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Sample records for neurogenic bowel dysfunction

  1. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Giuseppe; Emmanuel, Anton

    2009-08-01

    Bowel dysfunction (e.g., fecal incontinence, infrequent or difficult defecation) are both frequent and severely troubling problems for patients with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. The etiology of these symptoms is complex; there may be autonomic and pelvic nerve dysfunction (with attenuation of voluntary motor function and impaired anorectal sensation and anorectal reflexes), or generalized systemic factors (e.g., altered diet and behavior, impaired mobility, psychological disturbances or drug adverse effects). The mainstay of current treatment is adapting a conservative approach towards reversing the systemic effects and optimizing the mechanics of defecation through the use of laxatives and irrigation approaches. When successful, this approach improves both evacuation and incontinence symptoms, with associated improvements in quality of life and independence. Future therapies may be directed at modulating pelvic innervation through electrical stimulation. Stoma formation remains an option for patients refractory to other approaches.

  2. [The Effectiveness of Abdominal Massage on Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Jung; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenic bowel dysfunction is a common comorbidity in spinal cord injury patients that may result in fecal incontinence. Abdominal massage is one intestinal training method that is used to improve bowel movement and defecation. To review the effectiveness of abdominal massage on neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. A systematic review of Chinese and English-language articles was performed in six databases using the following key words: spinal cord injury, abdominal massage, neurogenic bowel dysfunction, and bowel training. Relevant studies published prior to June 2016 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The Downs and Black scale was used to appraise the quality of each of the included studies. Eight studies were included in the final analysis. Four of these studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly improved bowel functions and the regularity and frequency of bowel movements. Although two of the studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly reduced the use of glycerin and laxatives, the remaining six did not. The eight studies earned respective quality scores ranging between 13 and 25. The current literature lacks consensus on the efficacy of abdominal massage in terms of improving bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injuries. Future studies should use more stringent experimental designs such as randomized controlled studies to explore the correlations among massage time and frequency and bowel function improvements in order to provide guidelines for clinical care applications.

  3. Review of the efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, A

    2010-09-01

    Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a common occurrence after spinal cord injury (SCI) and in patients with spina bifida or multiple sclerosis. The impact of NBD on well-being is considerable, affecting both physical and psychological aspects of quality of life. Transanal irrigation (TAI) of the colon promotes the evacuation of faeces by introducing water into the colon and rectum through a catheter inserted into the anus. Regular and controlled evacuation in this manner aims at preventing both constipation and faecal soiling. The aim of this study was to review current evidence for the efficacy and safety of TAI in patients with NBD. A literature search was conducted in PubMed. All identified papers were assessed for relevance based on the title and abstract; this yielded 23 studies that were considered to be of direct relevance to the topic of the review. A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial has supported observational reports in demonstrating that TAI offers significant benefits over conservative bowel management in patients with SCI, in terms of managing constipation and faecal incontinence, reducing NBD symptoms and improving quality of life. Among other populations with NBD, TAI shows the greatest promise in children with spina bifida; however, further investigation is required. The overall safety profile of TAI is good, with few, and rare, adverse effects. Building on the positive data reported for patients with SCI, continued evaluation in the clinical trial setting is required to further define the utility of TAI in other populations with NBD.

  4. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness of Transanal Irrigation in Patients with Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Anton; Kumar, Gayathri; Christensen, Peter; Mealing, Stuart; Størling, Zenia M; Andersen, Frederikke; Kirshblum, Steven

    2016-01-01

    People suffering from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) and an ineffective bowel regimen often suffer from fecal incontinence (FI) and related symptoms, which have a huge impact on their quality of life. In these situations, transanal irrigation (TAI) has been shown to reduce these symptoms and improve quality of life. To investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of initiating TAI in patients with NBD who have failed standard bowel care (SBC). A deterministic Markov decision model was developed to project the lifetime health economic outcomes, including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), episodes of FI, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and stoma surgery when initiating TAI relative to continuing SBC. A data set consisting of 227 patients with NBD due to spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis, spina bifida and cauda equina syndrome was used in the analysis. In the model a 30-year old individual with SCI was used as a base-case. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate the robustness of the model. The model predicts that a 30-year old SCI patient with a life expectancy of 37 years initiating TAI will experience a 36% reduction in FI episodes, a 29% reduction in UTIs, a 35% reduction in likelihood of stoma surgery and a 0.4 improvement in QALYs, compared with patients continuing SBC. A lifetime cost-saving of £21,768 per patient was estimated for TAI versus continuing SBC alone. TAI is a cost-saving treatment strategy reducing risk of stoma surgery, UTIs, episodes of FI and improving QALYs for NBD patients who have failed SBC.

  5. Abdominal massage for neurogenic bowel dysfunction in people with multiple sclerosis (AMBER - Abdominal Massage for Bowel Dysfunction Effectiveness Research): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McClurg, Doreen; Goodman, Kirsteen; Hagen, Suzanne; Harris, Fional; Treweek, Sean; Emmanuel, Anton; Norton, Christine; Coggrave, Maureen; Doran, Selina; Norrie, John; Donnan, Peter; Mason, Helen; Manoukian, Sarkis

    2017-03-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a life-long condition primarily affecting younger adults. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) occurs in 50-80% of these patients and is the term used to describe constipation and faecal incontinence, which often co-exist. Data from a pilot study suggested feasibility of using abdominal massage for the relief of constipation, but the effectiveness remains uncertain. This is a multi-centred patient randomised superiority trial comparing an experimental strategy of once daily abdominal massage for 6 weeks against a control strategy of no massage in people with MS who have stated that their constipation is bothersome. The primary outcome is the Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction Score at 24 weeks. Both groups will receive optimised advice plus the MS Society booklet on bowel management in MS, and will continue to receive usual care. Participants and their clinicians will not be blinded to the allocated intervention. Outcome measures are primarily self-reported and submitted anonymously. Central trial staff who will manage and analyse the trial data will be unaware of participant allocations. Analysis will follow intention-to-treat principles. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will demonstrate if abdominal massage is an effective, cost-effective and viable addition to the treatment of NBD in people with MS. ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN85007023 . Registered on 10 June 2014.

  6. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction: Clinical management recommendations of the Neurologic Incontinence Committee of the Fifth International Consultation on Incontinence 2013.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Nikki; Madersbacher, Helmut; Wyndaele, Jean J; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Drake, Marcus J; Gajewski, Jerzy; Heesakkers, John; Panicker, Jalesh; Radziszewski, Piotr; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Hamid, Rizwan; Kessler, Thomas M; Emmanuel, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of neurological disease and lower bowel dysfunction have been produced by the International Consultations on Incontinence (ICI). These are comprehensive guidelines, and were developed to have world-wide relevance. To update clinical management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction from the recommendations of the 4th ICI, 2009. A series of evidence reviews and updates were performed by members of the working group. The resulting guidelines were presented at the 2012 meeting of the European Association of Urology for consultation, and modifications applied to deliver evidence based conclusions and recommendations for the scientific report of the 5th edition of the ICI in 2013. The current review is a synthesis of the conclusions and recommendations, including the algorithms for initial and specialized management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. The pathophysiology is described in terms of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Assessment requires detailed history and clinical assessment, general investigations, and specialized testing, if required. Treatment primarily focuses on optimizing stool consistency and regulating bowel evacuation to improve quality of life. Symptom management covers conservative and interventional measures to promote good habits and assist stool evacuation, along with prevention of incontinence. Education is essential to achieving optimal bowel management. The review offers a pragmatic approach to management in the context of complex pathophysiology and varied evidence base. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) translation and linguistic validation to classical Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mallek, A; Elleuch, M H; Ghroubi, S

    2016-09-01

    To translate and linguistically validate in classical Arabic; the French version of the neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). Arabic translation of the NBD score was obtained by the "forward translation/backword translation" method. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury were included. Evaluation of intestinal and anorectal disorders was conducted by the self-administered questionnaire NBD, which was filled twice two weeks apart. An item-by-item analysis was made. The feasibility, acceptability, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest repeatability by non-parametric Spearman correlation were studied. Twenty-three patients with colorectal disorders secondary to neurological disease were included, the average age was 40.79±9.16years and the sex-ratio was 1.85. The questionnaire was feasible and acceptable, no items were excluded. The spearman correlation was of 0.842. Internal consistency was judged good through the Cronbach's alpha was of 0.896. The Arabic version of NBD was reproducible and construct validity was satisfactory. The study of its responsiveness to change with a larger number of patients will be the subject of further work. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents of children with neurogenic bowel dysfunction: their experiences of using transanal irrigation with their child.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C; Bray, L; Driver, C; Harris, V

    2014-11-01

    Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in children is a lifelong condition often resulting in the need for active bowel management programmes, such as transanal irrigation. Parents are central in the decision-making process to initiate and carry out treatments until such a time their child becomes independent. Minimal research has focussed on examining parents' experiences of undertaking transanal irrigation with their child. This study aimed to explore parents' experiences of learning about and using irrigation with their child and how parents motivated their children to become independent. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with parents with experience of using transanal irrigation with their child. Interviews were undertaken by a parent researcher. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Eighteen telephone interviews (16 mothers, 1 father and 1 carer) were conducted. Parents shared how they had negotiated getting started and using transanal irrigation with their child. They discussed a sense of success derived from their confidence in using and mastering irrigation, the process of making decisions to continue or stop using irrigation and how they motivated themselves and their child to continue with the irrigation regime. Challenges included minimizing their child's distress during the irrigation procedure and how they negotiated and moved towards their child becoming independent. Despite the emotional difficulty parents experienced as a result of the invasive nature of transanal irrigation most parents reported an improvement in their child's faecal continence which positively impacted on the child and family's lives. The child's physical ability and emotional readiness to develop independent irrigation skills in the future concerned some parents. The experiences shared by parents in this study has the capacity to inform transanal irrigation nursing and medical care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of neurogenic bowel dysfunction impact after spinal cord injury using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Pires, Jennifer M; Ferreira, Ana M; Rocha, Filipa; Andrade, Luis G; Campos, Inês; Margalho, Paulo; Laíns, Jorge

    2018-05-09

    Bowel function is frequently compromised after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regardless of this crucial importance in patients' lives, there is still scarce literature on the Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) deleterious impact on SCI patient's lives and only few studies correlating NBD severity with quality of life (QoL). To our knowledge there are no studies assessing the impact of NBD on the context of ICF domains. To assess NBD after SCI using ICF domains and to assess its impact in QoL. Retrospective data analysis and cross-sectional phone survey. Outpatient spinal cord injury setting. Portuguese adult spinal cord injury patients. Retrospective analysis of demographic data, lesion characteristics and bowel management methods at last inpatient discharge. Cross-sectional phone survey assessing current bowel management methods, the Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction Score and a Likert scale questionnaire about the impact on ICF domains and QoL. 64 patients answered the questionnaire. The majority was male (65.6%), mean age 56.6±15.6 years, AIS A lesion (39.1%), with a traumatic cause (71.9%). The main bowel management methods were contact laxatives, suppositories and osmotic laxatives. 50.1% of patients scored moderate or severe NBD. Considering ICF domains, the greatest impact was in personal and environmental factors, with 39.1% reporting impact in financial costs, 45.3% in need of assistance, 45.3% in emotional health and 46.9% in loss of privacy. There was a significant association between severity of NBD and negative impact on QoL (p<0.05). The study confirms the major impact of NBD on personal and environmental factors of ICF and on the quality of life of SCI population. These findings confirm that it is relevant to identify the main ICF domains affected by NBD after SCI in order to address targeted interventions, working toward changes in health policies and psychosocial aspects.

  10. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Engkasan, Julia Patrick; Sudin, Siti Suhaida

    2013-02-01

    To describe the bowel programmes utilized by individuals with spinal cord injury; and to determine the association between the outcome of the bowel programmes and various interventions to facilitate defecation. A cross-sectional study. Individuals with spinal cord injury who have neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-constructed questionnaire that consisted of: (i) demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants; (ii) interventions to facilitate defecation; (iii) bowel care practices; (iv) outcome of the bowel programme (incidence of incontinence and duration of the evacuation procedure); and (v) participant satisfaction with their bowel programme. The majority (79.2%) of subjects used multiple interventions for bowel care. Duration of the evacuation procedure was more than 60 min in 28.0% of participants. Water intake of more than 2 l/day was associated with longer duration of bowel care. Only 8.0% of participants had at least one episode of incontinence per month. The majority of participants (84.8%) were satisfied with their bowel programme. Patients used multiple interventions to manage their bowels and spent a substantial amount of time performing bowel care. Nevertheless, the incidence of incontinence was low and satisfaction with their bowel programme was high.

  11. Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Considerations for Non-Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Kita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masaki; Wada, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    Non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in children is very common in clinical practice and is important as an underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in affected children. LUTD in children is caused by multiple factors and might be related with a delay in functional maturation of the lower urinary tract. Behavioral and psychological problems often co-exist in children with LUTD and bowel dysfunction. Recent findings in functional brain imaging suggest that bladder bowel dysfunction and behavioral and psychiatric disorders in children might share common pathophysiological factors in the brain. Children with suspected LUTD should be evaluated properly by detailed history taking, validated questionnaire on voiding and defecation, voiding and bowel diary, urinalysis, screening ultrasound, uroflowmetry and post-void residual measurement. Invasive urodynamic study such as videourodynamics should be reserved for children in whom standard treatment fails. Initial treatment of non-neurogenic LUTD is standard urotherapy comprising education of the child and family, regular optimal voiding regimens and bowel programs. Pelvic floor muscle awareness, biofeedback and neuromodulation can be used as a supplementary purpose. Antimuscarinics and α-blockers are safely used for overactive bladder and dysfunctional voiding, respectively. For refractory cases, botulinum toxin A injection is a viable treatment option. Prudent use of urotherapy and pharmacotherapy for non-neurogenic LUTD should have a better chance to cure various problems and improve self-esteem and quality of life in affected children. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  13. Is nasogastric tube drainage required after reconstructive surgery for neurogenic bladder dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Bradley A; Dorin, Ryan P; Clemens, J Quentin

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether the routine use of nasogastric tubes (NGTs) after bowel surgery for neurogenic bladder dysfunction improves outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 54 consecutive patients (30 women, 24 men) with neurogenic bladder who underwent bladder reconstruction or replacement with bowel segments by one surgeon from December 2000 to August 2005. The first 32 [NGT(+)] had NGTs placed during the procedure, whereas the subsequent 22 [NGT(-)] did not. We compared short-term postoperative outcomes between groups. Patient age ranged from 17 to 74 years (mean, 42.6 years). Procedures included augmentation cystoplasty with or without creation of catheterizable stoma (31), ileovesicostomy (13), and ileal conduit (9). Mean age or mean operative time did not differ between the NGT(+) and NGT(-) groups. The NGT(-) patients experienced less time to oral intake (3.1 versus 4.4 days, P <0.01), fewer days to flatus (2.9 versus 4.0 days, P = 0.01), and fewer days to first bowel movement (4.4 versus 5.9 days, P = 0.01). We found no statistical differences in the incidence of postoperative complications. Overall hospital days were less in the NGT(-) patients, but this did not reach statistical significance (9.9 versus 11.0, P = 0.2). Routine use of NGTs in patients undergoing bladder reconstruction or replacement for neurogenic bladder dysfunction seems to confer no benefit. The omission of NGTs in this population is possible without increasing overall morbidity. These findings parallel those previously reported in neurologically intact patients undergoing urinary diversion.

  14. Opioid-Induced Bowel Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vivian; Lembo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is a potentially debilitating side effect of chronic opioid use. It refers to a collection of primarily gastrointestinal motility disorders induced by opioids, of which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common. Management of OIBD is difficult, and affected patients will often limit their opioid intake at the expense of experiencing more pain, to reduce the negative impact of OIBD on their quality of life. Effective pharmacologic therapy for OIC is considered an unmet need and several agents have recently been given priority review and approval for OIC. Furthermore, multiple agents currently in development show promise in treating OIC without significant impact on analgesia or precipitation of withdrawal symptoms. The approval and availability of such medications would represent a significant improvement in the management of OIC and OIBD in patients with chronic pain. PMID:23900996

  15. Surgical Management of Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gor, Ronak A; Elliott, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function. Complications are common in this subgroup of patients requiring enduring commitments from surgeons, patients, and their caretakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury and perceived quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pardee, Connie; Bricker, Diedre; Rundquist, Jeanine; MacRae, Christi; Tebben, Cherisse

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury and neurogenic bowel and their perceived quality of life. The study design is an exploratory, descriptive correlational design. To measure the variables of the study the Quality of Life Survey developed by Randell et al. (2001) was used to measure perceived quality of life related to bowel management. Individual bowel management preferences and subjective costs and benefits of the preferences were gathered through the Neurogenic Bowel Characteristics Survey. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Data were collected from a random half of the individuals who met the inclusion criteria from the patient database (n=1193). Two hundred and forty one surveys were analyzed for this study. More than half of the sample (n=134) provided their own bowel management consisting of digital stimulation, suppositories, and other aids; 8% (n=19) had a colostomy. Regardless of the bowel management program 54% (n=127) were satisfied with current methods. Although time reported to complete bowel programs ranged from 1 to 120 minutes, there was no difference in rating of satisfaction with time. There was a statistically significant difference between those satisfied and dissatisfied with current bowel management and quality of life; those satisfied demonstrated a higher quality of life on three subscales, work function (p= .021), bowel problems (p< .001), and social function (p< .001). Those dissatisfied with their bowel program perceived a lower quality of life and indicated problems of time (p= .001), pain or discomfort (p= .033), and poor results (p< .001). Research data provide the patient's perspective on bowel management characteristics, complications, satisfaction, and their perceived quality of life. Results of this research will be incorporated into bowel management education and possible modification of the current inpatient bowel management program. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  17. A Comparison of Patient Outcomes and Quality of Life in Persons With Neurogenic Bowel: Standard Bowel Care Program Vs Colostomy

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Stephen L; Nelson, Audrey L; Harrow, Jeffrey J; Chen, Fangfei; Goetz, Lance L

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare patient outcomes and quality of life for people with neurogenic bowel using either a standard bowel care program or colostomy. Methods: We analyzed survey data from a national sample, comparing outcomes between veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI) who perform bowel care programs vs individuals with colostomies. This study is part of a larger study to evaluate clinical practice guideline implementation in SCI. The sample included 1,503 veterans with SCI. The response rate was 58.4%. For comparison, we matched the respondents with colostomies to matched controls from the remainder of the survey cohort. A total of 74 veterans with SCI and colostomies were matched with 296 controls, using propensity scores. Seven items were designed to elicit information about the respondent's satisfaction with their bowel care program, whereas 7 other items were designed to measure bowel-related quality of life. Results: No statistically significant differences in satisfaction or quality of life were found between the responses from veterans with colostomies and those with traditional bowel care programs. Both respondents with colostomies and those without colostomies indicated that they had received training for their bowel care program, that they experienced relatively few complications, such as falls as a result of their bowel care program, and that their quality of life related to bowel care was generally good. However, large numbers of respondents with colostomies (n = 39; 55.7%) and without colostomies (n = 113; 41.7%) reported that they were very unsatisfied with their bowel care program. Conclusion: Satisfaction with bowel care is a major problem for veterans with SCI. PMID:16869085

  18. Women's experiences of living with neurogenic bladder and bowel after spinal cord injury: life controlled by bladder and bowel.

    PubMed

    Nevedal, Andrea; Kratz, Anna L; Tate, Denise G

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB) is a chronic condition hindering the functioning and quality of life (QOL) of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). NBB research has focused on men with SCI leaving unanswered questions about women's experiences of living with NBB. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe women's experiences of living with SCI and NBB. Secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews from a larger qualitative study of women with SCI (N = 50) was carried out. Transcripts were coded for bowel and bladder content. Pile-sorting techniques were used to identify emergent themes related to NBB. Meta-themes were categorized under the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Bladder and bowel topics were spontaneously discussed by 46 out of 50 study participants suggesting the salience of this issue for women with SCI. We identified 6 meta-themes: life controlled by bladder and bowel, bladder and bowel accidents, women's specific challenges, life course disruption, bladder and bowel medical management, and finding independence. Findings describe concerns, strategies, and the detrimental impact of NBB in the lives of women with SCI. Findings inform policy makers, health care and rehabilitation professionals to improve accessibility and quality of life for women with NBB. Women with spinal cord injury (SCI) reported gender specific challenges to living with neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB). Interventions designed for women with SCI can address these problems and provide recommendations for prevention and treatment. Women described the detrimental impact of NBB on life course expectations, emotional, social, physical health, and quality of life domains. Psychosocial and educational programs can be developed to address these challenges and improve overall quality of life. Recommendations for special treatment and policy considerations are needed to maximize women's independence and health while living with NBB

  19. How to Measure Quality-of-Life Concerns in Patients with Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan P; Myers, Jeremy B; Lenherr, Sara M

    2017-08-01

    There is an evolving role for quality-of-life measures and patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. We review available health-related quality-of-life instruments and patient-reported outcomes measures used in the assessment of patients with neurogenic bladder. We also discuss considerations for incorporation of these measures into clinical and patient-reported research. Emphasizing patient-reported outcomes in neurogenic bladder research will guide clinicians and other stakeholders to improve quality of life in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: A systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Eng, Janice J.; Claxton, Geri; Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Shum, Serena

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To systematically review evidence for the management of neurogenic bowel in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI). DATA SOURCES Literature searches were conducted for relevant articles, as well as practice guidelines, using numerous electronic databases. Manual searches of retrieved articles from 1950 to July 2009 were also conducted to identify literature. STUDY SELECTION Randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort, case-control, and pre-post studies, and case reports that assessed pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention for the management of the neurogenic bowel in SCI were included. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers evaluated each study’s quality, using the PEDro scale for RCTs and the Downs & Black scale for all other studies. Results were tabulated and levels of evidence assigned. DATA SYNTHESIS 2956 studies were found as a result of the literature search. Upon review of the titles and abstracts, 52 studies met the inclusion criteria. Multi-faceted programs are the first approach to neurogenic bowel and are supported by lower levels of evidence. Of the non-pharmacological (conservative and non-surgical) interventions, transanal irrigation is a promising treatment to reduce constipation and fecal incontinence. When conservative management is not effective, pharmacological interventions (e.g., prokinetic agents) are supported by strong evidence for the treatment of chronic constipation. When conservative and pharmacological treatments are not effective, surgical interventions may be considered and are supported by lower levels of evidence in reducing complications. CONCLUSIONS Often, more than one procedure is necessary to develop an effective bowel routine. Evidence is low for non-pharmacological approaches and high for pharmacological interventions. PMID:20212501

  1. Screening for depression and anxiety in childhood neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Aashish T; Feustel, Paul J; Kogan, Barry A

    2015-04-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses are known to have anxiety disorders and are likely to be depressed. Anxiety and depression (A/D) has been studied in adults with spina bifida (SB), however, no study has directly screened for A/D in pediatric patients with neurogenic bladder (NB) and their caregivers. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of A/D in caregivers of all children with SB and other NB dysfunction and in adolescents with validated screening measures. This was a preliminary cross-sectional screening investigation for A/D in pediatric patients with NB and their caregivers and adolescents with NB. Pediatric patients were defined as ages birth to 19 years and adolescents as ages 10 years-19 years. A caregiver was self-defined as a primary parent/guardian who took care of the pediatric patient for a majority of their time on a daily basis. We contacted 75 families by mail, of which 15 returned the consent and completed the questionnaires. Subsequently, 25 consecutive families whose children were seen for routine office appointments by the pediatric urology service at the Albany Medical Center in New York participated in person. 22 adolescents completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). 47 caregivers completed both the HADS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depression among adolescents: Of the 22 adolescents who completed the HADS, the median HADS score was 5.5 (Inter-quartile range (IQR): 1.75-8.75) for anxiety and 1.5 (IQR: 0-4.25) for depression; both scores were within the normal range (<8/21). Individual abnormal HADS scores (≥8/21) were seen in 6/22 (27%) for anxiety and 1/22 (5%) for depression. Anxiety and depression among caregivers: Of the 47 caregivers who completed the HADS and CES-D, the median HADS score was 7 (IQR: 4-11) for anxiety and 4 (IQR: 1-7) for depression; both scores were within the normal range. Individual abnormal HADS scores were seen in 23/47 (49%) for anxiety and 10

  2. Development of hydronephrosis secondary to poorly managed neurogenic bowel requiring surgical disimpaction in a patient with spinal cord injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jairon; Wolfe, Tracy; Walker, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Context Case of an adult patient with paraplegia managing neurogenic bladder with intermittent catheterization who was not performing a standard bowel program for management of neurogenic bowel. Findings Patient presented with increasing spasticity, fecal incontinence, and abdominal pain and ultimately was hospitalized for management. Imaging revealed massive fecal impaction, resulting in ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Despite repeated aggressive bowel regimens, serial abdominal X-rays showed continued large stool burden. Ultimately surgical intervention was required to evacuate the colon and subsequently the hydronephrosis resolved. Conclusion/Clinical relevance This case illustrates the importance of proper management of neurogenic bowel, as significant medical complications, such as hydronephrosis can occur with poorly managed neurogenic bowel. PMID:24617444

  3. Neuroprostheses to treat neurogenic bladder dysfunction: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rijkhoff, Nico J M

    2004-02-01

    Neural prostheses are a technology that uses electrical activation of the nervous system to restore function to individuals with neurological or sensory impairment. This article provides an introduction to neural prostheses and lists the most successful neural prostheses (in terms of implanted devices). The article then focuses on neurogenic bladder dysfunction and describes two clinically available implantable neural prostheses for treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Special attention is given to the usage of these neural prostheses in children. Finally, three new developments that may lead to a new generation of implantable neural prostheses for bladder control are described. They may improve the neural prostheses currently available and expand further the population of patients who can benefit from a neural prosthesis.

  4. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ana Sofia; Menezes, Sónia; Silva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Outcomes following a Conservative Management Approach.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Robert A; Pisansky, Andrew; Fleck, Joseph; Hoversten, Patrick; Cotter, Katherine J; Katorski, Jenna; Liberman, Daniel; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy is characterized by motor impairment following injury to the developing brain. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is estimated to affect at least a third of children with cerebral palsy. However there are limited data as patients transition to adulthood. We sought to describe the symptoms, sequelae and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in adults with cerebral palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of adult patients with cerebral palsy between 2011 and 2014. Patients with prior bladder reconstruction or catheterization based bladder drainage were excluded from study. Cerebral palsy severity was determined using GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System). A conservative evaluation and treatment paradigm was used. Noninvasive treatments were encouraged. Specifically clean intermittent catheterization, which is often not feasible, is avoided unless urinary retention, hydronephrosis or refractory lower urinary tract symptoms develop. There were 121 patients included in final analysis. Median age was 25 and 61 patients (50%) had GMFCS level V. Noninvasive management failed in 28 of 121 patients (23%) as defined by hydronephrosis in 9, persistent urinary retention in 10 and refractory lower urinary tract symptoms/incontinence in 9. Urethral clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated. Of all patients 25% showed evidence of urolithiasis during the study period. Surgical intervention was rare and associated with significant morbidity. Adults with cerebral palsy may present with variable signs and symptoms of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Conservative treatment was successful in more than 75% of patients. Clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated in patients in whom conservative treatment failed. Surgical intervention was rarely indicated and it should be reserved for select individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  6. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  7. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life. PMID:21918729

  8. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Treating Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gross, Tobias; Schneider, Marc P; Bachmann, Lucas M; Blok, Bertil F M; Groen, Jan; Hoen, Lisette A 't; Castro-Diaz, David; Padilla Fernández, Bárbara; Del Popolo, Giulio; Musco, Stefania; Hamid, Rizwan; Ecclestone, Hazel; Karsenty, Gilles; Phé, Véronique; Pannek, Jürgen; Kessler, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a promising therapy for non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and might also be a valuable option in patients with an underlying neurological disorder. We systematically reviewed all available evidence on the efficacy and safety of TENS for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. After screening 1943 articles, 22 studies (two randomised controlled trials, 14 prospective cohort studies, five retrospective case series, and one case report) enrolling 450 patients were included. Eleven studies reported on acute TENS and 11 on chronic TENS. In acute TENS and chronic TENS, the mean increase of maximum cystometric capacity ranged from 69ml to 163ml and from 4ml to 156ml, the mean change of bladder volume at first detrusor overactivity from a decrease of 13ml to an increase of 175ml and from an increase of 10ml to 120ml, a mean decrease of maximum detrusor pressure at first detrusor overactivity from 18 cmH20 to 72 cmH20 and 8 cmH20, and a mean decrease of maximum storage detrusor pressure from 20 cmH20 to 58 cmH2O and from 3 cmH20 to 8 cmH2O, respectively. In chronic TENS, a mean decrease in the number of voids and leakages per 24h ranged from 1 to 3 and from 0 to 4, a mean increase of maximum flow rate from 2ml/s to 7ml/s, and a mean change of postvoid residual from an increase of 26ml to a decrease of 85ml. No TENS-related serious adverse events have been reported. Risk of bias and confounding was high in most studies. Although preliminary data suggest TENS might be effective and safe for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the evidence base is poor and more reliable data from well-designed randomised controlled trials are needed to make definitive conclusions. Early data suggest that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation might be effective and safe for

  9. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  10. Randomized Trial of Clitoral Vacuum Suction Versus Vibratory Stimulation in Neurogenic Female Orgasmic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marcalee; Bashir, Khurram; Alexander, Craig; Marson, Lesley; Rosen, Raymond

    2018-02-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of using a clitoral vacuum suction device (CVSD) versus vibratory stimulation (V) to treat orgasmic dysfunction in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) or spinal cord injury (SCI). Randomized clinical trial. Two academic medical centers. Women (N=31) including 20 with MS and 11 with SCI. A 12-week trial of the use of a CVSD versus V. Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). Twenty-three women (18 MS, 5 SCI) completed the study including 13 of 16 randomized to CVSD and 10 of 15 randomized to V. There was a statistically significant increase in total FSFI score (P=.011), desire (P=.009), arousal (P=.009), lubrication (P=.008), orgasm (P=.012), and satisfaction (P=.049), and a significant decrease in distress as measured by FSDS (P=.020) in subjects using the CVSD. In subjects who used V, there was a statistically significant increase in the orgasm subscale of the FSFI (P=.028). Subjects using the CVSD maintained improvements 4 weeks after treatment. CVSD is safe and overall efficacious to treat female neurogenic sexual dysfunction related to MS and SCI. V is also safe and efficacious for female neurogenic orgasmic dysfunction; however, results were limited to the active treatment period. Because of ease of access and cost, clinicians can consider use of V for women with MS or SCI with orgasmic dysfunction. CVSD is recommended for women with multiple sexual dysfunctions or for whom V is ineffective. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yong; Wendong, Sun; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Tongyan; Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xiulin; Yuan, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus re?ex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.

  12. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong; Wendong, Sun; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Tongyan; Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xiulin; Yuan, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED. PMID:26689522

  13. Provider Adherence to Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Neurogenic Bowel in Adults With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Lance L; Nelson, Audrey L; Guihan, Marylou; Bosshart, Helen T; Harrow, Jeffrey J; Gerhart, Kevin D; Krasnicka, Barbara; Burns, Stephen P

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) have been published on a number of topics in spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine. Research in the general medical literature shows that the distribution of CPGs has a minimal effect on physician practice without targeted implementation strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether dissemination of an SCI CPG improved the likelihood that patients would receive CPG recommended care and (b) whether adherence to CPG recommendations could be improved through a targeted implementation strategy. Specifically, this study addressed the “Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury” Clinical Practice Guideline published in March 1998 by the Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Methods: CPG adherence was determined from medical record review at 6 Veterans Affairs SCI centers for 3 time periods: before guideline publication (T1), after guideline publication but before CPG implementation (T2), and after targeted CPG implementation (T3). Specific implementation strategies to enhance guideline adherence were chosen to address the barriers identified by SCI providers in focus groups before the intervention. Results: Overall adherence to recommendations related to neurogenic bowel did not change between T1 and T2 (P = not significant) but increased significantly between T2 and T3 (P < 0.001) for 3 of 6 guideline recommendations. For the other 3 guideline recommendations, adherence rates were noted to be high at T1. Conclusions: While publication of the CPG alone did not alter rates of provider adherence, the use of a targeted implementation plan resulted in increases in adherence rates with some (3 of 6) CPG recommendations for neurogenic bowel management. PMID:16869086

  14. Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:24235796

  15. Increased autophagy contributes to impaired smooth muscle function in neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Eberli, Daniel; Horst, Maya; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Salemi, Souzan

    2018-05-24

    To explore whether autophagy plays a role in the remodeling of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in children with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), we investigated the effect of autophagy in NLUTD in the paediatric population. Bladder biopsies were taken from children with NLUTD and healthy donors as controls. Samples were labeled with the SMC markers calponin, smoothelin, and the autophagy proteins LC3, ATG5, and Beclin1. The contractile ability of bladder derived SMCs was investigated. ATG5 gene and protein was upregulated in NLUTD muscle tissue compared to normal bladder. NLUTD muscle exhibited a punctated immunostaining pattern for LC3 in a subset of the SMCs, confirming the accumulation of autophagosomes. Pronounced elevation of ATG5 in the SMC in NLUTD tissue was associated with a downregulation of the key contractile proteins smoothelin and calponin. Pharmacological blocking of autophagy completely stopped the cells growth in normal bladder SMCs. Inhibition of autophagy in the NLUTD SMCs, with already elevated levels of ATG5, resulted in a reduction of ATG5 protein expression to the basal level found in normal controls. Our study suggests that autophagy is an important factor affecting the remodeling of SMCs and the alteration of functionality in bladder smooth muscle tissue in the NLUTD. Since autophagy can be influenced by oral medication, this finding might lead to novel strategies preventing the deterioration of NLUTD muscle. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Renal preservation in children with neurogenic bladder-sphincter dysfunction followed in a national program.

    PubMed

    Wide, Peter; Glad Mattsson, Gunilla; Mattsson, Sven

    2012-04-01

    Neurogenic bladder-sphincter dysfunction (NBSD) constitutes the major reason for morbidity in children with spina bifida. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for renal damage in children with NBSD followed according to the Swedish national guidelines. Records and cystometries from 6 to 16 years (median 11) follow up of 41 consecutive children born 1993-2003 with NBSD were evaluated. The children were divided into a high pressure group (baseline pressure above 30 cmH(2)O at maximal clean intermittent catheterization volume in at least two cystometries) and a low pressure group. Most children (34/41) were followed from birth. Although renal scarring on DMSA-scintigraphy was found in 5/41 children, all but one had normal renal function. Two already had renal scars on entering the follow-up program at age 2.5 and 3 years. Renal scarring was more frequent in the high pressure group (P < 0.01). Most children with renal scars (4/5) had a combination of low compliant bladder and insufficient compliance with treatment and follow up. High baseline pressure is confirmed as a risk factor that, in combination with complex social issues, creates a demanding situation for families and professionals. A structured early follow up with treatment compliance effectively prevents renal damage. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal bladder diary duration for patients with suprapontine neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Kratiras, Zisis; Samarinas, Michael; Skriapas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    To identify the minimum bladder diary's length required to furnish reliable documentation of LUTS in a specific cohort of patients suffering from neurogenic urinary dysfunction secondary to suprapontine pathology. From January 2008 to January 2014, patients suffering from suprapontine pathology and LUTS were requested to prospectively complete a bladder diary form for 7 consecutive days. Micturitions per day, excreta per micturition, urgency and incontinence episodes and voided volume per day were evaluated from the completed diaries. We compared the averaged records of consecutive days (2-6 days) to the total 7 days records for each patient's diary, seeking the minimum diary's length that could provide records comparable to the 7 days average, the reference point in terms of reliability. From 285 subjects, 94 male and 69 female patients enrolled in the study. The records of day 1 were significantly different from the average of the 7 days records in every parameter, showing relatively small correlation and providing insuficiente documentation. Correlations gradually increased along the increase in diary's duration. According to our results a 3-day duration bladder diary is efficient and can provide results comparable to a 7 day length for four of our evaluated parameters. Regarding incontinence episodes, 3 days seems inadequate to furnish comparable results, showing a borderline difference. A 3-day diary can be used, as its reliability is efficient regarding number of micturition per day, excreta per micturition, episodes of urgency and voided volume per day. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: A Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Bassotti, Gabrio; Coffin, Benoit; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Breivik, Harald; Eisenberg, Elon; Emmanuel, Anton; Laroche, Françoise; Meissner, Winfried; Morlion, Bart

    2017-10-01

    To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term "opioid-induced bowel dysfunction." A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Predefined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify and categorize relevant papers. A series of statements were formulated and justified by a comment, then labeled with the degree of agreement and their level of evidence as judged by the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) system. From a list of 10,832 potentially relevant studies, 33 citations were identified for review. Screening the reference lists of the pertinent papers identified additional publications. Current definitions, prevalence, and mechanism of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction were reviewed, and a treatment algorithm and statements regarding patient management were developed to provide guidance on clinical best practice in the management of patients with opioid-induced constipation and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. In recent years, more insight has been gained in the pathophysiology of this "entity"; new treatment approaches have been developed, but guidelines on clinical best practice are still lacking. Current knowledge is insufficient regarding management of the opioid side effects on the upper gastrointestinal tract, but recommendations can be derived from what we know at present. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  19. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: A Clinical Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Bassotti, Gabrio; Coffin, Benoit; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Breivik, Harald; Eisenberg, Elon; Emmanuel, Anton; Laroche, Françoise; Meissner, Winfried; Morlion, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Setting Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term “opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.” Methods A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Predefined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify and categorize relevant papers. A series of statements were formulated and justified by a comment, then labeled with the degree of agreement and their level of evidence as judged by the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) system. Results From a list of 10,832 potentially relevant studies, 33 citations were identified for review. Screening the reference lists of the pertinent papers identified additional publications. Current definitions, prevalence, and mechanism of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction were reviewed, and a treatment algorithm and statements regarding patient management were developed to provide guidance on clinical best practice in the management of patients with opioid-induced constipation and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Conclusions In recent years, more insight has been gained in the pathophysiology of this “entity”; new treatment approaches have been developed, but guidelines on clinical best practice are still lacking. Current knowledge is insufficient regarding management of the opioid side effects on the upper gastrointestinal tract, but recommendations can be derived from what we know at present. PMID:28034973

  20. Intestinal diversion (colostomy or ileostomy) in patients with severe bowel dysfunction following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hocevar, Barbara; Gray, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects motor and sensory nervous integrity resulting in paralysis of lower or both upper and lower extremities, as well as autonomic nervous system function resulting in neurogenic bowel. SCI leads to diminished or lost sensations of the need to defecate or inability to distinguish the presence of gas versus liquid versus solid stool in the rectal vault. Sensory loss, incomplete evacuation of stool from the rectal vault, immobility, and reduced anal sphincter tone increase the risk of fecal incontinence. Gastrointestinal symptoms are associated with depression, anxiety, and significant impairments in quality of life (QOL) in a significant portion of persons with SCI. 1. To compare clinical, functional, or quality of life outcomes in spinal cord injured patients with gastrointestinal symptoms managed by conservative measures versus intestinal diversion (colostomy or ileostomy). 2. To identify complications associated with ostomy surgery in patients with bowel dysfunction and SCI. A systematic review of electronic databases MEDLINE and CINAHL (from January 1960 to November 2007) was undertaken using the following key words: (1) ostomy, (2) stoma, (3) colostomy, and (4) ileostomy. Boolean features of these databases were used to combine these terms with the key word "spinal cord injuries." Prospective and retrospective studies that directly compared clinical, functional, QOL outcomes or satisfaction among patients with intestinal diversions to patients managed by conservative means were included. Creation of an ostomy in selected patients provides equivocal or superior QOL outcomes when compared to conservative bowel management strategies. Both colostomy and ileostomy surgery significantly reduce the amount of time required for bowel management. Patients who undergo ostomy surgery tend to be satisfied with their surgery, and a significant portion report a desire to be counseled about this option earlier. There are no clear advantages when

  1. Prospective study of the impact on quality of life of cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guillotreau, Julien; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Bordier, Benoit; Doumerc, Nicolas; De Boissezon, Xavier; Malavaud, Bernard; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal; Gamé, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction has a negative impact on the patient's quality of life (QoL). Cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion is a treatment option in patients in failure after conservative management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ileal conduit urinary diversion on the QoL of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. From March 2004 to November 2010, 48 patients (36 women and 12 men with a mean age of 50.6  ±  11.8 years) treated by cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder dysfunction, prospectively completed, before and after surgery, two self-administered QoL questionnaires. Neurological diseases were multiple sclerosis in 38 cases, spinal cord injury in 7 cases, and other neurological disease in 3 cases. Cystectomy was performed by laparoscopy in all patients. QoL was measured by using two self-administered questionnaires, one questionnaire specific for urinary disorders validated in neurological patients, Qualiveen®, and the generic SF36-v2® questionnaire. Data were compared by Student's t test. Comparison of the Qualiveen® self-administered questionnaire scores and indices before and after surgery showed that, after surgery, patients presented a significant reduction of limitations (0.57 ± 0.64 vs. 1.55 ± 1.35, P < 0.001), constraints (2.12  ±  0.83 vs. 2.64  ±  1.12, P = 0.046) scores and the SIUP index (1.29 ± 0.65 vs. 1.79 ± 0.95, P = 0.015). No significant change in SF36-v2® scores was observed postoperatively. Ileal conduit urinary diversion improves the urinary QoL of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction by decreasing limitations and constraints induced by urinary disorders, but has no impact on general QoL. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. miR-155 Is Essential for Inflammation-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Maya E.; Freilich, Robert W.; Cheng, Christopher J.; Asai, Hirohide; Ikezu, Seiko; Boucher, Jonathan D.; Slack, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral and CNS inflammation leads to aberrations in developmental and postnatal neurogenesis, yet little is known about the mechanism linking inflammation to neurogenic abnormalities. Specific miRs regulate peripheral and CNS inflammatory responses. miR-155 is the most significantly upregulated miR in primary murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a proinflammatory Toll-Like Receptor 4 ligand. Here, we demonstrate that miR-155 is essential for robust IL6 gene induction in microglia under LPS stimulation in vitro. LPS-stimulated microglia enhance astrogliogenesis of cocultured neural stem cells (NSCs), whereas blockade of IL6 or genetic ablation of microglial miR-155 restores neural differentiation. miR-155 knock-out mice show reversal of LPS-induced neurogenic deficits and microglial activation in vivo. Moreover, mice with transgenic elevated expression of miR-155 in nestin-positive neural and hematopoietic stem cells, including microglia, show increased cell proliferation and ectopically localized doublecortin-positive immature neurons and radial glia-like cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) granular cell layer. Microglia have proliferative and neurogenic effects on NSCs, which are significantly altered by microglial miR-155 overexpression. In addition, miR-155 elevation leads to increased microglial numbers and amoeboid morphology in the DG. Our study demonstrates that miR-155 is essential for inflammation-induced neurogenic deficits via microglial activation and induction of IL6 and is sufficient for disrupting normal hippocampal development. PMID:26134658

  3. Early treatment improves urodynamic prognosis in neurogenic voiding dysfunction: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G

    To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Lubiprostone for the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Banny S; Camilleri, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) is a prevalent condition that leads to reduced opioid use, human suffering and a high burden and cost on the healthcare system. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most troublesome aspect of OBD, for which standard laxatives are often ineffective. A major unmet need is effective and safe OIC treatment without inhibiting opioid analgesia or inducing opioid withdrawal symptoms. Recent data indicate that lubiprostone, a locally acting type 2 chloride channel activator, approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, may be effective in treating OBD. The areas covered are: i) an overview of clinical trials of lubiprostone in the treatment of OBD based on peer-reviewed literature and congress materials from 2005 to 2010; and ii) an evaluation of the efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of lubiprostone in the treatment of OBD. Lubiprostone has potential in treating OBD and deserves additional study. Lubiprostone's ability to promote fluid secretion locally at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells ensures it does not provoke opioid withdrawal or compromise analgesia. Lubiprostone seems safe for long-term use in CIC patients, and a similar safety profile is anticipated in OBD.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Review of Reporting Variation in Postoperative Bowel Dysfunction After Rectal Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Stephen J; Bolton, William S; Corrigan, Neil; Young, Neville; Jayne, David G

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative bowel dysfunction affects quality of life after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery, but the extent of the problem is not clearly defined because of inconsistent outcome measures used to characterize the condition. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in the reporting of postoperative bowel dysfunction and to make recommendations for standardization in future studies. If possible, a quantitative synthesis of bowel dysfunction symptoms was planned. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as well as the Cochrane Library, were queried systematically between 2004 and 2015. The studies selected reported at least 1 component of bowel dysfunction after resection of rectal cancer. The main outcome measures were reporting, measurement, and definition of postoperative bowel dysfunction. Of 5428 studies identified, 234 met inclusion criteria. Widely reported components of bowel dysfunction were incontinence to stool (227/234 (97.0%)), frequency (168/234 (71.8%)), and incontinence to flatus (158/234 (67.5%)). Urgency and stool clustering were reported less commonly, with rates of 106 (45.3%) of 234 and 61 (26.1%) of 234. Bowel dysfunction measured as a primary outcome was associated with better reporting (OR = 3.49 (95% CI, 1.99-6.23); p < 0.001). Less than half of the outcomes were assessed using a dedicated research tool (337/720 (46.8%)), and the remaining descriptive measures were infrequently defined (56/383 (14.6%)). Heterogeneity in the reporting, measurement, and definition of postoperative bowel dysfunction precluded pooling of results and limited interpretation. Considerable variation exists in the reporting, measurement, and definition of postoperative bowel dysfunction. These inconsistencies preclude reliable estimates of incidence and meta-analysis. A broadly accepted outcome measure may address this deficit in future studies.

