefit, the conclusions are limited owing to the small numbers of select patients, observational designs, and short durations of follow-up. In addition, there are few data comparing insulin-sensitizing drugs with traditional therapies for PCOS. More long-term, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the utility of insulin-sensitizing agents, their long-term benefits, and the ideal patient population for their use.

  6. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  7. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: new etiologic insights and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-10-28

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: a recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle--a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders.

  8. The usefulness of biliopancreatic diversion/Scopinaro operation in treatment of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Maciej; Frask, Agata; Lech, Pawel; Zdrojewski, Michal; Doboszynska, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common form of obesity with a genetic basis. The short expected survival time due to numerous accompanying diseases and their complications is the reason for research on the maximally efficient method of treatment of obesity in this syndrome. Undertaken attempts of conservative treatment, for example with somatostatin, are ineffective. It seems that the only effective treatment of obesity in this syndrome may be surgical. In this article we present 2 cases of patients with PWS who underwent surgery consisting of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)/Scopinaro procedure. The BPD/Scopinaro operation in selected cases of disciplined patients with a co-operative family, which we find of key importance, can be considered as one option of treatment of this syndrome in patients with prior neglect of conservative treatment. PMID:26240637

  9. The usefulness of biliopancreatic diversion/Scopinaro operation in treatment of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Frask, Agata; Zdrojewski, Michal; Doboszynska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common form of obesity with a genetic basis. The short expected survival time due to numerous accompanying diseases and their complications is the reason for research on the maximally efficient method of treatment of obesity in this syndrome. Undertaken attempts of conservative treatment, for example with somatostatin, are ineffective. It seems that the only effective treatment of obesity in this syndrome may be surgical. In this article we present 2 cases of patients with PWS who underwent surgery consisting of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)/Scopinaro procedure. The BPD/Scopinaro operation in selected cases of disciplined patients with a co-operative family, which we find of key importance, can be considered as one option of treatment of this syndrome in patients with prior neglect of conservative treatment. PMID:26240637

  10. Updates and Future Horizons on the Understanding, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Sturge-Weber Syndrome Brain Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Warren; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Ball, Karen L.; Juhasz, Csaba; Jordan, Lori C.; Ewen, Joshua B.; Comi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To review recent developments in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Method: Members of the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium Sturge-Weber Syndrome National Workgroup contributed their expertise to review the literature and present promising directions for research. Results: The increasing number…

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: facts or myths?

    PubMed

    Wu, Justin C Y

    2010-11-01

    Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice.

  12. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, Maha A.; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan. PMID:26219452

  13. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome.

    PubMed

    AlSarheed, Maha A; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S

    2015-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan. PMID:26219452

  14. Recommendations on chronic constipation (including constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome) treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Pierre; Bridges, Ronald; Champion, Malcolm C; Ganguli, Subhas C; Gray, James R; Irvine, E Jan; Plourde, Victor; Poitras, Pierre; Turnbull, Geoffrey K; Moayyedi, Paul; Flook, Nigel; Collins, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    While chronic constipation (CC) has a high prevalence in primary care, there are no existing treatment recommendations to guide health care professionals. To address this, a consensus group of 10 gastroenterologists was formed to develop treatment recommendations. Although constipation may occur as a result of organic disease, the present paper addresses only the management of primary CC or constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The final consensus group was assembled and the recommendations were created following the exact process outlined by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology for the following areas: epidemiology, quality of life and threshold for treatment; definitions and diagnostic criteria; lifestyle changes; bulking agents and stool softeners; osmotic agents; prokinetics; stimulant laxatives; suppositories; enemas; other drugs; biofeedback and behavioural approaches; surgery; and probiotics. A treatment algorithm was developed by the group for CC and constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Where possible, an evidence-based approach and expert opinions were used to develop the statements in areas with insufficient evidence. The nature of the underlying pathophysiology for constipation is often unclear, and it can be tricky for physicians to decide on an appropriate treatment strategy for the individual patient. The myriad of treatment options available to Canadian physicians can be confusing; thus, the main aim of the recommendations and treatment algorithm is to optimize the approach in clinical care based on available evidence. PMID:17464377

  15. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Anderson Sanches; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling). Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety. PMID:26602525

  16. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Melo, Anderson Sanches; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling). Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety. PMID:26602525

  17. Vigabatrin Therapy for Infantile Spasms in a Case of Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome with Cardiac Hypertrophy Developing during Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Yohei; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Hirakubo, Yuka; Nonaka, Kazuhito; Ichihashi, Ko

    2016-01-01

    In a patient with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome complicated by intractable infantile spasms (West syndrome), cardiac hypertrophy developed during adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Various types of antiepileptic drugs, intravenous immunoglobulin, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and a ketogenic diet were ineffective in this case. However, vigabatrin both decreased clinical seizures and improved electroencephalogram findings. Although vigabatrin has not been approved for use in Japan, the results in the present case suggest that this drug should be considered as an alternative therapy for cases of infantile spasms associated with syndromes involving cardiomyopathy or its potential risk factors, such as cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. PMID:27680485

  18. Chiari malformation and central sleep apnea syndrome: efficacy of treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    do Vale, Jorge Marques; Silva, Eloísa; Pereira, Isabel Gil; Marques, Catarina; Sanchez-Serrano, Amparo; Torres, António Simões

    2014-01-01

    The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery. PMID:25410846

  19. Successful Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Vein Compression (May-Thurner) Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Tercan, Fahri; Sener, Mesut

    2006-06-15

    A 10-year-old boy presented to our clinic with left lower extremity swelling present for 1 year with deterioration of symptoms during the prior month. Laboratory investigation for deep vein thrombosis was negative. Venography and computed tomography scan of the pelvis showed compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. A diagnosis of iliac vein compression syndrome was made. After venography, endovascular treatment was planned. The stenosis did not respond to balloon dilatation and a 12 mm Wallstent was placed with successful outcome. The patient's symptoms improved but did not resolve completely, probably due to a chronically occluded left superficial femoral vein that did not respond to endovascular recanalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome with stent placement in a pediatric patient.

  20. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, Sara; de Oliveira, Joana Tavares; Pinto, Rui; Cruz, Francisco; Buffington, CA Tony; Dinis, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. PMID:26229509

  1. Recent Advances and Review on Treatment of Stiff Person Syndrome in Adults and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Gazali, Zarine Anwar

    2015-12-22

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is one of the rarest autoimmune neurological disorders, which is mostly reported in women. It is characterised by fluctuating muscle rigidity and spasms. There are many variants of SPS, these include the classical SPS, Stiff Leg Syndrome (SLS), paraneoplastic variant, gait ataxia, dysarthria, and abnormal eye movements. Studies have shown that the paraneoplastic variant of SPS is more common in patients with breast cancer who harbour amphiphysin antibodies, followed by colon cancer, lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and malignant thymoma.  Currently, the treatment for SPS revolves around improving the quality of life by reducing the symptoms as far as possible with the use of GABAergic agonists, such as diazepam or other benzodiazepines, steroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There have been random clinical trials with Rituximab, but nothing concrete has been suggested. A treatment approach with standard drugs and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) seems to be promising.

  2. Recent Advances and Review on Treatment of Stiff Person Syndrome in Adults and Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gazali, Zarine Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is one of the rarest autoimmune neurological disorders, which is mostly reported in women. It is characterised by fluctuating muscle rigidity and spasms. There are many variants of SPS, these include the classical SPS, Stiff Leg Syndrome (SLS), paraneoplastic variant, gait ataxia, dysarthria, and abnormal eye movements. Studies have shown that the paraneoplastic variant of SPS is more common in patients with breast cancer who harbour amphiphysin antibodies, followed by colon cancer, lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and malignant thymoma.  Currently, the treatment for SPS revolves around improving the quality of life by reducing the symptoms as far as possible with the use of GABAergic agonists, such as diazepam or other benzodiazepines, steroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There have been random clinical trials with Rituximab, but nothing concrete has been suggested. A treatment approach with standard drugs and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) seems to be promising. PMID:26848416

  3. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a dermatologic perspective and successful treatment with losartan.

    PubMed

    Landero, James

    2014-08-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct "evanescent hyperemia" disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud's phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an oral

  4. Topiramate in the treatment of comorbid night eating syndrome and PTSD: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Phebe; Masters, Barbara; Nawar, Ola

    2004-01-01

    Comorbid chronic sleepwalking with night eating syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder were treated with topiramate for eight months in an obese 40-year-old woman. Central nervous system side effects of word-finding and memory difficulties were managed with dosage adjustments to a final dose of 100 mg HS. Treatment led to resolution of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, night eating episodes, and sleepwalking episodes, with a weight loss of 70 pounds.

  5. Treatment of the Guillain-Barré syndrome by plasma exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, C; Newland, A C; Ridley, A

    1982-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome were treated with plasma exchange. Examination two weeks after treatment was commenced showed that three had not improved. Five showed only a minimal improvement, which was considered to be compatible with the natural history of the disease. The remaining four patients showed a more substantial improvement which could have been related to the plasma exchange. PMID:7131022

  6. Corrective Neuromuscular Approach to the Treatment of Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, Robert; Dolski, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the evaluation and treatment process for inappropriate functional patterns of neuromuscular activity within the scope of an iliotibial band friction syndrome protocol. Background: Runners with iliotibial band friction syndrome are frequently fitted with orthotic devices to restrict excessive midfoot or rearfoot, or both, motions during the stance phase. These devices may fail to yield favorable results when underlying neuromuscular factors are associated with functional iliotibial band tightening. Differential Diagnosis: Distal biceps femoris tendinitis, popliteal tendinitis, lateral meniscus lesion. Treatment: The athlete's physical examination revealed several patterns of inappropriate neuromuscular activity attributed partly to the prolonged daily wear of beach-type sandals. Modifications of casual footwear and a temporary reduction in training volume were recommended initially to prevent exacerbation of the athlete's condition. Stretching, massage, and soft tissue mobilization were administered in accordance with the athlete's specific needs. The protocol included progressions of nonweightbearing and weightbearing therapeutic exercises. Neuromuscular electric stimulation was incorporated into the protocol to re-educate the role of the first ray within the stance phase of the athlete's walking gait. Uniqueness: Upon stationary examination, this athlete presented with normal lumbar and lower extremity postures. Gait analysis, however, revealed inappropriate dorsiflexion of the great toe during ambulation. Further, the athlete's performances on a series of tests to assess neuromuscular function were substandard. This athlete's response to previous treatment and unique physical findings required a corrective neuromuscular approach that deviates from iliotibial band friction syndrome protocols advocating the use of orthotics. Conclusions: While the role of any single treatment in the athlete's recovery remains unknown, it seems that a

  7. Tumour lysis syndrome after treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with fludarabine.

    PubMed Central

    Montalban, C.; Liaño, F.; Aguilera, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fludarabine is one of the most recent and promising therapeutic agents for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We describe a patient who developed tumour lysis syndrome after the first course of treatment with fludarabine and call attention to this uncommon but potentially lethal complication that has not been previously taken into account in this neoplasia. It should always be anticipated when patients are treated with new and effective drugs. PMID:7971632

  8. [Magnetotherapy in the combined health resort-based treatment of irritated bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kaĭsinova, A S; Osipov, Iu S; Litvinova, M A; Prosol'chenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a combined method for the treatment of irritated bowel syndrome with the use of magnetotherapy, drinking mineral waters, and radon baths. It was shown that prescription of preformed physical factors improves the psycho-emotional status of the patients due to normalization of the motor-evacuative function of the gastrointestinal tract. The overall result of this therapeutic modality is the improvement of the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21574296

  9. [Attention deficit syndrome in adults: clinical, psychophysiological features and treatment].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Iakovenko, E A; Nikishena, I S; Anisimova, T I

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of examination of 34 patients, aged from 18 to 30 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (ICD-10 item F90.0). The study has shown that inattentive type of ADHD is noted in 50%, combined type in 38.3% and hyperactivity/impulsivity type in 11.7% of patients. Adult patients with ADHD also have a high level of anxiety and asthenic disorders. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adaptol in dosage 1500 mg daily during 8 weeks in the treatment of this group of patients. The high efficacy (improvement in 64,7% of cases) and safety of adaptol confirmed by the data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies.