  6. An International Continence Society (ICS) report on the terminology for adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (ANLUTD).

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Jerzy B; Schurch, Brigitte; Hamid, Rizwan; Averbeck, Márcio; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Agrò, Enrico F; Dickinson, Tamara; Payne, Christopher K; Drake, Marcus J; Haylen, Bernie T

    2018-03-01

    The terminology for adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (ANLUTD) should be defined and organized in a clinically based consensus Report. This Report has been created by a Working Group under the auspices and guidelines of the International Continence Society (ICS) Standardization Steering Committee (SSC) assisted at intervals by external referees. All relevant definitions for ANLUTD were updated on the basis of research over the last 14 years. An extensive process of 18 rounds of internal and external review was involved to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for ANLUTD, encompassing 97 definitions (42 NEW and 8 CHANGED, has been developed. It is clinically based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different groups involved not only in lower urinary tract dysfunction but additionally in many other medical specialties. A consensus-based Terminology Report for ANLUTD has been produced to aid clinical practice and research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by multiple sclerosis: a single-centre prospective series.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel S; Meyer, Daniel; Abt, Dominik; Müller, Stefanie; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2015-10-23

    Sacral neuromodulation is well established in the treatment of refractory, non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, but its efficacy and safety in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction of neurological origin is unclear. Only few case series have been reported for multiple sclerosis. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of sacral neuromodulation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Seventeen patients (13 women, 4 men) treated with sacral neuromodulation for refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by multiple sclerosis were prospectively enrolled (2007-2011). Patients had to have stable disease and confirmed neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Voiding variables, adverse events, and subjective satisfaction were assessed. Sixteen (94 %) patients had a positive test phase with a >70 % improvement. After implantation of the pulse generator (InterStim II), the improvement in voiding variables persisted. At 3 years, the median voided volume had improved significantly from 125 (range 0 to 350) to 265 ml (range 200 to 350) (p < 0.001), the post void residual from 170 (range 0 to 730) to 25 ml (range 0 to 300) (p = 0.01), micturition frequency from 12 (range 6 to 20) to 7 (range 4 to 12) (p = 0.003), and number of incontinence episodes from 3 (range 0 to 10) to 0 (range 0 to 1) (p = 0.006). The median subjective degree of satisfaction was 80 %. Only two patients developed lack of benefit. No major complications occurred. Chronic sacral neuromodulation promises to be an effective and safe treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in selected patients with multiple sclerosis.

  8. Investigational opioid antagonists for treating opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Opioids have been highlighted for their role in pain relief among cancer and non-cancer patients. Novel agents have been investigated to reduce opioid-induced constipation (OIC) as the main adverse effect that may lead to treatment discontinuation. Development of peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORA) has resulted in a novel approach to preserve the efficacy of pain control along with less OIC. Areas covered: Clinical evidence for investigational PAMORAs was reviewed and clinical trials on investigational agents to reduce OIC were included. TD-1211 is currently being evaluated in Phase II clinical trial. Oxycodone-naltrexone and ADL-5945 went through Phase III clinical trials, but have been discontinued. Expert opinion: There is a substantial need to develop agents with specific pharmacokinetic properties to meet the needs of patients with underlying diseases. Holding the efficacy of a medicine with the highest selectivity on targeted receptors and the least adverse effects is the main approach in upcoming investigations to improve patients' quality of life (QoL). Novel agents to reduce opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) that do not reverse peripherally mediated pain analgesia are of great interest. Direct comparison of available agents in this field is lacking in the literature.

  9. Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology related to sexual dysfunction in male neurogenic patients with lesions to the spinal cord or peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Everaert, K; de Waard, W I Q; Van Hoof, T; Kiekens, C; Mulliez, T; D'herde, C

    2010-03-01

    Review article. The neuroanatomy and physiology of psychogenic erection, cholinergic versus adrenergic innervation of emission and the predictability of outcome of vibration and electroejaculation require a review and synthesis. University Hospital Belgium. We reviewed the literature with PubMed 1973-2008. Erection, emission and ejaculation are separate phenomena and have different innervations. It is important to realize, which are the afferents and efferents and where the motor neuron of the end organ is located. When interpreting a specific lesion it is important to understand if postsynaptic fibres are intact or not. Afferents of erection, emission and ejaculation are the pudendal nerve and descending pathways from the brain. Erection is cholinergic and NO-mediated. Emission starts cholinergically (as a secretion) and ends sympathetically (as a contraction). Ejaculation is mainly adrenergic and somatic. For vibratory-evoked ejaculation, the reflex arch must be complete; for electroejaculation, the postsynaptic neurons (paravertebral ganglia) must be intact. Afferents of erection, emission and ejaculation are the pudendal nerve and descending pathways from the brain. Erection is cholinergic and NO-mediated. Emission starts cholinergically (as a secretion) and ends sympathetically (as a contraction). Ejaculation is mainly adrenergic and somatic. In neurogenic disease, a good knowledge of neuroanatomy and physiology makes understanding of sexual dysfunction possible and predictable. The minimal requirement for the success of penile vibration is a preserved reflex arch and the minimal requirement for the success of electroejaculation is the existence of intact post-ganglionic fibres.

  10. Cannabinoids for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abo Youssef, Nadim; Schneider, Marc P; Mordasini, Livio; Ineichen, Benjamin V; Bachmann, Lucas M; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Panicker, Jalesh N; Kessler, Thomas M

    2017-04-01

    To review systematically all the available evidence on efficacy and safety of cannabinoids for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Studies were identified by electronic search of the Cochrane register, Embase, Medline, Scopus (last search on 11 November 2016). After screening 8 469 articles, we included two randomized controlled trials and one open-label study, in which a total of 426 patients were enrolled. Cannabinoids relevantly decreased the number of incontinence episodes in all three studies. Pooling data showed the mean difference in incontinence episodes per 24 h to be -0.35 (95% confidence interval -0.46 to -0.24). Mild adverse events were frequent (38-100%), but only two patients (0.7%) reported a serious adverse event. Preliminary data imply that cannabinoids might be an effective and safe treatment option for NLUTD in patients with MS; however, the evidence base is poor and more high-quality, well-designed and adequately powered and sampled studies are urgently needed to reach definitive conclusions. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A novel intracerebral hemorrhage-induced rat model of neurogenic voiding dysfunction: Analysis of lower urinary tract function

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG-SAM; KO, IL-GYU; KIM, CHANG-JU; KIM, KHAE-HAWN

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is a major problem in patients with various neurological disorders, and may result in debilitating symptoms and serious complications, including chronic renal failure and recurrent urinary tract infections. Clinically, stroke is associated with voiding dysfunction. However, lower urinary tract function evaluation in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) model has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported. Therefore, in the present study, lower urinary tract function in ICH-induced rats was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in normal rats. The effects of ICH on peripheral bladder function and central micturition centers [medial preoptic area, ventrolateral gray, pontaine micturition center and spinal cord (lumbar 4 (L4)-L5)] were also examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: Control ICH-induced. Induction of ICH in the hippocampal CA1 region was performed using a stereotaxic frame and type IV collagenase. The effects of ICH on the central micturition centers were investigated by simultaneously determining the extent of neuronal activation (c-Fos) and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, and assessing voiding function (urodynamically using cystometry). The results revealed that induction of ICH significantly enhanced bladder contraction pressure and time, while simultaneously reducing voiding pressure and time. Furthermore, the c-Fos and NGF expression levels in the neuronal voiding centers were significantly increased in the rats with induced ICH as compared with the control rats. Therefore, this ICH-induced NLUTD rat model may be a more appropriate method to analyze NLUTD in stroke patients than a cerebral infarction model, as the former more accurately reflects the nature of the hemorrhage in the two types of stroke. PMID:25954993

  12. [Spinal cord injury with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction as a potential risk factor for bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Böthig, Ralf; Fiebag, Kai; Kowald, Birgitt; Hirschfeld, Sven; Thietje, Roland; Kurze, Ines; Schöps, Wolfgang; Böhme, Holger; Kaufmann, Albert; Zellner, Michael; Kadhum, Thura; Golka, Klaus

    2018-05-29

    paralysis and tumour disease seems to be a decisive risk parameter.The type of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and the form of bladder drainage do not appear to influence the risk. Long-term indwelling catheter drainage played only a minor role in the investigated patients.Early detection of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury remains a challenge. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: Clinical management recommendations of the Neurologic Incontinence committee of the fifth International Consultation on Incontinence 2013.

    PubMed

    Drake, Marcus John; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Cocci, Andrea; Emmanuel, Anton; Gajewski, Jerzy B; Harrison, Simon C W; Heesakkers, John P F A; Lemack, Gary E; Madersbacher, Helmut; Panicker, Jalesh N; Radziszewski, Piotr; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of neurological disease and lower urinary tract dysfunction have been produced by the International Consultations on Incontinence (ICI). These are comprehensive guidelines, and were developed to have world-wide relevance. To update clinical management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction from the recommendations of the fourth ICI, 2009. A series of evidence reviews and updates were performed by members of the working group. The resulting guidelines were presented at the 2012 meeting of the European Association of Urology for consultation, and consequently amended to deliver evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in 2013. The current review is a synthesis of the conclusions and recommendations, including the algorithms for initial and specialized management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. The pathophysiology is categorized according to the nature of onset of neurological disease and the part(s) of the nervous system affected. Assessment requires clinical evaluation, general investigations, and specialized testing. Treatment primarily focuses on ensuring safety of the patient and optimizing quality of life. Symptom management covers conservative and interventional measures to aid urine storage and bladder emptying, along with containment of incontinence. A multidisciplinary approach to management is essential. The review offers a pragmatic review of management in the context of complex pathophysiology and varied evidence base. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:657-665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Review of the Clinical Manifestations, Pathophysiology and Management of Opioid Bowel Dysfunction and Narcotic Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Zahra; Javid Anbardan, Sanam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are widely used for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant pains. These medications are accompanied by adverse effects, in particular gastrointestinal symptoms known as opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD). The most common symptom of OBD is refractory constipation that is usually stable regardless of the use of laxatives. Narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is a subset of OBD described as ambiguous chronic pain aggravated by continual or increased opioid use for pain relief. Pathophysiology of these disorders are not definitely disentangled. Some challenging hypothesis have been posed leading to specific management in order to mitigate the adverse effects. This article is a review of the literature on the prevalence, pathophysiology and management of OBD and NBS. PMID:24829698

  15. Methylnaltrexone mechanisms of action and effects on opioid bowel dysfunction and other opioid adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-06-01

    To review the mechanisms of action of methylnaltrexone and its effects on opioid bowel dysfunction, as well as its effects on other opioid-induced adverse effects (ADEs), and its potential roles in clinical practice. A literature search using the MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration databases for articles published between 1966 and March 2007 was performed. Additional data sources were obtained from manual searches of recent journal articles, book chapters, and monographs. An updated literature search showed no additional publications. Abstracts and original preclinical and clinical research reports published in the English language were identified for review. Review articles, commentaries, and news reports of this compound were excluded. Literature related to opioids, opioid receptors, opioid antagonists, methylnaltrexone, opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, constipation, nausea, and vomiting was evaluated and selected based on consideration of the support shown for the proof of concept, mechanistic findings, and timeliness. Fifty-eight original articles from preclinical studies and clinical trials using methylnaltrexone were identified. Pharmacologic action, benefits, and ADEs of methylnaltrexone were reviewed, with a focus on its effects on bowel dysfunction after opioids. Emphases were placed on its receptor binding activities and therapeutically relevant sites of action (peripheral vs central), in which peripheral opioid receptors in the body contribute to physiological and drug-induced effects. Morphine and related opioids are associated with a number of limiting ADEs, including opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of naltrexone, blocks peripheral effects of opioids while sparing central analgesic effects. It is currently under late-stage clinical investigation for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness. Reported results showed the drug to be generally well-tolerated. The rapid

  16. Novel Oral Therapies for Opioid-induced Bowel Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Holder, Renee M; Rhee, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed and play an important role in chronic pain management. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, which includes constipation, hardened stool, incomplete evacuation, gas, and nausea and vomiting, is the most common adverse event associated with opioid use. Mu-opioid receptors are specifically responsible for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, resulting in reduced peristaltic and secretory actions. Agents that reverse these actions in the bowel without reversing pain control in the central nervous system may be preferred over traditional laxatives. The efficacy and safety of these agents in chronic noncancer pain were assessed from publications identified through Ovid and PubMed database searches. Trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of oral agents for opioid-induced constipation or opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, excluding laxatives, were reviewed. Lubiprostone and naloxegol are approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for use in opioid-induced constipation. Axelopran (TD-1211) and sustained-release naloxone have undergone phase 2 and phase 1 studies, respectively, for the same indication. Naloxegol and axelopran are peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists. Naloxone essentially functions as a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist when administered orally in a sustained-release formulation. Lubiprostone is a locally acting chloride channel (CIC-2) activator that increases secretions and peristalsis. All agents increase spontaneous bowel movements and reduce other bowel symptoms compared with placebo in patients with noncancer pain who are chronic opioid users. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal in nature, and none of the drugs were associated with severe adverse or cardiovascular events. Investigations comparing these agents to regimens using standard laxative and combination therapy and trials in special populations and patients with active cancer are

  17. Autoantibody-mediated bowel and bladder dysfunction in a patient with chronic, nondiabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael W; Gordon, Thomas P; McCombe, Pamela A

    2008-04-01

    Physiological techniques can be used to detect novel autoantibodies causing alteration of autonomic function after passive transfer to mice. Previously, such antibodies have been detected in patients with type I diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, and Sjogren's syndrome. We now describe a patient with an idiopathic nondiabetic neuropathy with prominent autonomic symptoms, including bladder and bowel dysfunction. Physiological assays of whole colon and bladder were used to determine the presence in the patient serum of functional autoantibodies capable of mediating autonomic dysfunction. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from this patient was able to disrupt bladder and bowel function on passive transfer to mice. This is a new pattern of autoantibody-mediated abnormality. Although the target antigen is unknown, it is likely to be a cell-surface receptor or ion channel. This case highlights the usefulness of passive transfer studies in detecting functional antibodies in patients with autonomic neuropathy.

  18. Childhood bladder and bowel dysfunction predicts irritable bowel syndrome phenotype in adult interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Doiron, R Christopher; Kogan, Barry A; Tolls, Victoria; Irvine-Bird, Karen; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    Many clinicians have suggested that a history of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) in childhood predisposes to the development of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. We hypothesized that BBD symptoms in childhood would predict the IBS-associated phenotype in adult IC/BPS patients. Consecutive female patients (n=190) with a diagnosis of IC/BPS were administered a modified form of a clinical BBD questionnaire (BBDQ) to capture childhood BBD-like symptoms, as well as Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI), Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) questionnaires and UPOINT categorization. Patients were stratified to IBS-positive or IBS-negative according to clinical assessment of IBS-like symptoms. The 127 patients (67%) identified with IBS-like symptoms recalled significantly higher BBDQ scores than the 63 patients (33%) who were IBS-negative (2.8 vs. 2.3; p=0.05). The IBS-positive patients also reported a higher number of UPOINT domains than their non-IBS counterparts (3.8 vs. 2.9; p=0.0001), while their PUF total scores were significantly higher (13.6 vs. 12.3; p=0.04). IBS-positive patients more often recalled that in childhood they did not have a daily bowel movement (BM) (p=0.04) and had "to push for a BM" (p=0.009). In childhood, they "urinated only once or twice per day" (p=0.03) and recalled "painful urination" more than those without IBS (p=0.03). There were no significant differences between the groups in answers to the other five questions of the BBDQ. Our symptom recollection survey was able to predict the IBS phenotype of IC/BPS based on a childhood BBDQ. Further prospective studies are needed to further evaluate these novel findings.

  19. Current insights into the innate immune system dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Germanidis, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder associated with abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. The presence of IBS greatly impairs patients' quality of life and imposes a high economic burden on the community; thus, there is intense pressure to reveal its elusive pathogenesis. Many etiological mechanisms have been implicated, but the pathophysiology of the syndrome remains unclear. As a result, novel drug development has been slow and no pharmacological intervention is universally accepted. A growing evidence implicates the role of low-grade inflammation and innate immune system dysfunction, although contradictory results have frequently been presented. Mast cells (MC), eosinophils and other key immune cells together with their mediators seem to play an important role, at least in subgroups of IBS patients. Cytokine imbalance in the systematic circulation and in the intestinal mucosa may also characterize IBS presentation. Toll-like receptors and their emerging role in pathogen recognition have also been highlighted recently, as dysregulation has been reported to occur in patients with IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the involvement of any immunological alteration in the development of IBS. There is substantial evidence to support innate immune system dysfunction in several IBS phenotypes, but additional studies are required to better clarify the underlying pathogenetic pathways. IBS heterogeneity could potentially be attributed to multiple causes that lead to different disease phenotypes, thus explaining the variability found between study results.

  20. Current insights into the innate immune system dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Germanidis, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder associated with abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. The presence of IBS greatly impairs patients’ quality of life and imposes a high economic burden on the community; thus, there is intense pressure to reveal its elusive pathogenesis. Many etiological mechanisms have been implicated, but the pathophysiology of the syndrome remains unclear. As a result, novel drug development has been slow and no pharmacological intervention is universally accepted. A growing evidence implicates the role of low-grade inflammation and innate immune system dysfunction, although contradictory results have frequently been presented. Mast cells (MC), eosinophils and other key immune cells together with their mediators seem to play an important role, at least in subgroups of IBS patients. Cytokine imbalance in the systematic circulation and in the intestinal mucosa may also characterize IBS presentation. Toll-like receptors and their emerging role in pathogen recognition have also been highlighted recently, as dysregulation has been reported to occur in patients with IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the involvement of any immunological alteration in the development of IBS. There is substantial evidence to support innate immune system dysfunction in several IBS phenotypes, but additional studies are required to better clarify the underlying pathogenetic pathways. IBS heterogeneity could potentially be attributed to multiple causes that lead to different disease phenotypes, thus explaining the variability found between study results. PMID:29507464

  1. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  2. Are Interferential Electrical Stimulation and Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises Beneficial in Children With Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Vesna D; Stankovic, Ivona; Dimitrijevic, Lidija; Kocic, Mirjana; Colovic, Hristina; Vlajkovic, Marina; Slavkovic, Andjelka; Lazovic, Milica

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of interferential current (IC) stimulation and diaphragmatic breathing exercises (DBEs) in children with bladder and bowel dysfunction. Seventy-nine children with dysfunctional voiding and chronic constipation who were failures of primary care interventions were included in the prospective clinical study. All the children were checked for their medical history regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and bowel habits. Physical examination, including abdominal and anorectal digital examination, was performed. Children kept a bladder and bowel diary, and underwent urinalyses and urine culture, ultrasound examination of bladder and kidneys, and uroflowmetry with pelvic floor electromyography. Eligible children were divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C). All groups were assigned education and behavioral modifications. Additionally, group A underwent DBEs and IC stimulation, whereas group B received only DBEs. The treatment was conducted for 2 weeks in the clinic in all 3 groups,. The behavioral modifications and DBEs were continued at home for 1 month. Clinical manifestations, uroflowmetry parameters, and postvoided residual urine were analyzed before and after 6 weeks of therapy. After the treatment, significant improvement in defecation frequency and fecal incontinence was noticed only in group A (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). These children demonstrated significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and postvoided residual urine (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Bell-shaped uroflowmetry curve was observed in 73.3% of group A patients (P < .001). IC stimulation and DBEs are beneficial in chronically constipated dysfunctional voiders. Further trials are needed to define the long-term effects of this program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bowel Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

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  4. Neurogenic Causes of Detrusor Underactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Brian T.; Tyagi, Pradeep; Chermansky, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is a poorly understood dysfunction of the lower urinary tract which arises from multiple etiologies. Symptoms of DU are non-specific, and a pressure-flow urodynamic study is necessary to differentiate DU from other conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB) or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The prevalence of DU ranges from 10–48%, and DU is most prevalent in elderly males. The pathophysiology underlying DU can be from both neurogenic and non-neurogenic causes. In this article, we review the neurogenic causes of detrusor underactivity, including diabetic bladder dysfunction, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and Fowler’s syndrome. As knowledge about the underlying causes of DU advances, there have been several potential therapeutic approaches proposed to help those who suffer from this condition. PMID:26715948

  5. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survviors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S.; McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. METHODS This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N=856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high versus low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. RESULTS CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CONCLUSIONS CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship. PMID:26159443

  6. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-12-01

    Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N = 856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high vs. low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary, and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship.

  7. Neurogenic Fever.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kevin; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-02-01

    Fever is a relatively common occurrence among patients in the intensive care setting. Although the most obvious and concerning etiology is sepsis, drug reactions, venous thromboembolism, and postsurgical fevers are all on the differential diagnosis. There is abundant evidence that fever is detrimental in acute neurologic injury. Worse outcomes are reported in acute stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. In addition to the various etiologies of fever in the intensive care setting, neurologic illness is a risk factor for neurogenic fevers. This primarily occurs in subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury, with hypothalamic injury being the proposed mechanism. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is another source of hyperthermia commonly seen in the population with traumatic brain injury. This review focuses on the detrimental effects of fever on the neurologically injured as well as the risk factors and diagnosis of neurogenic fever.

  8. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy volunteers assessed with questionnaires and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Matias; Poulsen, Jakob L; Brock, Christina; Sandberg, Thomas H; Gram, Mikkel; Frøkjær, Jens B; Krogh, Klaus; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-05-01

    Opioid treatment is associated with numerous gastrointestinal adverse effects collectively known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). Most current knowledge of the pathophysiology derives from animal studies limited by species differences and clinical studies, which have substantial confounders that make evaluation difficult. An experimental model of OIBD in healthy volunteers in a controlled setting is therefore highly warranted. The aim of this study was to assess bowel function in healthy volunteers during opioid treatment using subjective and objective methods. Twenty-five healthy men were assigned randomly to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a cross-over design. The analgesic effect was assessed with muscle pressure algometry and adverse effects were measured using questionnaires including the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, patient assessment of constipation symptoms and the Bristol stool form scale. Colorectal volumes were determined using a newly developed MRI method. Compared with baseline, oxycodone increased pain detection thresholds by 8% (P=0.02). Subjective OIBD was observed as increased bowel function index (464% increase; P<0.001), gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (37% increase; P<0.001) and patient assessment of constipation symptoms (198% increase; P<0.001). Objectively, stools were harder and drier during oxycodone treatment (P<0.001) and segmental colorectal volumes increased in the caecum/ascending colon by 41% (P=0.005) and in the transverse colon by 20% (P=0.005). No associations were detected between questionnaire scores and colorectal volumes. Experimental OIBD in healthy volunteers was induced during oxycodone treatment. This model has potential for future interventional studies to discriminate the efficacies of different laxatives, peripheral morphine antagonists and opioid treatments.

  9. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Nilsson, Matias; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2015-11-01

    In recent years prescription of opioids has increased significantly. Although effective in pain management, bothersome gastrointestinal adverse effects are experienced by a substantial proportion of opioid-treated patients. This can lead to difficulties with therapy and subsequently inadequate pain relief. Collectively referred to as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, these adverse effects are the result of binding of exogenous opioids to opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to disturbance of three important gastrointestinal functions: motility, coordination of sphincter function and secretion. In the clinic this manifests in a wide range of symptoms such as reflux, bloating, abdominal cramping, hard, dry stools, and incomplete evacuation, although the most known adverse effect is opioid-induced constipation. Traditional treatment with laxatives is often insufficient, but in recent years a number of novel pharmacological approaches have been introduced. In this review the pathophysiology, symptomatology and prevalence of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is presented along with the benefits and caveats of a suggested consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation. Finally, traditional treatment is appraised and compared with the latest pharmacological developments. In conclusion, opioid antagonists restricted to the periphery show promising results, but use of different definitions and outcome measures complicate comparison. However, an international working group has recently suggested a consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation and relevant outcome measures have also been proposed. If investigators within this field adapt the suggested consensus and include symptoms related to dysfunction of the upper gut, it will ease comparison and be a step forward in future research.

  10. Efficacy of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and non-neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Jong Hyun; Kang, Sung Gu; Kang, Seok Ho; Cheon, Jun; Kim, Je Jong; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the short-term outcomes of men who had urodynamic evidence of detrusor underactivity (DU) or detrusor overactivity (DO) of a non-neurogenic etiology as well as bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and who underwent Holmium Laser Enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). A database of 322 patients who underwent HoLEP between 2010 and 2014 was analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups according to the results of a preoperative urodynamic study. Preoperative parameters such as International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of Life (QoL) index, IPSS grade, uroflowmetry were compared with postoperative parameters measured at 6 months. There were 138 patients with BOO-only and 89 patients with BOO and detrusor dysfunction including 56 with DO and 33 with DU. The degree of improvement in IPSS-total (BOO: 10.7, DO: 8.3, DU: 7.0; p = 0.023) was greater in the BOO-only group than in the DU group. There were more patients whose IPSS grade improved in the BOO-only group (71%) than in the detrusor dysfunction group (DO: 53.6% and DU: 45.5%). Postoperative IPSS-voiding (4.5 vs 7.0), and Qmax (18 vs 13.7) in the BOO-only group were significantly better than those in the DU group. Additionally, postoperative IPSS-storage (4.7 vs 6.7), and IPSS-total (9.1 vs 12.3) in the BOO-only group were significantly better than in the DO group (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, early surgical management for men with severe LUTS and associated BPH before secondary degeneration occurs may be beneficial for preserving detrusor function and yield better treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle training for bowel dysfunction following colorectal cancer surgery: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Yin; Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda; Frawley, Helena C

    2015-11-01

    To identify, evaluate and synthesize the evidence examining the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on bowel dysfunction in patients who have undergone colorectal cancer surgery. Eight electronic databases (MEDLINE 1950-2014; CINAHL 1982-2014; EMBASE 1980-2014; Scopus 1823-2014; PsycINFO 1806-2014; Web of Science 1970-2014; Cochrane Library 2014; PEDro 1999-2014) were systematically searched in March 2014. Reference lists of identified articles were cross referenced and hand searched. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and case series were included if they investigated the effects of conservative treatments, including PFMT on bowel function in patients with colorectal cancer following surgery. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Six prospective non-randomized studies and two retrospective studies were included. The mean (SD) NOS risk of bias score was 4.9 (1.2) out of 9; studies were limited by a lack of non-exposed cohort, lack of independent blinded assessment, heterogeneous treatment protocols, and lack of long-term follow-up. The majority of studies reported significant improvements in stool frequency, incontinence episodes, severity of fecal incontinence, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after PFMT. Meta-analysis was not possible due to lack of randomized controlled trials. Pelvic floor muscle training for patients following surgery for colorectal cancer appears to be associated with improvements in bowel function and HRQoL. Results from non-randomized studies are promising but randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are needed to confirm the effectiveness of PFMT in this population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emerging therapies for patients with symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) comprises gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, gastric stasis, bloating, abdominal pain, and opioid-induced constipation, which significantly impair patients’ quality of life and may lead to undertreatment of pain. Traditional laxatives are often prescribed for OIBD symptoms, although they display limited efficacy and exert adverse effects. Other strategies include prokinetics and change of opioids or their administration route. However, these approaches do not address underlying causes of OIBD associated with opioid effects on mostly peripheral opioid receptors located in the GI tract. Targeted management of OIBD comprises purely peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonists and a combination of opioid receptor agonist and antagonist. Methylnaltrexone induces laxation in 50%–60% of patients with advanced diseases and OIBD who do not respond to traditional oral laxatives without inducing opioid withdrawal symptoms with similar response (45%–50%) after an oral administration of naloxegol. A combination of prolonged-release oxycodone with prolonged-release naloxone (OXN) in one tablet (a ratio of 2:1) provides analgesia with limited negative effect on the bowel function, as oxycodone displays high oral bioavailability and naloxone demonstrates local antagonist effect on opioid receptors in the GI tract and is totally inactivated in the liver. OXN in daily doses of up to 80 mg/40 mg provides equally effective analgesia with improved bowel function compared to oxycodone administered alone in patients with chronic non-malignant and cancer-related pain. OIBD is a common complication of long-term opioid therapy and may lead to quality of life deterioration and undertreatment of pain. Thus, a complex assessment and management that addresses underlying causes and patomechanisms of OIBD is recommended. Newer strategies comprise methylnaltrexone or OXN administration in the management of OIBD

  13. Risk factors for bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a prospective study using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center bowel function instrument.

    PubMed

    Ihn, Myong Hoon; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Duck-Woo; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Lee, Soo Young; Hong, Sa Min

    2014-08-01

    Until recently, no studies have prospectively evaluated bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer with the use of a validated bowel function scoring system. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for altered bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted between January 2006 and May 2012 at the authors' institution. Patients who underwent sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery were recruited. Bowel function was assessed 1 day before (baseline) and at 1 year after sphincter-preserving surgery or temporary ileostomy takedown with the use of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with altered bowel function after surgery. Overall, 266 patients were eligible for the analysis. The tumor was located in the upper, middle, and lower rectum in 68 (25.5%), 113 (42.5%), and 85 (32.0%) patients. Intersphincteric resection and temporary ileostomy were performed in 18 (6.8%) and 129 (48.5%) patients. The mean Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score was 64.5 ± 7.6 at 1 year after sphincter-preserving surgery or temporary ileostomy takedown. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score decreased in 163/266 patients (61.3%) between baseline and 1 year after surgery. Tumor location (p = 0.01), operative method (p = 0.03), anastomotic type (p = 0.01), and temporary ileostomy (p = 0.01) were associated with altered bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery in univariate analyses. In multivariable analysis, only tumor location was independently associated with impaired bowel function after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery. This study was limited by its nonrandomized design and the lack of measurement before preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We suggest that preoperative counseling should be implemented to inform patients of the risk of bowel dysfunction

  14. Neurogenic bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  15. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation in the management of bowel dysfunction of adults with central neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramwell, A; Rice-Oxley, M; Bond, A; Simson, J N L

    2011-10-01

    Bowel dysfunction results in a major lifestyle disruption for many patients with severe central neurologic disease. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation (PESCI) allows antegrade irrigation of the distal large bowel for the management of both incontinence and constipation. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of PESCI. A PESCI tube was placed endoscopically in the sigmoid colon of 25 patients to allow antegrade irrigation. Control of constipation and fecal incontinence was improved for 21 (84%) of the 25 patients. These patients were followed up for 6-83 months (mean, 43 months), with long-term success for 19 (90%) of the patients. No PESCI had to be removed for technical reasons or for PESCI complications. Late removal of the PESCI was necessary for 2 of the 21 patients. A modified St. Marks Fecal Incontinence Score to assess bowel function before and after PESCI showed a highly significant improvement (P < 0.0001). There were no procedure-related deaths. Complications included minor sepsis at the initial PESCI tube site in four patients and bumper migration in two patients, but there were no complications related to the button device. This study showed that PESCI is a simple, safe, and effective technique for distal antegrade irrigation in the management bowel dysfunction for selected patients with central neurologic disease. A successful PESCI is very likely to continue functioning satisfactorily for a long time without technical problems or local complications.

  16. [Objective and subjective requirement of aids and appliances in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction : Multicenter study to determinate the daily necessity of urological aids and appliances].

    PubMed

    Bremer, J; Böthig, R; Domurath, B; Kutzenberger, J; Kaufmann, A; Pretzer, J; Klask, J P; Geng, V; Vance, W; Kurze, I

    2016-12-01

    The provision of urological appliances for patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is essential. Hitherto existing standard guidelines for the estimation of monthly material requirements are based solely on estimates. The goal of this work was to define the objective and subsequently subjective requirements for urological appliances on a scientifically validated basis. Data concerning bladder management and daily consumption of urological appliances for patients with NLUTD were collected through a standardized survey at six different centers in Germany during the period of October to December 2014 and statistically evaluated. In all, 767 patient records were analyzed: 543 men and 221 woman (N/A = 3). The daily disposable catheter consumption of 577 patients who exclusively used intermittent catheterization was 5.13. Patients who used other means of bladder emptying (n = 31) in addition to catheterization consumed on average 3.17 catheters. The margin of deviation was larger for children. Of the 608 patients with intermittent catheterization, 94 (15.5 %) required additional paddings as absorbent aids (on average 2.29 paddings per day), 34 patients (5.6 %) additionally used pants (2.55 per day) and 46 patients (7.6 %) utilized condom catheters (3.81 per day) between catheterization. Among all surveyed patients, 126 (16.4 %) used paddings (5.03 per day) and 51 patients (6.6 %) pants (3.03 per day). Of all male respondents 82 (15.1 %) used condom catheters (2.80 urinary sheaths per day). Applying twice the standard deviation of the mean as a measure of assessing the objective requirement of urological appliances and aids for adult patients with NLUTD allows the following daily thresholds to be defined: 1-9 disposable catheters, 0-7 urinary sheaths, 1-9 paddings and 0-7 pants. These thresholds can serve as a basis for estimating the subjective need. They allow for a scientifically validated benchmark for an

  17. Dysfunction of the intestinal microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result from alterations in intestinal microbes and the immune system. However, the precise dysfunctions of microbial metabolism in the gastrointestinal microbiome during IBD remain unclear. We analyzed the microbiota of intestinal biopsies and stool samples from 231 IBD and healthy subjects by 16S gene pyrosequencing and followed up a subset using shotgun metagenomics. Gene and pathway composition were assessed, based on 16S data from phylogenetically-related reference genomes, and associated using sparse multivariate linear modeling with medications, environmental factors, and IBD status. Results Firmicutes and Enterobacteriaceae abundances were associated with disease status as expected, but also with treatment and subject characteristics. Microbial function, though, was more consistently perturbed than composition, with 12% of analyzed pathways changed compared with 2% of genera. We identified major shifts in oxidative stress pathways, as well as decreased carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis in favor of nutrient transport and uptake. The microbiome of ileal Crohn's disease was notable for increases in virulence and secretion pathways. Conclusions This inferred functional metagenomic information provides the first insights into community-wide microbial processes and pathways that underpin IBD pathogenesis. PMID:23013615

  18. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Docimo, Steven G.; Mathews, Ranjiv; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mattoo, Tej K.; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Carpenter, Myra A.; Pohl, Hans G.; Greenfield, Saul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We combined data from 2 longitudinal studies (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) in which children <6 years of age with a first or second UTI were followed for 2 years. We compared outcomes for children with and without BBD, children with and without VUR, and children with VUR randomly assigned to prophylaxis or placebo. The outcomes examined were incidence of recurrent UTIs, renal scarring, surgical intervention, resolution of VUR, and treatment failure. RESULTS: BBD was present at baseline in 54% of the 181 toilet-trained children included; 94% of children with BBD reported daytime wetting, withholding maneuvers, or constipation. In children not on antimicrobial prophylaxis, 51% of those with both BBD and VUR experienced recurrent UTIs, compared with 20% of those with VUR alone, 35% with BBD alone, and 32% with neither BBD nor VUR. BBD was not associated with any of the other outcomes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Among toilet-trained children, those with both BBD and VUR are at higher risk of developing recurrent UTIs than children with isolated VUR or children with isolated BBD and, accordingly, exhibit the greatest benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26647376

  19. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Docimo, Steven G; Mathews, Ranjiv; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mattoo, Tej K; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Carpenter, Myra A; Pohl, Hans G; Greenfield, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We combined data from 2 longitudinal studies (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) in which children <6 years of age with a first or second UTI were followed for 2 years. We compared outcomes for children with and without BBD, children with and without VUR, and children with VUR randomly assigned to prophylaxis or placebo. The outcomes examined were incidence of recurrent UTIs, renal scarring, surgical intervention, resolution of VUR, and treatment failure. BBD was present at baseline in 54% of the 181 toilet-trained children included; 94% of children with BBD reported daytime wetting, withholding maneuvers, or constipation. In children not on antimicrobial prophylaxis, 51% of those with both BBD and VUR experienced recurrent UTIs, compared with 20% of those with VUR alone, 35% with BBD alone, and 32% with neither BBD nor VUR. BBD was not associated with any of the other outcomes investigated. Among toilet-trained children, those with both BBD and VUR are at higher risk of developing recurrent UTIs than children with isolated VUR or children with isolated BBD and, accordingly, exhibit the greatest benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. α1A-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonism Improves Erectile and Cavernosal Responses in Rats With Cavernous Nerve Injury and Enhances Neurogenic Responses in Human Corpus Cavernosum From Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Secondary to Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; La Fuente, José M; Martínez-Salamanca, Eduardo; Fernández, Argentina; Pepe-Cardoso, Augusto J; Louro, Nuno; Carballido, Joaquín; Angulo, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) in rats and radical prostatectomy (RP) in men result in loss of nitrergic function and increased adrenergic-neurogenic contractions of cavernosal tissue. To evaluate the modulation of the α-adrenergic system as a strategy to relieve erectile dysfunction (ED) and functional cavernosal alterations induced by CNI. A non-selective α-blocker (phentolamine 1 mg/kg daily), a selective α 1A -blocker (silodosin [SILOD] 0.1 mg/kg daily), or vehicle was orally administered for 4 weeks after bilateral crush CNI (BCNI). Erectile and neurogenic responses of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were evaluated. The acute effects of SILOD also were evaluated in vivo (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) and ex vivo (10 nmol/L). The effects of SILOD and tadalafil (TAD) on nitrergic relaxations were determined in human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology or ED secondary to RP. Erectile responses in vivo in rats and neurogenic contractions and relaxations of rat and human CC. Long-term treatment with SILOD significantly improved erectile responses and allowed for the potentiation of erectile responses by acute treatment with TAD (0.3 mg/kg intravenously) in rats with BCNI. SILOD partly recovered nitrergic relaxations and normalized neurogenic contractions in CC from rats with BCNI. Long-term treatment with SILOD partly prevented BCNI-induced decreases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. Acute administration of SILOD (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) improved erectile responses in vivo and potentiated nitrergic relaxation and decreased neurogenic contractions ex vivo in CC from rats with BCNI. In human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology, TAD (30 nmol/L), SILOD (10 nmol/L), or their combination increased nitrergic relaxations. Potentiation by TAD was lost in human CC from patients with ED after RP but was recovered after co-treatment with SILOD. α-Adrenergic modulation, especially selective α 1A -blockade, improves erectile and

  1. The Effect of DA-9701 in Opioid-induced Bowel Dysfunction of Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zahid; Rhee, Kwang Won; Lee, Young Ju; Park, Hyojin

    2016-07-30

    Opioid induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is associated with decreased gastrointestinal (GI) propulsive activity due to intake of opioid analgesics. DA-9701, a novel prokinetic agent formulated with Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber has promising effects on GI motor function. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the prokinetic effects of DA-9701 in an OIBD model of guinea pig. The ileal and distal colon muscle contraction in presence of different doses of DA-9701, morphine, and combination (morphine + DA-9701) was measured by tissue bath study. The prokinetic effect of DA-9701 was assessed by charcoal transit and fecal pellet output assay in an OIBD model of guinea pig. DA-9701 significantly increased the amplitude and area under the curve of ileal muscle contraction, while there was insignificant effect on the distal colon compared to the control. The maximal amplitude of ileal muscle contraction was acquired at a concentration of 10 μg/mL of DA-9701. In contrast, morphine significantly decreased the amplitude of ileal and distal colon muscle contraction compared to the control. Morphine delayed both upper (P < 0.01) and lower (P < 0.05) GI transit, and delayed GI transit was restored by the administration of DA-9701. Morphine induced reduction of contractility was significantly ameliorated by addition of DA-9701 in both ileal and distal colon muscles. DA-9701 significantly increased the amplitude of contraction of the ileal muscle, however the distal colon muscle contraction was insignificant. Additionally, it restored delayed upper and lower GI transit in an OIBD model of guinea pig, and it might prove to be a useful candidate drug in a clinical trial for OIBD.

  2. Bowel Endometriosis Syndrome: a new scoring system for pelvic organ dysfunction and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Riiskjær, M; Egekvist, A G; Hartwell, D; Forman, A; Seyer-Hansen, M; Kesmodel, U S

    2017-09-01

    Is it possible to develop a validated score that can identify women with Bowel Endometriosis Syndrome (BENS) and be used to monitor the effect of medical and surgical treatment? The BENS score can be used to identify women with BENS and to monitor the effect of medical and surgical treatment of women suffering from bowel endometriosis. Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease with extensive variation in anatomical and clinical presentation, and symptoms do not always correspond to the disease burden. Current endometriosis scoring systems are mainly based on anatomical and surgical findings. The score was developed and validated from a cohort of 525 women with medically or surgically treated bowel endometriosis from Aarhus and Copenhagen University Hospitals, Denmark. Patients filled in questionnaires on pelvic pain, quality of life (QoL) and urinary, sexual and bowel function. Items were selected for the final score using clinical and statistical criteria. The chosen variables were included in a multivariate analysis. Individual score values were designated items to form the BENS score, which was divided into 'no BENS', 'minor BENS' and 'major BENS.' Internal and external validations were performed. The six most important items were 'pelvic pain', 'use of analgesics', 'dyschezia', 'straining to urinate', 'fecal urgency' and 'satisfaction with sexual life'. The range of the BENS score (0-28) was divided into 0-8 (no BENS), 9-16 (minor BENS) and 17-28 (major BENS). External validation showed a significant association between BENS score and QoL (P = 0.0001). The BENS scoring system is limited by the fact that it was developed from a single endometriosis unit in Denmark, making it susceptible to social, cultural and demographic bias. It is the first endometriosis classification system to be based directly on the symptomatology of the patient. Validation in other languages will promote comparison of treatments and results across borders. No external funding was either

  3. Management of vesicoureteral reflux in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Charlotte Q; Franco, Israel

    2017-06-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a significant risk factor for pyelonephritis and renal scarring. VUR can occur through a defective ureterovesical junction (UVJ) or an overwhelmed normal UVJ mechanism such as in bladder dysfunction of congenital, acquired, or behavioral etiology. There are numerous causes for the development of a neurogenic bladder from spinal dysraphisms to spinal cord trauma and even centrally based abnormalities in children with apparently normal motor function (inappropriately termed nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder). The foundation of managing reflux in these neurogenic bladders is to maintain low bladder pressures which will commonly mean that compliance will be normal as well. There have been several publications that have shown that if bladder pressures are lowered simply with clean intermittent catheterization and medications that the reflux can resolve spontaneously. Alternatively, the patients that are in need of bladder augmentation can have spontaneous resolution of their reflux with the resulting increase in capacity. Surgical intervention is called for when bladder capacity is adequate and the reflux persists or if it is part of a larger operation to increase capacity and to manage outlet resistance. In some instances, reimplantation is necessary because the ureters interfere with the bladder neck procedure. Aside from open and robotic surgical intervention the use of endoscopic injectable agents is beginning to become more popular especially when combined with intravesical botulinum toxin A injections. Great strides are being made in the management of patients with neurogenic bladders and we are seeing more choices for the urologist to be able to manage these patients.

  4. The impact of naloxegol on anal sphincter function - Using a human experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Grønlund, Debbie; Poulsen, Jakob L; Krogh, Klaus; Brock, Christina; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Olesen, Anne E

    2018-05-30

    Opioid treatment interferes with anal sphincter function and its regulation during defecation. This may result in straining, incomplete evacuation, and contribute to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). Employing an experimental model of oxycodone-induced OIBD, we hypothesized that co-administration of the peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonist naloxegol would improve anal sphincter function in comparison to placebo. In a double-blind randomized crossover trial, 24 healthy males were assigned to a six-day treatment of oral oxycodone 15 mg twice daily in combination with either oral naloxegol 25 mg once daily or placebo. At baseline and at day 6, anal resting pressure and the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) were evaluated using manometry and rectal balloon distension. Furthermore, the functional lumen imaging probe was used to measure distensibility of the anal canal. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom (PAC-SYM) questionnaire and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. During oxycodone treatment, naloxegol improved RAIR-induced sphincter relaxation by 15% (-45.9 vs -38.8 mm Hg; P < 0.01). No differences in anal resting pressure and anal canal distensibility were found between treatments (all P > 0.5). Naloxegol improved PAC-SYM symptoms (mean score over days; 2.6 vs 4.5, P < 0.001) and improved stool consistency scores (mean score over days; 3.3 vs 2.9, P < 0.01). In this experimental model of OIBD, naloxegol improved the RAIR and reduced gastrointestinal symptoms. Hence, in contrast to conventional laxatives, naloxegol may regulate opioid-induced anal sphincter dysfunction and facilitate the defecation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic and Transcriptomic Bases of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Vancamelbeke, Maaike; Vanuytsel, Tim; Farré, Ricard; Verstockt, Sare; Ferrante, Marc; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Schuit, Frans; Vermeire, Séverine; Arijs, Ingrid; Cleynen, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal barrier defects are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To identify which components could underlie these changes, we performed an in-depth analysis of epithelial barrier genes in IBD. A set of 128 intestinal barrier genes was selected. Polygenic risk scores were generated based on selected barrier gene variants that were associated with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in our study. Gene expression was analyzed using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Influence of barrier gene variants on expression was studied by cis-expression quantitative trait loci mapping and comparing patients with low- and high-risk scores. Barrier risk scores were significantly higher in patients with IBD than controls. At single-gene level, the associated barrier single-nucleotide polymorphisms were most significantly enriched in PTGER4 for CD and HNF4A for UC. As a group, the regulating proteins were most enriched for CD and UC. Expression analysis showed that many epithelial barrier genes were significantly dysregulated in active CD and UC, with overrepresentation of mucus layer genes. In uninflamed CD ileum and IBD colon, most barrier gene levels restored to normal, except for MUC1 and MUC4 that remained persistently increased compared with controls. Expression levels did not depend on cis-regulatory variants nor combined genetic risk. We found genetic and transcriptomic dysregulations of key epithelial barrier genes and components in IBD. Of these, we believe that mucus genes, in particular MUC1 and MUC4, play an essential role in the pathogenesis of IBD and could represent interesting targets for treatment.

  6. A comparison of the treatment recommendations for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in the national institute for health and care excellence, European Association of Urology and international consultations on incontinence guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Ashley; Drake, Marcus; Siddiqui, Emad; Fatoye, Francis

    2018-04-17

    Healthcare guidelines are an important vehicle in establishing up-to-date evidence based medicine (EBM) in clinical practice. Due to varying development processes, clinical guidelines created by different institutions can often contain contrasting recommendations. This can have implications for optimal and standardized patient care across management settings. The similarities and differences of treatment recommendations made in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), The European Association of Urology (EAU), and the International Consultation on Continence (ICI) guidelines for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) were assessed. The guidelines generally agree on their approach to conservative management, including behavioral therapies, and catheterization techniques. There was discrepancy on the benefit of using an alpha blocker in NLUTD and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and administering Botulinum toxin A (Onabotulinum-A) in NLUTD. The highest degree of divergence was seen in recommendations for surgical treatments, where the EAU made gender-specific recommendations, and gave continent urinary diversion higher preference than given in the NICE and ICI guidelines. In the absence of high-quality clinical evidence, many of the recommendations made across all three guidelines are based on expert opinion. NICE, the EAU and ICI have similarities but they place differing emphasis on costs and expert opinion, which translated in notably different recommendations. It is evident that increased research efforts, possibly in the form of prospective registries, pragmatic trials, and resource utilization studies are necessary to improve the underlying evidence base for NLUTD, and subsequently the strength and concordance of recommendations across guidelines. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Urodynamic results, clinical efficacy, and complication rates of sacral intradural deafferentation and sacral anterior root stimulation in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction resulting from complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krasmik, D; Krebs, Jörg; van Ophoven, Arndt; Pannek, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the outcome and complications of sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) resulting from complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Retrospective chart analysis of 137 patients who underwent SDAF/SARS at a single institution. Patients were categorized as being at risk of renal damage when the maximum detrusor pressure was >40 cmH2 O or detrusor compliance was <20 ml/cmH2 O. After a mean follow-up time of 14.8 ± 5.3 years, SDAF/SARS treatment significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the number of patients suffering from elevated detrusor pressure from 65 to 2, and from low detrusor compliance from 62 to 13, respectively. Mean bladder capacity significantly (P < 0.001) improved from 272.4 ± 143.0 to 475.0 ± 82.7 ml. The mean number of symptomatic UTI also decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 6.2 ± 4.5 to 2.5 ± 2.6 per year. The number of patients suffering from incontinence had significantly (P < 0.001) decreased from 70 to 44. At the last follow-up visit, 107 (78.1%) patients were still using the stimulator. A total of 84 complications requiring surgical revision were observed. Defects of the stimulator cables or the receiver plate were the most common events (n = 38). The retrospective design pertains to the limitations of the study. Sacral deafferentation and SARS are an effective treatment option for refractory NLUTD in patients with complete SCI, despite a substantial long-term complication rate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Definition, diagnosis and treatment strategies for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction-Recommendations of the Nordic Working Group.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Asbjørn M; Munkholm, Pia; Simrén, Magnus; Breivik, Harald; Kongsgaard, Ulf E; Hatlebakk, Jan G; Agreus, Lars; Friedrichsen, Maria; Christrup, Lona L

    2016-04-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is an increasing problem due to the common use of opioids for pain worldwide. It manifests with different symptoms, such as dry mouth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain, anorexia, hard stools, constipation and incomplete evacuation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of its many symptoms and probably the most prevalent. The current review describes the pathophysiology, clinical implications and treatment of OIBD. The Nordic Working Group was formed to provide input for Scandinavian specialists in multiple, relevant areas. Seven main topics with associated statements were defined. The working plan provided a structured format for systematic reviews and included instructions on how to evaluate the level of evidence according to the GRADE guidelines. The quality of evidence supporting the different statements was rated as high, moderate or low. At a second meeting, the group discussed and voted on each section with recommendations (weak and strong) for the statements. The literature review supported the fact that opioid receptors are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. When blocked by exogenous opioids, there are changes in motility, secretion and absorption of fluids, and sphincter function that are reflected in clinical symptoms. The group supported a recent consensus statement for OIC, which takes into account the change in bowel habits for at least one week rather than focusing on the frequency of bowel movements. Many patients with pain receive opioid therapy and concomitant constipation is associated with increased morbidity and utilization of healthcare resources. Opioid treatment for acute postoperative pain will prolong the postoperative ileus and should also be considered in this context. There are no available tools to assess OIBD, but many rating scales have been developed to assess constipation, and a few specifically address OIC. A clinical treatment strategy for OIBD

  9. Management of Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Venkataramani; Mitra, Aparajita

    2017-07-01

    This article provides a comprehensive summary of the clinical approach, investigative modalities and management of a child with neurogenic bladder disease due to myelodysplasia. It is aimed at pediatric physicians and surgeons working in developing nations. The methodologies suggested are simple and can be practised even in resource poor regions. The goal of management is avoidance of Chronic kidney disease and for this, meticulous bladder management is the key.

  10. OnabotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Gulamhusein, Aziz; Mangera, Altaf

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the evidence for use of onabotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Since its first use in 1988 to treat detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, use of botulinum toxin has increased in this group of patients. We discuss the mechanism of action, patient selection, dosing, efficacy, and side effect profile of this now licensed treatment option. PMID:22977301

  11. Survey of spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies using the Web of Science.

    PubMed

    Zou, Benjing; Zhang, Yongli; Li, Yucheng; Wang, Zantao; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Xiyin; Wang, Bingdong; Long, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Song, Guo; Wang, Yan

    2012-08-15

    To identify global trends in research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder, through a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science. We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder using the Web of Science. Data retrieval was performed using key words "spinal cord injury", "spinal injury", "neurogenic bladder", "neuropathic bladder", "neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction", "neurogenic voiding dysfunction", "neurogenic urination disorder" and "neurogenic vesicourethral dysfunction". (a) published peer-reviewed articles on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: no limitation. (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers and book chapters. (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to journals; (3) distribution according to subject areas; (4) distribution according to country; (5) distribution according to institution; and (6) top cited publications. There were 646 research articles addressing spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder in the Web of Science. Research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder was found in the Science Citation Index-Expanded as of 1946. The United States, Ireland and Switzerland were the three major countries contributing to studies in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder in the 1970s. However, in the 1990s, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and Japan published more papers on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder than Switzerland, and Ireland fell off the top ten countries list. In this century, the United States ranks first in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies, followed by France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland and Japan. Subject categories including urology, nephrology and clinical neurology, as well as

  12. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Taweel, Waleed Al; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:26090342

  13. Electrical management of neurogenic lower urinary tract disorders.

    PubMed

    Joussain, C; Denys, P

    2015-09-01

    Management of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in neurological diseases remains a priority because it leads to many complications such as incontinence, renal failure and decreased quality of life. A pharmacological approach remains the first-line treatment for patients with neurogenic LUTD, but electrical stimulation is a well-validated and recommended second-line treatment. However, clinicians must be aware of the indications, advantages and side effects of the therapy. This report provides an update on the 2 main electrical stimulation therapies for neurogenic LUTD - inducing direct bladder contraction with the Brindley procedure and modulating LUT physiology (sacral neuromodulation, tibial posterior nerve stimulation or pudendal nerve stimulation). We also describe the indications of these therapies for neurogenic LUTD, following international guidelines, as illustrated by their efficacy in patients with neurologic disorders. Electrical stimulation could be proposed for neurogenic LUTD as second-line treatment after failure of oral pharmacologic approaches. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of these techniques and to confirm their efficacy. Other electrical investigations, such as deep-brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, or improved sacral anterior root stimulation, which could be associated with non-invasive and highly specific deafferentation of posterior roots, may open new fields in the management of neurogenic LUTD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Mu-opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care.

    PubMed

    Candy, Bridget; Jones, Louise; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Larkin, Philip J; Stone, Patrick

    2018-06-05

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is characterised by constipation, incomplete evacuation, bloating, and gastric reflux. It is one of the major adverse events of treatment for pain in cancer and in palliative care, resulting in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life.This is an update of two Cochrane reviews. One was published in 2011, Issue 1 on laxatives and methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in people receiving palliative care; this was updated in 2015 and excluded methylnaltrexone. The other was published in 2008, Issue 4 on mu-opioid antagonists (MOA) for OIBD. In this updated review, we only included trials on MOA (including methylnaltrexone) for OIBD in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care. To assess the effectiveness and safety of MOA for OIBD in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to August 2017. We also searched clinical trial registries and regulatory websites. We contacted manufacturers of MOA to identify further data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effectiveness and safety of MOA for OIBD in people with cancer and people at a palliative stage irrespective of the type of terminal disease they experienced. Two review authors assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The appropriateness of combining data from the trials depended upon sufficient homogeneity across the trials. Our primary outcomes were laxation, impact on pain relief, and adverse events. Impact on pain relief was a primary outcome because a possible adverse effect of MOAs is a reduction in pain relief from opioids. We assessed the evidence on these outcomes using GRADE. We identified four new trials for this update, bringing the total number included in this review to eight. In total, 1022 men and women with cancer irrespective of stage or at a palliative care stage of any disease

  15. Bladder and bowel dysfunctions in 1748 children referred to pelvic physiotherapy: clinical characteristics and locomotor problems in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Marieke L; Bols, Esther M J; Benninga, Marc A; Verwijs, Wim A; de Bie, Rob A

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate in a pragmatic cross-sectional study, the clinical characteristics of childhood bladder and/or bowel dysfunctions (CBBD) and locomotor problems in the primary through tertiary health care setting. It was hypothesized that problems would increase, going from primary to tertiary healthcare. Data were retrieved from patient-records of children (1-16 years) presenting with CBBD and visiting pelvic physiotherapists. Prevalence's of dysfunctions were compared between healthcare settings and gender using ANOVA and chi-square test. Agreement between physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms was evaluated (Cohen's Kappa). One thousand seventy hundred forty-eight children (mean age 7.7 years [SD 2.9], 48.9% boys) were included. Daytime urinary incontinence (P = 0.039) and enuresis (P < 0.001) were more diagnosed in primary healthcare, whereas constipation (P < 0.001) and abdominal pain (P = 0.009) increased from primary to tertiary healthcare. All parent-reported symptoms occurred more frequently than indicated by the physicians. Poor agreement between physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms was found (k = 0.16). Locomotor problems prevailed in all healthcare settings, motor skills (P = 0.041) and core stability (P = 0.015) significantly more in tertiary healthcare. Constipation and abdominal pain (physicians' diagnoses) and the parent-reported symptoms hard stools and bloating increased from primary to tertiary healthcare. Discrepancies exist between the prevalence's of physicians' diagnoses and parent-reported symptoms. Locomotor problems predominate in all healthcare settings. What is Known: • Childhood bladder and/or bowel dysfunctions (CCBD) are common. • Particularly tertiary healthcare characteristics of CBBD are available What is New: • Characteristics of CBBD referred to pelvic physiotherapy are comparable in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings. • Concomitant CBBD

  16. International spinal cord injury bowel function basic data set (Version 2.0).

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Emmanuel, A; Perrouin-Verbe, B; Korsten, M A; Mulcahey, M J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-07-01

    International expert working group. To revise the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Bowel Function Basic Data Set as a standardized format for the collecting and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in clinical practice and research. Working group appointed by the American Spinal injury association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). The draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by the International SCI Data Set Committee and later by members of the ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board. The revised data set was posted on the ASIA and ISCoS websites for 1 month to allow further comments and suggestions. Changes resulting from a Delphi process among experts in children with SCI were included. Members of ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board made a final review and approved the data set. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) consists of the following 16 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal and anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, defecation method and bowel-care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, uneasiness, headache or perspiration during defecation, digital stimulation or evacuation of the anorectum, frequency of fecal incontinence, flatus incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, oral laxatives and prokinetics, anti-diarrheal agents, perianal problems, abdominal pain and discomfort and the neurogenic bowel dysfunction score. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) has been developed.

  17. Droxidopa for Symptomatic Neurogenic Hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Myrthil, Nadia

    Droxidopa is a first-in-class, orally available, synthetic amino acid precursor of norepinephrine that received accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval in February 2014 after Orphan Drug status for a debilitating condition known as symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Neurogenic disorders often lead to postural hypotension as a result of poor norepinephrine release from its storage sites. Clinical data suggest increases in standing systolic blood pressure and improvements in many other markers for subjective relief in patients with symptomatic neurogenic hypotension who received droxidopa therapy over 1-2 weeks. Studies evaluating the sustained effects of droxidopa are ongoing. With minimal drug interactions (even with carbidopa use) or adverse effects, droxidopa therapy can be used safely in patients with a variety of neurologic conditions; however, more data are needed to determine its appropriate pharmacotherapeutic role. In all, droxidopa is a safe and effective medication for the treatment of orthostatic dizziness/lightheadedness, or the "feeling that you are about to black out" in adult patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension secondary to primary autonomic failure (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure), dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency, and nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  18. Abdominal Manual Therapy Repairs Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Increases Colonic c-Kit Expression When Treating Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyi; Zhu, Zhaojin; Xie, Bin; Yu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal manual therapy (AMT) on bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI), investigating interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and related c-kit expression. Methods Model rats were divided as SCI and SCI with drug treatment (intragastric mosapride), low-intensity (SCI + LMT; 50 g, 50 times/min), and high-intensity AMT (SCI + HMT; 100 g, 150 times/min). After 14 days of treatment, weight, improved Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score, and intestinal movement were evaluated. Morphological structure of spinal cord and colon tissues were examined. Immunostaining, RT-PCR, and western blot were used to assess c-kit expression. Results In SCI rats, AMT could not restore BBB, but it significantly increased weight, shortened time to defecation, increased feces amounts, and improved fecal pellet traits and colon histology. AMT improved the number, distribution, and ultrastructure of colonic ICCs, increasing colonic c-kit mRNA and protein levels. Compared with the SCI + Drug and SCI + LMT groups, the SCI + HMT group showed better therapeutic effect in improving intestinal transmission function and promoting c-kit expression. Conclusions AMT is an effective therapy for recovery of intestinal transmission function. It could repair ICCs and increase c-kit expression in colon tissues after SCI, in a frequency-dependent and pressure-dependent manner. PMID:29349063

  19. Sexual Dysfunctions in Men and Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Influence of IBD-Related Clinical Factors and Depression on Sexual Function.

    PubMed

    Bel, Linda G J; Vollebregt, Anna M; Van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Fidder, Herma H; Ten Hove, Willem R; Vliet-Vlieland, Cornelia W; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; de Groot, Helena E; Both, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is likely to have an impact on sexual function because of its symptoms, like diarrhea, fatigue, and abdominal pain. Depression is commonly reported in IBD and is also related to impaired sexual function. This study aimed to evaluate sexual function and its association with depression among patients with IBD compared with controls. IBD patients registered at two hospitals participated. The control group consisted of a general practitioner practice population. The web-based questionnaire included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for women and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for men. Other variables evaluated were depression, disease activity, IBD-related quality of life, body image, and fatigue. In total, 168 female and 119 male patients were available for analysis (response rate 24%). Overall, patients with IBD did not significantly differ in prevalence of sexual dysfunctions from controls: female patients 52%, female controls 44%, male patients and male controls both 25%. However, men and women with an active disease scored significantly lower than patients in remission and controls, indicating impaired sexual functioning during disease activity. Significant associations were found between active disease, fatigue, depressive mood, quality of life, and sexual function for both male and female patients. The association between disease activity and sexual function was totally mediated by depression. Male and female IBD patients with an active disease show impaired sexual function relative to patients in remission and controls. Depression is the most important determinant for impaired sexual function in IBD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Relationship among bacterial virulence, bladder dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and patterns of urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Horvath, Dennis J; Li, Birong; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-07-01

    We hypothesized that virulence levels of Escherichia coli isolates causing pediatric urinary tract infections differ according to severity of infection and also among various uropathies known to contribute to pediatric urinary tract infections. We evaluated these relationships using in vitro cytokine interleukin-6 elicitation. E. coli isolates were cultured from children presenting with urinary tract infections. In vitro cytokine (interleukin-6) elicitation was quantified for each isolate and the bacteria were grouped according to type of infection and underlying uropathy (neurogenic bladder, nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, primary vesicoureteral reflux, no underlying etiology). A total of 40 E. coli isolates were collected from children with a mean age of 61.5 months (range 1 to 204). Mean level of in vitro cytokine elicitation from febrile urinary tract infection producing E. coli was significantly lower than for nonfebrile strains (p = 0.01). The interleukin-6 response to E. coli in the neurogenic bladder group was also significantly higher than in the vesicoureteral reflux (p = 0.01) and no underlying etiology groups (p = 0.02). In vitro interleukin-6 elicitation, an established marker to determine bacterial virulence, correlates inversely with clinical urinary tract infection severity. Less virulent, high cytokine producing E. coli were more likely to cause cystitis and were more commonly found in patients with neurogenic bladder and nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, whereas higher virulence isolates were more likely to produce febrile urinary tract infections and to affect children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and no underlying etiology. These findings suggest that bacteria of different virulence levels may be responsible for differences in severity of pediatric urinary tract infections and may vary among different underlying uropathies. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  1. Involvement of the P2X7 purinergic receptor in colonic motor dysfunction associated with bowel inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Luca; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Colucci, Rocchina; Pellegrini, Carolina; Sacco, Deborah; Caputi, Valentina; Orso, Genny; Tuccori, Marco; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates an involvement of P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R) in the fine tuning of immune functions, as well as in driving enteric neuron apoptosis under intestinal inflammation. However, the participation of this receptor in the regulation of enteric neuromuscular functions remains undetermined. This study was aimed at investigating the role of P2X7Rs in the control of colonic motility in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in rats by 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. P2X7R distribution was examined by immunofluorescence analysis. The effects of A804598 (selective P2X7R antagonist) and BzATP (P2X7R agonist) were tested on contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle evoked by electrical stimulation or by carbachol in the presence of tetrodotoxin. P2X7Rs were predominantly located in myenteric neurons, but, in the presence of colitis, their expression increased in the neuromuscular layer. In normal preparations, A804598 elicited a negligible increase in electrically induced contractions, while a significant enhancement was recorded in inflamed tissues. In the presence of Nω-propyl-L-arginine (NPA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) the A804598 effects were lost. P2X7R stimulation with BzATP did not significantly affect electrical-induced contractions in normal colon, while a marked reduction was recorded under inflammation. The inhibitory effect of BzATP was antagonized by A804598, and it was also markedly blunted by NPA. Both P2X7R ligands did not affect carbachol-induced contractions. The purinergic system contributes to functional neuromuscular changes associated with bowel inflammation via P2X7Rs, which modulate the activity of excitatory cholinergic nerves through a facilitatory control on inhibitory nitrergic pathways.

  2. Erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  3. [Symptom analysis of 537 patients with neurogenic intrapelvic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Masahiro, Takano; Shunji, Ogata; Ryoichi, Nozaki; Saburo, Hisano; Yasumitsu, Saiki; Mitsuko, Fukunaga; Shota, Takano; Masafumi, Tanaka; Shinichiro, Magata; Yasushi, Nakamura; Gentaro, Sakata; Kazutaka, Yamada

    2010-12-01

    To characterize the symptoms of neurogenic intrapelvic syndrome and the pathogenic mechanisms. A total of 537 patients with neurogenic intrapelvic syndrome were treated in the Takano Hospital between 2001 and 2005. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was 58.5 years old. There were 205 males and 332 females. There were 80 patients(14.9%) who presented with only one symptom with anorectal pain being the most common one (43.8%, 35/80). One hundred and fifty-six(29.1%) patients had two symptoms with anorectal pain and difficult evacuation being the most common combination (26.3%, 41/156). There were 144 patients (26.8%) complained of 3 symptoms and the most common combination was anorectal pain, difficult evacuation, and abdominal discomfort (30.0%, 43/144). A combination of 4 symptoms was reported in 105 patients(19.6%) with the combination of anorectal pain, incontinence, abdominal discomfort, and lumbar discomfort being the most often(65.7%, 69/105). In addition, there were 52 patients(9.7%) who had above 5 symptoms simultaneously. The frequencies of the 5 symptoms were 73.6% for anorectal pain, 27.9% for incontinence, 69.6% for difficult evacuation, 55.3% for abdominal discomfort, and 53.6% for lumbar discomfort. Symptomatology of neurogenic intrapelvic syndrome is complicated. The pathogenic mechanism may be related to concurrent dysfunction of sacral nerve and pelvic splanchnic nerve.

  4. Bowel incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Uncontrollable passage of feces; Loss of bowel control; Fecal incontinence; Incontinence - bowel ... older, women tend to have problems with bowel control more often than men. Children who have problems ...

  5. Prevalence and impact of constipation and bowel dysfunction induced by strong opioids: a cross-sectional survey of 520 patients with cancer pain: DYONISOS study.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, L; Béziaud, N; Labreze, L; Giardina, V; Caussé, C; Chuberre, B; Allaert, F A; Perrot, S

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with cancer pain according to the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott symptom score (KESS), the different symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), and to assess the impact of OIBD on patient's quality-of-life. A cross-sectional observational study, using the KESS questionnaire and the physician's subjective assessment of constipation, and other questionnaires and questions on constipation, OIBD, and quality-of-life, carried out on 1 day at oncology day centres and hospitals. Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled at 77 centres in France; 61.7% of patients (n = 321) showed a degree of constipation that is problematic for the patient according to KESS (between 9-39). Even more patients, 85.7% (n = 438), were considered constipated according to the physician's subjective assessment-despite laxative use (84.7% of patients). Quality-of-life was significantly reduced in constipated vs non-constipated patients for both PAC-QoL (p < 0.0001 for total score and each dimension) and the SF-12 questionnaires (statistically significant for all dimensions except physical state and role physical). OIC and OIBD led to hospitalization (16% of patients), pain (75% of patients), and frequent changes in opioid and laxative treatment. This cross-sectional study, in a selected population of cancer patients, has measured prevalence and impact of OIBD. Further confirmation could be sought through the use of longitudinal studies, and larger populations, such as non-cancer pain patients treated with opioids. Cancer patients taking opioids for pain are very frequently constipated, even if they are prescribed laxatives. This leads to relevant impairments of quality-of-life.

  6. [Neurogenic inflammation and chronic rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, J S; Ricchetti Coignard, A

    2005-10-19

    The nasal mucosa is one of the anatomical region which have the highest density of sensory innervation. The function of this sensory innervation is probably linked to the protection of the lower airways against inhalation of airborne particles and potentially harmful substances. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is associated with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, loss of sense of smell and facial pain or headaches. When allergy or specific hyperreactivity, infection, systemic or genetic deseases have been excluded, the diagnosis of non specific hyperreactivity or neurogenic inflammation is proposed. Sensory neuropeptides released by sensory nerves endings have powerful proinflammatory effects. The best treatment yet available include nasal lavages and the local application of topical corticosteroid spray.

  7. Sacral neuromodulations for female lower urinary tract, pelvic floor, and bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Salim A; Whitmore, Kristene; Ho, Mat H

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has been investigated for the treatment of various types of lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunctions. This review discusses recently published data related to the therapeutic applications of SNM in female lower urinary tract, pelvic floor, and bowel disorders. SNM has been employed initially in the treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder, urge urinary incontinence, and chronic nonobstructive urinary retention. Since then, several studies, including randomized and controlled trials, have confirmed the therapeutic effects of SNM in these disorders. The applications of SNM are now extended to the treatment of other female pelvic problems, such as fecal incontinence, chronic constipation, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and neurogenic disorders, with similar promising results. SNM is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder, urge urinary incontinence, and chronic nonobstructive urinary retention. SNM is not yet an approved method for the treatment of other pelvic disorders, but data supporting its benefit are emerging. The major advantage of SNM lies in its potential to treat the bladder, urethral sphincter, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor muscles simultaneously, which might result in better therapeutic effects.

  8. Droxidopa in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a fall in blood pressure on standing due to reduced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals. nOH is a feature of several neurological disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system, most notably Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure and other autonomic neuropathies. Droxidopa, an orally active synthetic amino acid that is converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (dopa-decarboxylase), was recently approved by the FDA for the short-term treatment of nOH. It is presumed to raise blood pressure by acting at the neurovascular junction to increase vascular tone. This review summarizes the pharmacological properties of droxidopa, its mechanism of action, and the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials. PMID:26092297

  9. Droxidopa in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a fall in blood pressure (BP) on standing due to reduced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals. nOH is a feature of several neurological disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system, most notably Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and other autonomic neuropathies. Droxidopa, an orally active synthetic amino acid that is converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (dopa-decarboxylase), was recently approved by the FDA for the short-term treatment of nOH. It is presumed to raise BP by acting at the neurovascular junction to increase vascular tone. This article summarizes the pharmacological properties of droxidopa, its mechanism of action, and the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials.

  10. Treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2011-12-01

    Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus results from a deficiency in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Treatment is based on replacement therapy with the hormone analog desmopressin (d-DAVP). d-DAVP can be administered subcutaneously to infants or patients with postoperative or posttraumatic brain injury being monitored for transient diabetes insipidus. Intranasal and oral forms are also available. The recently introduced lyophilisate, which melts under the tongue, has replaced the tablet form (recently withdrawn from the market in France) and provides better bioavailability. Irrespective of the mode of administration, it is usually the patient who finds the effective minimal dose necessary for a normal life, i.e. without excessive polyuria, particularly at night. Patient education is necessary to avoid the risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of upper tract stones in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Heidi A; Clayton, Douglass B; Tanaka, Stacy T; Thomas, John C; Pope, John C; Brock, John W; Adams, Mark C

    2014-02-01

    Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk of developing upper tract stones. We hypothesized that patients with lower urinary tract stone disease are at greater risk of developing upper tract stones. We performed a 10-year retrospective case-control study of patients with neurogenic bladder to determine the association between bladder and upper tract stones. Independent risk factors for upper tract stones were assessed. Cases and controls were matched 1:1. Univariable analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. 52 cases and controls were identified. Cases were significantly more likely to be non-ambulatory, have bowel-urinary tract interposition, thoracic level dysraphism, and history of bladder stones. On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stone formation were male sex (OR 2.82; p = 0.02), dysraphism involving the thoracic spine (OR 3.37; p = 0.014) bowel-urinary tract interposition (OR 2.611; p = 0.038), and a history of bladder stones (OR 3.57; p = 0.015). Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk for upper tract stones. The presence of bladder stones may herald the development of upper tract stones. The predictors of stone disease identified should guide prospective studies to better understand the natural history of upper tract stone development in this population. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  13. Bowel Retraining: Strategies for Establishing Bowel Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Search Bowel Retraining: Strategies for Establishing Bowel Control Home Bowel Retraining Details Treatment Last Updated: 29 ... help people with bowel disorders establish or reestablish control. Individuals with symptoms of inability to control bowel ...

  14. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  15. Transanal irrigation for bowel symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Giuseppe; Gosling, Jonathan; Raeburn, Amanda; Storrie, Julie; Panicker, Jalesh; Emmanuel, Anton

    2012-10-01

    Constipation and fecal incontinence affect 68% of patients with multiple sclerosis, but management is empirical. Transanal irrigation has been used successfully in patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transanal irrigation on the bowel symptoms and general health status in these patients and the characteristics of those that had successful treatment and to obtain data for power calculations necessary for future randomized controlled studies. This was a prospective observational study in which pre- and posttreatment questionnaires (bowel symptoms and health status) were compared. Patients for whom treatment resulted in at least 50% improvement in bowel symptoms were considered responders. Baseline variables including anorectal physiology tests and rectal compliance were compared between responders and nonresponders. This study was conducted at a specialist neurogastroenterology clinic, tertiary referral center. Included were 30 patients who had multiple sclerosis and constipation, fecal incontinence, or both. Transanal irrigation was performed. The primary outcomes measured were the Wexner Constipation and Wexner Incontinence scores. The secondary outcomes was the SF-36 health survey. All scores were recorded before and after 6 weeks of treatment. At 6 weeks posttreatment, the Wexner Constipation score significantly improved (12 (8.75/16) pretreatment vs 8 (4/12.5) posttreatment, p = 0.001), as well as the Wexner Incontinence score (12 (4.75/16) pretreatment vs 4 (2/8) posttreatment, p < 0.001). The SF-36 score did not improve significantly (51.3 ± 7.8 pretreatment vs 50.4 ± 7.8 posttreatment, p = 0.051). Sixteen patients were responders and had higher baseline Wexner Incontinence scores (14 (11/20) responders vs 9 (4/15) nonresponders, p = 0.038) and SF-36 (53.9 ± 6.3 responders vs 47.9 ± 7.8 nonresponders, p = 0.027), as well as greater maximum tolerated volume to rectal balloon distension (310 (220

  16. Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bowel and Bladder Management after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    feelings of shame , lack of intimacy and sexuality are just some of the issues associated with neurogenic bladder and bowel. Adjusting to losses related...independence, community participation, respect, feelings of shame , lack of intimacy and sexuality are just some of the issues associated with neurogenic...Always Cardiovascular 1. I avoid smoking cigarettes. 0 1 2 3 4 2. I limit the amount of fat and cholesterol in my diet (for example, I limit red

  17. Reversible ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and chronic constipation: case report.

    PubMed

    Morais, Barbara A; Cardeal, Daniel D; Andrade, Fernanda G; Paiva, Wellingson S; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2018-05-11

    Constipation can cause transient malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Patients with myelomeningocele or cerebral palsy are often diagnosed with hydrocephalus and constipation due to neurogenic bowel. These patients are more prone to VPS dysfunction, often requiring surgical revision. The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl with a VPS that had been implanted due to hydrocephalus secondary to myelomeningocele. The patient was brought to the emergency department with intermittent headache, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension and pain. A CT scan revealed ventricular dilatation and radiography of the abdomen showed bowel loop distension. After a Fleet enema and digital maneuvers, her abdominal distension and symptoms improved. A CT scan obtained 24 hours later showed a reduction in ventricular size. The mechanism by which constipation can lead to VPS malfunction can be traced to indirect increases of intraabdominal pressure and direct obstruction of the catheter by distended intestinal loops. Treating constipation can restore the free circulation of the CSF and avoid surgical intervention. Careful neurological monitoring of these patients is essential, because some measures used to treat constipation can increase intracranial pressure. The objective of this report was to highlight constipation as a possible cause of transient VPS malfunction, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical revisions, to which children with hydrocephalus are frequently submitted.

  18. Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C; Amorim, H; Beca, G; Nunes, R

    2018-01-16

    Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed. Thirty-three publications were analyzed. Neurogenic stuttering is a rare entity whose epidemiological incidence is yet not fully established. It is correlated with several neurological diseases and with several possible localizations within the nervous system. Notwithstanding the recent advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism, it is not yet possible to establish a single pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic stuttering. The differential diagnosis is complex and requires the detailed knowledge of other language disorders. The treatment is currently based on specific speech language therapy strategies. Neurogenic stuttering is a complex disorder which is not fully understood. Additional studies might help to better explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to open doors to novel therapeutic methods.

  19. Pharmacotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the brain-gut axis; the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered colonic motility, bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut. This article reviews the mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of current pharmacotherapy, and medications that are in phase III trials for the treatment of IBS. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments—particularly for the pain component of IBS—although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility and a non-absorbable antibiotic provide options for the bowel dysfunction in IBS. PMID:29077050

  20. An animal model for the neuromodulation of neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zvara, P; Sahi, S; Hassouna, M M

    1998-08-01

    To develop an animal model to examine the pathophysiology by which S3 sacral root electrostimulation alters the micturition reflex in patients with bladder hyper-reflexia. Chronic sacral nerve root electrostimulation was applied to spinally transected rats; 21 animals were divided into four groups. The spinal cord was completely transected at the T10-11 level and stainless-steel electrodes implanted into the sacral foramen in 17 animals; these animals were subsequently divided into two groups (1 and 2). Six rats in group 1 underwent sacral root elctrostimulation for 2 h/day and five in group 2 for 6 h/day, for 21 days. The sham group (group 3, six rats) received no stimulation and four rats were used as healthy controls (group 4). Voiding frequency was recorded and each animal was evaluated cystometrically at the end of the stimulation period. The results were compared with the sham and control groups. Spinal cord transection resulted in bladder areflexia and complete urinary retention; 7-9 days after the injury, the bladder recovered its activity. Twenty-one days after transection all animals had evidence of uninhibited bladder contractions. The mean (SD) hourly frequency of urination was 0.66 (0.18) in healthy controls, 0.83 (0.21) in group 1, 0.87 (0.34) in group 2 and 1.1 (0.31) in group 3. There was a significant decrease in eh cystometric signs of bladder hyper-reflexia in groups 1 and 2 when compared with group 3. This work reports and initial study showing that chronic electrostimulation of sacral nerve roots can reduce the signs of bladder hyper-reflexia in the spinally injured rat. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the rat as an animal model to determine the effects of chronic electrostimulation on the micturition reflex.