  10. Sodium valproate in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lambie, D G; Johnson, R H; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1980-09-01

    The value of sodium valproate in the management of patients during withdrawal from alcohol dependence has been assessed. Alcoholic inpatients were randomly allocated to two groups - one treated with sodium valproate and the other acting as a control. All patients received multivitamins and fluid and electrolyte replacement, and some received chlormethiazole or other tranquillisers. Treatment with sodium valproate (1200 mg daily) was continued for one week. The occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms (tremulousness, nausea, sweating, disorientation) were noted daily. Forty-nine episodes of withdrawal have been included in the trial - 22 in the sodium valproate group and 27 in the control group. Five patients, all in the control group, had seizures. Other withdrawal symptoms disappeared more quickly in the sodium valproate group even though fewer patients were receiving chlormethiazole.

  11. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  12. Iodide iontophoresis as a treatment for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Horwath-Winter, J; Schmut, O; Haller-Schober, E-M; Gruber, A; Rieger, G

    2005-01-01

    Background/aims: Among the causes related to the development or perpetuation and aggravation of dry eye disease, oxidative reactions may have a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Antioxidants, such as iodide, have shown a strong effect in preventing the oxidative damage to constituents of the anterior part of the eye. In this clinical trial the effectiveness of iodide iontophoresis and iodide application without current in moderate to severe dry eye patients was compared. Methods: 16 patients were treated with iodide iontophoresis and 12 patients with iodide application without current for 10 days. Subjective improvement, frequency of artificial tear application, tear function parameters (break up time, Schirmer test without local anaesthesia), vital staining (fluorescein and rose bengal staining) as well as impression cytology of the bulbar conjunctiva were evaluated before treatment, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment. Results: A reduction in subjective symptoms, frequency of artificial tear substitute application, and an improvement in certain tear film and ocular surface factors could be observed in both groups. A stronger positive influence was seen after application of iodide with current (iontophoresis), as observed in a distinct improvement in break up time, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, and in a longer duration of this effect compared with the non-current group. No significant change in Schirmer test results and impression cytology were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Iodide iontophoresis has been demonstrated to be a safe and well tolerated method of improving subjective and objective dry eye factors in patients with ocular surface disease. PMID:15615744

  13. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-06-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase(®), Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.

  14. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-06-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase(®), Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses. PMID:25071396

  15. Transcatheter Splenic Artery Occlusion for Treatment of Splenic Artery Steal Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan; Selby, J. Bayne; Chavin, Kenneth; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To review some aspects of the problem of splenic artery steal syndrome as cause of ischemia in transplanted livers and treatment by selective splenic artery occlusion. Materials and Methods: Eleven liver transplant patients from a group of 350 patients, nine men and two women,ranging in age from 40 years to 61 years (mean 52 years), presented with biochemical evidences of liver ischemia and failure, ranging from one to 60 days following orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis of splenic artery steal syndrome was suspected by elevated enzymes, Doppler ultrasound and confirmed by celiac angiogram. Patients with confirmed hepatic artery thrombosis before angiography were excluded from the study. Embolization with Gianturco coils was performed. Results: All patients were treated by splenic artery embolization with Gianturco coils. The 11 patients improved clinically within 24 hours of the procedure with significant change in the biochemical and clinical parameters. Followup ranged from one month to two years. One of the 11 patient initially improved, but developed hepatic artery thrombosis within 24 hours of the embolic treatment,requiring surgical repair. Conclusion: Splenicartery steal syndrome following liver transplantation surgery can be diagnosed by celiac angiography, and effectively treated by splenic artery embolization with coils. Embolization is one of the treatments available, it is minimally invasive, and leads to immediate clinical improvement. Hepatic artery thrombosis is a possible complication of the procedure.

  16. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Giugliani, Roberto; Villarreal, Martha Luz Solano; Valdez, C. Araceli Arellano; Hawilou, Antonieta Mahfoud; Guelbert, Norberto; Garzón, Luz Norela Correa; Martins, Ana Maria; Acosta, Angelina; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Lemes, Aída; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Amartino, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase®, Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients’ responses. PMID:25071396

  17. Investigation into the Influence of Physician for Treatment Based on Syndrome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lijie; Liu, Baoyan; Xie, Qi; Yang, Shuhong; He, Liyun; Yan, Shiyan; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Background. The characteristics of treatment based on syndrome differentiation (TBSD) cause great challenges to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical methods. Objectives. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of physician to personalized medicine in the process of TBSD. Methods. We performed a randomized, triple-blind trial involving patients of primary insomnia treated by 3 physicians individually and independently. The patients (n = 30) were randomly assigned to receive treatments by the 3 physicians for every visit. However, they always received the treatment, respectively, prescribed by the physician at the first visit. The primary outcome was evaluated, respectively, by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the TCM symptoms measuring scale. The clinical practices of the physicians were recorded at every visit including diagnostic information, syndrome differentiation, treating principles, and prescriptions. Results. All patients in the 3 groups (30 patients) showed significant improvements (>66%) according to the PSQI and TCM symptoms measuring scale. Conclusion. The results indicate that although with comparable effectiveness, there exist significant differences in syndrome differentiation, the treating principles, and the prescriptions of the approaches used by the 3 physicians. This means that the physician should be considered as an important factor for individualized medicine and the related TCM clinical research. PMID:24288563

  18. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of sympathetic chain neurolysis (sympathectomy) have, at one time or another, held promise as effective treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Complications, such as worsening pain and the development of new pain syndromes, have prevented sympathectomy from emerging as a standard intervention. In an effort to avoid poor outcomes associated with neurolysis, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proposed as a potential treatment alternative for a number of chronic neuropathic pain states, including some forms of CRPS. METHODS: The present report describes three cases in which patients diagnosed with lower extremity CRPS type I obtained substantial and lasting intervals of pain relief following PRF of the lumbar sympathetic chain. Over a period of four years, 14 fluoroscopically guided procedures using PRF lesioning of the lumbar sympathetic chain at L2, L3 and L4 were performed in three individuals with CRPS type I of the lower limb. Outcome measures included pre- and post-treatment self-reported pain and medication requirements. RESULTS: Substantial pain relief (>50%) was achieved in 91.7% of PRF applications at three months and 83.3% at six months, with some treatments resulting in persistent relief well beyond 12 months. Medication use decreased to a comparable degree, with discontinuation of opiates after all but three treatments. CONCLUSIONS: PRF lesioning of the lumbar sympathetic chain can be an effective treatment for patients with CRPS type I of the lower extremity, with the potential to provide ≥6 months of substantial pain relief. PMID:24945285

  19. Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kayir, Hakan; Celik, Turgay; Yüksel, Nevzat

    2006-05-01

    Effects of acute and chronic tianeptine treatments on ethanol withdrawal syndrome were investigated in rats. Ethanol (7.2% v/v) was given to adult male Wistar rats by a liquid diet for 30 days. Acute or chronic (twice daily) tianeptine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally. Acute and last chronic tianeptine injections and saline were done 30 min before ethanol withdrawal testing. After 2nd, 4th and 6th hours of ethanol withdrawal, rats were observed for 5 min, and withdrawal signs which included locomotor hyperactivity, agitation, tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behavior and audiogenic seizures were recorded or rated. Locomotor activity in naive (no ethanol-dependent rats) was also tested after acute tianeptine treatments. Acute but not chronic tianeptine treatment attenuated locomotor hyperactivity and agitation in ethanol-dependent rats. Both acute and chronic tianeptine treatment produced some significant inhibitory effects on tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behaviors and audiogenic seizures during the ethanol withdrawal. Our results suggest that acute or chronic tianeptine treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats and this drug may be useful for treatment of ethanol-type dependence.

  20. Mechanisms of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and rational for treatment with selective ghrelin receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Gelao, Lucia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Locatelli, Marzia; Minchella, Ida; Di Leo, Maria; Liuzzi, Rita; Milani, Alessandra; Massaro, Mariangela; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multi-organ, multifactorial and often irreversible syndrome affecting many patients with cancer. Cancer cachexia is invariably associated with weight loss, mainly from loss of skeletal muscle and body fat, conditioning a reduced quality of life due to asthenia, anorexia, anaemia and fatigue. Treatment options for treating cancer cachexia are limited. The approach is multimodal and may include: treatment of secondary gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional treatments, drug, and non-drug treatments. Nutritional counselling and physical training may be beneficial in delaying or preventing the development of anorexia-cachexia. However, these interventions are limited in their effect, and no definitive pharmacological treatment is available to address the relevant components of the syndrome. Anamorelin is a first-in-class, orally active ghrelin receptor agonist that binds and stimulates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor centrally, thereby mimicking the appetite-enhancing and anabolic effects of ghrelin. It represents a new class of drug and an additional treatment option for this patient group, whose therapeutic options are currently limited. In this review we examine the mechanisms of anamorelin by which it contrasts catabolic states, its role in regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis, the data of recent trials in the setting of cancer cachexia and its safety profile.