  1. Droxidopa for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy; Biaggioni, Italo; Low, Phillip; Pedder, Simon; Hewitt, L. Arthur; Mauney, Joe; Feirtag, Michael; Mathias, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether droxidopa, an oral norepinephrine precursor, improves symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). Methods: Patients with symptomatic nOH due to Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy underwent open-label droxidopa dose optimization (100–600 mg 3 times daily), followed, in responders, by 7-day washout and then a 7-day double-blind trial of droxidopa vs placebo. Outcome measures included patient self-ratings on the Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ), a validated, nOH-specific tool that assesses symptom severity and symptom impact on daily activities. Results: From randomization to endpoint (n = 162), improvement in mean OHQ composite score favored droxidopa over placebo by 0.90 units (p = 0.003). Improvement in OHQ symptom subscore favored droxidopa by 0.73 units (p = 0.010), with maximum change in “dizziness/lightheadedness.” Improvement in symptom-impact subscore favored droxidopa by 1.06 units (p = 0.003), with maximum change for “standing a long time.” Mean standing systolic blood pressure (BP) increased by 11.2 vs 3.9 mm Hg (p < 0.001), and mean supine systolic BP by 7.6 vs 0.8 mm Hg (p < 0.001). At endpoint, supine systolic BP >180 mm Hg was observed in 4.9% of droxidopa and 2.5% of placebo recipients. Adverse events reported in ≥3% of double-blind droxidopa recipients were headache (7.4%) and dizziness (3.7%). No patients discontinued double-blind treatment because of adverse events. Conclusions: In patients with symptomatic nOH, droxidopa improved symptoms and symptom impact on daily activities, with an associated increase in standing systolic BP, and was generally well tolerated. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that in patients with symptomatic nOH who respond to open-label droxidopa, droxidopa improves subjective and objective manifestation of nOH at 7 days. PMID:24944260

  2. Robot-assisted laparoscopic intracorporeal hand-sewn bowel anastomosis during pediatric bladder reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Gundeti, Mohan S; Wiltz, Aimee L; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2010-08-01

    Bowel anastomosis performed during robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in both adult and pediatric populations has typically been performed using endoscopic staplers or with exteriorization of the bowel. In the pediatric population, no articles have been published that explore the possibility of a completely intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis during robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. We report our series of six children who were undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic intracorporeal hand-sewn bowel anastomosis during bladder reconstructive surgery for neurogenic bladder. The postoperative course was uncomplicated with regard to the bowel anastomosis, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique in experienced hands.

  3. Introduction to Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Robert H.

    This book provides an overview of the causes and symptoms, and the typical courses, treatments, and outcomes of neurogenic communication disorders. Chapter 1 reviews the human nervous system and neurologic causes of adult communication disorders. Chapter 2 discusses the neurologic assessment and arriving at a diagnosis, including the neurologist's…

  4. What determines neurogenic competence in glia?

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcos Romualdo; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt

    2010-05-01

    One of the most intriguing discoveries during the last decade of developmental neurobiology is the fact that both in the developing and adult nervous system neural stem cells often turn out to have a glial identity: Radial glia generates neurons in the developing telencephalon of fish, birds and mammals and astro/radial glial stem cells in specialized neurogenic zones give rise to new neurons throughout life. What are the extrinsic signals acting on and the intrinsic signals acting within these glial populations endowing these with a neurogenic potential, whilst most other glia seemingly lack it? Studies on postnatal astroglia shed interesting light on this question as they are the intermediate between neurogenic radial glia and mature parenchymal astrocytes. At least in vitro their decision to acquire a glial fate is not yet irrevocable as forced expression of a single neurogenic transcription factor enables them to transgress their lineage and to give rise to fully functional neurons acquiring specific subtype characteristics. But even bona fide non-neurogenic glia in the adult nervous system can regain some of their radial glial heritage following injury as exemplified by reactive astroglia in the cerebral cortex and Müller glia in the retina. In this review first we will follow the direction of the physiological times' arrow, along which radial glia become transformed on one side into mature astrocytes gradually losing their neurogenic potential, while some of them seem to escape this dire destiny to settle in the few neurogenic oases of the adult brain where they generate neurons and glia throughout life. But we will also see how pathophysiological conditions partially can reverse the arrow of time reactivating the parenchymal astroglia to re-acquire some of the hallmarks of neural stem cells or progenitors. We will close this review with some thoughts on the surprising compatibility of the co-existence of a neural stem cell and glial identity within the very

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain: Neurogenic or Non-Neurogenic? Warm Detection Threshold Testing Supports a Diagnosis of Pudendal Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Stanley J; Antolak, Christopher M

    2018-03-01

    neurogenic basis of their CPP symptoms. The NIH-CPSI scores ranged from 10 to 35 (median 25). Four of 15 men had inflammatory prostatitis in addition to pudendal neuropathy. There is selection bias because the men were either self-referred, suspecting their diagnosis from internet searches, or were referred by physicians who were aware of the focus of this clinical practice. The warm temperature testing used established normal values for the men. The NIH-CPSI does not evaluate sexual or bowel symptoms. Sensitivity or specificity values for the tests could not be obtained. A possible neuropathic basis for CPP in men can be suspected from symptoms and history of activities. A probable diagnosis of neuropathy can be determined using a pinprick sensory evaluation in the pudendal territory. A definite diagnosis of pudendal neuropathy can be made using WDT. The combination of these 2 examinations demonstrated pudendal neuropathy in 100% of this cohort.The institutional review board deemed this study met criteria for exemption. Chronic pelvic pain, pudendal neuropathy, quantitative sensory testing, warm temperature detection threshold test, neuropathic pelvic pain, definite diagnosis of neuropathy, chronic prostatitis.

  6. UTIs in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Mona S; Mure, Amanda; Gomez, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) remain one of the most prevalent and frustrating morbidities for neurogenic bladder patients, and death attributed to urosepsis in the spinal cord injury (SCI) patient is higher when compared to the general population. Risk factors include urinary stasis, high bladder pressures, bladder stones, and catheter use. While classic symptoms of UTI include dysuria, increased frequency and urgency, neurogenic bladder patients present differently with increased spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, urinary incontinence, and vague pains. Multiple modalities have been assessed for prevention including catheter type, oral supplements, bladder irrigation, detrusor injections and prophylactic antimicrobials. Of these, bladder inoculation with E. coli HU2117, irrigation with iAluRil(®), detrusor injections, and weekly prophylaxis with alternating antibiotics appear to have a positive reduction in UTI but require further study. Ultimately, treatment for symptomatic UTI should account for the varied flora and possible antibiotic resistances including relying on urine cultures to guide antibiotic therapy.

  7. Effect of spinal anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation on bladder and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zaer, Hamed; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Zepke, Franko; Bodin, Charlotte; Domurath, Burkhard; Kutzenberger, Johannes

    2018-05-10

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly devastating injury with a variety of complications; among them are neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sacral anterior root stimulation with sacral deafferentation (SARS-SDAF) on neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction in a large well-defined spinal cord injury cohort. In the manner of cross-sectional study, subjects undergone SARS-SDAF between September 1986 and July 2011 answered a questionnaire concerning conditions before and after surgery in the department of Neuro-Urology, Bad Wildungen, Germany. In total 287 of 587 subjects were analyzed. Median age was 49 years (range 19-80), median time from SCI to surgery was 10 years (range 0-49), and from surgery to follow-up 13 years (range 1-25). Of the analyzed subjects, 100% of both gender used SARS for bladder emptying. On the visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 10 (best), satisfaction with SARS-SDAF was 10 concerning bladder emptying, however 5 and 8 regarding sexual performance, for female and male users, respectively. Baseline and follow-up comparison showed a decline in self-intermittent catheterization (p < 0.0001), partial catheterization by attendant (p = 0.0125), complete catheterization and suprapubic catheterization (p < 0.0001), transurethral catheterization (p < 0.0011), and fewer cases of involuntary urine leakage (p < 0.0001). The SARS-SDAF is a beneficial multi-potential treatment method with simultaneous positive effect on multi-organ dysfunction among SCI subjects.

  8. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Arun; Cortes, Eduardo; Seth, Jai; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Panicker, Jalesh; Kelleher, Cornelius; Kessler, Thomas M; Fowler, Clare J; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2011-12-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction can have a significant impact on patients with spinal cord injury. Over the years, many treatment options have become available. This article reviews the assessment and management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity, with a particular focus on articles from the recent literature. Recent guidelines on the subject will be discussed. Management options include antimuscarinics and bladder emptying measures, botulinum toxin A, and neuromodulation in refractory cases and surgery for intractable cases. Recent and relevant publications in these areas will be summarized and discussed.

  9. Pharmacotherapy of Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Shibao, Cyndya A; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-11-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions, including neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension and post-prandial hypotension, are relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease. Recent evidence suggests that early autonomic impairment such as cardiac autonomic denervation and even neurogenic orthostatic hypotension occur prior to the appearance of the typical motor deficits associated with the disease. When neurogenic orthostatic hypotension develops, patients with Parkinson disease have an increased risk of mortality, falls, and trauma-related to falls. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension reduces quality of life and contributes to cognitive decline and physical deconditioning. The co-existence of supine hypertension complicates the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension because it involves the use of drugs with opposing effects. Furthermore, treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension is challenging because of few therapeutic options; in the past 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration approved only two drugs for the treatment of this condition. Small, open-label or randomized studies using acute doses of different pharmacologic probes suggest benefit of other drugs as well, which could be used in individual patients under close monitoring. This review describes the pathophysiology of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension in Parkinson disease. We discuss the mode of action and therapeutic efficacy of different pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular autonomic failure.

  10. Brain ACE2 shedding contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Over-activity of the brain Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a major contributor to neurogenic hypertension. While over-expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing hypertension by transforming Angiotensin (Ang)-II into Ang-(1-7), several groups have reported decreased brain ACE2 expression and activity during the development of hypertension. Objective We hypothesized that ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding results in decreased membrane-bound ACE2 in the brain, thus promoting the development of neurogenic hypertension. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we used the DOCA-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in non-transgenic (NT) and syn-hACE2 mice over-expressing ACE2 in neurons. DOCA-salt treatment in NT mice led to significant increases in blood pressure, hypothalamic Ang-II levels, inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic dysfunction, as well as decreased hypothalamic ACE2 activity and expression, while these changes were blunted or prevented in syn-hACE2 mice. In addition, reduction of ACE2 expression and activity in the brain paralleled a rise in ACE2 activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of NT mice following DOCA-salt treatment and was accompanied by enhanced ADAM17 expression and activity in the hypothalamus. Chronic knockdown of ADAM17 in the brain blunted the development of hypertension and restored ACE2 activity and baroreflex function. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence that ADAM17-mediated shedding impairs brain ACE2 compensatory activity, thus contributing to the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:24014829

  11. Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, Peter; Thurston, Gavin; Murphy, Thomas J; Bunnett, Nigel W; McDonald, Donald M

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg−1, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg−1, i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg−1, i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg−1, i.v.). After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg−1, i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg−1, i.v.). Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID:10077247

  12. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  13. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and transileal ureterostomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Evaluation of morbidity].

    PubMed

    Guillotreau, Julien; Gamé, Xavier; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Mallet, Richard; De Boissezon, Xavier; Malavaud, Bernard; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic cystectomy combined with transileal ureterostomy to treat neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Prospective study performed between february 2004 and april 2006 on 26 consecutive patients with a mean age of 55.0 +/- 12.7 years treated by laparoscopic cystectomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. The underlying neurological disease was multiple sclerosis (MS) in 20 cases, spinal cord injury in 4 cases and transverse myelitis in 2 cases. The median preoperative ASA score was 3 (range: 2-3). No open conversion was necessary. One intraoperative complication was observed (vascular injury). No perioperative death was observed. The nasogastric tube was maintained postoperatively for an average of 8.69 +/- 5.9 hours. The mean time to resumption of oral fluids was 1.4 +/- 0.7 days and mean time to resumption of solids was 2.6 +/- 1.0 days. The mean time to resumption of bowel movements was 3.8 +/- 3.2 days. The mean intensive care stay was 3.9 +/- 1.1 days. Two postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (ileus and bronchial congestion). Postoperative narcotic analgesics were necessary in 60% of cases. The mean hospital stay was 10.3 +/- 4.1 days. Two late postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (two episodes of pyelonephritis). Laparoscopic cystectomy has a low morbidity in neurological patients, allowing early return of feeding and a moderate length of hospital stay.

  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Irritable Bowel Syndrome What's in ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal ...

  16. Management of oropharyngeal neurogenic dysphagia in adults.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Allen, Jacqui E

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews recent literature in the management of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) including assessment processes and treatments, with a specific focus on OPD as a result of stroke and Parkinson's disease. A large number of high-quality systematic reviews were published that provide an excellent summary of current evidence across assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders. There is building interest and knowledge in technology in both the understanding and treatment of OPD including functional MRI, manometry, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Neurologic disorders demonstrate a high prevalence of OPD resulting in significant decrement to health and healthcare costs. Novel technologies were reported in assessment and tracking of dysphagia as well as emerging innovative therapeutic options.

  17. [Clonazepam in therapy of neurogenic syncopal states].

    PubMed

    Musaeva, Z A

    2001-01-01

    27 patients with frequent neurogenic syncopes (NS) resistant to conventional therapy were treated with clonazepam. The average age of the patients was 29.8 +/- 11.6 years. There were 1-2 syncopes in a month. Both before and after the treatment an active orthostatic test was performed with ECG registration and following analysis of variability of the cardiac rhythm. Clonazepam was administered in a dose of 2-2.5 mg/day during 8-9 weeks. Clinical improvement in the form of a lack of syncopes was observed in 20 patients (74%); 3 patients (10%) had isolated lipothymic states; 2 patients discontinued the treatment because of side-effects (dizziness). The results of the examination of 23 patients 6 months after clonazepam therapy testified the stability of the therapeutic effect.

  18. Pyridostigmine treatment trial in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wolfgang; Sandroni, Paola; Opfer-Gehrking, Tonette L; Suarez, Guillermo A; Klein, Caroline M; Hines, Stacy; O'Brien, Peter C; Slezak, Jeffrey; Low, Phillip A

    2006-04-01

    Midodrine hydrochloride is the only drug demonstrated in a placebo-controlled treatment trial to improve orthostatic hypotension (OH) but it significantly worsens supine hypertension. By enhancing ganglionic transmission, pyridostigmine bromide can potentially ameliorate OH without worsening supine hypertension. To evaluate the efficacy of a single 60-mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide, alone or in combination with a subthreshold (2.5 mg) or suprathreshold (5 mg) dose of midodrine hydrochloride, compared with placebo. We report a double-blind, randomized, 4-way cross-over study of pyridostigmine in the treatment of neurogenic OH. A total of 58 patients with neurogenic OH were enrolled. After 1 day of baseline measurements, patients were given 4 treatments (3 active treatments [60 mg of pyridostigmine bromide; 60 mg of pyridostigmine bromide and 2.5 mg of midodrine hydrochloride; 60 mg of pyridostigmine bromide and 5 mg of midodrine hydrochloride] and a placebo) in random order on successive days. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured, both supine and standing, immediately before treatment and hourly for 6 hours after the treatment was given. No significant differences were seen in the supine BP, either systolic (P = .36) or diastolic (P = .85). In contrast, the primary end point of the fall in standing diastolic BP was significantly reduced (P = .02) with treatment. Pairwise comparison showed significant reduction by pyridostigmine alone (BP fall of 27.6 mm Hg vs 34.0 mm Hg with placebo; P = .04) and pyridostigmine and 5 mg of midodrine hydrochloride (BP fall of 27.2 mm Hg vs 34.0 mm Hg with placebo; P = .002). Standing BP improvement significantly regressed with improvement in OH symptoms. Pyridostigmine significantly improves standing BP in patients with OH without worsening supine hypertension. The greatest effect is on diastolic BP, suggesting that the improvement is due to increased total peripheral resistance.

  19. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  20. Large bowel injuries during gynecological laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Kahraman; Anuk, Turgut; Bozkurt, Murat; Karasu, Yetkin

    2014-12-16

    Laparoscopy is one of the most frequently preferred surgical options in gynecological surgery and has advantages over laparotomy, including smaller surgical scars, faster recovery, less pain and earlier return of bowel functions. Generally, it is also accepted as safe and effective and patients tolerate it well. However, it is still an intra-abdominal procedure and has the similar potential risks of laparotomy, including injury of a vital structure, bleeding and infection. Besides the well-known risks of open surgery, laparoscopy also has its own unique risks related to abdominal access methods, pneumoperitoneum created to provide adequate operative space and the energy modalities used during the procedures. Bowel, bladder or major blood vessel injuries and passage of gas into the intravascular space may result from laparoscopic surgical technique. In addition, the risks of aspiration, respiratory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysfunction increase during laparoscopy. Large bowel injuries during laparoscopy are serious complications because 50% of bowel injuries and 60% of visceral injuries are undiagnosed at the time of primary surgery. A missed or delayed diagnosis increases the risk of bowel perforation and consequently sepsis and even death. In this paper, we aim to focus on large bowel injuries that happen during gynecological laparoscopy and review their diagnostic and management options.

  1. Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Saadia, Daniela; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Yahr, Melvin D; Nardin, Rachel; Freeman, Roy

    2003-08-12

    In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), the availability of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft is insufficient to maintain blood pressure while in the standing posture. We determined the effect of oral administration of the synthetic amino acid L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), which is decarboxylated to NE by the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (L-AADC) in neural and nonneural tissue, on blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance in 19 patients with severe NOH (8 with pure autonomic failure and 11 with multiple-system atrophy). A single-blind dose-titration study determined the most appropriate dose for each patient. Patients were then enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. L-DOPS significantly raised mean blood pressure both supine (from 101+/-4 to 141+/-5 mm Hg) and standing (from 60+/-4 to 100+/-6 mm Hg) for several hours and improved orthostatic tolerance in all patients. After L-DOPS, blood pressure increases were closely associated with increases in plasma NE levels. Oral administration of carbidopa, which inhibits L-AADC outside the blood-brain barrier, blunted both the increase in plasma NE and the pressor response to L-DOPS in all patients Acute administration of L-DOPS increases blood pressure and improves orthostatic tolerance in patients with NOH. The pressor effect results from conversion of L-DOPS to NE outside the central nervous system.

  2. Neurogenic regulation of renal tubular sodium reabsorption.

    PubMed

    DiBona, G F

    1977-08-01

    The evidence supporting a role for direct neurogenic control of renal tubular sodium reabsorption is reviewed. Electron microscopic and fluorescence histochemical studies have demonstrated adrenergic nerve terminals in direct contact with basement membranes of mammalian (rat, dog, and monkey) renal tubular epithelial cells. Low-level direct or baroreceptor reflex stimulation of renal sympathetic nerves produces an increase in renal tubular sodium reabsorption without alterations in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, or intrarenal distribution of blood flow. Antinatriuresis was prevented by prior treatment of the kidney with guanethidine or phenoxybenzamine. Rat kidney micropuncture studies have localized a site of enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption to the proximal tubule. Possible indirect mediation of the antinatriuresis by other humoral agents known to be released from the kidney on renal nerve stimulation (angiotensin II, prostaglandin) was excluded by experiments with appropriate blocking agents. The possible effects of anesthesia and uncertainties about the completeness of surgical renal denervation and other tubular segmental sites of action are critically analyzed. The clinical implications of this mechanism in pathologic conditions of sodium and water retention are discussed and and a prospectus for future work is presented.

  3. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    PubMed

    Birklein, Frank; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-06-06

    This review explains symptoms and nature of neuropeptide signaling and its importance for clinical symptoms of CRPS. Neurogenic inflammation regularly accompanies excitation of primary afferent nociceptors. It has two major components-plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The most important mediators are the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). After peripheral trauma immune reaction (e.g. cytokines) and the attempts of the tissue to regenerate (e.g. growth factors) sensitize nociceptors and amplify neurogenic inflammation. This cascade of events has been demonstrated in rat models of CRPS. Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anti-cytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation. Very recently even "non-inflammatory" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further unravel the "mystery" CRPS.

  4. Neurogenic vasodilatation and plasma leakage in the skin.

    PubMed

    Holzer, P

    1998-01-01

    1. Primary afferent nerve fibers control cutaneous blood flow and vascular permeability by releasing vasoactive peptides. These vascular reactions and the additional recruitment of leukocytes are commonly embodied in the term neurogenic inflammation. 2. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) acting via CGRP1 receptors is the principal transmitter of neurogenic dilatation of arterioles whereas substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) acting via NK1 receptors mediate the increase in venular permeability. 3. Neurogenic vasodilatation and plasma protein leakage play a role in inflammation because many inflammatory and immune mediators including interleukin-1 beta, nitric oxide, prostanoids, protons, bradykinin, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine can stimulate peptidergic afferent nerve fibers or enhance their excitability. 4. Neurogenic inflammatory reactions can be suppressed by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, histamine acting via H1 receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine acting via 5-HT1B receptors, opioid peptides, and somatostatin through prejunctional inhibition of peptide release from vasoactive afferent nerve fibers. CGRP, SP, and NKA receptor antagonists are powerful pharmacological tools to inhibit neurogenic inflammation at the postjunctional level. 5. Imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory influences on afferent nerve activity has a bearing on chronic inflammatory disease. Impaired nerve function represents a deficit in skin homeostasis while neuronal overactivity is a factor in allergic and hyperreactive disorders of the skin.

  5. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, S A

    1982-01-01

    Commonly used drugs that may cause sexual dysfunction are reviewed. The anatomy and physiology of the normal sexual response are reviewed. The influence of drugs on neurogenic, hormonal, and vascular mechanisms may result in diminished libido, impotence, ejaculatory and orgasmic difficulties, inhibited vaginal lubrication, menstrual irregularities, and gynecomastia in men or painful breast enlargement in women. Parasympatholytic agents, which interfere with cholinergic transmission, may affect erectile potency, while adrenergic inhibiting agents may interfere with ejaculatory control. Central nervous system depressants or sedating drugs, drugs producing hyperprolactinemia, and antiandrogenic drugs also may affect the normal sexual response. Drugs such as antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents may induce sexual dysfunction that can result in patient noncompliance. Usually, drug-induced side effects are reversible with discontinuation of the offending agent.

  6. Does sacral pulsed electromagnetic field therapy have a better effect than transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with neurogenic overactive bladder?

    PubMed

    Fergany, Lamyaa A; Shaker, Husain; Arafa, Magdy; Elbadry, Mohamed S

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on neurogenic overactive bladder dysfunction (OAB) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In all, 80 patients [50 men and 30 women, with a mean (SD) age of 40.15 (8.76) years] with neurogenic OAB secondary to suprasacral SCI were included. They underwent urodynamic studies (UDS) before and after treatment. Patients were divided into two equal groups: Group A, comprised 40 patients who received 20 min of TENS (10 Hz with a 700 s generated pulse), three times per week for 20 sessions; Group B, comprised 40 patients who received PEMFT (15 Hz with 50% intensity output for 5 s/min for 20 min), three times per week for 20 sessions. In Group B, there was a significant increase in the maximum cystometric capacity ( P  < 0.001), volume at first uninhibited detrusor contraction ( P  < 0.002), and maximum urinary flow rate ( P  < 0.02). The UDS showed that the effects of PEMFT in patients with neurogenic OAB secondary to suprasacral SCI was better than TENS for inducing an inhibitory effect on neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Burgell, R E; Asthana, A K; Gibson, P R

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing troublesome bowel symptoms despite quiescent inflammatory disease are a frequent management challenge when caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Even when active disease has been excluded the prevalence of residual gastrointestinal symptoms is surprisingly high and the cause often obscure. The presence of a concurrent functional disorder such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with worse quality of life, worse physical functioning, higher prevalence of anxiety and greater health care utilization. Potential etiological mechanisms leading to the development of IBS like symptoms include the development of visceral hypersensitivity following the original inflammatory insult, alteration in cortical processing, dysbiosis and residual subacute inflammation. Therapeutic options for managing IBS in patients with IBD include dietary modification, interventions targeted at correction of visceral sensory dysfunction or cortical processing and modulation of the gut microbiota. As there are few studies specifically examining the treatment of IBS in patients with IBD, the majority of therapeutic interventions are extrapolated from the IBS literature. Given the frequency of residual functional symptoms in IBS, significantly more research is warranted in this field.

  8. Treatment of Neurogenic Cough with Tramadol: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dion, Gregory R; Teng, Stephanie E; Achlatis, Efstratios; Fang, Yixin; Amin, Milan R

    2017-07-01

    This study employs validated cough assessment tools to prospectively determine the impact of tramadol on cough severity and quality of life in subjects with neurogenic cough. The study was a prospective case series with planned data collection at a tertiary care academic medical center laryngology practice. Sixteen consecutive collected subjects with neurogenic cough prospectively completed pre- and posttreatment validated cough assessment tools, the cough severity index (CSI) and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). All subjects in the study reported at least some improvement in their cough symptoms. In a Wilcoxon signed rank test that compared paired results, CSI scores improved from 23 to 14 and LCQ scores improved from 74 to 103 ( P = .003 and P = .005, respectively). This small preliminary assessment suggests that tramadol warrants additional evaluation as a treatment for neurogenic cough.

  9. Uncoupling neurogenic gene networks in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William A; Goyal, Yogesh; Yamaya, Kei; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Levine, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    The EGF signaling pathway specifies neuronal identities in the Drosophila embryo by regulating developmental patterning genes such as intermediate neuroblasts defective ( ind ). EGFR is activated in the ventral midline and neurogenic ectoderm by the Spitz ligand, which is processed by the Rhomboid protease. CRISPR/Cas9 was used to delete defined rhomboid enhancers mediating expression at each site of Spitz processing. Surprisingly, the neurogenic ectoderm, not the ventral midline, was found to be the dominant source of EGF patterning activity. We suggest that Drosophila is undergoing an evolutionary transition in central nervous system (CNS)-organizing activity from the ventral midline to the neurogenic ectoderm. © 2017 Rogers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a problem that affects the large intestine. It can cause abdominal cramping, bloating, and a change in bowel ... go back and forth between the two. Although IBS can cause a great deal of discomfort, it ...

  11. Large bowel resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide and Neurogenic Inflammation in Polymicrobial Sepsis: Involvement of Substance P and ERK-NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Seah-Fang; Moochhala, Shabbir M.; MacAry, Paul A.; Bhatia, Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to induce transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-mediated neurogenic inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis. However, endogenous neural factors that modulate this event and the molecular mechanism by which this occurs remain unclear. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that whether substance P (SP) is one important neural element that implicates in H2S-induced neurogenic inflammation in sepsis in a TRPV1-dependent manner, and if so, whether H2S regulates this response through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-nuclear factor-κB (ERK-NF-κB) pathway. Male Swiss mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and treated with TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine 30 minutes before CLP. DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of H2S formation, was administrated 1 hour before or 1 hour after sepsis, whereas sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, was given at the same time as CLP. Capsazepine significantly attenuated H2S-induced SP production, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules levels, and protected against lung and liver dysfunction in sepsis. In the absence of H2S, capsazepine caused no significant changes to the PAG-mediated attenuation of lung and plasma SP levels, sepsis-associated systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction. In addition, capsazepine greatly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibitory κBα, concurrent with suppression of NF-κB activation even in the presence of NaHS. Furthermore, capsazepine had no effect on PAG-mediated abrogation of these levels in sepsis. Taken together, the present findings show that H2S regulates TRPV1-mediated neurogenic inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis through enhancement of SP production and activation of the ERK-NF-κB pathway. PMID:21931742

  13. Metabolic alterations in children with environmental enteric dysfunction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental enteric dysfunction, an asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, malabsorption, and increased intestinal permeability, is a major contributor to childhood stunting in low-income countries. Here we report the relationship of increa...

  14. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  15. NEUROGENIC RESPONSES OF RAT LUNG TO DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators are among the first researchers to investigate neurogenic inflammation in the lungs of rats exposed to whole diesel exhaust. After exposure to both concentrations of diesel exhaust, consistently higher levels of plasma leakage and lower activity of the enz...

  16. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO POLLUTANT-INDUCED AIRWAY INFLAMMATION IS NEUROGENICALLY MEDIATED.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurogenic inflammation in the airways involves the activation of sensory irritant receptors (capsaicin, VR1) by noxious stimuli and the subsequent release of neuropeptides (e.g., SP, CGRP, NKA) from these fibers. Once released, these peptides initiate and sustain symptoms of ...

  17. Bowel resection for deep endometriosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Cicco, C; Corona, R; Schonman, R; Mailova, K; Ussia, A; Koninckx, Pr

    2011-02-01

    deep endometriosis involving the bowel often is treated by segmental bowel resection. In a recent review of over 10000 segmental bowel resections for indications other than endometriosis, low rectum resections, in particular, were associated with a high long-term complication rate for bladder, bowel and sexual function. to review systematically segmental bowel resections for endometriosis for indications, outcome and complications according to the level of resection and the volume of the nodule. all published articles on segmental bowel resection for endometriosis identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases during 1997-2009. the terms 'bowel', 'rectal', 'colorectal', 'rectovaginal', 'rectosigmoid', 'resection' and 'endometriosis' were used. Articles describing more than five bowel resections for endometriosis, and with details of at least three of the relevant endpoints. data did not permit a meaningful meta-analysis. thirty-four articles were found describing 1889 bowel resections. The level of bowel resection and the size of the lesions were poorly reported. The indications to perform a bowel resection were variable and were rarely described accurately. The duration of surgery varied widely and endometriosis was not always confirmed by pathology. Although not recorded prospectively, pain relief was systematically reported as excellent for the first year after surgery. Recurrence of pain was reported in 45 of 189 women; recurrence requiring reintervention occurred in 61 of 314 women. Recurrence of endometriosis was reported in 37 of 267 women. The complication rate was comparable with that of bowel resection for indications other than endometriosis. Data on sexual function were not found. after a systematic review, it was found that the indication to perform a segmental resection was poorly documented and the data did not permit an analysis of indication and outcome according to localisation or diameter of the endometriotic nodule

  18. Treatment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2018-03-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system afflicts most patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure, reducing quality of life and increasing mortality. For example, gastrointestinal dysfunction can lead to impaired drug pharmacodynamics causing a worsening in motor symptoms, and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension can cause syncope, falls, and fractures. When recognized, autonomic problems can be treated, sometimes successfully. Discontinuation of potentially causative/aggravating drugs, patient education, and nonpharmacological approaches are useful and should be tried first. Pathophysiology-based pharmacological treatments that have shown efficacy in controlled trials of patients with synucleinopathies have been approved in many countries and are key to an effective management. Here, we review the treatment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies, summarize the nonpharmacological and current pharmacological therapeutic strategies including recently approved drugs, and provide practical advice and management algorithms for clinicians, with focus on neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, dysphagia, sialorrhea, gastroparesis, constipation, neurogenic overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and sexual dysfunction. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Kinin B1 Receptor Promotes Neurogenic Hypertension Through Activation of Centrally Mediated Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment in wild-type mice led to significant increases in B1R mRNA and protein levels and bradykinin levels, enhanced gene expression of carboxypeptidase N supporting an increase in the B1R ligand, associated with enhanced blood pressure, inflammation, sympathoexcitation, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity, whereas these changes were blunted or prevented in B1R knockout mice. B1R stimulation was further shown to involve activation of the ASK1-JNK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the brain. To dismiss potential developmental alterations in knockout mice, we further used B1R blockade selectively in the brain of wild-type mice. Supporting the central origin of this mechanism, intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific B1R antagonist, attenuated the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced increase in blood pressure in wild-type mice. Our data provide the first evidence of a central role for B1R-mediated inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and offer novel insights into possible B1R-targeted therapies for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Agrawal, Akanksha; Yadlapati, Sujani; Kishlyansky, Marina; Figueredo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone. Because of this difficulty, a patient with NSM who is at high risk for coronary heart disease may undergo cardiac catheterization to rule out coronary artery disease. The objective of this review of literature is to enhance physician's awareness of NSM and its features to help tailor management according to the patient's clinical profile. PMID:28875040

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression in aganglionic bowel.

    PubMed

    Oue, T; Yoneda, A; Shima, H; Puri, P

    2000-01-01

    smooth-muscle layers of AG bowel and decreased m2 and m3 mRNA expression in AG bowel may be responsible for the motility dysfunction in the aganglionic segment.

  2. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that leads to crampy pain, gassiness, bloating, and changes in bowel habits in the absence of any currently identifiable organic disorder. Patients with IBS may be classified by their predominant bowel habit: diarrhea-predominant, constipation-predominant, or IBS with alternating bowel movements. IBS is often associated with stress or anxiety. Although IBS can be frustrating and concerning to patients with this disorder, it does not cause permanent harm to the intestines and does not lead to a serious disease such as cancer. Although treatments exist for its symptoms, there is no known cure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Neurogenic Bladder Intravesical Botulinum Toxin Type A

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Cristian; Burek, Carol; Durán, Victor; Corbetta, Juan Pablo; Weller, Santiago; Juan, Bortagaray; López, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    When the neurogenic bladder is refractory to anticholinergics, botulinum toxin type A is used as an alternative. The neurotoxin type A reduces bladder pressure and increases its capacity and wall compliance. Additionally, it contributes to improving urinary continence and quality of life. This novel therapy is ambulatory with a low incidence of adverse effects. Due to its transitory effect, it is necessary to repeat the injections in order to sustain its therapeutic effect. In these review article we talk about Mechanism of Action, Indications, effects, administration and presentations of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in pediatric patients. Also, we make references to controversial issues surrounding its use. A bibliographic search was done selecting articles and revisions from Pubmed. The key words used were botulinum toxin A, neurogenic bladder, and children. The search was limited to patients younger than 18 years of age and reports written in English in the past ten years. PMID:22720170

  5. Orgasmic dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Inhibited sexual excitement; Sex - orgasmic dysfunction; Anorgasmia; Sexual dysfunction - orgasmic; Sexual problem - orgasmic ... of knowledge about sexual function Negative feelings about sex (often learned in childhood or teen years) Shyness ...

  6. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: ageusia, anosmia, chemosensory disorders, decreased appetite, dysgeusia, flavor, olfactory dysfunction, overseasoning food, senses, sensory dysfunction, sensory impairment, smell, taste September ...

  7. Temporomandibular dysfunction

    PubMed

    Lomas, Jonathan; Gurgenci, Taylan; Jackson, Christopher; Campbell, Duncan

    2018-04-01

    Orofacial pain is a common presentation in the primary healthcare setting and temporomandibular dysfunction represents one of the major causes. Its aetiology is multifactorial, caused by both masticatory muscle dysfunction and derangement within the temporomandibular joint. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of temporomandibular dysfunction, its management and referral considerations for general practioners. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction affects a large number of adults. Conservative management involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies is effective in the majority of cases.

  8. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a sustained fall in blood pressure on standing which can cause symptoms of organ hypoperfusion. OH is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and leads to a significant number of hospital admissions particularly in the elderly (233 per 100,000 patients over 75 years of age in the US). OH can be due to volume depletion, blood loss, large varicose veins, medications, or due to defective activation of sympathetic nerves and reduced norepinephrine release upon standing (i.e., neurogenic OH). Methods and Findings Literature review. Neurogenic OH is a frequent and disabling problem in patients with synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure, and is commonly associated with supine hypertension. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options are available. Conclusions Here we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of neurogenic OH, and provide an algorithm for its treatment emphasizing the importance of removing aggravating factors, implementing non-pharmacologic measures, and selecting appropriate pharmacological treatments. PMID:28713844

  9. Neurogenic contributions made by dietary regulation to hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon

    2011-07-01

    Adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are negatively and positively regulated by a broad range of environmental stimuli that include aging, stress, social interaction, physical activity, and dietary modulation. Interestingly, dietary regulation has a distinct outcome, such that reduced dietary intake enhances neurogenesis, whereas excess calorie intake by a high-fat diet has a negative effect. As a type of metabolic stress, dietary restriction (DR) is also known to extend life span and increase resistance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the potential application of DR as a "neurogenic enhancer" in humans remains problematic because of the severity of restriction and the protracted duration of the treatment required. Therefore, the authors consider that an understanding of the neurogenic mechanisms of DR would provide a basis for the identification of the pharmacological and nutraceutical interventions that mimic the beneficial effects of DR without limiting caloric intake. The current review describes the regulatory effect of DR on hippocampal neurogenesis and presents a possible neurogenic mechanism. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates.

  11. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  12. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Korpela, Riitta; Niittynen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS. PMID:23990830

  13. Glucocorticoid inhibition of neuropathic limb edema and cutaneous neurogenic extravasation.

    PubMed

    Kingery, W S; Guo, T; Agashe, G S; Davies, M F; Clark, J D; Maze, M

    2001-09-21

    Sciatic nerve section in rats evokes chronic limb edema, pain behavior, and hindpaw hyperalgesia, a syndrome resembling the complex regional pain syndrome type II (CRPS II or causalgia) in man. Glucocorticoids such as methylprednisolone (MP) have been used as analgesic and anti-edematous agents in patients suffering from CRPS, and interestingly these therapeutic effects appear to persist in some patients after stopping the medication. Similar to the CRPS clinical response to glucocorticoids, we now demonstrate that chronic hindpaw edema in the sciatic transection CRPS model is reversed by a continuous infusion of MP (3 mg/kg/day over 21 days), and this anti-edematous effect persists for at least 1 week after discontinuing MP. Furthermore, there is a chronic increase in spontaneous protein extravasation in the hindpaw skin of rats after sciatic transection, similar to the increased protein extravasation observed in the edematous hands of CRPS patients. A 2-week infusion of MP (3 mg/kg/day) reduced spontaneous protein extravasation in the hindpaw skin by 80%. We postulated that increased spontaneous neurogenic extravasation resulted in development of limb edema in both the animal model and the CRPS patient, and that the anti-edematous effects of MP are due to an inhibition of spontaneous extravasation. Additional experiments examined the inhibitory effects of MP infusion on electrically-evoked neurogenic extravasation in the hindpaw skin of normal rats. MP inhibition was dose- and time-dependent, with an ED(50) of 1.2 mg/kg/day for a 14-day continuous infusion of MP, and a maximum inhibitory effect requiring 17 days of MP infusion (3 mg/kg/day). MP (3 mg/kg/day for 14 days) also blocked both capsaicin- and SP-evoked neurogenic extravasation, indicating a post-junctional inhibitory effect. Our interpretation is that increased spontaneous neurogenic extravasation in this CRPS model contributed to the development and maintenance of hindpaw edema, and that chronic MP

  14. Neuroprotective, Neurogenic, and Amyloid Beta Reducing Effect of a Novel Alpha 2-Adrenoblocker, Mesedin, on Astroglia and Neuronal Progenitors upon Hypoxia and Glutamate Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Melkonyan, Magda M.; Hunanyan, Lilit; Lourhmati, Ali; Layer, Nikolas; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Yenkoyan, Konstantin; Schwab, Matthias; Danielyan, Lusine

    2017-01-01

    Locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system dysfunction is known to contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Besides a variety of reports showing the involvement of norepinephrine and its receptor systems in cognition, amyloid β (Aβ) metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neurogenesis, little is known about the contribution of the specific receptors to these actions. Here, we investigated the neurogenic and neuroprotective properties of a new α2 adrenoblocker, mesedin, in astroglial primary cultures (APC) from C57BL/6 and 3×Tg-AD mice. Our results demonstrate that mesedin rescues neuronal precursors and young neurons, and reduces the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from astroglia under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Mesedin also increased choline acetyltransferase, postsynaptic density marker 95 (PSD95), and Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin in the wild type APC, while in the 3×Tg-AD APC exposed to glutamate, it decreased the intracellular content of Aβ and enhanced the survival of synaptophysin-positive astroglia and neurons. These effects in APC can at least partially be attributed to the mesedin’s ability of increasing the expression of Interleukine(IL)-10, which is a potent anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective neurogenic, and Aβ metabolism enhancing factor. In summary, our data identify the neurogenic, neuroprotective, and anti-amyloidogenic action of mesedin in APC. Further in vivo studies are needed to estimate the therapeutic value of mesedin for AD. PMID:29267189

  15. The effect of intravesical oxybutynin on the ice water test and on electrical perception thresholds in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Van Meel, Tom David; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The C-fiber-mediated bladder-cooling reflex and the determination of the current perception thresholds (CPTs) permit to investigate afferent LUT pathways. They have both been proposed to detect and differentiate neurologic bladder dysfunction. This study evaluates, prospectively, the effect of oxybutynin, an antimuscarinic with direct antispasmodic effect on smooth muscle, on repeated ice water test (IWT) and CPTs in patients with a known incomplete neurogenic bladder. Patients with a known incomplete lesion of the bladder innervation, detrusor overactivity during cystometric bladder filling and a continuous positive response to repeated IWT were included. After the initial tests, 30 mg intravesical oxybutynin (1 mg/ml) was instilled and left in the bladder for 15 min. Afterwards CPTs and IWT were re-assessed. After the drug application, the bladder-cooling reflex could not be initiated, even after three instillations, in 16/17 patients. The bladder CPT increased from 29.7 +/- 11.3 to 39.1 +/- 15.7 mA after oxybutynin (P = 0.001). No difference was found in CPT of the left forearm (P = 0.208). Intravesical oxybutynin blocks the bladder-cooling reflex and increases but does not block CPT sensation in the bladder in most patients with incomplete neurogenic lesion and detrusor overactivity. These results help explain the clinical effect of intravesical oxybutynin in neurogenic patients. They also indicate that a pharmacological local influence on C-fiber-related activity can give different clinical effects. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Role of body mass index in school-aged children with lower urinary tract dysfunction: Does weight classification predict treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Arlen, Angela M; Cooper, Christopher S; Leong, Traci

    2017-10-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction comprises a large percentage of pediatric urology referrals. Childhood obesity is a major health concern, and has been associated with voiding symptoms. We assessed the impact of body mass index (BMI) on treatment outcomes of children presenting with LUT or bladder-bowel dysfunction (BBD). Children aged 5-17 years diagnosed with non-neurogenic LUT dysfunction and no prior urologic diagnoses were identified. Patient demographics including BMI, lower urinary tract symptoms, constipation, medical and psychologic comorbidities, imaging, and treatment outcomes were evaluated. BMI was normalized by age and gender according to percentiles: underweight < 5th, healthy 5th to <85th, overweight 85th to <95th, and obese > 95th percentile. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of treatment response. During an 18-month period, 100 children (54 girls, 46 boys) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.7 ± 2.4 years, and mean length of follow-up 15.3 ± 13.1 months. Sixty-nine patients were a normal weight, 22 were overweight, and nine were obese. Fifteen percent of the children had complete treatment response, 63% partial response, and 22% non-response. On univariate analysis, children with elevated BMI (p = 0.04) or history of urinary tract infection (p = 0.01) were statistically more likely to not respond to treatment. Controlling for all other variables, children with BMI > 85th percentile had 3.1 times (95% CI 1.11-8.64; p = 0.03) increased odds of treatment failure (Table). BBD management includes implementation of a bowel program and timed voiding regimen, with additional treatment modalities tailored on the basis of the prevailing symptoms. We observed that school-aged children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile were over three times more likely to experience treatment failure when controlling for all other patient characteristics including constipation and a history of

  17. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Pannek, Jürgen; Wöllner, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria) and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

  18. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  19. Daily bowel care program

    MedlinePlus

    ... a brain or spinal cord injury. People with multiple sclerosis also have problems with their bowels. Those with ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 18. Read More Multiple sclerosis Recovering after stroke Patient Instructions Constipation - self-care ...

  20. Small bowel resection - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100039.htm Small bowel resection - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The small intestine absorbs much of the liquid from foods. ...

  1. Frequent Bowel Movements

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel disease (IBD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ibd/what-is-IBD.htm. Accessed Nov. 15, 2017. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive thyroid). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...

  2. [Short bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Sabelnikova, E A; Kuzmina, T N

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives information on the classification, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of short bowel syndrome following after intestinal resection. It discusses the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with this condition.

  3. Small Bowel Prolapse (Enterocele)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heavy lifting Being overweight or obese Pregnancy and childbirth Pregnancy and childbirth are the most common causes of pelvic organ ... of developing small bowel prolapse include: Pregnancy and childbirth. Vaginal delivery of one or more children contributes ...

  4. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with a bowel control problem may leak gas or liquid or solid stool. Other symptoms may include the ... which can lead to leakage of solid or liquid stool (feces) or gas. Anoscopy: An exam of the anus using an ...

  5. A clinician survey of speech and non-speech characteristics of neurogenic stuttering.

    PubMed

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F

    2008-03-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for these four etiology groups. Results suggested possible group differences, including site of lesion and influence of speech conditions on stuttering. Other characteristics, such as within-word localization of disfluencies and presence of secondary behaviors were comparable across the etiology groups. The implications of our results for the diagnosis of neurogenic stuttering will be discussed. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) provide a concise overview of the main literature on neurogenic stuttering; (2) discuss the speech and non-speech characteristics of neurogenic stuttering; (3) provide an overview of current clinical practices for intervention with neurogenic stuttering patients and their perceived outcome.

  6. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Akshay; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam

    2016-11-15

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing in the pediatric population worldwide. There is paucity of high quality scientific data regarding pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the guidelines are offshoots of work done in adults, which have been adapted over time to diagnose and treat pediatric patients. This is in part related to the small numbers in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and less extensive collaboration for multicentric trials both nationally and internationally. A literature search was performed using electronic databases i.e. Pubmed and OVID, using keywords: pediatric, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohns disease, Ulcerative colitis, epidemiology and guidelines. This article amalgamates the broad principles of diagnosing and managing a child with suspected inflammatory bowel disease. 25% of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease are children and and young adolescents. The primary concern is its impact on growth velocity, puberty and quality of life, including psychosocial issues. Treatment guidelines are being re-defined as the drug armamentarium is increasing. The emphasis will be to achieve mucosal healing and normal growth velocity with minimal drug toxicity.

  7. [Physiotherapy and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Gaspard, L; Tombal, B; Opsomer, R-J; Castille, Y; Van Pesch, V; Detrembleur, C

    2014-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial compare the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training vs. transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. Inclusion criteria were EDSS score<7 and presence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Exclusion criteria were multiple sclerosis relapse during the study, active urinary tract infection and pregnancy. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-Qualiveen questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included overactive bladder (USP questionnaire) score and frequency of urgency episodes (3-day bladder diary). Sample size was calculated after 18 patients were included. Data analysis was blinded. Each patient received 9 sessions of 30 minutes weekly. Patients were randomized in pelvic floor muscles exercises with biofeedback group (muscle endurance and relaxation) or transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (rectangular alternative biphasic current with low frequency). A total of 31 patients were included. No difference appeared between groups for quality of life, overactive bladder and frequency of urgency episodes (respectively P=0.197, P=0.532 et P=0.788). These parameters were significantly improved in pelvic floor muscle training group (n=16) (respectively P=0.004, P=0.002 et P=0.006) and in transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (n=15) (respectively P=0.001, P=0.001 et P=0.031). Pelvic floor muscle training and transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation improved in the same way symptoms related to urgency in MS patients with mild disability. 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dysfunctional elimination syndromes--how closely linked are constipation and encopresis with specific lower urinary tract conditions?

    PubMed

    Combs, Andrew J; Van Batavia, Jason P; Chan, Jennifer; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    It is recognized that there is a strong association between bladder and bowel dysfunction. We determined the association of constipation and/or encopresis with specific lower urinary tract conditions. We reviewed our database of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and divided cases into 3 categories of bowel dysfunction (constipation, encopresis and constipation plus encopresis) and 4 lower urinary tract conditions (dysfunctional voiding, idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder, detrusor underutilization disorder and primary bladder neck dysfunction). Associations between bowel dysfunction types and each lower urinary tract condition were determined. Of 163 males and 205 females with a mean age of 8.5 years constipation was the most common bowel dysfunction (27%). Although encopresis is generally thought to reflect underlying constipation, only half of children with encopresis in this series had constipation. Dysfunctional voiding was associated with the highest incidence of bowel dysfunction. All but 1 patient with encopresis had associated urgency and detrusor overactivity, and the encopresis resolved in 75% of patients after initiation of anticholinergic therapy. Constipation was significantly more common in girls (27%) than in boys (11%, p <0.01), while encopresis was more common in boys (9%) than in girls (3%, p = 0.02), likely reflecting the higher incidence of dysfunctional voiding in girls and idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder in boys. Active bowel dysfunction was seen in half of the children with a lower urinary tract condition. Constipation was more common in patients with dysfunctional voiding, while encopresis was significantly increased in those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder and in those with dysfunctional voiding, severe urgency and detrusor overactivity. Anticholinergics, despite their constipating effect, given for treatment of detrusor overactivity resolved encopresis in most children with this bowel dysfunction

  9. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of carbonated thin liquids in pediatric neurogenic dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lundine, Jennifer P.; Bates, David G.; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration of liquids is a serious complication of neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury or stroke. Carbonated liquids have been examined as a possible alternative to thickened liquids to help reduce aspiration in cases of dysphagia in adults, but no published literature to the best of our knowledge has evaluated this technique in children. If carbonated liquids result in safer swallowing in children, they could provide a preferred alternative to thickened liquids. Objective This pilot study examined whether carbonated thin liquids (CARB) improved swallowing compared to noncarbonated thin liquids (NOCARB) for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Materials and methods Twenty-four children admitted to a level I trauma center for acute neurological injury/disease were evaluated via videofluoroscopic swallow studies. Four descriptive outcome measures were contrasted. Results CARB significantly decreased pooling (P=0.0006), laryngeal penetration/aspiration (P=0.0044) and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores (P=0.0127) when compared to NOCARB. On average, CARB improved scores on the Penetration-Aspiration Scale by 3.7 points for participants who aspirated NOCARB. There was no significant difference in pharyngeal residue noted between CARB and NOCARB (P=0.0625). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that carbonated thin liquids may provide an alternative to thickened liquids for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25758792

  11. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly W; Webb, Craig B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the common pathophysiology that constitutes hepatic dysfunction, regardless of the inciting cause. The systemic consequences of liver failure and the impact of this condition on other organ systems are highlighted. The diagnostic tests available for determining the cause and extent of liver dysfunction are outlined, treatment strategies aimed at supporting hepatic health and recovery are discussed, and prognosis is briefly covered. The article emphasizes the fact that because of the central role of the liver in maintaining normal systemic homeostasis, hepatic dysfunction cannot be effectively addressed as an isolated entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2009-03-01

    International expert working group. To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research. Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCoS Scientific Committee and the ASIA Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (approximately 40) were also invited to review the data set and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, awareness of the need to defecate, defecation method and bowel care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, frequency of fecal incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, medication affecting bowel function/constipating agents, oral laxatives and perianal problems. An International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set has been developed.

  14. A cross-cultural perspective on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal illness, defined by symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome has been described as a biopsychosocial condition, in which colonic dysfunction is affected by psychological and social factors. As a result of this unusual constellation, irritable bowel syndrome may be subject to cultural variables that differ in different parts of the globe. In this article, we describe some of the ways in which irritable bowel syndrome may be experienced differently, depending on local belief systems, psychological pressures, acceptance or resistance to a mind-body paradigm, and breakdown in support or relationship structure. Examples are given in which irritable bowel syndrome investigators from countries around the world describe various aspects of the syndrome that may affect the illness experience of their patients. We describe our own research studies that have demonstrated possible adverse effects on disease severity from relationship conflict, attribution of symptoms to physical rather than emotional cause, and the belief that irritable bowel syndrome is enduring and mysterious. Also described is our finding that symptom patterns may differ significantly between different geographic locations. Finally, we discuss the importance of "cultural competence" on the part of healthcare professionals in regard to caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  15. Lower urinary tract and sexual dysfunction in neurological patients.

    PubMed

    Vodušek, David B

    2014-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and sexual dysfunction (SD) are common in neurological patients due to a combination of lesions affecting relevant neural control, constraints imposed by sensorimotor and cognitive deficits and--particularly for SD--psychosocial consequences of chronic neurological disease. This review summarizes the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of LUTD and SD in neurological patients. LUTD may lead to serious health problems; both LUTD and SD significantly affect quality of life. Management of patients with spinal cord injury and dysraphism is undertaken in specialized centers according to established guidelines. Treatment of neurological patients with noncomplicated neurogenic LUTD or SD should preferentially be guided by a neurologist. For rational treatment of urinary symptoms, an accurate assessment is mandatory; the bladder and the sphincter need to be defined as normal, over- or underactive. Urodynamic testing is the gold standard for functional diagnosis; assessment of residual urine and uroflow are the minimal requirements before considering management. Dysfunction of desire, arousal and orgasm (ejaculation) may be diagnosed by medical history and are amenable to counselling and treatment, which is--in the case of erectile dysfunction--evidence based. Further high-quality studies are necessary to test the best approaches for diagnosing and managing particular types of neurogenic LUTD and SD in the different neurological patient populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Functional Bowel Disorders Gastroenterology's 75th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Wiley, John W; Chang, Lin

    2018-02-15

    Articles appearing in Gastroenterology have played an integral role in the evolution of our understanding of Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD), including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), beginning with the prescient contributions of Almy and Tulin in 1947 and 1949 that highlighted the role of stress to enhance perception of abdominal pain and promote colon contractions. Subsequent publications have codified diagnostic criteria and stratified subpopulations of FBD (Manning and ROME I-IV), which resulted in improved symptom-based therapeutic interventions. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of FBD, particularly IBS, published in Gastroenterology has led to our current appreciation that FBD represent dysfunction in the bidirectional brain-gut axis, intestinal barrier dysfunction and interactions with the microbiota and dietary factors. Team science and the application of next-generation -omics methods are leading the way to improved diagnostic criteria and targeted therapeutic interventions. As the field evolves, publications appearing in Gastroenterology will continue to be at the forefront of these advances. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neuro-urological diagnosis and therapy of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury : S2k Guideline of the German-Speaking Medical Society of Paraplegia (DMGP), AWMF register no. 179/001].

    PubMed

    Böthig, R; Domurath, B; Kaufmann, A; Bremer, J; Vance, W; Kurze, I

    2017-06-01

    Most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), bowel dysfunction and sexual dysfunction. If these remain untreated, severe medical complications and serious limitations (restrictions) in quality of life are imminent. In the long term, there are considerable differences in the treatment results of highly specialized centers versus other treatment facilities. Against this background, a consensus-based guideline, according to the AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany) criteria (S2k), was developed by the neuro-urology working group of the DMPG (German-Speaking Medical Society of Paraplegia). The guideline defines the principles and objectives of the neuro-urological care of patients with SCI and discusses in detail the principles of diagnosis and therapy of NLUTD. The need for video-urodynamic studies as a basis for the classification of the NLUTD and as a foundation for the development of a treatment strategy is emphasized. Both conservative and surgical therapy options and their indications are explained in detail. Possible complications and their prevention in the long-term course of SCI are presented with a particular consideration of the specific features of urinary tract infections and autonomic dysreflexia. Finally, the principles of the provision of urological appliances are discussed. The presented S2k guideline provides the current standards in the neuro-urological care of patients with NLUTD due to SCI. Their consistent implementation both in the acute and chronic phase as well as in the context of lifelong surveillance of SCI patients should prevent the impending complications of NLUTD.

  18. Diagnosing and treating neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kuritzky, Louis; Espay, Alberto J; Gelblum, Jeffrey; Payne, Richard; Dietrich, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In response to a change in posture from supine or sitting to standing, autonomic reflexes normally maintain blood pressure (BP) by selective increases in arteriovenous resistance and by increased cardiac output, ensuring continued perfusion of the central nervous system. In neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), inadequate vasoconstriction and cardiac output cause BP to drop excessively, resulting in inadequate perfusion, with predictable symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness and falls. The condition may represent a central failure of baroreceptor signals to modulate cardiovascular function, a peripheral failure of norepinephrine release from cardiovascular sympathetic nerve endings, or both. Symptomatic patients may benefit from both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions. Among the latter, two pressor agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: the sympathomimetic prodrug midodrine, approved in 1996 for symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, and the norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa, approved in 2014, which is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension caused by primary autonomic failure (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure). A wide variety of off-label options also have been described (e.g. the synthetic mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone). Because pressor agents may promote supine hypertension, NOH management requires monitoring of supine BP and also lifestyle measures to minimize supine BP increases (e.g. head-of-bed elevation). However, NOH has been associated with cognitive impairment and increases a patient's risk of syncope and falls, with the potential for serious consequences. Hence, concerns about supine hypertension - for which the long-term prognosis in patients with NOH is yet to be established - must sometimes be balanced by the need to address a patient's immediate risks.

  19. A novel natural product inspired scaffold with robust neurotrophic, neurogenic and neuroprotective action

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Sumana; Maitra, Swati; Reddy, R Gajendra; Das, Tapatee; Jhelum, Priya; Kootar, Scherazad; Rajan, Wenson D.; Samanta, Anumita; Samineni, Ramesh; Pabbaraja, Srihari; Kernie, Steven G.; Mehta, Goverdhan; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In search for drugs to treat neuropsychiatric disorders wherein neurotrophic and neurogenic properties are affected, two neurotrophically active small molecules specially crafted following natural product leads based on 2-oxa-spiro[5.5]-undecane scaffold, have been thoroughly evaluated for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and neuroprotective potential in ex vivo primary culture and in vivo zebrafish and mouse models. The outcome of in vivo investigations suggest that one of these molecules is more neurotrophic than neurogenic while the other one is more neurogenic than neurotrophic and the former exhibits remarkable neuroprotection in a mouse acute ischemic stroke model. The molecular mechanisms of action of these compounds appear to be through the TrkB-MEK-ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway as pre-treatment with neurotrophin receptor TrkB inhibitor ANA-12 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 attenuates the neurotrophic action of compounds. PMID:26388493

  20. An electrophysiological approach to the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia: implications for botulinum toxin treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, E; Merlo, I M; Ponzio, M; Montomoli, C; Tassorelli, C; Biancardi, C; Lozza, A; Martignoni, E

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle has been proposed for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia due to CP hyperactivity. The aim was to determine whether an electrophysiological method exploring oropharyngeal swallowing could guide treatment and discriminate responders from non-responders, based on the association of CP dysfunction with other electrophysiological abnormalities of swallowing. Patients with different neurological disorders were examined: Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy-Parkinson variant, multiple system atrophy cerebellar variant, stroke, multiple sclerosis and ataxia telangiectasia. All patients presented with clinical dysphagia, and with complete absence of CP muscle inhibition during the hypopharyngeal phase of swallowing. Each patient underwent clinical and electrophysiological investigations before and after treatment with BTX into the CP muscle of one side (15 units of Botox). Clinical and electrophysiological procedures were performed in a blind manner by two different investigators. The following electrophysiological measures were analysed: (1) duration of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles (SHEMG-D); (2) duration of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (LPM-D); (3) duration of the inhibition of the CP muscle EMG activity (CPEMG-ID); and (4) interval between onset of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles and onset of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (I-SHEMG-LPM). Two months after treatment, 50% of patients showed a significant improvement. Patients with prolonged or reduced SHEMG-D values and prolonged I-SHEMG-LPM values did not respond to BTX. Therefore, values for which BTX had no effect (warning values) were identified. This electrophysiological method can recognise swallowing abnormalities which may affect the outcome of the therapeutic approach to dysphagia with BTX treatment.

  1. Small Bowel Transplant

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of small bowel transplant in the treatment of intestinal failure. Small Bowel Transplantation Intestinal failure is the loss of absorptive capacity of the small intestine that results in an inability to meet the nutrient and fluid requirements of the body via the enteral route. Patients with intestinal failure usually receive nutrients intravenously, a procedure known as parenteral nutrition. However, long-term parenteral nutrition is associated with complications including liver failure and loss of venous access due to recurrent infections. Small bowel transplant is the transplantation of a cadaveric intestinal allograft for the purpose of restoring intestinal function in patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The transplant may involve the small intestine alone (isolated small bowel ISB), the small intestine and the liver (SB-L) when there is irreversible liver failure, or multiple organs including the small bowel (multivisceral MV or cluster). Although living related donor transplant is being investigated at a limited number of centres, cadaveric donors have been used in most small bowel transplants. The actual transplant procedure takes approximately 12-18 hours. After intestinal transplant, the patient is generally placed on prophylactic antibiotic medication and immunosuppressive regimen that, in the majority of cases, would include tacrolimus, corticosteroids and an induction agent. Close monitoring for infection and rejection are essential for early treatment. Medical Advisory Secretariat Review The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of 35 reports from 9 case series and 1 international registry. Sample size of the individual studies ranged from 9 to 155. As of May 2001, 651 patients had received small bowel transplant procedures worldwide. According to information from the Canadian Organ Replacement

  2. A Community Perspective on Bowel Management and Quality of Life after Spinal Cord Injury: The Influence of Autonomic Dysreflexia.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Jessica A; Lucci, Vera-Ellen M; McGrath, Maureen S; Willms, Rhonda; Claydon, Victoria E

    2018-05-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is common in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and leads to numerous abnormalities, including profound cardiovascular and bowel dysfunction. In those with high-level lesions, bowel management is a common trigger for autonomic dysreflexia (AD; hypertension provoked by sensory stimuli below the injury level). Improving bowel care is integral for enhancing quality of life (QoL). We aimed to describe the relationships between bowel care, AD, and QoL in individuals with SCI. We performed an online community survey of individuals with SCI. Those with injury at or above T7 were considered at risk for AD. Responses were received from 287 individuals with SCI (injury levels C1-sacral and average duration of injury 17.1 ± 12.9 [standard deviation] years). Survey completion rate was 73% (n = 210). Bowel management was a problem for 78%: it interfered with personal relationships (60%) and prevented staying (62%) and working (41%) away from home. The normal bowel care duration was >60 min in 24% and most used digital rectal stimulation (59%); 33% reported bowel incontinence at least monthly. Of those at risk for AD (n = 163), 74% had AD symptoms during bowel care; 32% described palpitations. AD interfered with activities of daily living in 51%. Longer durations of bowel care (p < 0.001) and more severe AD (p = 0.04) were associated with lower QoL. Bowel management is a key concern for individuals with SCI and is commonly associated with symptoms of AD. Further studies should explore ways to manage bowel dysfunction, increase self-efficacy, and ameliorate the impact of AD to improve QoL.

  3. Neurogenic fever after traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, H; Pinto-Martin, J; Bullock, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of neurogenic fever (NF) in a population of patients in the acute phase following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); to identify factors associated with the development of NF following severe TBI in adults. Methods: Charts of patients admitted from 1996 to 1999 with severe TBI at a large, urban mid-Atlantic teaching hospital were retrospectively evaluated based on diagnostic criteria for each episode of hyperthermia to determine the diagnosis of NF. Data were collected regarding mechanism and area of injury, severity of injury, and demographic factors to determine potential predictors of NF. Results: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) (OR 9.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 82.7) and frontal lobe injury of any type (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.1 to 39.3) are independently predictive of an increased risk of development of NF following severe TBI. The presence of a skull fracture and lower initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were individual predictors of development of NF, but did not contribute to the final model. Conclusions: These findings examine known and novel risk factors for this phenomenon in comparison to previously published literature on NF. A set of predictor variables was identified to help clinicians target patients at high risk for development of NF following severe TBI. It is hoped that earlier diagnosis and appropriate intervention for fever in the TBI patient will lead to improved outcomes. PMID:12700304

  4. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  5. Myopathy in CRPS-I: disuse or neurogenic?

    PubMed

    Hulsman, Natalie M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van den Dungen, Jan J A M; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A

    2009-08-01

    The diagnosis Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is based on clinical symptoms, including motor symptoms. Histological changes in muscle tissue may be present in the chronic phase of CRPS-I. Aim of this study was to analyze skeletal muscle tissue from amputated limbs of patients with CRPS-I, in order to gain more insight in factors that may play a role in changes in muscles in CRPS-I. These changes may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of CRPS-I. Fourteen patients with therapy resistant and longstanding CRPS-I, underwent an amputation of the affected limb. In all patients histological analysis showed extensive changes in muscle tissue, such as fatty degeneration, fibre atrophy and nuclear clumping, which was not related to duration of CRPS-I prior to amputation. In all muscles affected, both type 1 and type 2 fibre atrophy was found, without selective type 2 fibre atrophy. In four patients, type grouping was observed, indicating a sequence of denervation and reinnervation of muscle tissue. In two patients even large group atrophy was present, suggesting new denervation after reinnervation. Comparison between subgroups in arms and legs showed no difference in the number of changes in muscle tissue. Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were affected equally. Our findings show that in the chronic phase of CRPS-I extensive changes can be seen in muscle tissue, not related to duration of CRPS-I symptoms. Signs of neurogenic myopathy were present in five patients.

  6. Neurogenic regulation of proximal bicarbonate and chloride reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Cogan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Although a change in renal nerve activity is known to alter proximal reabsorption, it is unclear whether reabsorption of NaHCO3 or NaCl or both are affected. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were studied using free-flow micropuncture techniques during euvolemia and following acute ipsilateral denervation. Glomerular filtration rate and single nephron glomerular filtration rate were stable. Absolute proximal bicarbonate reabsorption fell following denervation (933 +/- 40 to 817 +/- 30 pmol/min) with a parallel reduction in chloride reabsorption (1,643 +/- 116 to 1,341 +/- 129 peq/min). Urinary sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride excretion all increased significantly. To further assess the physiological significance of neurogenic modulation of proximal transport, other rats (n = 6) were subjected to acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN). There is evidence that AUN induces a contralateral natriuresis (renorenal reflex) at least partially by causing inhibition of efferent renal nerve traffic. AUN caused significant changes in proximal NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption as well as in whole kidney electrolyte excretion in the same pattern as had denervation. Prior denervation of the remaining kidney prevented the proximal and whole kidney response to AUN (n = 6). In conclusion, depression of renal nerve activity inhibits both NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption in the rat superficial proximal convoluted tubule. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in renal nerve activity modify whole kidney electrolyte excretion under physiological conditions at least partially by regulating proximal transport.

  7. Osteoporosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tauseef; Lam, David; Bronze, Michael S.; Humphrey, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis commonly afflicts patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and many factors link the 2 states together. A literature review was conducted about the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in relation to inflammatory bowel disease. Screening guidelines for osteoporosis in general as well as those directed at patients with inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, as are currently available treatment options. The purpose of this article is to increase physician awareness about osteopenia and osteoporosis occurring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to provide basic, clinically relevant information about the pathophysiology and guidelines to help them treat these patients in a cost-effective manner. PMID:19559158

  8. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Talbert, R L

    1986-05-01

    The physiology of the normal sexual response, epidemiology of sexual dysfunction, and the pharmacologic mechanisms involved in antihypertensive- and antipsychotic-induced problems with sexual function are discussed, with recommendations for patient management. The physiologic mechanisms involved in the normal sexual response include neurogenic, psychogenic, vascular, and hormonal factors that are coordinated by centers in the hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex. Sexual dysfunction is frequently attributed to antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents and is a cause of noncompliance. Drug-induced effects include diminished libido, delayed orgasm, ejaculatory disturbances, gynecomastia, impotence, and priapism. The pharmacologic mechanisms proposed to account for these adverse effects include adrenergic inhibition, adrenergic-receptor blockade, anticholinergic properties, and endocrine and sedative effects. The most frequently reported adverse effect on sexual function with the antihypertensive agents is impotence. It is seen most often with methyldopa, guanethidine, clonidine, and propranolol. In contrast, the most common adverse effect on sexual function with the antipsychotic agents involves ejaculatory disturbances. Thioridazine, with its potent anticholinergic and alpha-blocking properties, is cited most often. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction may be alleviated by switching to agents with dissimilar mechanisms to alter the observed adverse effect while maintaining adequate control of the patient's disease state.

  9. Relation of Bowel Habits to Fecal Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Seide, Barbara M.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though most women with fecal incontinence (FI) have anorectal dysfunctions, a majority have intermittent symptoms. Variations in bowel habits and daily routine may partly explain this. AIM To compare bowel habits and daily routine between controls and FI, and between continent and incontinent stools among women with FI. METHOD Using a mailed questionnaire, we identified 507 women with FI among 5,300 women in Olmsted County, MN. Bowel habits were compared among 127 randomly selected controls and 154 women with self-reported FI, who did (“active” FI, N = 106) or did not (“inactive” FI, N = 48) have an incontinent episode during a 2-wk bowel diary period. RESULTS Independent risk factors for FI were: rectal urgency (odds ratio [OR] for inactive FI vs controls 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–13.3; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.3) and a sense of incomplete evacuation (OR for inactive FI vs controls 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.8; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Similar results were found for stool frequency and form. Among incontinent women, incontinent stools (versus continent stools) were less formed, more likely to occur at work, and to be preceded by rectal urgency. CONCLUSIONS Bowel patterns, rectal urgency, and daily routine influence the occurrence of FI. Stool characteristics explained 46% of the likelihood for incontinence episodes, emphasizing that anorectal sensorimotor dysfunctions must also contribute to FI in women. PMID:18510612

  10. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  11. The reliability of differentiating neurogenic claudication from vascular claudication based on symptomatic presentation.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mélissa; Rosas-Arellano, M Patricia; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Taylor, David C; Grewal, Ruby; Lawlor, D Kirk; Bailey, Chris S

    2013-12-01

    Intermittent claudication can be neurogenic or vascular. Physicians use a profile based on symptom attributes to differentiate the 2 types of claudication, and this guides their investigations for diagnosis of the underlying pathology. We evaluated the validity of these symptom attributes in differentiating neurogenic from vascular claudication. Patients with a diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) or peripheral vascular disease (PVD) who reported claudication answered 14 questions characterizing their symptoms. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) for neurogenic and vascular claudication for each symptom attribute. We studied 53 patients. The most sensitive symptom attribute to rule out LSS was the absence of "triggering of pain with standing alone" (sensitivity 0.97, NLR 0.050). Pain alleviators and symptom location data showed a weak clinical significance for LSS and PVD. Constellation of symptoms yielded the strongest associations: patients with a positive shopping cart sign whose symptoms were located above the knees, triggered with standing alone and relieved with sitting had a strong likelihood of neurogenic claudication (PLR 13). Patients with symptoms in the calf that were relieved with standing alone had a strong likelihood of vascular claudication (PLR 20.0). The classic symptom attributes used to differentiate neurogenic from vascular claudication are at best weakly valid independently. However, certain constellation of symptoms are much more indicative of etiology. These results can guide general practitioners in their evaluation of and investigation for claudication.

  12. Non-neurogenic SVZ-like niche in dolphins, mammals devoid of olfaction.

    PubMed

    Parolisi, Roberta; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in brain plasticity and brain repair. In mammals, it is mostly restricted to specific brain regions and specific physiological functions. The function and evolutionary history of mammalian adult neurogenesis has been elusive so far. The largest neurogenic site in mammals (subventricular zone, SVZ) generates neurons destined to populate the olfactory bulb. The SVZ neurogenic activity appears to be related to the dependence of the species on olfaction since it occurs at high rates throughout life in animals strongly dependent on this function for their survival. Indeed, it dramatically decreases in humans, who do not depend so much on it. This study investigates whether the SVZ neurogenic site exists in mammals devoid of olfaction and olfactory brain structures, such as dolphins. Our results demonstate that a small SVZ-like region persists in these aquatic mammals. However, this region seems to have lost its neurogenic capabilities since neonatal stages. In addition, instead of the typical newly generated neuroblasts, some mature neurons were observed in the dolphin SVZ. Since cetaceans evolved from terrestrial ancestors, non-neurogenic SVZ may indicate extinction of adult neurogenesis in the absence of olfactory function, with the retention of an SVZ-like anatomical region either vestigial or of still unknown role.

  13. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as

  14. New developments in the management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, Italo

    2014-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a sustained reduction of ≥ 20 mmHg systolic blood pressure or ≥ 10 mmHg diastolic blood pressure upon standing for ≤ 3 min. Orthostatic hypotension is commonly associated with hypertension, and its prevalence is highest in those with uncontrolled hypertension compared to those with controlled hypertension or normotensive community elderly subjects. Orthostatic hypotension can cause significant disability, with patients experiencing dizziness, lightheadedness or syncope, and other problems that potentially have a profound negative impact on activities of daily living that require standing or walking. Furthermore, OH increases the risk of falls and, importantly, is an independent risk factor of mortality. Despite its importance, there is a paucity of treatment options for this condition. Most of the advances in treatment options have relied on small studies of repurposed drugs done in patients with severe OH due to rare neurodegenerative conditions. Midodrine, an oral prodrug converted to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist desglymidodrine, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of OH in 1996. For almost two decades, no other pharmacotherapy was developed specifically for the treatment of OH until 2014, when droxidopa was approved by the FDA for the treatment of neurogenic OH associated with primary autonomic neuropathies including Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. These are neurodegenerative diseases ultimately characterized by failure of the autonomic nervous system to generate norepinephrine responses appropriate to postural challenge. Droxidopa is a synthetic amino acid that is converted to norepinephrine by dopa-decarboxylase, the same enzyme that converts levodopa into dopamine in the treatment of Parkinson disease. We will review this and other advances in the treatment of OH in an attempt to provide a practical guide to its management.

  15. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shim, Ki-Nam

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE. PMID:26880894

  16. The Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Development of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO)

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Bárbara; Santos, João; Morgado, Marlene; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Gray, Susannah M.Y.; McCloskey, Karen D.; Allen, Shelley; Cruz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrophin is BDNF. Despite being shown that, acting at the spinal cord level, BDNF is a key mediator of bladder dysfunction and pain during cystitis, it is presently unclear if it is also important for NDO. This study aimed to clarify this issue. Results obtained pinpoint BDNF as an important regulator of NDO appearance and maintenance. Spinal BDNF expression increased in a time-dependent manner together with NDO emergence. In chronic SCI rats, BDNF sequestration improved bladder function, indicating that, at later stages, BDNF contributes NDO maintenance. During spinal shock, BDNF sequestration resulted in early development of bladder hyperactivity, accompanied by increased axonal growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide-labeled fibers in the dorsal horn. Chronic BDNF administration inhibited the emergence of NDO, together with reduction of axonal growth, suggesting that BDNF may have a crucial role in bladder function after SCI via inhibition of neuronal sprouting. These findings highlight the role of BDNF in NDO and may provide a significant contribution to create more efficient therapies to manage SCI patients. PMID:25653370

  17. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected With Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rosana C P; Neto, José A; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S; Santos, Dislene N; Oliveira, Cassius J V; Prado, Márcio J; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Open clinical trial was conducted with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises, and intravaginal or intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. The mean age was 54 ± 12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia, and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (P < .001). There was also a reduction in the overactive bladder symptom score from 10 ± 4 to 6 ± 3 (P < .001) and an increase in the perineal muscle strength (P <.001). The urodynamic parameters improved, with reduction in the frequency of patients with detrusor hyperactivity from 57.9% to 42.1%, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia from 31.6% to 5.3%, detrusor hypocontractility from 15.8% to 0%, and detrusor areflexia from 10.5% to 0%, with positive repercussions in the quality of life in all patients. Physiotherapy was effective in cases of human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, and improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What do we know about neurogenic bladder prevalence and management in developing countries and emerging regions of the world?

    PubMed

    Przydacz, Mikolaj; Denys, Pierre; Corcos, Jacques

    2017-09-01

    To summarize information on Neurogenic Bladder (NB) epidemiology, management and access to patient treatment in developing countries and emerging regions of the world in order to propose future interventions and help governmental as well as non-governmental organizations design their action plans. Different search methods were used to gather the maximum available data. They included strategic searches; reference checks; grey literature searches (reports, working papers, government documents, civil society information); contacting professional societies, registries, and authors; requesting unpublished data from organizations; and browsing related websites and journals. The incidence and prevalence rates of NB in developing countries are difficult to establish because epidemiological reports are few and far between. The frequency of bladder dysfunction in neurologically impaired populations can be approximately estimated in some of these countries. Similar information paucity affects diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to NB patients living in less-developed regions of the world. The assessment and management of NB seems to vary markedly between countries, and care of patients from emerging regions of the world is often inadequate. Strong concerted efforts are needed on the part of international scientific societies, non-governmental organizations and local governments to work together to change the prognosis for these patients and to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Bowel injury following induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Jhobta, R S; Attri, A K; Jhobta, A

    2007-01-01

    Bowel injury is an uncommonly reported yet serious complication of induced abortion, which is often performed illegally by persons without any medical training in developing countries. A sudden increase in cases prompted the authors to analyze this problem. A retrospective review was done of 11 cases of bowel injury following induced abortion seen over 2 years at Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India. Young, married women of low socioeconomic status with a strong preference for male children were the predominant recipients of induced abortion in India. The terminal ileum and pelvic colon were the most commonly injured portions of the bowel owing to their anatomic locations. Preoperative resuscitation, then resection with exteriorization of bowel and thorough peritoneal lavage, is the treatment for bowel injury incurred during induced abortion when the patient presents late.

  20. Droxidopa: a review of its use in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-02-01

    The norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa (NORTHERA™) is approved in the US for the treatment of orthostatic dizziness, lightheadedness, or the 'feeling that you are about to black out' in adults with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension associated with primary autonomic failure (e.g. Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure), dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of droxidopa in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Oral droxidopa was effective in the shorter-term treatment of patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, with improvements seen in symptoms, the impact of symptoms on daily activities and standing systolic blood pressure. More data are needed to confirm the longer-term efficacy of droxidopa. Droxidopa was generally well tolerated, although patients should be monitored for supine hypertension.

  1. Two cases of neurogenic paralysis in medieval skeletal samples from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Čavka, Mislav; Šlaus, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Osteological changes consistent with neurogenic paralysis were observed in one male and one female skeleton recovered from two Croatian medieval sites - Virje and Zadar. Both skeletons display limb asymmetry typical of neurogenic paralysis that occurs during the childhood. The male skeleton displays atrophy and shortening of the right arm and the right femur, while the female skeleton exhibits identical changes on the right arm and both legs. Additionally, both skeletons exhibit scoliotic changes of the spine, and the female skeleton also displays bilateral hip dysplasia. Differential diagnosis included disorders such as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, cerebrovascular accident, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. These are the first cases of neurogenic paralysis (cerebral palsy and/or paralytic poliomyelitis) identified in Croatian archeological series. The Virje skeleton is only the third case of hemiplegia identified from archeological contexts (first with spinal scoliosis), while the Zadar skeleton represents the first case of triplegia reported in the paleopathological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Aziz, Qasim; Barbara, Giovanni; Farmer, Adam D.; Fukudo, Shin; Mayer, Emeran A.; Niesler, Beate; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Schemann, Michael; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Simren, Magnus; Zipfel, Stephan; Spiller, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain–gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer. PMID:27159638

  3. Characterization of multiciliated ependymal cells that emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Takashi; Sawada, Masato; Takase, Hiroshi; Nakai, Chiemi; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Kaneko, Naoko; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2016-10-15

    In mammals, ventricular walls of the developing brain maintain a neurogenic niche, in which radial glial cells act as neural stem cells (NSCs) and generate new neurons in the embryo. In the adult brain, the neurogenic niche is maintained in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral wall of lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the neonatal V-SVZ, radial glial cells transform into astrocytic postnatal NSCs and multiciliated ependymal cells. On the other hand, in zebrafish, radial glial cells continue to cover the surface of the adult telencephalic ventricle and maintain a higher neurogenic potential in the adult brain. However, the cell composition of the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain has not been investigated. Here we show that multiciliated ependymal cells emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish telencephalon. These multiciliated cells appear predominantly in the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic ventricular zone, which also contains clusters of migrating new neurons. Scanning electron microscopy and live imaging analyses indicated that these multiple cilia beat coordinately and generate constant fluid flow within the ventral telencephalic ventricle. Analysis of the cell composition by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the neurogenic niche in the aged zebrafish contains different types of cells, with ultrastructures similar to those of ependymal cells, transit-amplifying cells, and migrating new neurons in postnatal mice. These data suggest that the transformation capacity of radial glial cells is conserved but that its timing is different between fish and mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2982-2992, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Treatment of chronic neurogenic cough with in-office superior laryngeal nerve block.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C Blake; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Loochtan, Michael J; Dominguez, Laura M

    2018-04-18

    Neurogenic cough is believed to result from a sensory neuropathy involving the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). We present our outcomes for the treatment of neurogenic cough with localized blockade of the internal branch of the SLN. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent in-office percutaneous SLN block for treatment of neurogenic cough between 2015 and 2017 was conducted. Patient demographics, indications for injection, and response to treatment were recorded and analyzed. Cough severity index (CSI) scores before and after treatment were compared. Twenty-three patients underwent percutaneous blockade of the internal branch of the SLN in the clinic setting, and five patients were excluded for incomplete records. The indication was neurogenic cough as a diagnosis of exclusion. The injectable substance used was a 1:1 mixture of a long-acting particulate corticosteroid and a local anesthetic. Unilateral injections were performed in 13 patients, and five patients underwent bilateral injections. Of the unilateral injections, 10 were left-sided. Patients underwent an average of 2.4 SLN block procedures (range 1-7). Mean follow-up time postinjection was 85.4 days (7-450 days). Cough severity index scores decreased significantly from an average of 26.8 pretreatment to 14.6 posttreatment (P < 0.0001). The SLN block is an effective treatment for neurogenic cough, with average CSI scores significantly improved following injection. Further study is necessary to determine the characteristics of patients' responses to treatment, long-term outcomes, and efficacy of the procedure when compared to placebo and other accepted treatments for neurogenic cough. 4. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. L-dihydroxyphenylserine (Droxidopa): a new therapy for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: the US experience.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Horacio

    2008-03-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension results from failure to release norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter of sympathetic postganglionic neurons, appropriately upon standing. In double blind, cross over, placebo controlled trials, administration of droxidopa, a synthetic amino acid that is decarboxylated to norepinephrine by the enzyme L: -aromatic amino acid decarboxylase increases standing blood pressure, ameliorates symptoms of orthostatic hypotension and improves standing ability in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension due to degenerative autonomic disorders. The pressor effect results from conversion of droxidopa to norepinephrine outside the central nervous system both in neural and non-neural tissue. This mechanism of action makes droxidopa effective in patients with central and peripheral autonomic disorders.