  1. Intermittent axial wrist traction as a conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome: a case series.

    PubMed

    Brunarski, David J; Kleinberg, Brian A; Wilkins, Kathryn R

    2004-09-01

    Four patients with clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnel syndrome underwent intermittent axial wrist traction with a pneumatic device which applied a controlled traction force of forty to sixty pounds per square inch along the axis of the forearm. Traction cycled intermittently five seconds on and five seconds off. Treatment duration was five minutes. Patients in this study received between five and twelve treatment sessions over a three month period. All neurophysiological tests were performed at an independent site without knowledge of treatment plan before treatment commenced and then repeated after the last treatment three months later. Clinical tests were performed initially, after three months and after one year. Significant subjective improvement in all cases were accompanied by objective improvement and normalization of the nerve conduction studies.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome Screening and Assertive Community Treatment: A Quality Improvement Study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Enrico G; Rosati, Justin; Williams, Caroline; Pessin, Neil; Lindy, David C

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome defines a collection of cardiometabolic illnesses that predict risk for poor physical health and early death and is highly prevalent among those with serious mental illness. Despite recommendations for routine monitoring, those with serious mental illness frequently do not receive physical health screenings. We conducted a quality improvement (QI) project to increase rates of metabolic syndrome screening in three New York City Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. The project, conducted from December 2010 to May 2011, involved educational sessions for staff and consumers and a systematic screening protocol. We collected complete metabolic syndrome screening measurements for 71% of participating ACT consumers. We found metabolic risk to be nearly universal among participants, with over half diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. We also found high rates of previously undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We describe the resources and obstacles we encountered in our QI project to make systematic metabolic screening a routine part of ACT care. This QI project suggests that ACT teams can take a leadership role in screening their consumers for physical health issues, aligning with recent policy trends to better integrate behavioral health and primary care services. PMID:26282669

  3. Ten Years’ Experience in Surgical Treatment of Right Middle Lobe Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pejhan, Saviz; Salehi, Farshid; Niusha, Shanay; Farzanegan, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we present the clinical, radiological, pathological, bronchoscopic and surgical results of 40 patients with diagnosis of middle lobe syndrome who were referred to our thoracic surgery unit for surgical intervention in a 10 years period. Methods: Forty patients with obstructive and non-obstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome referred to our thoracic surgery unit. Clinical data were collected from the patients’ records in a ten years period. This study evaluates diagnostic approaches and surgical treatments in right middle lobe syndrome. Results: We studied 23 females (57.5%) and 17 males (42.5%) with a mean age of 31.7. Clinical findings were cough 95%, sputum 80% and intermittent hemoptysis in 50% of patients. Middle lobe collapse was seen in CT scan of all patients. Bronchiectasis was the most common pathologic finding (55%). Tuberculosis was not rare and was final pathology in 20% of patients. In three patients ruptured hydatid cyst was final finding. Surgery was done without mortality and with only minor complications. Conclusion: Lobectomy of right middle lobe is a good therapeutic option in these patients. Due to high prevalence of tuberculosis and hydatid cyst in Middle Eastern countries these two must be considered as causes of middle lobe syndrome. PMID:25753209

  4. Laparoscopic treatment of an upper gastrointestinal obstruction due to Bouveret’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Jin, Shi

    2013-01-01

    Bouveret’s syndrome is an extremely rare type of gallstone-induced ileus with atypical clinical manifestations, such as abdominal distension and pain, nausea and vomiting, fever or even gastrointestinal bleeding, which may easily be misdiagnosed. In the present case, a 55-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal obstructive symptoms but without pain, fever, jaundice or melena. At first, gastrolithiasis and peptic ulcer combined with pyloric obstruction were suspected after gastroscopy revealed a large, hard stone in the duodenal bulb. A revised diagnosis of Bouveret’s syndrome was made following abdominal computed tomography. Subsequently, the patient exhibited a good postoperative recovery after laparoscopic duodenotomy for gallstone removal and subtotal cholecystectomy. The condition of the patient remained stable after being followed up for 6 mo. The successful application of laparoscopic therapy to treat Bouveret’s syndrome has seldom been reported. Laparoscopic enterolithotomy is safe and effective, with good patient tolerability, rapid postoperative recovery and few wound-related complications. The laparoscopic treatment of Bouveret’s syndrome is worth exploring. PMID:24187475

  5. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment - Part 2: Syndromic and nonsyndromic Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature, relating to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aims of Part 2: Contribute to the sparse scientific knowledge about pathogenesis and involved genetics. Subjects and Methods: An analysis of this large database was conducted focusing on genetic involvement, family history, and the incidence of additional syndromes. Results: Beside of differences related to clinical signs of dyspnea, feeding problems and mortality rates, various concomitant syndromes, and genetic abnormalities were found in cases of Fairbairn–Robin triad (FRT) and Siebold–Robin sequence (SRS), in addition to differences in relation to clinical signs of dyspnea, feeding problems, and mortality rates. Conclusion: Multiple FRT cases presented with various concomitant syndromes and genetic abnormalities, but only one type occurred in two SRS cases. The latter presented a significantly different mortality rate when compared to the FRT subgroup. PMID:27563604

  6. Fascia Wrapping Technique: A Modified Method for the Treatment of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyun Ho; Kang, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Variations of the anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve for cubital tunnel syndrome include subcutaneous, submuscular, intramuscular, and subfascial methods. We introduce a modification of subfascial transposition, which is designed to facilitate nerve gliding by wrapping the nerve with fascia. Twenty patients with wrapping surgery following the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative electrodiagnostic studies were performed in all patients and all of them were rechecked postoperatively. The preoperative mean value of motor conduction velocity (MCV) was 37.1 ± 6.7 m/s within the elbow segment and this result showed a decrease compared to the result of MCV with 53.9 ± 6.9 m/s in the below the elbow-wrist segment with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Postoperative mean values of MCV were improved in all of 20 patients to 47.6 ± 5.5 m/s (P < 0.05). 19 patients of 20 (95%) reported good or excellent clinical outcomes according to a modified Bishop scoring system. The surgical treatment methods for cubital tunnel syndrome have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the preferred method differs depending on the surgeon. The wrapping method of anterior transposition is a newly designed alternative method modified from subfascial transposition. This method could be an alternative option to treat cubital tunnel syndrome. PMID:25386601

  7. Acupuncture: a potential modality for the treatment of auricular pruritus in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with multiple cranial nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan Ying; Wang, He Sheng; Sun, Jian Hua

    2015-03-01

    Auricular pruritus coexisted with multiple cranial nerve lesions in Ramsay Hunt syndrome has been rarely reported in the literature especially its treatment. However, auricular pruritus cannot be better improved along with the improvement of multiple cranial nerve lesions. We tried to solve the problem with acupuncture and got experience from it. The following 2 cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome show a potential modality for the treatment of auricular pruritus with acupuncture.

  8. Rational treatment options with AEDs and ketogenic diet in Landau-Kleffner syndrome: still waiting after all these years.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Lieven

    2009-08-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain a first treatment approach in Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and related syndromes. In the current literature, only class IV evidence is available. Inclusion criteria and outcome parameters are ill-defined. Most commonly, valproate, ethosuximide, and/or benzodiazepines are used. More recent case series show that sulthiame and especially levetiracetam can be considered as effective drugs. Smaller studies also point to the ketogenic diet as a valuable treatment option in LKS.

  9. Functional assessment and treatment of perseverative speech about restricted topics in an adolescent with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Rodriguez, Nicole M; Owen, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that a 14-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome displayed perseverative speech (or "restricted interests") reinforced by attention. To promote appropriate speech in a turn-taking format, we implemented differential reinforcement (DR) of nonperseverative speech and DR of on-topic speech within a multiple schedule with stimuli that signaled the contingencies in effect and who was to select the topic. Both treatments reduced perseverative speech, but only DR of on-topic speech increased appropriate turn taking during conversation. Treatment effects were maintained when implemented by family members and novel therapists.

  10. Differences in acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment and evaluation strategies between Chinese and Western Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Li, Xia; Yang, Jiping; Xu, Liran; Guo, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, including Chinese medicine (CM), has been used to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) foralmost 30 years. We aimed to compare the main differences between AIDS treatment and evaluation strategies between CM and Western Medicine (WM), and analyze advantages and disadvantages. The characteristics of integrative medicine (IM), based on CM and WM, include a patient-centered mode of medicine based on evidence. IM focuses on complex intervention and management with systemic and individual treatment. The evaluation indexes of IM might consist of objective indicators and subjective indexes. IM might be a more valuable method for treating AIDS in the future instead of WM or CM alone.

  11. Role of "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ambrogio, A G; Cavagnini, F

    2016-09-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), its treatment remains a challenge. When surgery has been unsuccessful or unfeasible as well in case of recurrence, the "old" pharmacological agents represent an important alternative for both ACTH-dependent and independent hypercortisolism. Especially in the latter, the advent of novel molecules directly targeting ACTH secretion has not outweighed the "old" drugs, which continue to be largely employed and have recently undergone a reappraisal. This review provides a survey of the "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of CS. PMID:27086313

  12. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Giovanni Modesto; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino; da Rocha, Denise Falcão Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Laudimar Alves; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed. PMID:25741831

  13. [Control of treatment efficacy in patients with diabetic foot syndrome and peripheral angiopathy].

    PubMed

    Horobeĭko, M B

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of deproteinized hemoderivate, obtained from the calf blood, was used in complex of treatment of the patients, suffering the ischemic forms of the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). The impact of treatment on a partial pressure of the oxygen (TcPO2) on the foot back was studied up. In noncritical ischemia of the lower extremities tissues there were established a trustworthy increase of TcPO2 in patients as well as a positive dynamics of the wounds healing. In a critical ischemia the results are heterogenous due to presence of coexistant factors, although a stable positive effect was noted.

  14. Tocilizumab in the treatment of mixed connective tissue disease and overlap syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Natalia; Duquesne, Agnes; Desjonquères, Marine; Larbre, Jean-Paul; Lega, Jean-Christophe; Fabien, Nicole; Belot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is one of the main manifestations of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and overlap syndrome in children and can be responsible for functional disability. We report on 2 children with arthritis that were dramatically improved by a treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) blockers in the context of connective tissue disease. However, in both cases, other systemic autoimmune symptoms were not modified by the treatment and autoantibodies tend to increase, suggesting a differential effect of IL-6 inhibition on articular inflammation and systemic autoimmunity. PMID:27738519

  15. Functional assessment and treatment of perseverative speech about restricted topics in an adolescent with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Rodriguez, Nicole M; Owen, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that a 14-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome displayed perseverative speech (or "restricted interests") reinforced by attention. To promote appropriate speech in a turn-taking format, we implemented differential reinforcement (DR) of nonperseverative speech and DR of on-topic speech within a multiple schedule with stimuli that signaled the contingencies in effect and who was to select the topic. Both treatments reduced perseverative speech, but only DR of on-topic speech increased appropriate turn taking during conversation. Treatment effects were maintained when implemented by family members and novel therapists. PMID:24114104

  16. Role of "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ambrogio, A G; Cavagnini, F

    2016-09-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), its treatment remains a challenge. When surgery has been unsuccessful or unfeasible as well in case of recurrence, the "old" pharmacological agents represent an important alternative for both ACTH-dependent and independent hypercortisolism. Especially in the latter, the advent of novel molecules directly targeting ACTH secretion has not outweighed the "old" drugs, which continue to be largely employed and have recently undergone a reappraisal. This review provides a survey of the "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of CS.