  6. A Case of Neuro-Behcet's Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; DeGeorgia, Michael A

    2016-03-11

    Behcet's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called "Neuro-Behcet's disease", occurs in 10-20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet's disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet's disease.

  7. Integrated analysis of droxidopa trials for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, Italo; Arthur Hewitt, L; Rowse, Gerald J; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-05-12

    Droxidopa, a prodrug of norepinephrine, was approved for treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) due to primary autonomic disorders based on 3 randomized double-blind studies. We performed safety and efficacy analyses of this pooled dataset (n = 460). Efficacy was assessed using Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ) scores (composite and individual items). Safety and tolerability were also examined. Droxidopa improved virtually all nOH symptom scores compared with placebo, significantly reducing OHQ composite score (-2.68 ± 2.20 vs -1.82 ± 2.34 units; P < 0.001), dizziness/lightheadedness score (-3.0 ± 2.9 vs -1.8 ± 3.1 units; P < 0.001), and 3 of 5 other symptom assessments (visual disturbances, weakness, and fatigue [P ≤ 0.010]). Droxidopa significantly improved 3 of 4 measures of activities of daily living (standing a long time, walking a short time, and walking a long time [P ≤ 0.003]) and significantly increased upright systolic blood pressure (11.5 ± 20.5 vs 4.8 ± 21.0 mmHg for placebo; P < 0.001). Droxidopa was effective in patients using inhibitors of dopa decarboxylase (DDCI; the enzyme that converts droxidopa to norepinephrine), but its efficacy was numerically greater in non-DDCI users. Droxidopa was well-tolerated. Rates of most adverse events were similar between groups. Supine hypertension rates were low, but slightly higher in patients receiving droxidopa (≤7.9% vs ≤4.6% for placebo); patients with severe hypertension at screening were excluded from these studies. Droxidopa is effective for the treatment of nOH in patients with primary autonomic disorders and is generally well-tolerated. A longer trial is underway to confirm efficacy beyond the ≤2 to 10 - week period assessed in the current trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00782340 , first received October 29, 2008; NCT00633880 , first received March 5, 2008; and NCT01176240 , first received July 30, 2010.

  8. Dysfunctional elimination symptoms in childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bower, W F; Yip, S K; Yeung, C K

    2005-10-01

    The dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES) is rare in adulthood. We evaluate the natural history of DES to identify aspects of the disorder that may be carried into adulthood. A 2-part questionnaire was devised and self-administered to 191 consecutive women attending a urogynecological clinic (UG) and to 251 normal women. The first section asked for recall of childhood symptoms known to be associated with DES, while the lat-ter section explored current bladder and bowel problems. Data sets from the normal cohort (55) reporting current bladder problems were excluded. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used to compare variables. UG patients had significantly higher childhood DES scores than normal women. Overall 41.7% of UG patients could be labeled as having dysfunctional elimination as an adult. Symptoms reported significantly more often in childhood by UG patients than by control women were frequent urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, frequency, urge incontinence, slow and intermittent urine flow, small volume high urge voids, hospitalization for constipation, frequent fecal soiling and nocturnal enuresis. Higher DES scores correlated significantly with current adult urgency, urge leak, stress incontinence, incomplete emptying, post-void leak, hesitancy, nocturia and nocturnal enuresis. Constipation and fecal incontinence in adulthood also showed a significant association with high DES scores. Logistic regression revealed childhood urgency to be associated with adult DES. Childhood lower urinary tract dysfunction may have a negative impact on bladder and bowel function later life.

  9. Cardiac dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Iacobini, MA; Stoian, R; Neascu, C; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze cardiac dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Cardiac dysfunctions are common complications following SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. We reviewed epidemiology of cardiac disturbances after SCI, and neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic. SCI causes disruption of descendent pathways from central control centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating into intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 spinal cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant cardiac dysfunction. Impairment of autonomic nervous control system, mostly in patients with cervical or high thoracic SCI, causes cardiac dysrrhythmias, especially bradycardia and, rarely, cardiac arrest, or tachyarrhytmias and hypotension. Specific complication dependent on the period of time after trauma like spinal shock and autonomic dysreflexia are also reviewed. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe bradycardia and hypotension. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Besides all this, additional cardiac complications, such as cardiac deconditioning and coronary heart disease may also occur. Proper prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic and pharmacological strategies and cardiac rehabilitation diminish occurrence of the cardiac dysfunction following

  10. Current and Novel Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Management

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Andresen, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut-axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, autonomic dysfunction, and mucosal immune activation. Understanding the mechanisms, and their mediators or modulators including neurotransmitters and receptors have led to several therapeutic approaches including agents acting on the serotonin receptor or serotonin transporter system, antidepressants, novel selective anticholinergics, α-adrenergic agonists, opioid agents, cholecystokinin-antagonists, neurokinin-antagonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, corticotropin releasing factor antagonists, chloride-channel activators, guanylate-cyclase-c agonists, melatonin, atypical benzodiazepines, antibiotics, immune modulators and probiotics. The mechanisms and current evidence regarding efficacy of these agents are reviewed. PMID:19665953

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

  12. Bowel urgency in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basilisco, Guido; De Marco, Elisabetta; Tomba, Carolina; Cesana, Bruno Mario

    2007-01-01

    Bowel urgency is the most bothersome symptom in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea, but its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Our aim was to assess the relationships among reporting the symptom, the reservoir functions of the colon and rectum, and the patients' psychologic profile. The study involved 28 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 17 healthy subjects. The presence or absence of bowel urgency was verified by means of a questionnaire during the 3 days required for the ingestion of radio-opaque markers. On the fourth day, an abdominal x-ray was taken to assess colonic transit time, and rectal sensory and motor responses were measured during rectal distention. The subjects' psychologic profiles were assessed using a psychologic symptoms checklist. Forty-six percent of the patients reported urgency associated with at least 1 defecation. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that colonic transit was the only variable independently associated with reported bowel urgency, but the threshold for the sensation of urgency was not removed from the model since its borderline significance level. Rectal compliance was closely associated with the threshold for the sensation of urgency during rectal distention but was not an independent factor for reporting the sensation. The patients with and without urgency showed altered psychologic profiles. The symptom of urgency is associated with objective alterations in the colonic and rectal reservoir of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Comprehensive Expression Map of Transcription Regulators in the Adult Zebrafish Telencephalon Reveals Distinct Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1202–1221, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556858

  14. Comprehensive expression map of transcription regulators in the adult zebrafish telencephalon reveals distinct neurogenic niches.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Rodriguez Viales, Rebecca; Armant, Olivier; März, Martin; Ferg, Marco; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    The zebrafish has become a model to study adult vertebrate neurogenesis. In particular, the adult telencephalon has been an intensely studied structure in the zebrafish brain. Differential expression of transcriptional regulators (TRs) is a key feature of development and tissue homeostasis. Here we report an expression map of 1,202 TR genes in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Our results are summarized in a database with search and clustering functions to identify genes expressed in particular regions of the telencephalon. We classified 562 genes into 13 distinct patterns, including genes expressed in the proliferative zone. The remaining 640 genes displayed unique and complex patterns of expression and could thus not be grouped into distinct classes. The neurogenic ventricular regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes, suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic niches in the telencephalon. In summary, the small telencephalon of the zebrafish shows a remarkable complexity in TR gene expression. The adult zebrafish telencephalon has become a model to study neurogenesis. We established the expression pattern of more than 1200 transcription regulators (TR) in the adult telencephalon. The neurogenic regions express overlapping but distinct sets of TR genes suggesting regional differences in the neurogenic potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Maria I.; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A.; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M. F.; Desmond, Mary E.; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies. PMID:29311854

  16. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Maria I; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M F; Desmond, Mary E; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies.

  17. Neurogenic Language Disorders in Children. International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbro, Franco, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Language disorders in children are one of the most frequent causes of difficulties in communication, social interaction, learning and academic achievement. It has been estimated that over 5% of children present with some kind of language disorder. This volume illustrates the state of the art in neurogenic language disorders in children. The most…

  18. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  19. Neurogenic bladder findings in patients with Congenital Zika Syndrome: A novel condition

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Glaura Nisya de Oliveira; Fontes, Juliana Marin; Saad Salles, Tania Regina Dias; Boechat, Marcia Cristina Bastos; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) has been associated with microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities including areas that have been implicated in the control of the lower urinary tract. As such, this descriptive case series has aimed to investigate whether CZS is linked with neurogenic bladder. Identifying such an association is paramount in the effort to recognize CZS complications that have putative treatment options that could mitigate the impact of CZS in infected children. Methods Following IRB approval, urological assessment was performed in all patients referred to our clinic between June 2016 and May 2017 who presented with confirmed CZS-associated microcephaly. The research protocol consisted of obtaining clinical history, laboratory tests, lower and upper urinary tract ultrasounds, as well as a diagnostic urodynamic evaluation. ZIKA virus infection was previously confirmed by maternal history and positive PCR in babies and mothers. Microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities were established based on neurological assessment and associated imaging of the central nervous system (CT head and/or Brain MRI). Results Twenty-two consecutive CZS patients were tested and confirmed to have neurogenic bladder. Of the 22 patients assessed, 21 presented with an overactive bladder combined with reduced bladder capacity and elevated detrusor filling pressures. Clinically significant increases in postvoid residual (PVR) were confirmed in 40% of cases while a urinary tract infection (UTI) was identified in 23% of cases. Conclusion Neurogenic bladder, a known treatable health condition, was confirmed in 100% of patients tested in this study, most presenting with high-risk urodynamic patterns known to lead to renal damage when left untreated. Follow up studies are necessary to provide further insight onto long-term disease progression and to investigate the response to standard therapies for neurogenic bladder. Nonetheless, we

  20. Neurogenic bladder findings in patients with Congenital Zika Syndrome: A novel condition.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia Maria; Cruz, Glaura Nisya de Oliveira; Fontes, Juliana Marin; Saad Salles, Tania Regina Dias; Boechat, Marcia Cristina Bastos; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) has been associated with microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities including areas that have been implicated in the control of the lower urinary tract. As such, this descriptive case series has aimed to investigate whether CZS is linked with neurogenic bladder. Identifying such an association is paramount in the effort to recognize CZS complications that have putative treatment options that could mitigate the impact of CZS in infected children. Following IRB approval, urological assessment was performed in all patients referred to our clinic between June 2016 and May 2017 who presented with confirmed CZS-associated microcephaly. The research protocol consisted of obtaining clinical history, laboratory tests, lower and upper urinary tract ultrasounds, as well as a diagnostic urodynamic evaluation. ZIKA virus infection was previously confirmed by maternal history and positive PCR in babies and mothers. Microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities were established based on neurological assessment and associated imaging of the central nervous system (CT head and/or Brain MRI). Twenty-two consecutive CZS patients were tested and confirmed to have neurogenic bladder. Of the 22 patients assessed, 21 presented with an overactive bladder combined with reduced bladder capacity and elevated detrusor filling pressures. Clinically significant increases in postvoid residual (PVR) were confirmed in 40% of cases while a urinary tract infection (UTI) was identified in 23% of cases. Neurogenic bladder, a known treatable health condition, was confirmed in 100% of patients tested in this study, most presenting with high-risk urodynamic patterns known to lead to renal damage when left untreated. Follow up studies are necessary to provide further insight onto long-term disease progression and to investigate the response to standard therapies for neurogenic bladder. Nonetheless, we emphasize the importance of proactive

  1. Notch Signaling Is Involved in Neurogenic Commitment of Human Periodontal Ligament-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Aguilar, Panuroot; Palaga, Tanapat

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays critical roles in stem cells by regulating cell fate determination and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of Notch signaling in neurogenic commitment of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs) and to examine the ability to control differentiation of these cells using modified surfaces containing affinity immobilized Notch ligands. Neurogenic induction of hPDLSCs was performed via neurosphere formation. Cells were aggregated and form spheres as early 1 day in culture. In addition, the induced cells exhibited increased mRNA and protein expression of neuronal markers that is, β3-tubulin and neurofilament. During neuronal differentiation, a significant increase of Hes1 and Hey1 mRNA expression was noted. Using pharmacological inhibition (γ-secretase inhibitor) or genetic manipulation (overexpression of dominant negative mastermind-like transcription co-activators), neurosphere formation was attenuated and a marked decrease in neurogenic mRNA expression was observed. To confirm the role of Notch signaling in neuronal differentiation of hPDLSCs, the Notch ligand, Jagged-1, is bound to the surface using an affinity immobilization technique. The hPDLSC cultured on a Jagged-1-modified surface had increased expression of Notch signaling target genes, Hes-1 and Hey-1, confirming the activity and potency of surface-bound Jagged-1. Further, hPDLSC on surface-bound Jagged-1 under serum-free conditions showed multiple long and thin neurite-like extensions, and an increase in the expression of neurogenic mRNA markers was observed. Pretreatment of the cells with γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, before seeding on the Jagged-1-modified surface blocked development of the neurite-like morphology. Together, the results in this study suggest the involvement of Notch signaling in neurogenic commitment of hPDLSCs. PMID:23379739

  2. Paroxetine Can Enhance Neurogenesis during Neurogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Maliheh; Razavi, Shahnaz; Amirpour, Nushin; Khosravizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from human abdominal fat. These cells differentiated to neuron-like cells and were treated with Paroxetine. 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and immunofluorescence technique were used for assessment of cell proliferation and neurogenic differentiation potential of induced cells, respectively. Results: MTT assay analysis showed that Paroxetine significantly increased the proliferation rate of induced hADSCs (p<0.05), while immunofluorescent staining indicated that Paroxetine treatment during neurogenic differentiation could enhance the mean percentage of Nestin and MAP2 (Microtubule-associated protein-2) positive cells but the mean percentage of GFAP (Glial acidic fibrillary protein) positive cells significantly decreased relative to control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that Paroxetine can promote proliferation and differentiation rate during neurogenic differentiation of hADSCs. Moreover, Paroxetine can reduce gliogenesis of induced hADSCs during neurogenic differentiation. PMID:27920882

  3. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  4. Effect of very brief psychotherapy on the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hislop, I G

    1980-11-29

    The relationship between emotional factors and abdominal dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been the focus of uncertainty. In support of an integrated psychophysiological basis for the disorder, 60 consecutive IBS patients were treated by psychotherapy. Of the 52 subjects who responded to a self-assessment questionnaire, 46% indicated that they were asymptomatic or had only mild persistence of their symptoms. Only 11 patients (22%) indicated little or no improvement. These results support the efficacy of a very brief, but active, interview designed to contact and release subconscious feelings of distress in patients with IBS.

  5. Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Vascular Compression of the Brachial Plexus: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Amgad; Bodden, Larry O'Neil; Siebiger, Gabriel R. L.

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus and/or subclavian vessels as they pass through the cervicothoracobrachial region, exiting the chest. There are three main types of TOS: neurogenic TOS, arterial TOS, and venous TOS. Neurogenic TOS accounts for approximately 95% of all cases, and it is usually caused by physical trauma (posttraumatic etiology), chronic repetitive motion (functional etiology), or bone or muscle anomalies (congenital etiology). We present two cases in which neurogenic TOS was elicited by vascular compression of the inferior portion of the brachial plexus. PMID:29497457

  6. The effect of IVPCA morphine on post-hysterectomy bowel function.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuang-Cheng; Cheng, Ya-Jung; Huang, Guang-Ta; Wen, Yuan-Jui; Lin, Chen-Jung; Chen, Li-Kuei; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2002-06-01

    Although morphine has been shown to induce bowel dysfunction in a dose-dependent fashion, in most relevant studies it was investigated in single bolus injection. Recently, intravenous morphine via patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) has been widely used to provide analgesia by divided bolus doses on patients' demand with satisfactory effects. This approach, by reducing the peak serum surge, largely resembles the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantage of continuous infusion. There is yet no report on the investigation of its effect on post-operative bowel dysfunction. Fifty-one women who underwent abdominal total hysterectomy (ATH) due to uterine myoma were enrolled to investigate the association between the doses of morphine consumption by PCA and the time of first passage of flatus. In all patients morphine was administered intravenously via a PCA pump immediately after recovery from general anesthesia. We found that 49 out of 51 patients (96%) exhibited mild pain with IVPCA morphine. They had consumed an average dose of 16.9 mg morphine (range, 0-46 mg) upon the first passage of flatus which occurred 2036.4 min (average) post-operatively. There was no correlation between the dose of morphine and the time of first passage of flatus (r = 0.053, P > 0.05). The absence of suppression of bowel movement by IVPCA morphine for post-operative pain control suggests that favorable pharmacokinetic profile of IVPCA can help reduce the morphine-induced bowel dysfunction at its therapeutic level.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas.

  8. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension - management update and role of droxidopa.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Joy; Sharma, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) during the first 3 minutes of standing or a head up on a tilt table. Symptoms of OH are highly variable, ranging from mild light-headedness to recurrent syncope. OH occurs due to dysfunction of one or more components of various complex mechanisms that interplay closely to maintain BP in a normal range during various physiological and associated disease states. Various biochemical and electrophysiological studies are often undertaken to assess the severity and etiology of OH. In addition to the lifestyle modifications, various medications that stimulate the adrenergic receptors or increase central blood volume are used in patients with OH. Droxidopa is a newer agent that increases the levels of norepinephrine in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Management strategies for OH are presented, including the mechanism of action of droxidopa and various studies performed to assess its efficacy.

  9. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension – management update and role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Joy; Sharma, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) during the first 3 minutes of standing or a head up on a tilt table. Symptoms of OH are highly variable, ranging from mild light-headedness to recurrent syncope. OH occurs due to dysfunction of one or more components of various complex mechanisms that interplay closely to maintain BP in a normal range during various physiological and associated disease states. Various biochemical and electrophysiological studies are often undertaken to assess the severity and etiology of OH. In addition to the lifestyle modifications, various medications that stimulate the adrenergic receptors or increase central blood volume are used in patients with OH. Droxidopa is a newer agent that increases the levels of norepinephrine in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Management strategies for OH are presented, including the mechanism of action of droxidopa and various studies performed to assess its efficacy. PMID:26089676

  10. Clinical course of a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence symptoms followed at a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Lebl, Adrienne; Fagundes, Simone Nascimento; Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika

    2016-01-01

    To characterize a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence followed-up in a tertiary center. Retrospective analysis of 50 medical records of children who had attained bladder control or minimum age of 5 years, using a structured protocol that included lower urinary tract dysfunction symptoms, comorbidities, associated manifestations, physical examination, voiding diary, complementary tests, therapeutic options, and clinical outcome, in accordance with the 2006 and 2014 International Children's Continence Society standardizations. Female patients represented 86.0% of this sample. Mean age was 7.9 years and mean follow-up was 4.7 years. Urgency (56.0%), urgency incontinence (56.0%), urinary retention (8.0%), nocturnal enuresis (70.0%), urinary tract infections (62.0%), constipation (62.0%), and fecal incontinence (16.0%) were the most prevalent symptoms and comorbidities. Ultrasound examinations showed alterations in 53.0% of the cases; the urodynamic study showed alterations in 94.7%. At the last follow-up, 32.0% of patients persisted with urinary incontinence. When assessing the diagnostic methods, 85% concordance was observed between the predictive diagnosis of overactive bladder attained through medical history plus non-invasive exams and the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity achieved through the invasive urodynamic study. This subgroup of patients with clinical characteristics of an overactive bladder, with no history of urinary tract infection, and normal urinary tract ultrasound and uroflowmetry, could start treatment without invasive studies even at a tertiary center. Approximately one-third of the patients treated at the tertiary level remained refractory to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional relevance of intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical barrier between inner and outer side of our body. It also functions as a "hub" which connects factors that determine the development of inflammatory bowel disease, such as microbiota, susceptibility genes, and host immune response. Accordingly, recent studies have implicated and further featured the role of intestinal epithelial cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. For example, mucin producing goblet cells are usually "depleted" in ulcerative colitis patients. Studies have shown that those goblet cells exhibit various immune-regulatory functions in addition to mucin production, such as antigen presentation or cytokine production. Paneth cells are another key cell lineage that has been deeply implicated in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease. Several susceptibility genes for Crohn's disease may lead to impairment of anti-bacterial peptide production and secretion by Paneth cells. Also, other susceptibility genes may determine the survival of Paneth cells, which leads to reduced Paneth cell function in the patient small intestinal mucosa. Further studies may reveal other unexpected roles of the intestinal epithelium in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease, and may help to develop alternative therapies targeted to intestinal epithelial cell functions.

  12. New Receptor Targets for Medical Therapy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite setbacks to the approval of new medications for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, interim guidelines on endpoints for IBS trials have enhanced interest as new targets for medical therapy are proposed based on novel mechanisms or chemical entities. Aim To review the approved lubiprostone, two targets that are not meeting expectations (tachykinins and corticotrophin-releasing hormone), the efficacy and safety of new 5-HT4 agonists, intestinal secretagogues (chloride channel activators, and guanylate cyclase-C agonists), bile acid modulation, anti-inflammatory agents and visceral analgesics. Methods Review of selected articles based on PubMed search and clinically relevant information on mechanism of action, safety, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy Conclusions The spectrum of peripheral targets of medical therapy address chiefly the bowel dysfunction of IBS, and these effects are associated with pain relief. There are less clear targets related to the abdominal pain or visceral sensation in IBS. The new 5-HT4 agonists are more specific than older agents, and show cardiovascular safety to date. Secretory agents have high specificity, low bioavailability, and efficacy. The potential risks of agents “borrowed” from other indications (like hyperlipidemia, inflammatory bowel disease or somatic pain) deserve further study. There is reason for optimism in medical treatment of IBS. PMID:19785622

  13. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Muneera R.

    2017-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. PMID:28144211

  14. A systematic review and comparison of questionnaires in the management of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and the neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Tsang, B; Stothers, L; Macnab, A; Lazare, D; Nigro, M

    2016-03-01

    Validated questionnaires are increasingly the preferred method used to obtain historical information. Specialized questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic disease including neurogenic bladder. Those currently available are systematically reviewed and their potential for clinical and research use are described. A systematic search via Medline and PubMed using the key terms questionnaire(s) crossed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) for the years 1946 to January 22, 2014 inclusive. Additional articles were selected from review of references in the publications identified. Only peer reviewed articles published in English were included. 18 questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic bladder; 14 related to MS, 3 for SCI, and 1 for neurogenic bladder in general; with 4 cross-validated in both MS and SCI. All 18 are validated for both male and female patients; 59% are available only in English. The domains of psychological impact and physical function are represented in 71% and 76% of questionnaires, respectively. None for the female population included elements to measure symptoms of prolapse. The last decade has seen an expansion of validated questionnaires to document bladder symptoms in neurogenic disease. Disease specific instruments are available for incorporation into the clinical setting for MS and SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. The availability of caregiver and interview options enhances suitability in clinical practice as they can be adapted to various extents of disability. Future developments should include expanded language validation to the top 10 global languages reported by the World Health Organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Long-term safety of droxidopa in patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Stuart; Vernino, Steven; Ziemann, Adam; Rowse, Gerald J; Kalu, Uwa; White, William B

    2016-10-01

    The long-term safety of droxidopa for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in patients with Parkinson disease, pure autonomic failure, multiple system atrophy, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy was evaluated in a phase 3, multinational, open-label study in patients who previously participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of droxidopa. A total of 350 patients received droxidopa 100 to 600 mg three times daily. Mean duration of droxidopa exposure was 363 days (range, 2-1133 days). Rates of serious adverse events (AEs), cardiac-related AEs, and supine hypertension were 24%, 5%, and 5%, respectively. Most AEs, including those of a cardiovascular nature, were not attributed by investigators to droxidopa. In this large cohort of patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, droxidopa was well tolerated during long-term use. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transoral robotic surgery for neurogenic tumors of the prestyloid parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Hyun Jin; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2012-08-01

    The parapharyngeal space is a difficult area for a surgical approach due to anatomical complexity. We performed a minimally invasive and precise surgical technique to remove neurogenic tumors of the prestyloid parapharyngeal space using transoral robotic instrumentation. The mass was successfully removed in the two cases with three-dimensional visualization providing an excellent view of the resection margin and the dissection plane preserving the vital structures. An adequate resection margin was acquired, and no violation of the tumor capsule occurred. No significant complications were noted. Transoral robotic surgery was feasible for neurogenic tumors of the prestyloid parapharyngeal space, providing a sufficient resection margin and delicate dissection through excellent surgical views and instrumentation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Chronic Renal Failure Secondary to Unrecognized Neurogenic Bladder in A Child with Myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shameem; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplasia includes a group of developmental anomalies resulting from defects that occur during neural tube closure. Urological morbidity in patients with myelodysplasia is significant and if not treated appropriately in a timely manner can potentially lead to progressive renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. We report the case of a 13-year old girl with neurogenic bladder who presented chronic renal failure secondary to lipomyelomeningocele with retethering of cord. She was managed with urinary indwelling catheterization until optimization of renal function and then underwent detethering of cord with excision and repair of residual lipomeningomyelocele. Her renal parameters improved gradually over weeks and then were managed on self clean intermittent catheterization. The case emphasizes the need for considering retethering of spinal cord in children with myelodysplasia where symptoms of neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infections occur.

  18. A Case of Neuro-Behcet’s Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; De Georgia, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 46 Final Diagnosis: Central hyperventilation Symptoms: Hyperventilation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behcet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called “Neuro-Behcet’s disease”, occurs in 10–20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. Case Report: We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease. PMID:26965646

  19. Droxidopa and Reduced Falls in a Trial of Parkinson Disease Patients With Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Heritier, Stephane; Rowse, Gerald J; Hewitt, L Arthur; Isaacson, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Droxidopa is a prodrug of norepinephrine indicated for the treatment of orthostatic dizziness, lightheadedness, or the "feeling that you are about to black out" in adult patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension caused by primary autonomic failure including Parkinson disease (PD). The objective of this study was to compare fall rates in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension randomized to droxidopa or placebo. Study NOH306 was a 10-week, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of droxidopa in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension that included assessments of falls as a key secondary end point. In this report, the principal analysis consisted of a comparison of the rate of patient-reported falls from randomization to end of study in droxidopa versus placebo groups. A total of 225 patients were randomized; 222 patients were included in the safety analyses, and 197 patients provided efficacy data and were included in the falls analyses. The 92 droxidopa patients reported 308 falls, and the 105 placebo patients reported 908 falls. In the droxidopa group, the fall rate was 0.4 falls per patient-week; in the placebo group, the rate was 1.05 falls per patient-week (prespecified Wilcoxon rank sum P = 0.704; post hoc Poisson-inverse Gaussian test P = 0.014), yielding a relative risk reduction of 77% using the Poisson-inverse Gaussian model. Fall-related injuries occurred in 16.7% of droxidopa-treated patients and 26.9% of placebo-treated patients. Treatment with droxidopa appears to reduce falls in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, but this finding must be confirmed.

  20. Droxidopa and Reduced Falls in a Trial of Parkinson Disease Patients With Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert A.; Heritier, Stephane; Rowse, Gerald J.; Hewitt, L. Arthur; Isaacson, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Droxidopa is a prodrug of norepinephrine indicated for the treatment of orthostatic dizziness, lightheadedness, or the “feeling that you are about to black out” in adult patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension caused by primary autonomic failure including Parkinson disease (PD). The objective of this study was to compare fall rates in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension randomized to droxidopa or placebo. Methods Study NOH306 was a 10-week, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of droxidopa in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension that included assessments of falls as a key secondary end point. In this report, the principal analysis consisted of a comparison of the rate of patient-reported falls from randomization to end of study in droxidopa versus placebo groups. Results A total of 225 patients were randomized; 222 patients were included in the safety analyses, and 197 patients provided efficacy data and were included in the falls analyses. The 92 droxidopa patients reported 308 falls, and the 105 placebo patients reported 908 falls. In the droxidopa group, the fall rate was 0.4 falls per patient-week; in the placebo group, the rate was 1.05 falls per patient-week (prespecified Wilcoxon rank sum P = 0.704; post hoc Poisson-inverse Gaussian test P = 0.014), yielding a relative risk reduction of 77% using the Poisson-inverse Gaussian model. Fall-related injuries occurred in 16.7% of droxidopa-treated patients and 26.9% of placebo-treated patients. Conclusions Treatment with droxidopa appears to reduce falls in PD patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, but this finding must be confirmed. PMID:27332626

  1. Notch Receptor Expression in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Carlos, Vanessa; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches. PMID:24039926

  2. Buccally Administered Intranasal Desmopressin Acetate for the Treatment of Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Smego, Allison R; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4.5 mo) with neurogenic DI treated at a tertiary care center. Treatment was with diluted IN DDAVP formulation (10 mcg/mL) administered buccally via a tuberculin syringe to the buccal mucosa. After initial DDAVP titration of 2-3 days, IN DDAVP doses ranged from 1 to 5 mcg twice daily given buccally. Mean serum sodium concentration at DI diagnosis was 159 ± 6.6 mmol/L (range, 151-178) and improved to 142 ± 3.5 mmol/L (range, 137-147) with the buccally administered IN DDAVP. Normal sodium concentrations were established without major fluctuations. Serum sodium was then maintained in the outpatient setting at a mean of 145.7 ± 4.8 mmol/L (mean duration of follow-up, 11 mo). Buccally administered IN formulation of DDAVP provides a practical and safe treatment alternative for neurogenic DI in infancy. Our approach avoided severe hypo- and hypernatremia during DDAVP titration and ongoing outpatient management of DI. The possibility for smaller dosage increments and ease of administration make IN DDAVP administered buccally preferable over other DDAVP treatment options in infants.

  3. Neurogenic and myogenic motor patterns of rabbit proximal, mid, and distal colon.

    PubMed

    Dinning, P G; Costa, M; Brookes, S J; Spencer, N J

    2012-07-01

    The rabbit colon consists of four distinct regions. The motility of each region is controlled by myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms. Associating these mechanisms with specific motor patterns throughout all regions of the colon has not previously been achieved. Three sections of the colon (the proximal, mid, and distal colon) were removed from euthanized rabbits. The proximal colon consists of a triply teniated region and a single tenia region. Spatio-temporal maps were constructed from video recordings of colonic wall diameter, with associated intraluminal pressure recorded from the aboral end. Hexamethonium (100 μM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μM) were used to inhibit neural activity. Four distinct patterns of motility were detected: 1 myogenic and 3 neurogenic. The myogenic activity consisted of circular muscle (CM) contractions (ripples) that occurred throughout the colon and propagated in both antegrade (anal) and retrograde (oral) directions. The neural activity of the proximal colon consisted of slowly (0.1 mm/s) propagating colonic migrating motor complexes, which were abolished by hexamethonium. These complexes were observed in the region of the proximal colon with a single band of tenia. In the distal colon, tetrodotoxin-sensitive, thus neurally mediated, but hexamethonium-resistant, peristaltic (anal) and antiperistaltic (oral) contractions were identified. The distinct patterns of neurogenic and myogenic motor activity recorded from isolated rabbit colon are specific to each anatomically distinct region. The regional specificity motor pattern is likely to facilitate orderly transit of colonic content from semi-liquid to solid composition of feces.

  4. Effect of sertraline on proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Jahromi, Maliheh; Amirpour, Nushin; Khosravizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antidepressant drugs are commonly employed for anxiety and mood disorders. Sertraline is extensively used as antidepressant in clinic. In addition, adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) may be useful for autologous transplantation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we assessed the effect of antidepressant drug Sertraline on the proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of hADSCs using MTT assay and immunofluorescence technique respectively. Results: MTT assay analysis showed that 0.5 μM Sertraline significantly increased the proliferation rate of hADSCs induced cells (P < 0.05), while immunofluorescent staining indicated that Sertraline treatment during neurogenic differentiation could be decreased the percentage of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Nestin-positive cells, but did not significantly effect on the percentage of MAP2 positive cells. Conclusion: Overall, our data show that Sertraline can be promoting proliferation rate during neurogenic differentiation of hADSCs after 6 days post-induction, while Sertraline inhibits gliogenesis of induced hADSCs. PMID:24800186

  5. Changes of neural markers expression during late neurogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Khosravizadeh, Zahra; Bahramian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different studies have been done to obtain sufficient number of neural cells for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord, and traumatic brain injury because neural stem cells are limited in central nerves system. Recently, several studies have shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are the appropriate source of multipotent stem cells. Furthermore, these cells are found in large quantities. The aim of this study was an assessment of proliferation and potential of neurogenic differentiation of ADSCs with passing time. Materials and Methods: Neurosphere formation was used for neural induction in isolated human ADSCs (hADSCs). The rate of proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and potential of neural differentiation of induced hADSCs was evaluated by immunocytochemical and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after 10 and 14 days post-induction. Results: The rate of proliferation of induced hADSCs increased after 14 days while the expression of nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and microtubule-associated protein 2 was decreased with passing time during neurogenic differentiation. Conclusion: These findings showed that the proliferation of induced cells increased with passing time, but in early neurogenic differentiation of hADSCs, neural expression was higher than late of differentiation. Thus, using of induced cells in early differentiation may be suggested for in vivo application. PMID:26605238

  6. Increased pain and neurogenic inflammation in mice deficient of neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Heidrun H; He, Lan; Lu, Bao; Birklein, Frank; Sommer, Claudia

    2009-08-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by enhanced neurogenic inflammation, mediated by neuropeptides. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. We used NEP knock out (ko) mice to investigate whether NEP deficiency leads to increased pain behavior and signs of neurogenic inflammation after soft tissue trauma with and without nerve injury. After chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, NEP ko mice were more sensitive to heat, to mechanical stimuli, and to cold than wild type mice. Tissue injury without nerve injury produced no differences between genotypes. After CCI, NEP ko mice showed increased hind paw edema but lower skin temperatures than wild type mice. Substance P (SP) and endothelin 1 (ET 1) determined by enzyme immuno assay (EIA) were increased in sciatic nerves from NEP ko mice after CCI. Tissue CGRP content did not differ between the genotypes. The results provide evidence that pain behavior and neurogenic inflammation are enhanced in NEP ko mice after nerve injury. These findings resemble human 'cold' CRPS and suggest that ET 1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CRPS with nerve injury.

  7. Cardiovascular complications in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Marsche, Gunther; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, a growing number of studies have indicated that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both are chronic inflammatory diseases and share certain pathophysiological mechanisms that may influence each other. High levels of cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine in IBD patients may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early sign of atherosclerosis. IBD patients, in general, do not show the typical risk factors for cardiovascular disease but changes in lipid profiles similar to the ones seen in cardiovascular events have been reported recently. Higher levels of coagulation factors frequently occur in IBD which may predispose to arterial thromboembolic events. Finally, the gut itself may have an impact on atherogenesis during IBD through its microbiota. Microbial products are released from the inflamed mucosa into the circulation through a leaky barrier. The induced rise in proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to endothelial damage, artherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although large retrospective studies favor a link between IBD and cardiovascular diseases the mechanisms behind still remain to be determined. PMID:25642719

  8. Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (α1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P < 0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage

  9. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O{sub 2} demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp,more » and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100 μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine > methamphetamine > hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished

  10. Sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract dysfunction and impact on erectile function.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mondaini, Nicola; Giubilei, Gianluca; Macchiarella, Angelo; Lecconi, Filippo; Del Popolo, Giulio

    2008-09-01

    The first sacral nerve stimulators were for urinary urgency incontinence, urgency-frequency, and nonobstructive urinary retention. Since then, observations have been made for benefits beyond voiding disorders. To evaluate if sacral neuromodulation (SNM) using the InterStim system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) improves erectile function. From January 1999 to January 2007, 54 males, mean age 42.8, underwent a permanent SNM for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Pre-SNM only subjects with concomitant erectile impairment according to the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), with normal blood sexual hormonal status, and responding to an intracavernous injection test 10 microg were enrolled in our study. Three months after permanent implantation, the IIEF-5 was completed again. Those who benefited significantly in erectile function completed the IIEF-5 semiannually. A final checkup was performed in July 2007. A score of IIEF-5 equal to or higher than 25% compared to baseline indicated remarkable clinical enhancement. Presurgery, two patients were excluded. Overall, 22 subjects (42.3%) showed erectile impairment (14 were neurogenic). In the first visit post-SNM, five retentionists of neurogenic origin and two with overactive bladder syndrome of idiopathic origin achieved noticeable erectile improvement. Their median IIEF-5 score shifted from 14.6 to 22.2, and 15.5 to 22.5, respectively. During follow-up, two neurogenics lost the benefits concerning voiding and erection and recovered them after a new implant in the contralateral sacral S3 root. In the final visit, the seven responders reached an IIEF-5 score of at least 22. Our study showed a clinically important benefit of sexual function mainly for neurogenic retentionists. Future research should test SNM in a larger sample of subjects, exclusively with sexual dysfunctions, in order to better understand the mechanism of action of SNM on erectile function.

  11. Outcomes of gynecologic oncology patients undergoing gastrografin small bowel follow-through studies.

    PubMed

    Walters, Christen L; Sutton, Amelia L M; Huddleston-Colburn, Mary Kathryn; Whitworth, Jenny M; Schneider, Kellie E; Straughn, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the outcomes of gynecologic oncology patients undergoing small bowel follow-throughs (SBFTs) with Gastrografin at our institution. We identified all gynecologic oncology patients undergoing an SBFT from January 2004 to December 2009. We characterized the SBFT as normal, delayed transit, partial obstruction, or complete obstruction. Patient outcomes were correlated with the SBFT results. Seventy patients underwent 79 SBFT examinations with Gastrografin to evaluate their bowel dysfunction. The overall rate of operative intervention was 23%. A total of 69% of patients with a complete obstruction underwent surgery as compared to 21% of patients with a partial obstruction (p = 0.002). Return of bowel function was significantly longer in patients with complete obstructions as compared to patients with partial obstructions (48 vs. 8 hours, p = 0.006). Length of stay was longest in patients with complete obstructions. The majority of patients with a complete obstruction on SBFT will require surgical intervention and have a protracted hospital stay. Patients with delayed transit or a partial obstruction on SBFT usually will have resolution of their bowel dysfunction with conservative management.

  12. Symptomatic arrhythmias due to syringomyelia-induced severe autonomic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Riedlbauchová, Lucie; Nedělka, Tomáš; Schlenker, Jakub

    2014-10-01

    Syringomyelia is characterized by cavity formation in the spinal cord, most often at C2-Th9 level. Clinical manifestation reflects extent and localization of the spinal cord injury. 20-year old woman was admitted for recurrent rest-related presyncopes with sudden manifestation. Paroxysms of sinus bradycardia with SA and AV blocks were repeatedly documented during symptoms. There was normal echocardiographic finding, (para) infectious etiology was not proved. Character of the ECG findings raised suspicion on neurogenic cause. Autonomic nervous system testing demonstrated abnormalities reflecting predominant sympathetic dysfunction. Suspicion on incipient myelopathy was subsequently confirmed by MRI, which discovered syringomyelia at Th5 level as the only pathology. A 52-year old man with hypotrophic quadruparesis resulting from perinatal brain injury was sent for 2-years lasting symptoms (sudden palpitation, sweating, muscle tightness, shaking) with progressive worsening. Symptoms occurred in association with sudden increase of sinus rhythm rate and blood pressure that were provoked by minimal physical activity. Presence of significant autonomic dysregulation with baroreflex hyperreactivity in orthostatic test and symptomatic postural orthostatic tachycardia with verticalization-associated hypertension were proved. MRI revealed syringomyelia at C7 and Th7 level affecting sympathetic centers at these levels. Sympathetic fibers dysfunction at C-Th spinal level may cause significant autonomic dysfunction with arrhythmic manifestation.

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is most often a polygenic disorder with contributions from the intestinal microbiome, defects in barrier function, and dysregulated host responses to microbial stimulation. There is, however, increasing recognition of single gene defects that underlie a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with early-onset disease, and this review focuses on the primary immunodeficiencies associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. The advent of next-generation sequencing has led to an improved recognition of single gene defects underlying some cases of inflammatory bowel disease. Among single gene defects, immune response genes are the most frequent category identified. This is also true of common genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease, supporting a pivotal role for host responses in the pathogenesis. This review focuses on practical aspects related to diagnosis and management of children with inflammatory bowel disease who have underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

  14. Randomized Withdrawal Study of Patients With Symptomatic Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension Responsive to Droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy; Mathias, Christopher J.; Low, Phillip; Hewitt, L. Arthur; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— We evaluated whether droxidopa, a prodrug converted to norepinephrine, is beneficial in the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which results from failure to generate an appropriate norepinephrine response to postural challenge. Patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy underwent open-label droxidopa titration (100–600 mg, 3× daily). Responders then received an additional 7-day open-label treatment at their individualized dose. Patients were subsequently randomized to continue with droxidopa or withdraw to placebo for 14 days. We then assessed patient-reported scores on the Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire and blood pressure measurements. Mean worsening of Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire dizziness/lightheadedness score from randomization to end of study (the primary outcome; N=101) was 1.9±3.2 with placebo and 1.3±2.8 units with droxidopa (P=0.509). Four of the other 5 Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire symptom scores and all 4 symptom-impact scores favored droxidopa, with statistical significance for the patient’s self-reported ability to perform activities requiring standing a short time (P=0.033) and standing a long time (P=0.028). Furthermore, a post hoc analysis of a predefined composite score of all symptoms (Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire composite) demonstrated a significant benefit for droxidopa (P=0.013). There was no significant difference between groups for standing systolic blood pressure (P=0.680). Droxidopa was well tolerated. In summary, this randomized withdrawal droxidopa study failed to meet its primary efficacy end point. Additional clinical trials are needed to confirm that droxidopa is beneficial in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, as suggested by the positive secondary outcomes of this trial. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http

  15. Cardiovascular Safety of Droxidopa in Patients With Symptomatic Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension.