  17. Metformin treatment before and during in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: summary of a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Tso, Leopoldo O; Costello, Michael F; Albuquerque, Luiz Eduardo T; Andriolo, Régis B; Marjoribanks, Jane; Macedo, Cristiane R

    2015-09-01

    In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin treatment before or during assisted reproductive technology cycles increases clinical pregnancy rates and decreases the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, there is no conclusive evidence of a benefit in live birth rates.

  18. Modulation of the GABAergic pathway for the treatment of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Hare, Emma B; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and the most common single-gene cause of autism. It is caused by mutations on the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) and lack of fragile X mental retardation protein, which in turn, leads to decreased inhibition of translation of many synaptic proteins. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) hypothesis states that the neurological deficits in individuals with FXS are due mainly to downstream consequences of overstimulation of the mGluR pathway. The main efforts have focused on mGluR5 targeted treatments; however, investigation on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system and its potential as a targeted treatment is less emphasized. The fragile X mouse models (Fmr1-knock out) show decreased GABA subunit receptors, decreased synthesis of GABA, increased catabolism of GABA, and overall decreased GABAergic input in many regions of the brain. Consequences of the reduced GABAergic input in FXS include oversensitivity to sensory stimuli, seizures, and anxiety. Deficits in the GABA receptors in different regions of the brain are associated with behavioral and attentional processing deficits linked to anxiety and autistic behaviors. The understanding of the neurobiology of FXS has led to the development of targeted treatments for the core behavioral features of FXS, which include social deficits, inattention, and anxiety. These symptoms are also observed in individuals with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, therefore the targeted treatments for FXS are leading the way in the treatment of other neurodevelopmental syndromes and autism. The GABAergic system in FXS represents a target for new treatments. Herein, we discuss the animal and human trials of GABAergic treatment in FXS. Arbaclofen and ganaxolone have been used in individuals with FXS. Other potential GABAergic treatments, such as riluzole, gaboxadol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, will be also discussed. Further

  19. Which patients do not recover from shoulder impingement syndrome, either with operative treatment or with nonoperative treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ketola, Saara; Lehtinen, Janne; Rousi, Timo; Nissinen, Maunu; Huhtala, Heini; Arnala, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Shoulder impingement syndrome is common, but treatment is controversial. Arthroscopic acromioplasty is popular even though its efficacy is unknown. In this study, we analyzed stage-II shoulder impingement patients in subgroups to identify those who would benefit from the operation. Patients and methods — In a previous randomized study, 140 patients were either treated with a supervised exercise program or with arthroscopic acromioplasty followed by a similar exercise program. The patients were followed up at 2 and 5 years after randomization. Self-reported pain was used as the primary outcome measure. Results — Both treatment groups had less pain at 2 and 5 years, and this was similar in both groups. Duration of symptoms, marital status (single), long periods of sick leave, and lack of professional education appeared to increase the risk of persistent pain despite the treatment. Patients with impingement with radiological acromioclavicular (AC) joint degeneration also had more pain. The patients in the exercise group who later wanted operative treatment and had it did not get better after the operation. Interpretation — The natural course probably plays a substantial role in the outcome. Based on our findings, it is difficult to recommend arthroscopic acromioplasty for any specific subgroup. Regarding operative treatment, however, a concomitant AC joint resection might be recommended if there are signs of AC joint degeneration. Even more challenging for the development of a treatment algorithm is the finding that patients who do not recover after nonoperative treatment should not be operated either. PMID:25809315

  20. Euthyroid sick syndrome in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy before treatment with anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    von Klopmann, Thilo; Boettcher, Irene Christine; Rotermund, Annett; Rohn, Karl; Tipold, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Euthyroid sick syndrome is a common finding in dogs and is attributable to nonthyroidal illness or treatment with any of a variety of drugs such as phenobarbital. In dogs with epilepsy, treatment with anticonvulsant drugs can lead to subnormal plasma thyroid hormone concentrations despite normal thyroid function. One-hundred thirteen dogs with seizure activity were retrospectively evaluated to determine the influence of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) on thyroid hormone concentrations. Blood samples were taken from 60 dogs with IE before initiation of anticonvulsant therapy. Control groups consisted of 34 dogs with IE and receiving anticonvulsants and 19 dogs with secondary epilepsy. Thyroid concentrations consistent with euthyroid sick syndrome were diagnosed in 38% of dogs with untreated IE without clinical signs of hypothyroidism or concomitant diseases. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.363, P = .01) between seizure frequency and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations: the longer the interval between 2 seizure events, the higher the serum total thyroxine concentration. There was no correlation between the degree of alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations and the time span between the most recent seizure event and blood collection, the type of the most recent seizure event, the duration of the complete seizure history, or the predominant seizure type. These results suggest that IE can be a reason for euthyroid sick syndrome in dogs. The effect of phenobarbital on plasma thyroid hormone concentrations must be investigated in future studies, as it might be less pronounced than expected.

  1. Two controlled evaluations of multicomponent psychological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E B; Schwarz, S P; Suls, J M; Gerardi, M A; Scharff, L; Greene, B; Taylor, A E; Berreman, C; Malamood, H S

    1992-03-01

    We report two controlled comparisons of a previously validated multicomponent (relaxation, thermal biofeedback, and cognitive therapy) treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to an ostensible attention-placebo control (pseudo-meditation and EEG alpha suppression biofeedback) and to a symptom-monitoring control. In Study 1 (n = 10 per condition) there were nonsignificant trends for the multicomponent treatment to be superior to the attention-placebo condition. In Study 2 (n = 30 per condition), we found no advantage for the multicomponent treatment over the attention-placebo condition. Subjects in both treatment conditions showed significant reductions in GI symptoms, as measured by daily symptom diaries, and significant reductions in trait anxiety and depression. The GI symptom reductions held up over a 6 month follow-up. Possible explanations for the results are explored.

  2. [Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of torticollis and Meige syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sobstyl, Michał; Ząbek, Mirosław

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established and accepted treatment modality of generalized dystonia. The stereotactic target to be approached with DBS leads is the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Bilateral GPi stimulation in patients suffering from primary generalized dystonia reduced dystonic movement not only in the trunk and limbs but also in the neck and face. These observations have led to the use of GPi stimulation in patients with severe torticollis and Meige syndrome refractory to pharmacological agents as well to botulinum toxin injections. An increasing number of reports indicate the effectiveness of GPi stimulation in the treatment of intractable focal and segmental dystonia. Moreover, DBS can be performed simultaneously on both sides during one operative session. This treatment modality is reversible and safer when compared to stereotactic ablative techniques. In future, DBS can become an alternative treatment for intractable focal and segmental dystonia.

  3. Sphenopalatine blocks in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janzen, V D; Scudds, R

    1997-10-01

    Sphenopalatine blocks have been used to treat pain for more than 80 years. Anecdotal support for sphenopalatine ganglion blocks has been very strong in those who believe in the technique, but the research results have been inconclusive. Therefore, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 61 patients, 42 with fibromyalgia and 19 with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain was measured using visual analogue scales prior to treatment, during treatment, and 28 days after the treatment. Headaches were evaluated in frequency and location prior to and after treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks were performed under direct vision using 4% lidocaine and sterile water as a placebo. Analysis of the results showed no statistical differences between the lidocaine and the placebo groups.

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Some treatments assessed versus placebo, limited efficacy.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    (1) Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 generally occurs after trauma and usually affects a limb; (2) How is complex regional pain syndrome type 1 diagnosed? What is its natural course? How safe and effective are available treatments? To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, including pain disproportionate to the initial trauma, associated with cutaneous vasomotor, trophic and sweating disorders; (4) Some clinical signs call for additional examinations to help rule out another vascular, neurological, infectious or rheumatic disorder. Radiological evidence of bone demineralisation supports the diagnosis, but radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy generally contribute little to the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome; (5) Some patients recover spontaneously after a few weeks, while others develop chronic pain or even severe disability after a period of years; (6) The results of small placebo-controlled trials suggest that corticosteroids are effective during the initial phase of this syndrome; (7) A very high oral dose of alendronic acid provided sustained pain relief in a randomised trial. Other studies suggest that bisphosphonates have some impact. The adverse effects of alendronic acid given at such high doses are poorly known; (8) Calcitonin, antiepileptics, antidepressants and opiates have no proven efficacy; (9) Transcutaneous neurostimulation is rapidly effective and safe, but its efficacy also diminishes rapidly. Therefore, the sessions have to take place at increasingly shorter intervals. (10) Spinal neurostimulation with implanted electrodes has been assessed in a comparative trial in 54 patients. Some efficacy was observed, but one-third of patients had complications requiring further surgery; (11) Various substances have been given intravenously with the goal of achieving regional anaesthesia, but none was found to

  5. Refractory Pigmentation Associated with Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome following Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Sertan; Saruhanoğlu, Alp; Migliari, Dante-Antonio; Maden, Ilay; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare benign condition. A patient with LHS develops acquired melanotic pigmentation of the lips and buccal mucosa, often with pigmentation of the nails occurring. No systemic symptoms are associated with this syndrome. Normally, no treatment is required for this condition, unless for aesthetic reason, mainly due to pigmentation on the lip mucosa. We present a case of LHS, 37-year-old female, whose pigmentations on her lip and in the oral cavity were treated with an Er:YAG laser. At the postoperative 12th month followup, the lesions recurred. The effects of any surgical attempt to treat pigmentations associated with LHS were discussed.

  6. Growth Charts for Prader-Willi Syndrome During Growth Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Lee, Jaehoon; Cox, Devin M; Manzardo, Ann M; Gold, June-Anne; Miller, Jennifer L; Roof, Elizabeth; Dykens, Elisabeth; Kimonis, Virginia; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop syndrome-specific standardized growth curves for growth hormone-treated Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) individuals aged 0 to 18 years. Anthropometric growth-related measures were obtained on 171 subjects with PWS who were treated with growth hormone for at least 40% of their lifespan. They had no history of scoliosis. PWS standardized growth curves were developed for 7 percentile ranges using the LMS method for weight, height, head circumference, weight/length, and BMI along with normative 3rd, 50th, and 97th percentiles plotted using control data from the literature and growth databases. Percentiles were plotted on growth charts for comparison purposes. Growth hormone treatment appears to normalize stature and markedly improves weight in PWS compared with standardized curves for non-growth hormone-treated PWS individuals. Growth chart implications and recommended usage are discussed. PMID:26842920

  7. Successful Multimodality Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by an Impacted Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Rogart, Jason N.; Perkal, Melissa; Nagar, Anil

    2008-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the migration of a gallstone through a choledochoduodenal fistula. Due to the large size of these stones and the difficult location in which they become impacted, endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful and most patients require surgery. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with nausea and hematemesis, and was found on CT scan and endoscopy to have an obstructing gallstone in his duodenal bulb. After several endoscopic sessions and the use of multiple instruments including a Holmium: YAG laser and electrohydraulic lithotripter, fragmentation and endoscopic removal of the stone were successful. We believe this to be the first case of Bouveret's syndrome successfully treated by endoscopy alone in the United States. We describe the difficulties encountered which necessitated varied and innovative therapeutic techniques. PMID:18493330

  8. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Treatment of Kartagener Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinghua; Zou, Jian; Liu, Shixi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a rare congenital disease characterised by a clinical triad of symptoms: situs inversus, chronic rhinosinusitis, and bronchiectasis. Although congenital ciliary defect is recognised as the main cause of this syndrome, it remains difficult to treat the associated airway infection. Case Report: A 17-year-old female patient presented with repeated refractory airway infection. She also had bronchiectasis and situs inversus. Electron microscopic evaluation of her nasal mucosa revealed ciliary defect and confirmed the diagnosis of KS. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) followed by long-term postoperative debridement of the sinonasal cavity. This treatment reduced chronic rhinosinusitis and protected against subsequent airway infection in a 7-year follow-up. Conclusion: FESS is effective for relieving both chronic rhinosinusitis and lung infection of KS in the long term. PMID:25207108

  9. Refractory Pigmentation Associated with Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome following Er:YAG Laser Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Sertan; Saruhanoğlu, Alp; Migliari, Dante-Antonio; Maden, Ilay; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare benign condition. A patient with LHS develops acquired melanotic pigmentation of the lips and buccal mucosa, often with pigmentation of the nails occurring. No systemic symptoms are associated with this syndrome. Normally, no treatment is required for this condition, unless for aesthetic reason, mainly due to pigmentation on the lip mucosa. We present a case of LHS, 37-year-old female, whose pigmentations on her lip and in the oral cavity were treated with an Er:YAG laser. At the postoperative 12th month followup, the lesions recurred. The effects of any surgical attempt to treat pigmentations associated with LHS were discussed. PMID:24367727

  10. Cognitive behavioural treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome in a rehabilitation setting: effectiveness and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, K M G; Veehof, M M; Passade, L; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R

    2011-12-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was combined with graded exercise therapy (GET) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in an uncontrolled implementation study of an inpatient multidisciplinary group therapy. During the intake procedure, 160 CFS patients completed a questionnaire on fatigue related measurements, physical impairment, depression, somatic and psychological attributions, somatic focus, and sense of control over symptoms. Pre-treatment physical activity level was measured with an actometer. At baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up individual strength, subjective fatigue and physical impairment, were reassessed. Large effect sizes were found on subjective fatigue (1.2 post-treatment; 1.2 follow-up) and physical impairment (-.9 post-treatment; -.9 follow-up), Clinically significant improvement was found in 33.8% of the participants at post-treatment and 30.6% at follow-up. Individual strength at post-treatment was predicted by level of physical activity before treatment, and by sense of control over symptoms and physical activity at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in subjective fatigue was predicted by not receiving a disablement insurance benefit, shorter duration of fatigue, higher sense of control over symptoms and, at follow-up by more pre-treatment physical activity. In conclusion, the intervention was effective for CFS patients. Cognitive behavioural factors that perpetuate fatigue symptoms are also predictors of treatment outcome.

  11. Percutaneous Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis in May-Thurner Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Youn; Choi, Donghoon Guk Ko, Young; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Do Yun

    2006-08-15

    Background/Purpose. May-Thurner syndrome is an uncommon disease entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed by the right common iliac artery with subsequent development of deep vein thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency. We report our experience on the treatment of extensive iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis due to May-Thurner syndrome using endovascular techniques. Methods. The study group comprised 21 patients (8 men, 13 women; mean age 51 years) diagnosed with May-Thurner syndrome by venogram. Eighteen patients were treated with catheter-guided thrombolysis; 3 patients with short segment involvement did not require thrombolysis. After completion of the thrombolytic therapy, the residual venous narrowing was treated by balloon angioplasty and/or placement of a self-expandable stent. Results. The mean total dose of urokinase was 4.28 {+-} 1.89 million units, and the mean duration of infusion was 72 {+-} 35 hr. Eighteen of the 21 patients received stent deployment. The mean diameter of the stents was 12.9 {+-} 2.0 mm. Initial technical successes with immediate symptom resolution were achieved in 20 of the 21 patients (95%). We performed a follow-up venogram 6 months after procedure and checked clinical symptoms at outpatient clinics (mean follow-up duration 10.8 months). Among the patients who received stent implantation, 2 had recurrent thrombotic occlusion during the follow-up period. Three patients, who did not receive stent implantation, all had recurrent thrombosis. There were no major bleeding complications except in 1 patient who developed retroperitoneal hematoma. Conclusion. Catheter-guided thrombolysis and angioplasty with stent implantation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of May-Thurner syndrome.

  12. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS.

  13. Iliotibial band syndrome: soft tissue and biomechanical factors in evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert L; Souza, Richard B; Fredericson, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Muscle performance factors and altered loading mechanics have been linked to a variety of lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In this article, biomechanical risk factors associated with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) are described, and a strategy for incorporating these factors into the clinical evaluation of and treatment for that disorder is presented. Abnormal movement patterns in runners and cyclists with ITBS are discussed, and the pathophysiological characteristics of this syndrome are considered in light of prior and current studies in anatomy. Differential diagnoses and the use of imaging, medications, and injections in the treatment of ITBS are reviewed. The roles of hip muscle strength, kinematics, and kinetics are detailed, and the assessment and treatment of muscle performance factors are discussed, with emphasis on identifying and treating movement dysfunction. Various stages of rehabilitation, including strengthening progressions to reduce soft-tissue injury, are described in detail. ITBS is an extremely common orthopedic condition that presents with consistent dysfunctional patterns in muscle performance and movement deviation. Through careful assessment of lower quarter function, the clinician can properly identify individuals and initiate treatment.

  14. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kun Soo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  15. Emerging therapies for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Karen J; Lewis, James F

    2007-09-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure that affects a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients. Although overall mortality appears to be decreasing in recent years due to improvements in supportive care, there are presently no proven, effective pharmacological therapies to treat ARDS and prevent its associated complications. The most common cause of death in ARDS is not hypoxemia or pulmonary failure, but rather multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), suggesting that improving survival in patients with ARDS may be linked to decreasing the incidence or severity of MODS. The key to developing novel treatments depends, in part, on identifying and understanding the mechanisms by which ARDS leads to MODS, although the heterogeneity and complexity of this disorder certainly poses a challenge to investigators. Novel therapies in development for treatment of ALI/ARDS include exogenous surfactant, therapies aimed at modulating neutrophil activity, such as prostaglandin and complement inhibitors, and treatments targeting earlier resolution of ARDS, such as beta-agonists and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. From a clinical perspective, identifying subpopulations of patients most likely to benefit from a particular therapy and recognising the appropriate stage of illness in which to initiate treatment could potentially lead to better outcomes in the short term.

  16. Evaluation of the response to treatment and clinical evolution in patients with burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-de Rivera-Campillo, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is to investigate the clinical evolution, the spontaneous remission of the symptomatology and the response to different treatments in a group of burning mouth syndrome patients. Study Design: the sample was formed by a group of patients that were visited in the Unit of Oral Medicine of the Dentistry Clinic of the University of Barcelona, from the year 2000 to 2011. After revising the clinical records of all the patients that had been under control for a period of time of 18 months or longer, they were contacted by telephone. In the telephone interview, they were questioned about the symptomatology evolution and the response to the treatments received, noting down the data in a questionnaire previously performed. Results: the average duration of the symptoms was 6.5 years (+/-2.5 years). The most frequent treatments were: chlorhexidine mouthrinses, oral benzodiazepines, topical clonazepam, antiinflamatory drugs, antidepressants, antifungicals, vitamins, psycotherapy, salivary substitutes and topical corticoids. The specialists that were consulted with a higher frequency were: dermatologists (30%), othorrynolaringologists (10%) and psychiatrists (3%). In 41 patients the oral symptoms did not improve, 35 reported partial improvements, 12 patients worsened, and only in 3 patients the symptoms remitted. Conclusions: In three of the 91 patients studied the symptoms remitted spontaneously within the five years of treatment. Only 42% of the study population had improved the symptomatology significantly, and this improvement would reach 60% if clonazepam were associated to psychotherapy. Key words:Burning mouth syndrome, stomatodynia, oral pain, clonazepam. PMID:23229252

  17. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  18. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population. PMID:19526330

  19. Insulinotropic treatments exacerbate metabolic syndrome in mice lacking MeCP2 function

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Meagan R.; Ward, Christopher S.; Arvide, E. Melissa; Chapleau, Christopher A.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Saenger, Stefanie; Metzger, Friedrich; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked postnatal disorder, results from mutations in Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Survival and breathing in Mecp2NULL/Y animals are improved by an N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. We determined that Mecp2NULL/Y animals also have a metabolic syndrome and investigated whether IGF-I treatment might improve this phenotype. Mecp2NULL/Y mice were treated with a full-length IGF-I modified with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-IGF-I), which improves pharmacological properties. Low-dose PEG-IGF-I treatment slightly improved lifespan and heart rate in Mecp2NULL/Y mice; however, high-dose PEG-IGF-I decreased lifespan. To determine whether insulinotropic off-target effects of PEG-IGF-I caused the detrimental effect, we treated Mecp2NULL/Y mice with insulin, which also decreased lifespan. Thus, the clinical benefit of IGF-I treatment in RTT may critically depend on the dose used, and caution should be taken when initiating clinical trials with these compounds because the beneficial therapeutic window is narrow. PMID:23462290

  20. Insulinotropic treatments exacerbate metabolic syndrome in mice lacking MeCP2 function.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Meagan R; Ward, Christopher S; Arvide, E Melissa; Chapleau, Christopher A; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Saenger, Stefanie; Metzger, Friedrich; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2013-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked postnatal disorder, results from mutations in Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Survival and breathing in Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals are improved by an N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. We determined that Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals also have a metabolic syndrome and investigated whether IGF-I treatment might improve this phenotype. Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice were treated with a full-length IGF-I modified with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-IGF-I), which improves pharmacological properties. Low-dose PEG-IGF-I treatment slightly improved lifespan and heart rate in Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice; however, high-dose PEG-IGF-I decreased lifespan. To determine whether insulinotropic off-target effects of PEG-IGF-I caused the detrimental effect, we treated Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice with insulin, which also decreased lifespan. Thus, the clinical benefit of IGF-I treatment in RTT may critically depend on the dose used, and caution should be taken when initiating clinical trials with these compounds because the beneficial therapeutic window is narrow.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Antidepressants for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Yun; Jiang, Liuqin; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and The Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Article quality was evaluated by Jadad score. RevMan 5.0 and Stata 12.0 were used for the meta-analysis. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in this study and most of these trials were of high quality (Jadad score ≥4). Five articles focused on tricyclic antidepressants, six articles involved selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and one article investigated both types of treatment. The pooled risk ratio showed antidepressant treatment can improve global symptoms (RR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.08, 1.77). In the subgroup analysis, treatment with tricyclic antidepressants showed an improvement in global symptoms (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.07, 1.71), while treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed no statistically significant difference in global symptoms compared with the control groups (RR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.83, 2.28). The pooled risk ratio of dropout due to side effects following antidepressant treatment was 1.71 with 95% CI (0.98, 2.99). The subgroup analysis showed the pooled risk ratio of dropout in the tricyclic antidepressants group was 1.92 with 95% CI (0.89, 4.17). In the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors group, the pooled risk ratio of dropout was 1.5 with 95% CI (0.67, 3.37). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed no benefit in alleviating abdominal pain and improving quality of life. There was no difference in the incidence of common adverse events between treatment and control groups. Conclusions TCAs can improve global symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, while there was no strong evidence to confirm the effectiveness of SSRIs for the treatment of IBS. PMID:26252008

  2. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 manifested as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency, in Turner syndrome woman, with onset following introduction of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Cyniak-Magierska, Anna; Lasoń, Agnieszka; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms of simultaneous insufficiencies of several endocrine glands. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS 2) may be diagnosed when the adrenocortical insufficiency is associated with an autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease), and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in females, caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, in whom APS 2 (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency) has been diagnosed after introduction of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. In Turner syndrome, examination of the patient must regularly be conducted in order to diagnose a possible onset of autoimmune diseases; respective treatment must be applied as soon as the diagnosis is established. In particular, therapy of rhGH, used for short stature treatment, may be a trigger factor of adrenal insufficiency. The cortisol level in blood should be assessed before rhGH administration and carefully monitored during the therapy, especially in case of autoimmune thyroid disease coexistence.