    PubMed

    White, William B; Hauser, Robert A; Rowse, Gerald J; Ziemann, Adam; Hewitt, L Arthur

    2017-04-01

    The norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa improves symptoms of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, a condition that is associated with diseases of neurogenic autonomic failure (e.g., Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure). These conditions are more prevalent in older patients who also have cardiovascular co-morbidities. Hence, we evaluated the cardiovascular safety of droxidopa in patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension who participated in randomized controlled studies (short-term studies of 1 to 2 weeks and an intermediate 8- to 10-week study) and long-term open-label studies. Rates of cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) for patients treated with droxidopa were 4.4% in the intermediate study and 10.8% in the long-term open-label studies. Adjusting for exposure time, cardiovascular AE rates were 0.30 events/patient-year in the short-term and intermediate studies and 0.15 events/patient-year in the long-term open-label studies. The incidence of treatment discontinuation due to blood pressure-related events was approximately 2.5%. Among patients with a history of cardiac disorders at baseline, the rates of cardiovascular-related and blood pressure-related AEs were nominally higher with droxidopa compared to placebo. Most of these events were minor atrial arrhythmias; none were major adverse cardiovascular events or deaths. In conclusion, small increases in cardiovascular AEs were observed with droxidopa compared to placebo; this was most evident in patients with preexisting cardiac disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Randomized withdrawal study of patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension responsive to droxidopa.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, Italo; Freeman, Roy; Mathias, Christopher J; Low, Phillip; Hewitt, L Arthur; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether droxidopa, a prodrug converted to norepinephrine, is beneficial in the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which results from failure to generate an appropriate norepinephrine response to postural challenge. Patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy underwent open-label droxidopa titration (100-600 mg, 3× daily). Responders then received an additional 7-day open-label treatment at their individualized dose. Patients were subsequently randomized to continue with droxidopa or withdraw to placebo for 14 days. We then assessed patient-reported scores on the Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire and blood pressure measurements. Mean worsening of Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire dizziness/lightheadedness score from randomization to end of study (the primary outcome; N=101) was 1.9±3.2 with placebo and 1.3±2.8 units with droxidopa (P=0.509). Four of the other 5 Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire symptom scores and all 4 symptom-impact scores favored droxidopa, with statistical significance for the patient's self-reported ability to perform activities requiring standing a short time (P=0.033) and standing a long time (P=0.028). Furthermore, a post hoc analysis of a predefined composite score of all symptoms (Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire composite) demonstrated a significant benefit for droxidopa (P=0.013). There was no significant difference between groups for standing systolic blood pressure (P=0.680). Droxidopa was well tolerated. In summary, this randomized withdrawal droxidopa study failed to meet its primary efficacy end point. Additional clinical trials are needed to confirm that droxidopa is beneficial in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, as suggested by the positive secondary outcomes of this trial. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00633880

  17. The Effect of Recombinant Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression on the Neurogenic Differentiation Potency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duruksu, Gokhan; Karaoz, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    Objective Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, making the enhancement of its activity a target for ensuring sufficient dopamine levels. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) are known to synthesize TH after differentiating into neuronal cells through chemical induction, but the effect of its ectopic expression on these cells has not yet been determined. This study investigated the effects of ectopic recombinant TH expression on the stemness characteristics of rBM-MSCs. Methods After cloning, a cell line with stable TH expression was maintained, and the proliferation, the gene expression profile, and differentiation potential of rBM-MSCs were analyzed. Analysis of the cells showed an increment in the proliferation rate that could be reversed by the neutralization of TH. Results The constitutive expression of TH in rBM-MSCs was successfully implemented, without significantly affecting their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential. TH expression improved the expression of other neuronal markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, β-tubulin, nestin, and c-Fos, confirming the neurogenic differentiation capacity of the stem cells. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) significantly increased after the chemical induction of neurogenic differentiation. Conclusion In this study, the expression of recombinant TH improved the neuroprotective effect of MSCs by upregulating the expression of BDNF and CNTF. Although the neuronal markers were upregulated, the expression of recombinant TH alone in rBM-MSCs was not sufficient for MSCs to differentiate into neurogenic cell lines. PMID:29656620

  18. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα−/− mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα−/− mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα−/−-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα−/− mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  19. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα(-/-) mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα(-/-) mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα(-/-)-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα(-/-) mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments.

  20. Brain-targeted ACE2 overexpression attenuates neurogenic hypertension by inhibiting COX mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Xia, Huijing; Xu, Ping; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Overactivity of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We previously reported that Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpression in the brain attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, a neurogenic hypertension model with enhanced brain RAS and sympathetic activity. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we investigated whether oxidative stress, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation in the brain are modulated by ACE2 in neurogenic hypertension. DOCA-salt hypertension significantly increased expression of Nox-2 (+61 ±5 %), Nox-4 (+50 ±13 %) and nitrotyrosine (+89 ±32 %) and reduced activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (−29 ±4 %) and SOD (−31 ±7 %), indicating increased oxidative stress in the brain of non-transgenic mice. This increased oxidative stress was attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing ACE2 in the brain. DOCA-salt-induced reduction of nNOS expression (−26 ±7 %) and phosphorylated eNOS/total eNOS (−30 ±3 %), and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), were reversed by ACE2 overexpression. In addition, ACE2 overexpression blunted the hypertension-mediated increase in gene and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN. Furthermore, gene silencing of either COX-1 or COX-2 in the brain, reduced microglial activation and accompanied neuro-inflammation, ultimately attenuating DOCA-salt hypertension. Together, these data provide evidence that brain ACE2 overexpression reduces oxidative stress and COX-mediated neuro-inflammation, improves anti-oxidant and nitric oxide signaling, and thereby attenuates the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25489058

  1. Immunophenotypic and Molecular Analysis of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Potential for Neurogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Nikhat; Khan, Aleem A.; Vishwakarma, Sandeep K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence shows that dental pulp (DP) tissues could be a potential source of adult stem cells for the treatment of devastating neurological diseases and several other conditions. Aims: Exploration of the expression profile of several key molecular markers to evaluate the molecular dynamics in undifferentiated and differentiated DP-derived stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro. Settings and Design: The characteristics and multilineage differentiation ability of DPSCs were determined by cellular and molecular kinetics. DPSCs were further induced to form adherent (ADH) and non-ADH (NADH) neurospheres under serum-free condition which was further induced into neurogenic lineage cells and characterized for their molecular and cellular diversity at each stage. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance, Student's t-test, Livak method for relative quantification, and R programming. Results: Immunophenotypic analysis of DPSCs revealed >80% cells positive for mesenchymal markers CD90 and CD105, >70% positive for transferring receptor (CD71), and >30% for chemotactic factor (CXCR3). These cells showed mesodermal differentiation also and confirmed by specific staining and molecular analysis. Activation of neuronal lineage markers and neurogenic growth factors was observed during lineage differentiation of cells derived from NADH and ADH spheroids. Greater than 80% of cells were found to express β-tubulin III in both differentiation conditions. Conclusions: The present study reported a cascade of immunophenotypic and molecular markers to characterize neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs under serum-free condition. These findings trigger the future analyses for clinical applicability of DP-derived cells in regenerative applications. PMID:28566856

  2. Organization and cellular arrangement of two neurogenic regions in the adult ferret (Mustela putorius furo) brain.

    PubMed

    Takamori, Yasuharu; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Kosaka, Jun; Yamada, Hisao

    2014-06-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, two neurogenic regions have been characterized, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Despite remarkable knowledge of rodents, the detailed arrangement of neurogenic regions in most mammals is poorly understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and cell type-specific antibodies to investigate the organization of two germinal regions in the adult ferret, which belongs to the order Carnivora and is widely used as a model animal with a gyrencephalic brain. From the SVZ to the olfactory bulb, doublecortin-positive cells tended to organize in chain-like clusters, which are surrounded by a meshwork of astrocytes. This structure is homologous to the rostral migratory stream (RMS) described in other species. Different from rodents, the horizontal limb of the RMS emerges directly from the LV, and the anterior region of the LV extends rostrally and reached the olfactory bulb. In the DG, glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells with long radial processes as well as doublecortin-positive cells are oriented in the SGZ. In both regions, doublecortin-positive cells showed characteristic morphology and were positive for polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule, beta-III tubulin, and lamin B1 (intense staining). Proliferating cells were detected in both regions using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phospho-histone H3. These observations demonstrate that the two neurogenic regions in ferrets have a similar cellular composition as those of other mammalian species despite anatomical differences in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rosana C.P.; Neto, José A.; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S. S.; Santos, Dislene N.; Oliveira, Cassius J.V.; Prado, Márcio J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with HTLV-1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Methods Open clinical trial with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises and intravaginal/intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. Results The mean age was 54±12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (p<0.001). There was also a reduction in the overactive bladder symptom score from 10±4 to 6±3 (p<0.001) and an increasing in the perineal muscle strength (p<0.001). The urodynamic parameters improved, with reduction in the frequency of patients with detrusor hyperactivity from 57.9% to 42.1%; detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) from 31.6% to 5.3%; detrusor hypocontractility from 15.8% to 0% and detrusor areflexia from 10.5% to 0%, with positive repercussions in the quality of life in all patients. Conclusion Physiotherapy was effective in cases of HTLV-1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. PMID:26724409

  4. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-09-14

    To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds.

  5. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann® Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). CONCLUSION: Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds. PMID:26379407

  6. How botulinum toxin in neurogenic detrusor overactivity can reduce upper urinary tract damage?

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Maximilien; Grise, Philippe; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin are the cornerstone of medical treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The primary aim of this treatment is to ensure a low pressure regimen in the urinary bladder, but the mechanisms leading to long-term protection of the urinary tract remain poorly understood. In this paper, we highlight the potential benefits of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin regarding local effects on the bladder structures, urinary tract infections, stone disease, vesico ureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, renal function based on a comprehensive literature review. PMID:26981445

  7. Choosing Surgery for Neurogenic TOS: The Roles of Physical Exam, Physical Therapy, and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, David P; Lund, Jason R; Brantigan, Charles O; Glebova, Natalia O

    2017-06-23

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is characterized by arm and hand pain, paresthesias, and sometimes weakness resulting from compression of the brachial plexus within the thoracic outlet. While it is the most common subtype of TOS, nTOS can be difficult to diagnose. Furthermore, patient selection for surgical treatment can be challenging as symptoms may be vague and ambiguous, and diagnostic studies may be equivocal. Herein, we describe some approaches to aid in identifying patients who would be expected to benefit from surgical intervention for nTOS. We describe the role of physical examination, physical therapy, and imaging in the evaluation and diagnosis of nTOS.

  8. Selective ablation of nociceptive neurons for elimination of hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tender, Gabriel C; Walbridge, Stuart; Olah, Zoltan; Karai, Laszlo; Iadarola, Michael; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R

    2005-03-01

    Neuropathic pain is mediated by nociceptive neurons that selectively express the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1). Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an excitotoxic VR1 agonist that causes destruction of VR1-positive neurons. To determine whether RTX can be used to ablate VR1-positive neurons selectively and to eliminate hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation without affecting tactile sensation and motor function, the authors infused it unilaterally into the trigeminal ganglia in Rhesus monkeys. Either RTX (three animals) or vehicle (one animal) was directly infused (20 microl) into the right trigeminal ganglion in Rhesus monkeys. Animals were tested postoperatively at 1, 4, and 7 weeks thereafter for touch and pain perception in the trigeminal distribution (application of saline and capsaicin to the cornea). The number of eye blinks, eye wipes, and duration of squinting were recorded. Neurogenic inflammation was tested using capsaicin cream. Animals were killed 4 (one monkey) and 12 (three monkeys) weeks postinfusion. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Throughout the duration of the study, response to high-intensity pain stimulation (capsaicin) was selectively and significantly reduced (p < 0.001, RTX-treated compared with vehicle-treated eye [mean +/- standard deviation]): blinks, 25.7 +/- 4.4 compared with 106.6 +/- 20.8; eye wipes, 1.4 +/- 0.8 compared with 19.3 +/- 2.5; and squinting, 1.4 +/- 0.6 seconds compared with 11.4 +/- 1.6 seconds. Normal response to sensation was maintained. Animals showed no neurological deficit or sign of toxicity. Neurogenic inflammation was blocked on the RTX-treated side. Immunohistochemical analysis of the RTX-treated ganglia showed selective elimination of VR1-positive neurons. Nociceptive neurons can be selectively ablated by intraganglionic RTX infusion, resulting in the elimination of high-intensity pain perception and neurogenic inflammation while maintaining normal sensation and motor function. Analysis of

  9. [Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia is a frequent condition in patients admitted to the ICU].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anette Barbre; Kjærsgaard, Annette; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann

    2015-03-02

    Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD) is a frequent condition in neurological patients admitted to the ICU, particularly in patients with brainstem lesions. The CNS damage itself can predispose to dysphagia, but also the treatment and preventive measures may predispose to and exacerbate the condition. Frequent pneumonia in a neurological patient is a warning signal that should cause screening for dysphagia. Complications are serious and can be fatal. Neurological patients should be examined for NOD before decannulation. Treatment is difficult, so prevention and multidisciplinary neurological rehabilitation is important.

  10. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  11. In vitro release of adenosine triphosphate from the urothelium of human bladders with detrusor overactivity, both neurogenic and idiopathic.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Chapple, Christopher R; Rosario, Derek; Tophill, Paul R; Chess-Williams, Russell

    2010-06-01

    There is increased evidence to suggest a role for nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction. In this set of experiments, we have assessed the contribution of the urothelium to purinergic activity by quantifying the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from the urothelium of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and comparing these releases to those of controls. Bladder tissue with urodynamically and clinically proven NDO (n=8) and IDO (n=8) were included in this study. The carefully dissected urothelium was stimulated by mechanically stretching as well as electrically stimulating and the ATP; thus, release was quantified. We used a Lucy Anthos 1 luminometre (Anthos Labtec Instruments GmBH, Wals, Austria) to perform the assay. The results were analysed using Stingray software (Dazdaq Ltd, Brighton, UK). Both mechanical stretch and electric field stimulation (EFS) led to increased ATP release in both sets of tissues with overactivity compared to the controls; this rise was even more significant for the IDO urothelium (2416.7±479.8 pmol/g [p<0.005]) than for the NDO urothelium (133.1±22.4 pmol/g [p<0.01]); values for the controls were 77.6±16.2 pmol/g. ATP release following mechanical stretch was more sensitive to tetrodotoxin in bladders with NDO compared to those with IDO as well as to the controls, with ATP levels falling from 233.5±20.7 pmol/g to 107.2±11.6 pmol/g, expressed as percentage of basal levels (p<0.002). The experiments were performed in vitro, and the female patients were a mix of peri- and postmenopausal states. These experiments suggested a significant rise in ATP release from the urothelium of bladders with NDO as well as those with IDO in comparison to controls. Most of the ATP released from bladders with NDO is primarily from neuronal sources. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B

  12. [Electromyographic differential diagnosis in cases of abducens nerve paresis with nuclear or distal neurogenic sive myogenic origine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Heuser, M

    1979-09-01

    Abducens nerve paresis may be of nuclear, of peripheral distal neurogenic origine, or is simulated by a myogenic weakness of abduction. Polygraphic emg analysis of the oculoauricularphenomenon (oap) permits a differentiation. In the emg, the oap proved to be a physiologic and constant automatic and always bilateral interaction between the hemolateral abducens nerve and both Nn. faciales with corresponding and obligatory coinnervation of the Mm. retroauricularis of the external ear. In case of medullary, nuclear or internuclear lesions, the oap is disturbed, instable, diminished or abolished, whereas in distal neurogenic or myogenic paresis, even in complete paralysis the oap is bilaterally well preserved.

  13. [Dysphagia caused by neurogenic deglutition disorders and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)].

    PubMed

    Bremke, M; Wagner, H-J; Folz, B J

    2006-09-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) may lead to dysphagia caused by osteophytes of the cervical spine. Osteophytes can be resected transorally or transcervically, but operative ablation should not be indicated generously because of the threat of severe complications. A fifty-year-old man with dysphagia and loss of weight of 15 kg in the last three months is presented. He also suffered from a brain damage during infancy which caused grand-mal-seizures. One seizure lead to cardiac arrest which required cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and subsequent tracheostomy. A spheric tumor of the posterior pharyngeal wall could be seen endoscopically, it appeared radiologically as an osteophytic formation of the segments C (3) - C (5). Ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament was also seen. Diagnosis of DISH was made on the basis of these results. Contrast imaging of the esophagus and videofluoroscopy showed aspiration in terms of neurogenic disorders. The patient received a percutaneous gastrostomy after his case was discussed with neurologic and orthopaedic colleagues, because a causal therapy of the combined disease seemed to be impossible. Dysphagia in the presented case was caused by a combination of neurogenic deglutition disorders and oropharyngeal obstruction through osteophytes. Surgical removal of the osteophytes was not indicated because it would have put the patient at a certain risk, but only a part of the underlying problem would have been removed. Symptomatic therapy with a gastrostomy secures normocaloric diet. The patient's weight remained stable and he can follow his habitual daily routine.

  14. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  15. SVCT2 vitamin C transporter expression in progenitor cells of the postnatal neurogenic niche

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Patricia; Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Katterine; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Oyarce, Karina; Jara, Nery; Espinoza, Francisca; Martínez, Agustín D.; Nualart, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Known as a critical antioxidant, recent studies suggest that vitamin C plays an important role in stem cell generation, proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin C also enhances neural differentiation during cerebral development, a function that has not been studied in brain precursor cells. We observed that the rat neurogenic niche is structurally organized at day 15 of postnatal development, and proliferation and neural differentiation increase at day 21. In the human brain, a similar subventricular niche was observed at 1-month of postnatal development. Using immunohistochemistry, sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 (SVCT2) expression was detected in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). Low co-distribution of SVCT2 and βIII-tubulin in neuroblasts or type-A cells was detected, and minimal co-localization of SVCT2 and GFAP in type-B or precursor cells was observed. Similar results were obtained in the human neurogenic niche. However, BrdU-positive cells also expressed SVCT2, suggesting a role of vitamin C in neural progenitor proliferation. Primary neurospheres prepared from rat brain and the P19 teratocarcinoma cell line, which forms neurospheres in vitro, were used to analyze the effect of vitamin C in neural stem cells. Both cell types expressed functional SVCT2 in vitro, and ascorbic acid (AA) induced their neural differentiation, increased βIII-tubulin and SVCT2 expression, and amplified vitamin C uptake. PMID:23964197

  16. Intermittent catheterization with hydrophilic catheters as a treatment of chronic neurogenic urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Denys, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder can be effectively managed with intermittent catheterization (IC) to improve or restore continence, but there is no consensus on which type of catheter is preferred. Hydrophilic catheters were developed to reduce urethral friction, thereby minimizing trauma and sticking, and making them more acceptable to the patient, and easier and safer to use. The objective of this article was to review the literature on the benefits of hydrophilic catheters in patients with neurogenic bladder. A large body of experimental and observational evidence, including randomized controlled trials, was identified using PubMed. Compared with plastic catheters that have been manually lubricated with gel, hydrophilic catheters reduce urinary tract infection and microhematuria. Hydrophilic catheters are also associated with high levels of patient satisfaction because they are comfortable to use. There is a wealth of evidence, including randomized controlled trials, to support the benefits of hydrophilic catheters in terms of safety and quality of life, especially in men with spinal cord injury. More data are required for spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and in women. Further research is warranted, especially large-scale and long-term robust comparisons of different types of catheter, and in well-defined and stratified populations. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Reliability of cystometrically obtained intravesical pressures in patients with neurogenic bladders.

    PubMed

    Hess, Marika J; Lim, Lance; Yalla, Subbarao V

    2002-01-01

    Urodynamic studies in patients with neurogenic bladder detect and categorize neurourodynamic states, identify the risk for urologic sequelae, and determine the necessity for interventions. Because urodynamic studies serves as a prognostic indicator and guides patient management, pressure measurements during the study must accurately represent bladder function under physiologic conditions. Because nonphysiologic bladder filling used during conventional urodynamic studies may alter the bladder's accommodative properties, we studied how closely the intravesical pressures obtained before filling cystometry resembled those obtained during the filling phase of the cystometrogram. Twenty-two patients (21 men, 1 woman) with neurogenic bladders underwent standard urodynamic studies. A 16F triple-lumen catheter was inserted into the bladder, and the intravesical pressures were recorded (physiologic volume-specific pressures, PVSP). After emptying the bladder, an equal volume of normal saline solution was reinfused, and the pressures were recorded again (cystometric volume-specific pressure, CVSP). All patients underwent routine fluoroscopically assisted urodynamic testing. The PVSP and the CVSP were compared using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P value of .05 was significant. The mean PVSP was 14.5 cmH2O (range, 4-42 cmH2O) and mean CVSP was 20.6 cmH2O (range, 6-70 cmH2O). The CVSP was significantly higher than the PVSP (P = .01). Filling pressures during cystometry (CVSP) were significantly higher than the pressures measured at rest (PVSP). This study also suggests a strong correlation between PVSP and CVSP.

  18. A historical perspective on the role of sensory nerves in neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Valente, João; Brain, Susan D

    2018-05-01

    The term 'neurogenic inflammation' is commonly used, especially with respect to the role of sensory nerves within inflammatory disease. However, despite over a century of research, we remain unclear about the role of these nerves in the vascular biology of inflammation, as compared with their interacting role in pain processing and of their potential for therapeutic manipulation. This chapter attempts to discuss the progress in understanding, from the initial discovery of sensory nerves until the present day. This covers pioneering findings that these nerves exist, are involved in vascular events and act as important sensors of environmental changes, including injury and infection. This is followed by discovery of the contents they release such as the established vasoactive neuropeptides substance P and CGRP as well as anti-inflammatory peptides such as the opioids and somatostatin. The more recent emergence of the importance of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels has revealed some of the mechanisms by which these nerves sense environmental stimuli. This knowledge enables a platform from which to learn of the potential role of neurogenic inflammation in disease and in turn of novel therapeutic targets.

  19. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    PubMed

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine; Rogister, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  20. Extragonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned out" phenomenon mimicking a retroperitioneal tumour of neurogenic origin.

    PubMed

    González, Rocío; Montoto Santomé, Paula; Iglesias Porto, Eva; Pérez Moreiras, M Isabel; Salem Ali, Mohammed; Mateo Cambón, Luis A; Bal Nieves, Fernando; Arija Val, J Felix

    2012-12-01

    To describe a case of retroperitoneal metastasis of a gonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned-out" phenomenon in a 35 year old patient with a suspected diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumour of neurogenic origin. With the clinical and radiological suspicion of retroperitoneal tumour of neurogenic origin the tumour was removed, via the retroperitoneal space. Pathology showed classic seminoma with foci of atypical or anaplastic seminoma, confined to the tissue sample. After a genital examination showing no alterations, a scrotal ultrasound was requested. This revealed a badly delimited hypoechogenic mass with microcalcifications in the left testis and a heterogeneous echostructure in the right testis, with hypoechogenic areas and some microcalcification. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed, with a pathological study compatible with residual scar tissue in the left testicle and focal findings of germ cell neoplasia, with no intratubular seminoma in the right testis. The suspicion of an extragonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned-out" phenomenon modifies the therapeutic attitude, which should begin with orchiectomy, followed by systemic chemotherapy and the surgery kept in reserve for those cases where residual malignant tissue persists.

  1. Canine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Purinergic Characterization and Neurogenic Potential for Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Roszek, Katarzyna; Makowska, Noemi; Czarnecka, Joanna; Porowińska, Dorota; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Danielewska, Justyna; Nowak, Wiesław

    2017-01-01

    The presented results evidence that canine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent the premature population of stem cells with great biological potential and properties. ADCS are easy to obtain and culture, able to differentiate into the neurogenic lineage as well as it is easy to control their proliferation rate with nucleotides and nucleosides or analogues. We report that in vitro cultured canine ADSCs response to adenosine- and ATP-mediated stimulation. Differences in canine ADSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells in ecto-nucleotidase activity have been observed. The ecto-nucleotidase activity changes during ADSCs in vitro transdifferentiation into neurogenic lineage are fast and simple to analyze. Therefore, the simple analysis of ecto-enzymes activity allows for verification of the stem cells quality: their stemness or initiation of the differentiation process. The biological potential of the cells isolated from canine fat, as well as the good quality control of this cell culture, make them a promising tool for both experimental and therapeutic usage. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 58-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neurotoxic Methamphetamine Doses Increase LINE-1 Expression in the Neurogenic Zones of the Adult Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Moszczynska, Anna; Flack, Amanda; Qiu, Ping; Muotri, Alysson R.; Killinger, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant with the potential to cause neurotoxicity in the striatum and hippocampus. Several epigenetic changes have been described after administration of METH; however, there are no data regarding the effects of METH on the activity of transposable elements in the adult brain. The present study demonstrates that systemic administration of neurotoxic METH doses increases the activity of Long INterspersed Element (LINE-1) in two neurogenic niches in the adult rat brain in a promoter hypomethylation-independent manner. Our study also demonstrates that neurotoxic METH triggers persistent decreases in LINE-1 expression and increases the LINE-1 levels within genomic DNA in the striatum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and that METH triggers LINE-1 retrotransposition in vitro. We also present indirect evidence for the involvement of glutamate (GLU) in LINE-1 activation. The results suggest that LINE-1 activation might occur in neurogenic areas in human METH users and might contribute to METH abuse-induced hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and impaired performance on several cognitive tasks mediated by the striatum. PMID:26463126

  3. NFIX Regulates Proliferation and Migration Within the Murine SVZ Neurogenic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; Zhou, Bo; Harris, Lachlan; Harvey, Tracey; Smith, Aaron; Horne, Elise; Martynoga, Ben; Andersen, Jimena; Achimastou, Angeliki; Cato, Kathleen; Richards, Linda J.; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Yeo, Giles S.; Guillemot, François; Bailey, Timothy L.; Piper, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors of the nuclear factor one (NFI) family play a pivotal role in the development of the nervous system. One member, NFIX, regulates the development of the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Postnatal Nfix−/− mice also display abnormalities within the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles, a region of the brain comprising a neurogenic niche that provides ongoing neurogenesis throughout life. Specifically, Nfix−/− mice exhibit more PAX6-expressing progenitor cells within the SVZ. However, the mechanism underlying the development of this phenotype remains undefined. Here, we reveal that NFIX contributes to multiple facets of SVZ development. Postnatal Nfix−/− mice exhibit increased levels of proliferation within the SVZ, both in vivo and in vitro as assessed by a neurosphere assay. Furthermore, we show that the migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts to the olfactory bulb is impaired, and that the olfactory bulbs of postnatal Nfix−/− mice are smaller. We also demonstrate that gliogenesis within the rostral migratory stream is delayed in the absence of Nfix, and reveal that Gdnf (glial-derived neurotrophic factor), a known attractant for SVZ-derived neuroblasts, is a target for transcriptional activation by NFIX. Collectively, these findings suggest that NFIX regulates both proliferation and migration during the development of the SVZ neurogenic niche. PMID:25331604

  4. Stress-Induced Neurogenic Inflammation in Murine Skin Skews Dendritic Cells Towards Maturation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, Ricarda Alcira; Handjiski, Bori; Blois, Sandra Maria; Hagen, Evelin; Paus, Ralf; Arck, Petra Clara

    2008-01-01

    The skin continuously serves as a biosensor of multiple exogenous stressors and integrates the resulting responses with an individual’s central and peripheral endogenous response systems to perceived stress; it also acts to protect against external challenges such as wounding and infection. We have previously shown in mice that stress induces nerve growth factor- and substance P-dependent neurogenic inflammation, which includes the prominent clustering of MHC class II+ cells. Because the contribution of dendritic cells (DCs) in response to stress is not well understood, we examined the role of DCs in neurogenic inflammation in murine skin using a well-established murine stress model. We show that sound stress increases the number of intradermal langerin+ and CD11c+ DCs and induces DC maturation, as indicated by the up-regulated expression of CD11c, MHC class II, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Blocking of ICAM-1/leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 interactions significantly abrogated the stress-induced numeric increase, maturation, and migration of dermal DCs in vivo and also reduced stress-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and endothelial cell expression of ICAM-1. In conclusion, stress exposure causes a state of immune alertness in the skin. Such adaptation processes may ensure protection from possible infections on wounding by stressors, such as attack by predators. However, present-day stressors have changed and such adaptations appear redundant and may overrun skin homeostasis by inducing immune dermatoses. PMID:18832583

  5. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic treatment for urological procedure in patients presenting with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Weglinski, L; Rouzaud, C; Even, A; Bouchand, F; Davido, B; Duran, C; Salomon, J; Perronne, C; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E; Dinh, A

    2016-09-01

    Patients presenting with neurogenic bladder often require urological procedures (urodynamic testing and botulinum toxin injections) and a preventive antibiotic therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this little known strategy in a cohort of patients. All patients presenting with neurogenic bladder who underwent urological procedure were included in the study. They received an antibiotic therapy in accordance with the urine cytobacteriological examination results. The antibiotic therapy was initiated two days before the procedure and prolonged up until two days after the procedure if the culture was positive. Patients were treated with a single dose of fosfomycin-trometamol in case of a negative culture. The main study outcome was the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI), defined by a positive urine culture and symptoms, up until 14 days after the procedure. A total of 80 urological procedures were performed. Mean patient age was 47±13.1 years (sex ratio 1.22); 59 (73.8%) presented with asymptomatic bacteriuria before the procedure. Nine (11.1%) UTIs were recorded on Day 14, of which one (1.2%) was febrile. Two patients required an additional curative antibiotic therapy. No patient was hospitalized. Overall, 77.8% of UTIs were cured without antibiotic therapy. Screening and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria before urological procedures seems unnecessary and vainly exposes this population at high risk of infectious diseases to antibiotic therapies. This data should be confirmed by a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P < 0.05). The selective, nonpeptide neurokinin(1) (substance P) receptor antagonists, CP-96,345 and RP-67580, but not the 2R,3R enantiomer CP-96,344, significantly attenuated GDE-induced leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-dextran (P < 0.05). Indomethacin had no significant effects on GDE-induced responses. CP-96,345 had no significant effects of adenosine-induced leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-dextran from the cheek pouch. We conclude that GDE elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the oral mucosa in vivo. We suggest that this process is one mechanism whereby grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  7. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  8. [Social dysfunction in schizotypy].

    PubMed

    de Wachter, O; De La Asuncion, J; Sabbe, B; Morrens, M

    2016-01-01

    Schizotypy is a personality organisation that is closely related to schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia and is characterised by deficits in social functioning. Although the dimensions of social dysfunction have not yet been fully explored certain aspects of social dysfunction are promising predictive markers for schizophrenia. To describe schizotypy and its influence on social functioning. We reviewed the literature systematically using the online databases PubMed and PsycINFO. The disorder known as schizotypy lies at the basis of schizotypal personality disorder. Both disorders are characterised by an increased risk for schizophrenia. The social dysfunctioning seen in schizotypy corresponds to the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are causal factors of this social dysfunction. Both the negative and the positive dimension of schizotypy influence social cognition. More focused, objective and interactive research to the various aspects of social functioning in schizotypy is needed in order to discover potential premorbid markers for schizophrenia.

  9. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ikechi, Ronald; Fischer, Bradford D.; DeSipio, Joshua; Phadtare, Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS. PMID:28445436

  12. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and dysfunction of the female lower urinary tract: a review.

    PubMed

    Unger, Cécile A; Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Muffly, Tyler; Barber, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The 2 major functions of the lower urinary tract are the storage and emptying of urine. These processes are controlled by complex neurophysiologic mechanisms and are subject to injury and disease. When there is disruption of the neurologic control centers, dysfunction of the lower urinary tract may occur. This is sometimes referred to as the "neurogenic bladder." The manifestation of dysfunction depends on the level of injury and severity of disruption. Patients with lesions above the spinal cord often have detrusor overactivity with no disruption in detrusor-sphincter coordination. Patients with well-defined suprasacral spinal cord injuries usually present with intact reflex detrusor activity but have detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, whereas injuries to or below the sacral spinal cord usually lead to persistent detrusor areflexia. A complete gynecologic, urologic, and neurologic examination should be performed when evaluating patients with neurologic lower urinary tract dysfunction. In addition, urodynamic studies and neurophysiologic testing can be used in certain circumstances to help establish diagnosis or to achieve better understanding of a patient's vesicourethral functioning. In the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the primary goal is improvement of a patient's quality of life. Second to this is the prevention of chronic damage to the bladder and kidneys, which can lead to worsening impairment and symptoms. Treatment is often multifactorial, including behavioral modifications, bladder training programs, and pharmacotherapy. Surgical procedures are often a last resort option for management. An understanding of the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of the lower urinary tract can guide providers in their evaluation and treatment of patients who present with lower urinary tract disorders. As neurologic diseases progress, voiding function often changes or worsens, necessitating a good understanding of the underlying physiology in question.

  13. Bowel perforation detection using metabolic fluorescent chlorophylls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung Hyun; Jo, Young Goun; Kim, Jung Chul; Choi, Sujeong; Kang, Hoonsoo; Kim, Yong-Chul; Hwang, In-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Thus far, there have been tries of detection of disease using fluorescent materials. We introduce the chlorophyll derivatives from food plants, which have longer-wavelength emissions (at >650 nm) than those of fluorescence of tissues and organs, for detection of bowel perforation. To figure out the possibility of fluorescence spectroscopy as a monitoring sensor of bowel perforation, fluorescence from organs of rodent models, intestinal and peritoneal fluids of rodent models and human were analyzed. In IVIS fluorescence image of rodent abdominal organ, visualization of perforated area only was possible when threshold of image is extremely finely controlled. Generally, both perforated area of bowel and normal bowel which filled with large amount of chlorophyll derivatives were visualized with fluorescence. The fluorescence from chlorophyll derivatives penetrated through the normal bowel wall makes difficult to distinguish perforation area from normal bowel with direct visualization of fluorescence. However, intestinal fluids containing chlorophyll derivatives from food contents can leak from perforation sites in situation of bowel perforation. It may show brighter and longer-wavelength regime emissions of chlorophyll derivatives than those of pure peritoneal fluid or bioorgans. Peritoneal fluid mixed with intestinal fluids show much brighter emissions in longer wavelength (at>650 nm) than those of pure peritoneal fluid. In addition, irrigation fluid, which is used for the cleansing of organ and peritoneal cavity, made of mixed intestinal and peritoneal fluid diluted with physiologic saline also can be monitored bowel perforation during surgery.

  14. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  15. Prebiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2017-12-01

    Dietary fiber, specifically prebiotics, is the primary source of energy for the gut microbiota and thus has the potential to beneficially modify microbiota composition. Prebiotics have been used in both in vitro studies and with animal models of colitis with largely positive results. Human studies are few and have been conducted with only a few select prebiotics, primarily fructan-containing fibers. Although disease activity and inflammatory markers have improved, more needs to be learned about the specific prebiotic compounds and how they can be used to best improve the gut microbiota to counter changes induced by inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Neurogenic Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... If other communication disorders are also present, additional therapy directed at alleviating their effects may enhance fluency as well. Physicians, nurses, occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists may also be able to ...

  18. [Giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Quan, Chang-Yi; Li, Gang; Cai, Qi-Liang; Hu, Bin; Wang, Jiu-Wei; Niu, Yuan-Jie

    2013-02-01

    To study the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of a case of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum and reviewed the relevant literature. The patient was a 37-year-old man, with urinary incontinence for 22 years and intermittent dysuria with frequent micturition for 9 years, aggravated in the past 3 months. He had received surgery for spina bifida and giant vesico-prostatic calculus. The results of preoperative routine urinary examination were as follows: WBC 17 -20/HPF, RBC 12 - 15/HPF. KUB, IVU and pelvic CT revealed spina bifida occulta, neurogenic bladder and giant prostatic calculus. The patient underwent TURP and transurethral lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser. The prostatic calculus was carbonate apatite in composition. Urinary dynamic images at 2 weeks after surgery exhibited significant improvement in the highest urine flow rate and residual urine volume. Seventeen months of postoperative follow-up showed dramatically improved urinary incontinence and thicker urine stream. Prostate diverticulum with prostatic giant calculus is very rare, and neurogenic bladder may play a role in its etiology. Cystoscopy is an accurate screening method for its diagnosis. For the young patients and those who wish to retain sexual function, TURP combined with holmium laser lithotripsy can be employed, and intraoperative rectal examination should be taken to ensure complete removal of calculi.

  19. Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing-Shi; Peng, Shao-Hua; Deng, Xi-Yun; Zhu, De-Mao; Javidiparsijani, Sara; Wang, Gui-Rong; Li, Dai-Qiang; Li, Long-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Chun; Luo, Jun-Ming

    2013-10-28

    Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.

  20. Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing-Shi; Peng, Shao-Hua; Deng, Xi-Yun; Zhu, De-Mao; Javidiparsijani, Sara; Wang, Gui-Rong; Li, Dai-Qiang; Li, Long-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Chun; Luo, Jun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy. PMID:24187454

  1. Sexual dysfunctions in women.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Bradford, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we summarize the definition, etiology, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunctions in women. Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR) is our guiding framework for classifying and defining women's sexual dysfunctions, we draw special attention to recent discussion in the literature criticizing the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria and their underlying assumptions. Our review of clinical research on sexual dysfunction summarizes psychosocial and biomedical management approaches, with a critical examination of the empirical support for commonly prescribed therapies and limitations of recent clinical trials.

  2. Lubiprostone--a novel treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Owen, Richard T

    2008-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, highly prevalent gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort/pain associated with altered bowel habits such as diarrhea or constipation or both. Current therapy for the constipation-predominant form (IBS-C) comprises fiber or osmotic or stimulant laxatives. However, these may exacerbate the condition or cause electrolyte disturbances. Lubiprostone is a novel selective chloride channel-2 activator that increases fluid secretion in the intestinal apical cell membrane, increasing gut motility and frequency of stool passage, and alleviating abdominal discomfort/pain. Lubiprostone has very low systemic bioavailability and cannot be quantitated in blood, but its active metabolite, M3, has been pharmacokinetically profiled. Lubiprostone reaches peak plasma concentrations within approximately 1 h and has a half-life of 0.9-1.4 h. Despite this short half-life, lubiprostone can be administered orally twice daily. Its efficacy in IBS-C has been demonstrated in two phase III studies; spontaneous bowel movement frequency increased and stool consistency improved, whereas straining, bloating and severity of constipation decreased. The beneficial effects continued for up to 4 weeks after cessation of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone was well tolerated in the long-term, with nausea and diarrhea being the commonest adverse events. Further studies are ongoing in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot study of small bowel mucosal gene expression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Valentin, Nelson; Acosta, Andres; O'Neill, Jessica; Eckert, Deborah; Dyer, Roy; Na, Jie; Klee, Eric W; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    Prior studies in with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients showed immune activation, secretion, and barrier dysfunction in jejunal or colorectal mucosa. We measured mRNA expression by RT-PCR of 91 genes reflecting tight junction proteins, chemokines, innate immunity, ion channels, transmitters, housekeeping genes, and controls for DNA contamination and PCR efficiency in small intestinal mucosa from 15 IBS-D and 7 controls (biopsies negative for celiac disease). Fold change was calculated using 2((-ΔΔCT)) formula. Nominal P values (P < 0.05) were interpreted with false detection rate (FDR) correction (q value). Cluster analysis with Lens for Enrichment and Network Studies (LENS) explored connectivity of mechanisms. Upregulated genes (uncorrected P < 0.05) were related to ion transport (INADL, MAGI1, and SONS1), barrier (TJP1, 2, and 3 and CLDN) or immune functions (TLR3, IL15, and MAPKAPK5), or histamine metabolism (HNMT); downregulated genes were related to immune function (IL-1β, TGF-β1, and CCL20) or antigen detection (TLR1 and 8). The following genes were significantly upregulated (q < 0.05) in IBS-D: INADL, MAGI1, PPP2R5C, MAPKAPK5, TLR3, and IL-15. Among the 14 nominally upregulated genes, there was clustering of barrier and PDZ domains (TJP1, TJP2, TJP3, CLDN4, INADL, and MAGI1) and clustering of downregulated genes (CCL20, TLR1, IL1B, and TLR8). Protein expression of PPP2R5C in nuclear lysates was greater in patients with IBS-D and controls. There was increase in INADL protein (median 9.4 ng/ml) in patients with IBS-D relative to controls (median 5.8 ng/ml, P > 0.05). In conclusion, altered transcriptome (and to lesser extent protein) expression of ion transport, barrier, immune, and mast cell mechanisms in small bowel may reflect different alterations in function and deserves further study in IBS-D. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Large-bowel surgery, 1979: self-assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, N A; Valerio, D

    1980-01-01

    Evidence of wide variability in the immediate results of large-bowel surgery stimulated self-assessment during 1979. The hazards of large-bowel surgery can usually be avoided by good bowel preparation, sound anastomotic technique, primary resection in large bowel emergencies, avoidance of anastomosis when hazardous, and antibiotic lavage for extant or potential peritoneal and wound contamination. PMID:7427416

  5. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  6. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  7. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy that affects the movement of or sensation in ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  8. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971

  10. Evidence against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a dilator and in favour of substance P as a constrictor in airway neurogenic responses.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, J. A.; Persson, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Propranolol-resistant neurogenic relaxation persisted in (carbachol-contracted) guinea-pig tracheae already relaxed by supramaximal concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Also, VIP relaxed preparations that were under neurogenic inhibition. In hilus bronchi, about 60% of a neurogenic contraction was atropine-resistant. (Arg5, D-Trp7.9) SP 5-11 specifically antagonized this contraction and those produced by exogenous substance P. Substance P, but not VIP, seems to be involved in nerve-mediated effects on guinea-pig airway tone. PMID:6197124

  11. Evidence against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a dilator and in favour of substance P as a constrictor in airway neurogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J A; Persson, C G

    1983-07-01

    Propranolol-resistant neurogenic relaxation persisted in (carbachol-contracted) guinea-pig tracheae already relaxed by supramaximal concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Also, VIP relaxed preparations that were under neurogenic inhibition. In hilus bronchi, about 60% of a neurogenic contraction was atropine-resistant. (Arg5, D-Trp7.9) SP 5-11 specifically antagonized this contraction and those produced by exogenous substance P. Substance P, but not VIP, seems to be involved in nerve-mediated effects on guinea-pig airway tone.