  3. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 manifested as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency, in Turner syndrome woman, with onset following introduction of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Cyniak-Magierska, Anna; Lasoń, Agnieszka; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms of simultaneous insufficiencies of several endocrine glands. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS 2) may be diagnosed when the adrenocortical insufficiency is associated with an autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease), and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in females, caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, in whom APS 2 (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency) has been diagnosed after introduction of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. In Turner syndrome, examination of the patient must regularly be conducted in order to diagnose a possible onset of autoimmune diseases; respective treatment must be applied as soon as the diagnosis is established. In particular, therapy of rhGH, used for short stature treatment, may be a trigger factor of adrenal insufficiency. The cortisol level in blood should be assessed before rhGH administration and carefully monitored during the therapy, especially in case of autoimmune thyroid disease coexistence. PMID:26071578

  4. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  5. Kinesio taping compared to physical therapy modalities for the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Erkan; Zinnuroglu, Murat; Tugcu, Ilknur

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of kinesio tape and physical therapy modalities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Patients (n = 55) were treated with kinesio tape (n = 30) three times by intervals of 3 days or a daily program of local modalities (n = 25) for 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated with the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale. Patients were questioned for the night pain, daily pain, and pain with motion. Outcome measures except for the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale were assessed at baseline, first, and second weeks of the treatment. Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale was evaluated only before and after the treatment. Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale and visual analog scale scores decreased significantly in both treatment groups as compared with the baseline levels. The rest, night, and movement median pain scores of the kinesio taping (20, 40, and 50, respectively) group were statistically significantly lower (p values were 0.001, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively) at the first week examination as compared with the physical therapy group (50, 70, and 70, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the same parameters between two groups at the second week (0.109, 0.07, and 0.218 for rest, night, and movement median pain scores, respectively). Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale scores of the kinesio taping group were significantly lower at the second week as compared with the physical therapy group. No side effects were observed. Kinesio tape has been found to be more effective than the local modalities at the first week and was similarly effective at the second week of the treatment. Kinesio taping may be an alternative treatment option in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome especially when an immediate effect is needed.

  6. [Automatic positive airway pressure in titration and treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Randerath, W J

    2007-04-01

    Although continuous airway pressure therapy (CPAP) represents the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) auto-adjusting CPAP (APAP) devices were developed which adapt the treatment pressure to the actual requirement of the patients. The aim of automatic CPAP therapy is to improve the patients' acceptance of positive pressure treatment. The devices react to respiratory flow, flattening of the inspiratory flow contour, snoring, generator speed or the upper airway impedance. In recent years several studies showed that auto CPAP effectively treats respiratory disturbances, improves sleep profile and the self-assessment of the patients equally as good as the gold standard constant CPAP. Moreover, APAP reduces the treatment pressure substantially. Although an improvement of the patient's compliance has not consistently been proven, most patients prefer APAP versus constant CPAP. APAP devices use different algorithms depending on the primary purpose of the application. Therefore, a clear distinction between automatic titration and treatment is of major relevance. While titration devices aim at the finding of one single pressure which is fixed to a constant CPAP device, automatic treatment means the chronic use of APAP at home for optimal adaptation of the treatment pressure to the actual requirements of the patient. A high constant CPAP level, huge pressure variability, insufficient compliance with constant CPAP may be indications for APAP treatment. The main reason for automatic titration is the standardisation of the initiation process. PMID:17455137

  7. Successful treatment of nocturnal eating/drinking syndrome with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tsuyoshi; Yasukawa, Rei; Tsubouchi, Ken; Miura, Seiji; Shimizu, Yoshiko; Sukegawa, Tsuruhei; Maeda, Takahiro; Mizuno, Shoichi; Kameda, Atsuko; Uegaki, Jun; Inagaki, Takuji; Horiguchi, Jun

    2003-05-01

    Nocturnal eating/drinking disorder (NE/DS) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some report total amnesia. The aetiology of NE/DS is still unclear, and there is no satisfactory treatment. Four patients with NE/DS are described. Treatment with a selective seroronin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was effective in controlling their episodes of nocturnal eating. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report of successful treatment with SSRIs in NE/DS.

  8. [Chronic tics and Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents: diagnostic and treatment characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zavadenko, N N; Doronina, O B; Nesterovsky, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tics (CT) are observed in 3-4% population, Tourette syndrome (TS) in 0.1-3.0%. In most cases, tic disorders start at age 2-15 years, but frequently they are diagnosed late. Clinical presentations of tics and comorbid disorders are various and depend on child's age. Difficulties in treatment of CT are associated with their persistence and those for TS with the fluctuating course of tics and probable onset of the disease in the form of behavioral disorders. Treatment of CT and TS is individual. Methods of behavioral and psychotherapy are recommended for a certain period of time if tics do not hamper everyday life. Increase in tick frequency and severity indicate the necessity of using pharmacological treatment. The European recommendations on pharmacotherapy of tic disorders and the drugs available in Russia are considered. Results of the studies on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and tenoten children in CT and TS are presented.

  9. Treatment of non specific dyssomnia with simple stimulus control procedures in a child with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allison, D B; Burke, J C; Summers, J A

    1993-05-01

    Nonaversive behavioural interventions were used successfully to treat a disrupted sleep pattern in a child with Down's syndrome. A quasi-experimental single-case design was employed to evaluate the treatment efficacy. During the first phase of treatment, the mother implemented a structured bedtime routine and the child was no longer allowed to engage in activities while in bed. During the second phase, a stimulus control paradigm was employed in which a nearly life-sized rag doll was substituted for the mother in bed. Finally, the mother gradually withdrew from the child's bed and room. During baseline, the child spent an average of only six percent of the night sleeping alone. By the second phase, this rose to a mean of 26%. By the end of treatment this was increased to a mean of 78.2%. The increase was accompanied by collateral decreases in crying and distress. Improvements were maintained at follow-up. PMID:8518980

  10. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  11. Role of osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of stiff person syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rajaii, Roxanne M; Cox, Gregory J; Schneider, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare and disabling central nervous system disorder first described in 1956 and characterized by fluctuating rigidity and stiffness, gait impairment, and painful spasms of the axial and limb musculature. Although an underlying mechanism of impaired synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic inhibition has been proposed, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, a marker for SPS, is a strong indication of disease and has been reported in approximately 70% of patients. The current treatment of choice is benzodiazepines and baclofen, both of which reduce motor unit potential firing and, therefore, decrease stiffness and spasms. However, patients continue to have substantial disability with pharmacologic therapy alone. This case report demonstrates the potential of osteopathic manipulative treatment as an adjunct to medication in the management of SPS. By decreasing somatic dysfunction and reducing the frequency of exacerbations, osteopathic manipulative treatment may alleviate the symptoms and overall morbidity associated with this disease.

  12. Factorial study of moxibustion in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ji-Meng; Wu, Lu-Yi; Liu, Hui-Rong; Hu, Hong-Yi; Wang, Jia-Ying; Huang, Ren-Jia; Shi, Yin; Tao, Shan-Ping; Gao, Qiang; Zhou, Ci-Li; Qi, Li; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Huan-Gan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify an appropriate therapeutic regimen for using aconite cake-separated moxibustion to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). METHODS: A factorial design was employed to examine the two factors of moxibustion frequency and number of cones. The two tested frequencies were three or six moxibustion sessions per week, and the two tested doses were one or two cones per treatment. A total of 166 D-IBS patients were randomly divided into four treatment groups, which included each combination of the examined frequencies and doses. The bilateral Tianshu acupoints (ST25) and the Qihai acupoint (RN6) were selected for aconite cake-separated moxibustion. Each patient received two courses of treatment, and each course had a duration of 2 wk. For each group, the scores on the Birmingham irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom questionnaire, the IBS Quality of Life scale, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Hamilton Depression (HAMD) scale, and the Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA) scale were determined before treatment, after the first course of treatment, and after the second course of treatment. RESULTS: The symptom, quality of life, SDS, SAS, HAMD, and HAMA scores of the patients in all 4 aconite cake-separated moxibustion groups were significantly lower after the first and second courses of treatment than before treatment (P < 0.001 for all). The symptom, quality of life, SDS, SAS, HAMD, and HAMA scores of the patients in all four aconite cake-separated moxibustion groups were significantly lower after the second course of treatment than after the first course of treatment (P < 0.001 for all). Between-group comparisons after the second course of treatment revealed that the symptom scores for group 1 (1 cone, 3 treatments/wk) and group 3 (2 cones, 3 treatments/wk) were significantly lower than that for group 2 (1 cone, 6 treatments/wk) (5.55 ± 5.05 vs 10.45 ± 6.61, P < 0.001; 5.65 ± 4.00 vs 10.45 ± 6

  13. Alport syndrome: its effects on the glomerular filtration barrier and implications for future treatment

    PubMed Central

    Savige, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier comprises a fenestrated capillary endothelium, glomerular basement membrane and podocyte slit diaphragm. Over the past decade we have come to realise that permselectivity depends on size and not necessarily charge, that the molecular sieve depends on the podocyte contractile apparatus and is highly dynamic, and that protein uptake by proximal tubular epithelial cells stimulates signalling and the production of transcription factors and inflammatory mediators. Alport syndrome is the second commonest monogenic cause of renal failure after autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Eighty per cent of patients have X-linked disease caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Most of these result in the replacement of the collagen IV α3α4α5 network with the α1α1α2 heterotrimer. Affected membranes also have ectopic laminin and increased matrix metalloproteinase levels, which makes them more susceptible to proteolysis. Mechanical stress, due to the less elastic membrane and hypertension, interferes with integrin-mediated podocyte–GBM adhesion. Proteinuria occurs when urinary levels exceed tubular reabsorption rates, and initiates tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The glomerular mesangial cells produce increased TGFβ and CTGF which also contribute to glomerulosclerosis. Currently there is no specific therapy for Alport syndrome. However treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delays renal failure progression by reducing intraglomerular hypertension, proteinuria, and fibrosis. Our greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the GBM changes and their consequences in Alport syndrome have provided us with further novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25107927

  14. Treatment of bullous impetigo and the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in infants.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A

    2004-06-01

    Impetigo is a common, superficial, bacterial infection of the skin characterized by an inflamed and infected epidermis. The rarer variant, bullous impetigo, is characterized by fragile fluid-filled vesicles and flaccid blisters and is invariably caused by pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Bullous impetigo is at the mild end of a spectrum of blistering skin diseases caused by a staphylococcal exfoliative toxin that, at the other extreme, is represented by widespread painful blistering and superficial denudation (the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome). In bullous impetigo, the exfoliative toxins are restricted to the area of infection, and bacteria can be cultured from the blister contents. In staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome the exfoliative toxins are spread hematogenously from a localized source causing widespread epidermal damage at distant sites. Both occur more commonly in children under 5 years of age and particularly in neonates. It is important to swab the skin for bacteriological confirmation and antibiotic sensitivities and, in the case of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, to identify the primary focus of infection. Topical therapy should constitute either fusidic acid (Fucidin, Leo Pharma Ltd) as a first-line treatment, or mupirocin (Bactroban, GlaxoSmithKline) in proven cases of bacterial resistance. First-line systemic therapy is oral or intravenous flucloxacillin (Floxapen, GlaxoSmithKline). Nasal swabs from the patient and immediate relatives should be performed to identify asymptomatic nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. In the case of outbreaks on wards and in nurseries, healthcare professionals should also be swabbed.

  15. The immune factors involved in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-fan; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Chun-miao; An, Shu; Xiao, Lan; Gou, Yong-chao; Yu, Wen-jing; Lei, Lei; Chen, Qian-ming; Wang, Yating; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic, autoimmune disorder characterized by salivary insufficiency and lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands. Even though the mechanism of its pathology and progression has been researched ever since its discovery, the roles of different parts of immune system remain inconclusive. There is no straightforward and simple theory for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome because of the multiple kinds and functions of autoantibodies, changing proportion of different T-lymphocyte subsets with the progression of disease, unsuspected abilities of B lymphocytes discovered recently, crosstalk between cytokines connecting the factors mentioned previously, and genetic predisposition that contributes to the initiation of this disease. On the other hand, the number of significant reports and open-label studies of B-cell depletion therapy showing clinical efficacy in sjogren's syndrome has continued to accumulate, which provides a promising future for the patients. In a word, further elucidation of the role of different components of the immune system will open avenues for better diagnosis and treatment of SS, whose current management is still mainly supportive.

  16. Evaluation of surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome using local anesthesia☆

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marco Felipe Francisco Honorato; da Rocha Luz Júnior, Aurimar; Roncaglio, Bruno; Queiróz Júnior, Célio Pinheiro; Tribst, Marcelo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results and complications from surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome by means of an open route, using a local anesthesia technique comprising use of a solution of lidocaine, epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate. Material and methods This was a cohort study conducted through evaluating the medical files of 16 patients who underwent open surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome, with use of local anesthesia consisting of 20 mL of 1% lidocaine, adrenaline at 1:100,000 and 2 mL of sodium bicarbonate. The DASH scores before the operation and six months after the operation were evaluated. Comparisons were made regarding the intensity of pain at the time of applying the anesthetic and during the surgical procedure, and in relation to other types of procedure. Results The DASH score improved from 65.17 to 16.53 six months after the operation (p < 0.01). In relation to the anesthesia, 75% of the patients reported that this technique was better than or the same as venous puncture and 81% reported that it was better than a dental procedure. Intraoperative pain occurred in two cases. There were no occurrences of ischemia. Conclusion Use of local anesthesia for surgically treating carpal tunnel syndrome is effective for performing the procedure and for the final result. PMID:26962490

  17. [The application of combined physical therapy for the treatment of women with pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, L V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tarasenko, Iu N; Tikhaeva, K Iu; Kurushina, O V

    2011-01-01

    A total of 98 women presenting with pelvic pain syndrome of different etiology (inflammatory diseases of small pelvic organs following surgical interventions, dysmenorrhoea, ovulatory syndrome) were enrolled in this study with an object of estimating the efficacy of the combined central and local application of physiotherapeutic techniques. An AVIM-1 apparatus was used to cause vibration in and apply a magnetic field to the perineal region. Transcranial magnetotherapy and electrostimulation were applied centrally using an AMO-ATOS-E device. The study has demonstrated that the combined central and local application of physiotherapeutic techniques supplemented by medicamental treatment according to the indications made it possible to attenuate pain syndrome by 64.6% and improve the vegetative nervous function and cerebral blood circulation by 30% and 18% respectively compared with the women in the control group. Moreover, the 1.5-2-fold improvement of the main characteristics of microcirculation was achieved. The overall resistance increased under the influence of physiotherapy in 71% of the women which promoted their reproductive potential and enhanced the probability of pregnancy. PMID:22403954

  18. Low-dose fenfluramine in the treatment of neurologic disorders: experience in Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schoonjans, An-Sofie; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review the experience with fenfluramine in epileptic and other paroxysmal disorders. Since the best available data are from the treatment of Dravet syndrome, we will focus primarily on this condition. Originally fenfluramine was launched as an anorectic agent. As early as 1985, seizure reduction in children could be demonstrated in a few cases with photosensitive, self-induced epilepsy. Hereafter, a small study was launched in patients with self-induced epilepsy. Results showed a significant seizure reduction, and review of the patient data showed that 5 of the 12 patients had Dravet syndrome. During that observation period, fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market because of cardiovascular side effects associated with prescribing higher doses in combination with phentermine for weight loss. In March 2002, a Belgian Royal Decree was issued permitting further study of fenfluramine in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. In 2011 under the Royal Decree, a prospective study of patients with Dravet syndrome treated with low-dose fenfluramine was initiated and is currently ongoing. The initial results are promising in terms of reduction of seizure frequency and overall tolerability. PMID:26600876

  19. Low-dose fenfluramine in the treatment of neurologic disorders: experience in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schoonjans, An-Sofie; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review the experience with fenfluramine in epileptic and other paroxysmal disorders. Since the best available data are from the treatment of Dravet syndrome, we will focus primarily on this condition. Originally fenfluramine was launched as an anorectic agent. As early as 1985, seizure reduction in children could be demonstrated in a few cases with photosensitive, self-induced epilepsy. Hereafter, a small study was launched in patients with self-induced epilepsy. Results showed a significant seizure reduction, and review of the patient data showed that 5 of the 12 patients had Dravet syndrome. During that observation period, fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market because of cardiovascular side effects associated with prescribing higher doses in combination with phentermine for weight loss. In March 2002, a Belgian Royal Decree was issued permitting further study of fenfluramine in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. In 2011 under the Royal Decree, a prospective study of patients with Dravet syndrome treated with low-dose fenfluramine was initiated and is currently ongoing. The initial results are promising in terms of reduction of seizure frequency and overall tolerability. PMID:26600876

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence.

  1. Treatments and technologies in the rehabilitation of apraxia and action disorganisation syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apraxia and Action Disorganisation Syndrome are characterised by an inability to use tools and carry out ordered sequences of movements in the absence of motor or sensory impairment. To date treatment for these complex but debilitating conditions has received little attention. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of apraxia and action disorganisation syndrome and its treatment, providing a state of the art summary for practitioners including likely future therapeutic directions. METHOD: Review of apraxia literature and treatment studies collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the author’s own catalogue. RESULTS: Evidence for current restitution and compensatory approaches is critically reviewed, with limited evidence to date in support of either method. Strategy training is the most promising intervention type with no support for sensory and exploratory interventions, practice effects only for direct task-specific training, and modest support for gestural training. CONCLUSIONS: Larger controlled studies are needed but evidence is sufficient to indicate certain approaches over others. Advances in assistive technology have not translated into mainstream therapy but future interventions are likely to require a model-based approach which embraces current technologies in order to provide a more accessible, effective and cost-efficient approach to rehabilitation. PMID:27314872

  2. Indwelling catheter and conservative measures in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in fulminant acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao-Xi; Huang, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Hong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of combined indwelling catheter, hemofiltration, respiration support and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Dahuang) in treating abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis were divided randomly into 2 groups of combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring and routine conservative measures group (group 1) and control group (group 2). Routine non-operative conservative treatments including hemofiltration, respiration support, gastrointestinal TCM ablution were also applied in control group patients. Effectiveness of the two groups was observed, and APACHE II scores were applied for analysis. RESULTS: On the second and fifth days after treatment, APACHE II scores of group 1 and 2 patients were significantly different. Comparison of effectiveness (abdominalgia and burbulence relief time, hospitalization time) between groups 1 and 2 showed significant difference, as well as incidence rates of cysts formation. Mortality rates of groups 1 and 2 were 10.0% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients in group 1, celiac drainage quantity and intra-abdominal pressure, and hospitalization time were positively correlated (r = 0.552, 0.748, 0.923, P < 0.01) with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSION: Combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring, short veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH), gastrointestinal TCM ablution, respiration support have preventive and treatment effects on abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. PMID:16937509

  3. Medical Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms in Marfan Syndrome and other Heritable Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Christine H. Attenhofer; Greutmann, Matthias; Connolly, Heidi M.; Weber, Roland; Rohrbach, Marianne; Oxenius, Angela; Kretschmar, Oliver; Luscher, Thomas F.; Matyas, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be triggered by genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) and related aortic diseases as well as by inflammatory disorders such as giant cell arteritis or atherosclerosis. In all these conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, such as systemic arterial hypertension, may contribute to faster rate of aneurysm progression. Optimal medical management to prevent progressive aortic dilatation and aortic dissection is unknown. β-blockers have been the mainstay of medical treatment for many years despite limited evidence of beneficial effects. Recently, losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist (ARB), has shown promising results in a mouse model of MFS and subsequently in humans with MFS and hence is increasingly used. Several ongoing trials comparing losartan to β-blockers and/or placebo will better define the role of ARBs in the near future. In addition, other medications, such as statins and tetracyclines have demonstrated potential benefit in experimental aortic aneurysm studies. Given the advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms triggering aortic dilatation and dissection, individualized management tailored to the underlying genetic defect may be on the horizon of individualized medicine. We anticipate that ongoing research will address the question whether such genotype/pathogenesis-driven treatments can replace current phenotype/syndrome-driven strategies and whether other forms of aortopathies should be treated similarly. In this work, we review currently used and promising medical treatment options for patients with heritable aortic aneurysmal disorders. PMID:24527681

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence. PMID:27040419

  5. Bone microarchitecture in Rett syndrome and treatment with teriparatide: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, M B; Scioscia, M F; Zanchetta, J R

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 28-year-old female Rett syndrome patient with low bone mass and a recent fracture who was successfully treated with teriparatide. Bone mineral density and microarchitecture substantially improved after treatment. Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked progressive neuro-developmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding 2 (MECP2) gene, has been consistently associated with low bone mass. Consequently, patients with RTT are at increased risk of skeletal fractures. Teriparatide is a bone-forming agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that has demonstrated its effectiveness in increasing bone strength and reducing the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women, but, recently, its positive action has also been reported in premenopausal women. We present the case of a 28-year-old female RTT patient with low bone mass and a recent fracture who was successfully treated with teriparatide. Both bone mass measured by DXA and microarchitecture assessed by high resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR pQCT) were substantially improved after treatment.

  6. Repurposing of clinically developed drugs for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Dyall, Julie; Coleman, Christopher M; Hart, Brit J; Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Holbrook, Michael R; Kindrachuk, Jason; Johnson, Reed F; Olinger, Gene G; Jahrling, Peter B; Laidlaw, Monique; Johansen, Lisa M; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Glass, Pamela J; Hensley, Lisa E; Frieman, Matthew B

    2014-08-01

    Outbreaks of emerging infections present health professionals with the unique challenge of trying to select appropriate pharmacologic treatments in the clinic with little time available for drug testing and development. Typically, clinicians are left with general supportive care and often untested convalescent-phase plasma as available treatment options. Repurposing of approved pharmaceutical drugs for new indications presents an attractive alternative to clinicians, researchers, public health agencies, drug developers, and funding agencies. Given the development times and manufacturing requirements for new products, repurposing of existing drugs is likely the only solution for outbreaks due to emerging viruses. In the studies described here, a library of 290 compounds was screened for antiviral activity against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Selection of compounds for inclusion in the library was dependent on current or previous FDA approval or advanced clinical development. Some drugs that had a well-defined cellular pathway as target were included. In total, 27 compounds with activity against both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV were identified. The compounds belong to 13 different classes of pharmaceuticals, including inhibitors of estrogen receptors used for cancer treatment and inhibitors of dopamine receptor used as antipsychotics. The drugs identified in these screens provide new targets for in vivo studies as well as incorporation into ongoing clinical studies. PMID:24841273

  7. Mechanism of injury and treatment of trauma-associated acute compartment syndrome of the foot.

    PubMed

    Brink, F; Bachmann, S; Lechler, P; Frink, M

    2014-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the foot represents a rare complication following trauma of the lower extremity. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent poor outcome. The study was conducted to describe etiology and treatment of foot ACS. In the current study, patients diagnosed with and treated for ACS between 1st December 2000 and 30th September 2007 were included. Mechanism of injury, additional injuries and treatment was analyzed. We included 31 patients (21 males) with a mean age of 33.8 ± 16.9 years. Most injuries were caused by a motor vehicle accident, while nearly 20 % occurred after a low-energy mechanism. Multiple injuries with a mean ISS of 19.5 ± 11.0 were present in 14 patients. Superficial infections occurred in 6 feet, while a deep infection only developed in one patient. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot has a low incidence. A thorough clinical examination in patients on risk is required to provide timely diagnosis and adequate surgical decompression.

  8. TAFRO Syndrome Associated with EBV and Successful Triple Therapy Treatment: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Apor, Emmanuel; Butera, James N.; Treaba, Diana O.

    2016-01-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a rare constellation of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Its pathogenesis involves an excessive and inappropriate cytokine storm, most notably from IL-6, causing multiorgan failure; however, its etiology is undetermined. Starting in 2012, TAFRO syndrome was first identified in Japan as an atypical variant of Castleman's disease. Previous reports include various different treatment protocols with inconsistent survival outcomes. Here we report the first known American, EBV positive but HIV and HHV-8 negative, male with TAFRO syndrome. He was successfully treated with an unusual three-drug regimen including tocilizumab, etoposide, and rituximab. We review the literature of TAFRO syndrome, discuss its possible viral etiology, and propose an original treatment regimen. PMID:27777802

  9. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient on infliximab and methylprednisolone for treatment-resistant Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drone, Elizabeth R; McCrory, Allison L; Lane, Natalie; Fiala, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    A 62-year-old white man with a 10-year history of treatment-refractory Sweet's syndrome was admitted to the hospital with the onset of purpuric lesions. Methylprednisolone and infliximab were administered. Our patient developed disseminated Nocardia infection and eventually succumbed. Opportunistic infections such as Nocardia have been associated with infliximab and other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The astute clinician should be aware of the risk of rare opportunistic infections, particularly in patients on TNF-α inhibitors and systemic corticosteroids.

  10. Treatment of median arcuate ligament syndrome via traditional and robotic techniques.

    PubMed

    You, Jae S; Cooper, Matthew; Nishida, Steven; Matsuda, Elna; Murariu, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity characterized by extrinsic compression of the celiac artery and symptoms of postprandial epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss mimicking mesenteric ischemia. We present two patients diagnosed with MALS, the first treated with an open laparotomy by a vascular surgeon and the second using a robot assisted laparoscopic approach by a general surgeon with a vascular surgeon on standby. This is the second ever report of this approach. Both patients recovered without complications and experienced resolution of their symptoms. A discussion of the pathophysiology, literature review, and multispecialty treatment approach are presented. PMID:24349891

  11. Advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Zaffanello, Marco; Veneri, Dino

    2006-01-01

    The thrombotic microangiopathies are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by hemolytic anemia caused by fragmentation of erythrocytes and thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, eventually leading to disturbed microcirculation with reduced organ perfusion. Depending on whether brain or renal lesions prevail, two different entities have been described: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). However, not rarely the clinical distinctions between these two conditions remain questionable. Recent studies have contributed greatly to our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to TTP and HUS. In this review, we briefly focus on the most important advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these two thrombotic microangiopathies.

  12. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. PMID:24932421

  13. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient on infliximab and methylprednisolone for treatment-resistant Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drone, Elizabeth R; McCrory, Allison L; Lane, Natalie; Fiala, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    A 62-year-old white man with a 10-year history of treatment-refractory Sweet's syndrome was admitted to the hospital with the onset of purpuric lesions. Methylprednisolone and infliximab were administered. Our patient developed disseminated Nocardia infection and eventually succumbed. Opportunistic infections such as Nocardia have been associated with infliximab and other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The astute clinician should be aware of the risk of rare opportunistic infections, particularly in patients on TNF-α inhibitors and systemic corticosteroids. PMID:25165648

  14. Permanent Pacemaker-Induced Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Successful Treatment by Endovascular Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Lanciego, Carlos Rodriguez, Mario; Rodriguez, Adela; Carbonell, Miguel A.; Garcia, Lorenzo Garcia

    2003-11-15

    The use of metallic stents in the management of benign and malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is well documented. Symptomatic stenosis or occlusion of the SVC is a rare complication of a transvenous permanent pacemaker implant. Suggested treatments have included anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and surgery. More recently, endovascular stenting has evolved as an attractive alternative but the data available in the literature are limited. We describe a case in which venous stenting with a Wallstent endoprosthesis was used successfully. The patient remains symptom free and with normal pacemaker function 36 months later.

  15. Hybrid endovascular treatment of an anomalous right subclavian artery dissection in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Gregory A; Arko, Frank R; Foteh, Mazin I; Jessen, Michael E; DiMaio, J Michael

    2012-08-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient with Marfan syndrome and an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) with associated Kommerell diverticulum. The patient presented with spontaneous acute dissection of the ARSA that showed fusiform dilation to 4 cm in diameter. Definitive treatment was performed using a two-stage hybrid endovascular technique, including extrathoracic bilateral upper extremity bypass and thoracic endovascular aortic repair with debranching of the right and left subclavian arteries. This was followed by coil and plug embolization to exclude the dissection and prevent subsequent endoleak.

  16. Assessment and Surgical Treatment of Calcinosis of the Shoulder Associated with CREST Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Breusch, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old lady with CREST syndrome with multiple upper and lower limb calcinosis, who presented with severe shoulder pain and stiffness, with widespread intra- and extra-articular calcinosis, which was refractory to conservative measures. We were able to identify the main cause of her symptoms through serial diagnostic injections as calcific biceps tendinosis. We will discuss her assessment and surgical management and the pathophysiology and various treatment modalities for managing the soft tissue calcinosis in rheumatological diseases. PMID:27437158

  17. Clinical trial design in prevention and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Curley, Gerard F; McAuley, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    Our ability to define appropriate molecular targets for preclinical development and develop better methods needs to be improved, to determine the clinical value of novel acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) agents. Clinical trials must have realistic sample sizes and meaningful end points and use the available observation and meta-analytical data to inform design. Biomarker-driven studies or defined ARDS subsets should be considered to categorize specific at-risk populations most likely to benefit from a new treatment. Innovations in clinical trial design should be pursued to improve the outlook for future interventional trials in ARDS.

  18. Extracorporeal Photopheresis in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zic, John A

    2015-10-01

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an immunomodulating procedure that leads to an expansion of peripheral blood dendritic cell populations and an enhanced TH1 immune response in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Because of its excellent side effect profile and moderate efficacy, ECP is considered first-line therapy for erythrodermic mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome. Patients with a measurable but low blood tumor burden are most likely to respond to ECP, and the addition of adjunctive immunostimulatory agents may also increase response rates. There may be a role for ECP in the treatment of refractory early stage MF, but data are limited.

  19. [Successful nitrogranulogen treatment of severe nephrotic syndrome in glomerulonephritis--case report].

    PubMed

    Imiela, J; Nowaczyk, M; Małecki, R; Górski, A

    1992-03-01

    A patient with mesangio-proliferative glomerulopathy with advanced nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria 20 g/day) received bolus doses of corticosteroids (5 x 1.0 g iv) but renal function continued to deteriorate. A 11-day course of nitrogranulogen (0.01 mg/kg/day) with prednisone (0.5 mg/kg) caused complete disappearance of proteinuria with improvement in renal function. This observation supports our earlier findings indicating that treatment with low dose nitrogranulogen may be efficacious in some forms of glomerulopathies. PMID:1523150

  20. [Liver monooxygenase system inducers in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in newborn].

    PubMed

    Kabulov, Sh M

    2002-03-01

    Physical and biochemical parameters of pulmonary surfactant (PS) were studied in 6-day-old rabbits with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) treated by benzonal and zixorin inductors. Surface-active characteristics of PS were impaired under conditions of RDS at the expense of deficiency of total phospholipids, specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA). Treatment with benzonal and zixorin improved the surface-active characteristics of PS and increased the content of total phospholipids mainly at the expense of PC and PEA. PMID:11980138