  12. The physical and psychological impact of neurogenic claudication: the patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ammendolia, Carlo; Schneider, Michael; Williams, Kelly; Zickmund, Susan; Hamm, Megan; Stuber, Kent; Tomkins-Lane, Christy; Rampersaud, Y Raja

    2017-03-01

    The patient perspective regarding the impact of neurogenic claudication (NC) has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to determine what is most bothersome among patients with NC and how it impacts their lives and expectations with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis categorized key findings based on relative importance and impact on participants. Twenty-eight individuals participated in this study. Participants were most bothered by the pain of NC, which dramatically impacted their lives. Inability to walk was the dominant functional limitation and this impacted the ability to engage in recreational and social activities. The most surprising finding was how frequently participants reported significant emotional effects of NC. From a patients' perspective NC has a significant multidimensional effects with pain, limited walking ability and emotional effects being most impactful to their lives.

  13. Preoperative Duplex Scanning is a Helpful Diagnostic Tool in Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Megan S; Likes, Kendall C; Mirza, Serene; Cao, Yue; Cohen, Anne; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of venous and arterial duplex scanning in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Retrospective review of patients who underwent duplex ultrasonography prior to first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) for NTOS from 2005 to 2013. Abnormal scans included ipsilateral compression (IC) with abduction of the symptomatic extremity (>50% change in subclavian vessel flow), contralateral (asymptomatic side) compression (CC) or bilateral compression (BC). A total of 143 patients (76% female, average age 34, range 13-59) underwent bilateral preoperative duplex scanning. Ipsilateral compression was seen in 44 (31%), CC in 12 (8%), and BC in 14 (10%). Seventy-three (51%) patients demonstrated no compression. Patients with IC more often experienced intraoperative pneumothoraces (49% vs. 25%, P < .05) and had positive Adson tests (86% vs. 61%, P < .02). Compression of the subclavian vein or artery on duplex ultrasonography can assist in NTOS diagnosis. Ipsilateral compression on abduction often correlates with Adson testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    PubMed

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  15. Ileal loop ureteroileostomy in patients with neurogenic bladder. Personal experience with 54 patients.

    PubMed

    Kambouris, A A; Allaben, R D; Carpenter, W S; Shumaker, E J

    1976-02-01

    (1) In a six year experience with ileal loops in patients with neurogenic bladder, 49% of the patients were paralyzed, 30% had multiple sclerosis, and 91% had recurrent or persistent urinary tract infection. Reflux, incontinence, retention, and bladder calculi were additional indications for supravesical urinary diversions. (2) All loops were performed in a similar manner, most of them placed retroperitoneally, and a vigorous program of postoperative care was followed. There were no postoperative deaths, and a moderate number of complications occurred in 51.8% of the patients. (3) The participation of the enterostomal therapist is the preparation of the patient and in the immediate and long-term stomal care has been invaluable and is strongly recommended.

  16. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tang, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features. PMID:26924072

  17. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  18. Pain, sensory function, and neurogenic inflammatory response in young women with low mood.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Cory P; Abbott, Frances V

    2011-03-01

    To determine the relationship of mood status to pain complaints, sensory function, neurogenic inflammatory response, and general health in young women. Ninety-three women aged 18-29 participated in the study and were categorized by SCL-90-R depression score into low-mood (n=21) and normal-mood (n=72) groups. All subjects were below the threshold for possible clinical depression. Low mood was associated with decreased tactile sensitivity, reduced response to topical capsaicin, and increased complaints of back, joint, muscle, and visceral pain, but not headache, when compared to normal mood controls. Low mood was also associated with reported poorer health and physical functioning, increased psychopathology, and family history of mood problems. These data show that even subclinical low mood is associated with marked alterations in health and psychophysiological function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of botulinum toxin in individuals with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: State of the art review

    PubMed Central

    Linsenmeyer, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the bladder wall has been shown to be an effective alternative to anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) medications and more invasive surgery in those with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and urinary incontinence who are not tolerating anticholinergic medications. In August 2011, Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA) received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this use. Clinically, intradetrusor injection of BoNT has been found to decrease urinary incontinence and improve quality of life. Its impact on urodynamic parameters is an increase in the maximum cystometric (bladder) capacity and decrease in the maximum detrusor pressures. The most common side effects are urinary tract infections and urinary retention. There have been rare reports and a black box warning of distant spread of BoNT. BoNT has gained popularity because of its effectiveness and long duration of action, relative ease of administration, easy learning curve, reproducibility of results on repeated administration, and low incidence of complications. Objective To discuss the structure and function, mechanisms of action, clinical and urodynamic studies, injection technique, potential beneficial and adverse effects, and potential areas of research of BoNT. Methods Literature search focused on botulinum toxin in MEDLINE/PubMed. Search terms included botulinum toxin, neurogenic bladder, NDO, botox bladder, botox spinal cord injury, botox, FDA, botox side effects. All papers identified were English language, full-text papers. In addition, English abstracts of non-English papers were noted. The reference list of identified articles was also searched for further papers. Conclusion Botulinum toxin is an alternative treatment for individuals with NDO who fail to tolerate anticholinergic medications. Its popularity has increased because of the literature, which has supported its effectiveness, safety, easy

  20. Meta-analysis of the safety and efficacy of droxidopa for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Elgebaly, Ahmed; Abdelazeim, Bassant; Mattar, Omar; Gadelkarim, Mohamed; Salah, Rehab; Negida, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Droxidopa has been approved for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) under the US Food and Drug Administration accelerated approval program, which warrants confirmatory evidence on long-term efficacy of droxidopa. Hereby, we synthesize evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the safety and efficacy of droxidopa for patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central was conducted using relevant keywords. Records were screened for eligible studies and data were extracted and synthesized using Review Manager version 5.3 for Windows. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to investigate long-term durability of droxidopa against placebo. Four RCTs with a total of 485 patients (droxidopa, n = 246; placebo, n = 239) were eligible for the final analysis. The mean difference (MD) of change in the main outcomes from baseline to endpoint favored droxidopa than placebo [Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ) MD -0.61, P = 0.004; dizziness/lightheadedness score MD -0.83, P = 0.008; and standing systolic blood pressure (SBP) MD 4.09, P = 0.03]. The efficacy of droxidopa decreased gradually after 2 weeks, and its statistical significance was lost after 8 weeks (OHQ score MD -0.18, P = 0.61; dizziness/lightheadedness score MD -0.71, P = 0.11; and standing SBP MD 2.96, P = 0.29). None of the adverse events were significantly higher in the case of droxidopa compared to placebo. Droxidopa is a safe and effective drug for the short-term management of NOH symptoms. However, current evidence is insufficient to confirm the efficacy of droxidopa for long-term use. Therefore, further studies with increased sample size are needed.

  1. Monoamine uptake inhibitors block alpha7-nAChR-mediated cerebral nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Long, Cheng; Chen, Mei-Fang; Sarwinski, Susan J; Chen, Po-Yi; Si, Minliang; Hoffer, Barry J; Evans, M Steven; Lee, Tony J F

    2006-07-01

    We have proposed that activation of cerebral perivascular sympathetic alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChRs) by nicotinic agonists releases norepinephrine, which then acts on parasympathetic nitrergic nerves, resulting in release of nitric oxide and vasodilation. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and in vitro tissue bath myography, we tested this axo-axonal interaction hypothesis further by examining whether blocking norepinephrine reuptake enhanced alpha7-nAChR-mediated cerebral nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation. The results indicated that choline- and nicotine-induced alpha7-nAChR-mediated nitrergic neurogenic relaxation in endothelium-denuded isolated porcine basilar artery rings was enhanced by desipramine and imipramine at lower concentrations (0.03-0.1 microM) but inhibited at higher concentrations (0.3-10 microM). In cultured superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the pig and rat, choline (0.1-30 mM)-evoked inward currents were reversibly blocked by 1-30 microM mecamylamine, 1-30 microM methyllycaconitine, 10-300 nM alpha-bungarotoxin, and 0.1-10 microM desipramine and imipramine, providing electrophysiological evidence for the presence of similar functional alpha7-nAChRs in cerebral perivascular sympathetic neurons of pigs and rats. In alpha7-nAChR-expressing Xenopus oocytes, choline-elicited inward currents were attenuated by alpha-bungarotoxin, imipramine, and desipramine. These monoamine uptake inhibitors appeared to directly block the alpha7-nAChR, resulting in diminished nicotinic agonist-induced cerebral nitrergic vasodilation. The enhanced nitrergic vasodilation by lower concentrations of monoamine uptake inhibitors is likely due to a greater effect on monoamine uptake than on alpha7-nAChR blockade. These results further support the hypothesis of axo-axonal interaction in nitrergic regulation of cerebral vascular tone.

  2. A novel CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer attenuates neurogenic plasma protein extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Hoehlig, K; Johnson, K W; Pryazhnikov, E; Maasch, C; Clemens-Smith, A; Purschke, W G; Vauléon, S; Buchner, K; Jarosch, F; Khiroug, L; Vater, A; Klussmann, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in the pathology of migraine, and recent clinical trials suggest the inhibition of CGRP-mediated processes as a new therapeutic option in migraine. In this study, we describe the generation of NOX-L41, a CGRP-neutralizing mirror-image (l-)aptamer (Spiegelmer) and investigate its in vitro and in vivo function. Experimental Approach A CGRP-binding Spiegelmer was identified by in vitro selection. Binding studies were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and the inhibitory activity was determined in cell-based assays. The pharmacokinetic profile comparing i.v. and s.c. dosing was analysed in rats. Intravital two-photon microscopy was employed to follow extravasation from meningeal vessels. Finally, in vivo efficacy was tested in a model of electrically evoked meningeal plasma protein extravasation (PPE) in rats. Key Results We identified NOX-L41, a novel CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer. SPR studies showed that NOX-L41 binds to human and rat/mouse CGRP with sub-nanomolar affinities and is highly selective against related peptides such as amylin. In vitro, NOX-L41 effectively inhibited CGRP-induced cAMP formation in SK-N-MC cells. In rats, NOX-L41 had a plasma half-life of 8 h. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that NOX-L41 extravasates from blood vessels in the dura mater and inhibits neurogenic meningeal PPE for at least 18 h after single dosing. Conclusions and Implications This is the first description of the CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer NOX-L41. Preclinical studies confirmed a role for CGRP in neurogenic PPE and provided proof-of-concept for the potential use of this new drug candidate for the treatment or prevention of migraine. PMID:25659966

  3. Evaluation of educational content of YouTube videos relating to neurogenic bladder and intermittent catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Matthew; Stothers, Lynn; Lazare, Darren; Tsang, Brian; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many patients conduct internet searches to manage their own health problems, to decide if they need professional help, and to corroborate information given in a clinical encounter. Good information can improve patients’ understanding of their condition and their self-efficacy. Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) featuring neurogenic bladder (NB) require knowledge and skills related to their condition and need for intermittent catheterization (IC). Methods: Information quality was evaluated in videos accessed via YouTube relating to NB and IC using search terms “neurogenic bladder intermittent catheter” and “spinal cord injury intermittent catheter.” Video content was independently rated by 3 investigators using criteria based on European Urological Association (EAU) guidelines and established clinical practice. Results: In total, 71 videos met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 (17%) addressed IC and 50 (70%) contained information on NB. The remaining videos met inclusion criteria, but did not contain information relevant to either IC or NB. Analysis indicated poor overall quality of information, with some videos with information contradictory to EAU guidelines for IC. High-quality videos were randomly distributed by YouTube. IC videos featuring a healthcare narrator scored significantly higher than patient-narrated videos, but not higher than videos with a merchant narrator. About half of the videos contained commercial content. Conclusions: Some good-quality educational videos about NB and IC are available on YouTube, but most are poor. The videos deemed good quality were not prominently ranked by the YouTube search algorithm, consequently user access is less likely. Study limitations include the limit of 50 videos per category and the use of a de novo rating tool. Information quality in videos with healthcare narrators was not higher than in those featuring merchant narrators. Better material is required to improve patients

  4. Oxygen Tension Within the Neurogenic Niche Regulates Dopaminergic Neurogenesis in the Developing Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne Karen; Marrone, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension is an important factor controlling stem cell proliferation and maintenance in various stem cell populations with a particular relevance in midbrain dopaminergic progenitors. Further studies have shown that the oxygen-dependent transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is involved in these processes. However, all available studies on oxygen effects in dopaminergic neuroprogenitors were performed in vitro and thus it remains unclear whether tissue oxygen tension in the embryonic midbrain is also relevant for the regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis in vivo. We thus dissect here the effects of oxygen tension in combination with HIF-1α conditional knockout on dopaminergic neurogenesis by using a novel experimental design allowing for the control of oxygen tension within the microenvironment of the neurogenic niche of the murine fetal midbrain in vivo. The microenvironment of the midbrain dopaminergic neurogenic niche was detected as hypoxic with oxygen tensions below 1.1%. Maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21%, and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48 h translates into robust changes in fetal midbrain oxygenation. Fetal midbrain hypoxia hampered the generation of dopaminergic neurons and is accompanied with restricted fetal midbrain development. In contrast, induced hyperoxia stimulated proliferation and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors during early and late embryogenesis. Oxygen effects were not directly mediated through HIF-1α signaling. These data—in agreement with in vitro data—indicate that oxygen is a crucial regulator of developmental dopaminergic neurogenesis. Our study provides the initial framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms mediating oxygen regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis within the fetal midbrain as its natural environment. PMID:26577812

  5. Evaluation of educational content of YouTube videos relating to neurogenic bladder and intermittent catheterization.

    PubMed

    Ho, Matthew; Stothers, Lynn; Lazare, Darren; Tsang, Brian; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many patients conduct internet searches to manage their own health problems, to decide if they need professional help, and to corroborate information given in a clinical encounter. Good information can improve patients' understanding of their condition and their self-efficacy. Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) featuring neurogenic bladder (NB) require knowledge and skills related to their condition and need for intermittent catheterization (IC). Information quality was evaluated in videos accessed via YouTube relating to NB and IC using search terms "neurogenic bladder intermittent catheter" and "spinal cord injury intermittent catheter." Video content was independently rated by 3 investigators using criteria based on European Urological Association (EAU) guidelines and established clinical practice. In total, 71 videos met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 (17%) addressed IC and 50 (70%) contained information on NB. The remaining videos met inclusion criteria, but did not contain information relevant to either IC or NB. Analysis indicated poor overall quality of information, with some videos with information contradictory to EAU guidelines for IC. High-quality videos were randomly distributed by YouTube. IC videos featuring a healthcare narrator scored significantly higher than patient-narrated videos, but not higher than videos with a merchant narrator. About half of the videos contained commercial content. Some good-quality educational videos about NB and IC are available on YouTube, but most are poor. The videos deemed good quality were not prominently ranked by the YouTube search algorithm, consequently user access is less likely. Study limitations include the limit of 50 videos per category and the use of a de novo rating tool. Information quality in videos with healthcare narrators was not higher than in those featuring merchant narrators. Better material is required to improve patients' understanding of their condition.

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Mani; Kurian, George; John, Jacob K.

    1996-01-01

    Psychological aspects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome have been well investigated in Western countries, but there is a paucity of Indian studies focusing on this area. A series of fifty patients with the Irritable Bowel Syndrome were studied with respect to their depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and their personality traits. Patients had a mean score of 14.68 on Hamilton's depression rating scale and 11.22 on Hamilton's anxiety rating scale, and were more introverted and more neurotic than the general population. No association was found between psychological symptoms and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms are a concomitant part of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome. PMID:21584134

  7. Toll-like receptors in inflammatory bowel diseases: A decade later

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Differential alteration of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was first described 10 years ago. Since then, studies from many groups have led to the current concept that TLRs represent key mediators of innate host defense in the intestine, involved in maintaining mucosal as well as commensal homeostasis. Recent findings in diverse murine models of colitis have helped to reveal the mechanistic importance of TLR dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis. It has become evident that environment, genetics, and host immunity form a multidimensional and highly interactive regulatory triad that controls TLR function in the intestinal mucosa. Imbalanced relationships within this triad may promote aberrant TLR signaling, critically contributing to acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory processes in IBD colitis and associated cancer. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) PMID:20803699

  8. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  9. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients.

  10. Thalidomide for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bramuzzo, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro; Martelossi, Stefano; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug used in the experimental treatment of refractory Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. We aimed to review the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINHAL, and Web of Science were searched in March 2016. Manual search included conference and reference lists. All types of studies, except single case reports, were included. Outcomes evaluated were: induction of remission; maintenance of remission; steroid reduction; effect on penetrating Crohn disease; endoscopic remission; adverse events. Results: The research strategies retrieved 722 papers. Two randomized controlled trials and 29 uncontrolled studies for a total of 489 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Thalidomide induced a clinical response in 296/427 (69.3%) patients. Clinical remission was achieved in 220/427 (51.5%) cases. Maintenance of remission was reported in 128/160 (80.0%) patients at 6 months and in 96/133 (72.2%) at 12 months. Reduction in steroid dosage was reported in 109/152 (71.7%) patients. Fistulas improved in 49/81 (60.5%) cases and closed in 28/81 (34.6%). Endoscopic improvement was observed in 46/66 (69.7%) and complete mucosal healing in 35/66 (53.0%) patients. Cumulative incidence of total adverse events and of those leading to drug suspension was 75.6 and 19.7/1000 patient-months, respectively. Neurological disturbances accounted for 341/530 (64.3%) adverse events and were the most frequent cause of drug withdrawal. Conclusion: Existing evidence suggests that thalidomide may be a valid treatment option for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases refractory to other first- and second-line treatments. PMID:27472695

  11. SeHCAT absorption: a simple test of ileal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fagan, E A; Chadwick, V S; Baird, I M

    1983-01-01

    A new selenium-labelled synthetic bile salt SeHCAT (taurine conjugate of 23-[75Se]-25-homocholic acid) was assessed as a test of ileal dysfunction in 20 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whole body retention of SeHCAT was compared with tests of vitamin B12 absorption (Schilling test and whole body retention) and the cholylglycine-1-14C breath test and faecal isotope excretion. Clear differentiation, with no overlap was obtained between 10 normal subjects and patients with ileal disease/resection in the SeHCAT 7-day retention results. The Schilling test was more sensitive; enabling discrimination between patients with limited and extensive ileal disease/resection. An unexpected rise in SeHCAT retention was observed in patients with colonic IBD. The 7-day SeHCAT retention is a safe, simple screening test for ileal dysfunction and has practical advantages compared with the Schilling test.

  12. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. PMID:26869808

  13. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bodie, Joshua A; Beeman, William W; Monga, Manoj

    2003-01-01

    To educate healthcare professionals on the historical aspects, clinical diagnosis, and current treatment methods of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. A topic review of current literature was performed. Chief sources included primarily mainstream journals in the fields of urology, psychiatry/psychology, impotence/erectile dysfunction, epidemiology, and internal medicine. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were utilized. Data from clinical studies, trials, and review articles concerned primarily with psychological aspects of the arousal (erectile function) phase of the male sexual response cycle were collected, analyzed, and summarized in this review article. There has been a shift in how erectile dysfunction has been perceived and treated over the past 30 years. With the current focus now on the very prevalent organic causes of ED, psychological factors are increasingly overlooked, though they remain important to the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article provides a complete, concise review of the interplay between psychological components and erectile function, reviews the work-up and diagnosis of psychogenic ED, and discusses treatment methods. Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent problem that can affect, and can be affected by, psychosocial aspects of a man's life. Medical or pharmacological interventions are often appropriate to treat ED, but the psychosocial aspects should not be ignored. It has become easier for practitioners to put aside patients' psychosocial and interpersonal concerns regarding sexual health. Clinicians provide the best possible treatment if they recognize that erectile dysfunction is a complex, multifactorial disorder, and treat accordingly.

  14. Management of lower urinary tract dysfunction: a stepwise approach.

    PubMed

    Thom, Matthew; Campigotto, Mary; Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Coplen, Douglas; Austin, Paul F

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate management patterns of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction and establish a treatment algorithm to guide pediatric healthcare providers. 390 children with non-neurogenic LUT dysfunction were followed over 7 months; 115 patients were excluded due to incomplete data. Children were categorized based on presenting complaints and pelvic ultrasound into three groups: daytime urinary incontinence (UI) with complete emptying (CE), UI with incomplete emptying (IE), or IE without UI. Every child underwent behavioral modification (BM) including timed voiding, double voiding, deep breathing, and treatment of constipation if present. BM failures received secondary treatment including medications (alpha blockers, anticholinergics), physical therapy, and/or botulinum toxin type A injection of the external sphincter at a dose of 100 units. BM improved symptoms in 152 (55%): 68% (46% dry), 49% (27% dry), and 59% (29% dry) from the three groups, respectively. Of the 45% who showed no change in symptoms, 98 (80%) improved with addition of medication, the majority (89) after starting alpha blocker therapy. Children with IE responded better to alpha blockers, 83 (77%) compared to 38% with CE, whereas those with CE demonstrated more symptom resolution with anticholinergics, 6 (38%) compared to 13% of those with IE. Only 6 (2%) patients were refractory to non-operative treatment with all showing improvement after injection of botulinum toxin type A, 4 (67%) of whom became completely dry. Diagnosis of UI and/or IE with stratification of children into particular symptom groups appears beneficial in determining the appropriate therapy for children with LUT dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of droxidopa compared to midodrine in standing blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance in adults with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kelli; Martin, Tina

    2017-09-01

    The question of this review is: what is the effectiveness of droxidopa compared to midodrine on standing blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance symptoms in adults with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension?

  16. Is non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation effective in severe chronic neurogenic dysphagia? Reporton a post-traumatic brain injury patient.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Nibali, Valeria Conti; Naro, Antonino; Floridia, Daniela; Pizzimenti, Maria; Salmeri, Lucia; Salviera, Carlo; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia is a difficulty in swallowing induced by nervous system disease. It often causes serious complications, which are preventable if dysphagia is properly managed. There is growing debate concerning the usefulness of non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in treating swallowing dysfunction. Aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Vitalstim© device, and to investigate the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying functional recovery. A 34-year-old man, affected by severe chronic dysphagia following traumatic brain injury, underwent two different intensive rehabilitation trainings, including either conventional rehabilitation alone or coupled to Vitalstim training. We evaluated patient swallowing function in two separate sessions (i.e. before and after the two trainings) by means of ad hoc swallowing function scales and electrophysiological parameters (rapid paired associative stimulation). The overall Vitalstim program was articulated in 6 weekly sessions for 6 weeks. The patient did not report any side-effect either during or following both the intensive rehabilitation trainings. We observed an important improvement in swallowing function only after Vitalstim training. In fact, the patient was eventually able to safely eat even solid food. This is the first report objectively suggesting (by means of rPAS) a correlation between the brain neuroplastic changes induced by Vitalstim and the swallowing function improvement. It is hypothesizable that Vitalstim may have targeted cortical (and maybe subcortical) brain areas that are recruited during the highly coordinated function of swallowing, and it may have thus potentiated the well-known neuroplastic changes induced by repetitive and intensive swallowing exercises, probably thanks to metaplasticity phenomena.

  17. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy)

    PubMed Central

    Murino, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice. PMID:28839900

  18. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    PubMed

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  19. Short bowel mucosal morphology, proliferation and inflammation at first and repeat STEP procedures.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Annika; Barrett, Meredith; Feng, Yongjia; Lohi, Jouko; Rabah, Raja; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2018-04-17

    Although serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) improves function of dilated short bowel, a significant proportion of patients require repeat surgery. To address underlying reasons for unsuccessful STEP, we compared small intestinal mucosal characteristics between initial and repeat STEP procedures in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Fifteen SBS children, who underwent 13 first and 7 repeat STEP procedures with full thickness small bowel samples at median age 1.5 years (IQR 0.7-3.7) were included. The specimens were analyzed histologically for mucosal morphology, inflammation and muscular thickness. Mucosal proliferation and apoptosis was analyzed with MIB1 and Tunel immunohistochemistry. Median small bowel length increased 42% by initial STEP and 13% by repeat STEP (p=0.05), while enteral caloric intake increased from 6% to 36% (p=0.07) during 14 (12-42) months between the procedures. Abnormal mucosal inflammation was frequently observed both at initial (69%) and additional STEP (86%, p=0.52) surgery. Villus height, crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis as well as muscular thickness were comparable at first and repeat STEP (p>0.05 for all). Patients, who required repeat STEP tended to be younger (p=0.057) with less apoptotic crypt cells (p=0.031) at first STEP. Absence of ileocecal valve associated with increased intraepithelial leukocyte count and reduced crypt cell proliferation index (p<0.05 for both). No adaptive mucosal hyperplasia or muscular alterations occurred between first and repeat STEP. Persistent inflammation and lacking mucosal growth may contribute to continuing bowel dysfunction in SBS children, who require repeat STEP procedure, especially after removal of the ileocecal valve. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  1. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P

    Hypertension and coronary heart disease, often coexisting, are the most common risk factors for heart failure. The progression of hypertensive heart disease involves myocardial fibrosis and alterations in the left ventricular geometry that precede the functional change, initially asymptomatic. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is part of this continuum being defined by the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without signs or symptoms of heart failure or poor left ventricular systolic function. It is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite its growing importance in clinical practice it remains poorly understood. This review aims to present the epidemiological fundamentals and the latest developments in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  3. Treating the dysfunctional placenta

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Placental dysfunction underlies major obstetric diseases such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Whilst there has been a little progress in prophylaxis, there are still no treatments for placental dysfunction in normal obstetric practice. However, a combination of increasingly well-described in vitro systems for studying the human placenta, together with the availability of more appropriate animal models of pre-eclampsia and FGR, has facilitated a recent surge in work aimed at repurposing drugs and therapies, developed for other conditions, as treatments for placental dysfunction. This review: (1) highlights potential candidate drug targets in the placenta – effectors of improved uteroplacental blood flow, anti-oxidants, heme oxygenase induction, inhibition of HIF, induction of cholesterol synthesis pathways, increasing insulin-like growth factor II availability; (2) proposes an experimental pathway for taking a potential drug or treatment for placental dysfunction from concept through to early phase clinical trials, utilizing techniques for studying the human placenta in vitro and small animal models, particularly the mouse, for in vivo studies; (3) describes the data underpinning sildenafil citrate and adenovirus expressing vascular endothelial growth as potential treatments for placental dysfunction and summarizes recent research on other potential treatments. The importance of sharing information from such studies even when no effect is found, or there is an adverse outcome, is highlighted. Finally, the use of adenoviral vectors or nanoparticle carriers coated with homing peptides to selectively target drugs to the placenta is highlighted: such delivery systems could improve efficacy and reduce the side effects of treating the dysfunctional placenta. PMID:28483805

  4. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-03-14

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality.

  5. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  6. [EFFICIENCY OF SEROTONIN ADIPINATE IN INTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS AFTER COLORECTAL OPERATIONS].

    PubMed

    Stakanov, A V; Musaeva, T S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of case histories of acute colonic obstruction due to colon cancer A total of 291 patients were divided on two groups: 1--a control group (patients presenting risk of developing intestinal dysfunction with 'basic' therapy, n = 123); 2--the comparison group (n = 57) represented patients who were taken to optimize the post-operative period with the inclusion in the scheme of the basic treatment of serotonin adipinate. The use of serotonin adipinatein treatment of intestinal dysfunction allows fully restore bowel motility to 3rd day.

  7. Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Pino, Annachiara; Llorens-Bobadilla, Enric; Zhao, Sheng; Lange, Christian; Panuccio, Gabriella; Boeckx, Bram; Thienpont, Bernard; Vinckier, Stefan; Wyns, Sabine; Bouché, Ann; Lambrechts, Diether; Giugliano, Michele; Dewerchin, Mieke; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Carmeliet, Peter

    2017-03-02

    Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2 + neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [FEES for neurogenic dysphagia: training curriculum of the German Society of Neurology and the German Stroke Society].

    PubMed

    Dziewas, R; Glahn, J; Helfer, C; Ickenstein, G; Keller, J; Lapa, S; Ledl, C; Lindner-Pfleghar, B; Nabavi, D; Prosiegel, M; Riecker, A; Stanschus, S; Warnecke, T; Busse, O

    2014-08-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia is one of the most frequent and prognostically relevant neurological deficits in a variety of disorders, such as stroke, parkinsonism and advanced neuromuscular diseases. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now probably the most frequently used tool for objective dysphagia assessment in Germany. It allows evaluation of the efficacy and safety of swallowing, determination of appropriate feeding strategies and assessment of the efficacy of different swallowing manoeuvres. The literature furthermore indicates that FEES is a safe and well-tolerated procedure. In spite of the huge demand for qualified dysphagia diagnostics in neurology, a systematic FEES education has yet not been established. The structured training curriculum presented in this article aims to close this gap and intends to enforce a robust and qualified FEES service. As management of neurogenic dysphagia is not confined to neurologists, this educational program is applicable to other clinicians and speech language therapists with expertise in dysphagia as well.

  9. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P < 0.05, chi-square) increased their activity during the earliest potential of the complex, approximately 1.3 s before the rise of rCBF, and during the minutes-long elevation of rCBF elicited by 10 s of stimulation of RVL or FN. The results indicate the presence of a small population of neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  10. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p <0.001). Patients with detrusor underutilization disorder were statistically more likely to present with an infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p <0.01). Females with lower urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux

  11. Feasibility of an electronic stethoscope system for monitoring neonatal bowel sounds.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Jasmine; Hill, Krista M; Adrezin, Ronald S; Alba, Jorge; Curry, Raquel; Campagna, Eric; Fernandes, Cecilia; Lamba, Vineet; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2013-09-01

    Bowel dysfunction remains a major problem in neonates. Traditional auscultation of bowel sounds as a diagnostic aid in neonatal gastrointestinal complications is limited by skill and inability to document and reassess. Consequently, we built a unique prototype to investigate the feasibility of an electronic monitoring system for continuous assessment of bowel sounds. We attained approval by the Institutional Review Boards for the investigational study to test our system. The system incorporated a prototype stethoscope head with a built-in microphone connected to a digital recorder. Recordings made over extended periods were evaluated for quality. We also considered the acoustic environment of the hospital, where the stethoscope was used. The stethoscope head was attached to the abdomen with a hydrogel patch designed especially for this purpose. We used the system to obtain recordings from eight healthy, full-term babies. A scoring system was used to determine loudness, clarity, and ease of recognition comparing it to the traditional stethoscope. The recording duration was initially two hours and was increased to a maximum of eight hours. Median duration of attachment was three hours (3.75, 2.68). Based on the scoring, the bowel sound recording was perceived to be as loud and clear in sound reproduction as a traditional stethoscope. We determined that room noise and other noises were significant forms of interference in the recordings, which at times prevented analysis. However, no sound quality drift was noted in the recordings and no patient discomfort was noted. Minimal erythema was observed over the fixation site which subsided within one hour. We demonstrated the long-term recording of infant bowel sounds. Our contributions included a prototype stethoscope head, which was affixed using a specially designed hydrogel adhesive patch. Such a recording can be reviewed and reassessed, which is new technology and an improvement over current practice. The use of this

  12. Ceftolozane/tazobactam for febrile UTI due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Aurélien; Davido, Benjamin; Calin, Ruxandra; Paquereau, Julie; Duran, Clara; Bouchand, Frédérique; Phé, Véronique; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Rottman, Martin; Salomon, Jérôme; Plésiat, Patrick; Potron, Anaïs

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major public health problem among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. They frequently involve multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a novel antibiotic combination approved for complicated intra-abdominal and UTI caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some MDR strains. Little is known about the use of this agent for complicated febrile UTI occurring among SCI patients with neurogenic bladder due to MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA). We describe the case of a 35-year-old man with SCI due to multiple sclerosis, with a neurogenic bladder necessitating a bilateral nephrostomy and double J catheter, who developed a febrile UTI due to a MDR PSA, which was susceptible only to amikacin and colistin. Because of this MDR phenotype and the underlying kidney disease, a 1000 mg (1000 mg per 500 mg) dose of C/T was given as monotherapy every 8 h for 7 days, after 3 days of colistin and amikacin. Thanks to this treatment, the patient had a favorable outcome with no clinical signs of UTI or positive urine culture up to 1 month after diagnosis. C/T seems to be an effective and safe therapeutic option for febrile UTI due to MDR PSA in SCI patients with neurogenic bladder, even when administered in monotherapy for 10 days.

  13. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G with myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials and a novel muscle image pattern.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Julia Filardi; da-Cunha-Junior, Antonio Lopes; Neto, Rafael Xavier; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Navarro, Monica Magalhaes; Valicek, Jaquelin; Carvalho, Elmano; Yamamoto, Lydia U; Almeida, Camila F; Braz, Shelida Vasconcelos; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vainzof, Mariz

    2014-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G) is a subtype of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. There are few LGMD2G patients worldwide reported, and this is the first description associated with early tibialis anterior sparing on muscle image and myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials. Here we report a 31 years old caucasian male patient with progressive gait disturbance, and severe lower limb proximal weakness since the age of 20 years, associated with subtle facial muscle weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and diffuse thigh muscles involvement with tibialis anterior sparing. Electromyography disclosed both neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials. Muscle biopsy demonstrated large groups of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers, frequent fibers with intracytoplasmic rimmed vacuoles full of autophagic membrane and sarcoplasmic debris, and a total deficiency of telethonin. Molecular investigation identified the common homozygous c.157C > T in the TCAP gene. This report expands the phenotypic variability of telethoninopathy/ LGMD2G, including: 1) mixed neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials, 2) facial weakness, and 3) tibialis anterior sparing. Appropriate diagnosis in these cases is important for genetic counseling and prognosis.

  14. bicaudal-C is required for the formation of anterior neurogenic ectoderm in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Inaba, Kazuo

    2014-10-31

    bicaudal-C (bicC) mRNA encodes a protein containing RNA-binding domains that is reported to be maternally present with deflection in the oocytes/eggs of some species. The translated protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell fate specification along the body axis during early embryogenesis in flies and frogs. However, it is unclear how it functions in eggs in which bicC mRNA is uniformly distributed, for instance, sea urchin eggs. Here, we show the function of BicC in the formation of neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. Loss-of-function experiments reveal that BicC is required for serotonergic neurogenesis and for expression of ankAT-1 gene, which is essential for the formation of apical tuft cilia in the neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. In contrast, the expression of FoxQ2, the neurogenic ectoderm specification transcription factor, is invariant in BicC morphants. Because FoxQ2 is an upstream factor of serotonergic neurogenesis and ankAT-1 expression, these data indicate that BicC functions in regulating the events that are coordinated by FoxQ2 during sea urchin embryogenesis.

  15. Memantine Inhibits α3β2-nAChRs-Mediated Nitrergic Neurogenic Vasodilation in Porcine Basilar Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Celeste Yin-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yi; Chen, Mei-Fang; Kuo, Jon-Son; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is known to block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we examined by wire myography if memantine inhibited α3β2-nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerve terminals originating in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), thus, leading to inhibition of nicotine-induced nitrergic neurogenic dilation of isolated porcine basilar arteries. Memantine concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced neurogenic dilation of endothelium-denuded basilar arteries without affecting that induced by transmural nerve stimulation, sodium nitroprusside, or isoproterenol. Furthermore, memantine significantly inhibited nicotine-elicited inward currents in Xenopous oocytes expressing α3β2-, α7- or α4β2-nAChR, and nicotine-induced calcium influx in cultured rat SCG neurons. These results suggest that memantine is a non-specific antagonist for nAChR. By directly inhibiting α3β2-nAChRs located on the sympathetic nerve terminals, memantine blocks nicotine-induced neurogenic vasodilation of the porcine basilar arteries. This effect of memantine is expected to reduce the blood supply to the brain stem and possibly other brain regions, thus, decreasing its clinical efficacy in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22792283

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease after 1932.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, H D

    2000-05-01

    The clinical diseases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) were defined by 1932-1933. After that, the major conceptual developments were the recognition that regional enteritis could clearly involve the colon, and that cancer and toxic megacolon could occur in both CD and UC. In the last half of the 20th century the main thrust of gastroenterology at The Mount Sinai Hospital has been in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with contributions to extra-intestinal manifestations, measurement of clinical activity in CD, the natural history of the placebo arm of controlled trials, complications and therapy with corticosteroids, 5-ASA, 6-mercaptopurine, immunomodulators and cyclosporine. Actuarial life tables were introduced for postoperative recurrence and re-operation rates, as well as for quality of life analysis. Two forms of CD were defined, perforating and non-perforating, and the role of the fecal stream was explored in light of the higher risk of recurrence after operations with anastomosis as compared with ileocolostomy.

  17. Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Narula, Neeraj; Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are both idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that affect 0.5% of Canadians. As yet, there is no known cure for either disease, and symptoms are treated with an array of medicines. The objective of the present review was to present the role of exercise and its impact on all facets of IBD. Exercise has been speculated to be protective against the onset of IBD, but the literature is inconsistent and weak. Preliminary studies reveal that exercise training may be beneficial to reduce stress and symptoms of IBD. Current research also recommends exercise to help counteract some IBD-specific complications by improving bone mineral density, immunological response, psychological health, weight loss and stress management ability. However, the literature advises that some patients with IBD may have limitations to the amount and intensity of exercise that they can perform. In summary, exercise may be beneficial to IBD patients, but further research is required to make a convincing conclusion regarding its role in the management of IBD and to help establish exercise regimens that can account for each IBD patient's unique presentation.

  18. Selenium and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Avinash K; Shay, Ashley E; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we summarize the current literature on the pathophysiology of IBD, which is multifactorial in origin with unknown etiology. We have focused on a few selenoproteins that mediate gastrointestinal inflammation and activate the host immune response, wherein macrophages play a pivotal role. Changes in cellular oxidative state coupled with altered expression of selenoproteins in macrophages drive the switch from a proinflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to efficiently resolve inflammation in the gut and restore epithelial barrier integrity. Such a phenotypic plasticity is accompanied by changes in cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive metabolites, including eicosanoids that not only mitigate inflammation but also partake in restoring gut homeostasis through diverse pathways involving differential regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. The role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation and aiding in selenium-dependent resolution of gut injury is highlighted to provide novel insights into the beneficial effects of selenium in IBD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed. PMID:24415853

  20. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed.

  1. [Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Banai, János

    2009-05-03

    Aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and probably multifactorial. Nutrition has been proposed to be an important aetiological factor for development of IBD. Several components of the diet (such as sugar, fat, fibre, fruit and vegetable, protein, fast food, preservatives etc.) were examined as possible causative agents for IBD. According to some researchers infant feeding (breast feeding) may also contribute to the development of IBD. Though the importance of environmental factors is evidenced by the increasing incidence in developed countries and in migrant population in recent decades, the aetiology of IBD remained unclear. There are many theories, but as yet no dietary approaches have been proved to reduce the risk of developing IBD. The role of nutrition in the management of IBD is better understood. The prevention and correction of malnutrition, the provision of macro- and micronutrients and vitamins and the promotion of optimal growth and development of children are key points of nutritional therapy. In active disease, the effective support of energy and nutrients is a very important part of the therapy. Natural and artificial nutrition or the combination of two can be chosen for supporting therapy of IBD. The author summarises the aetiological and therapeutic role of nutrition in IBD.

  2. Antibiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Prantera, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) that may contribute to their development. Antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora, and a link between antibiotic use and onset of Crohn's disease (CD), but not ulcerative colitis, has been reported. The hypothesis that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) could be an etiologic agent of CD has not been confirmed by a large study on patients treated by an association of antibiotics active against MAP. The observations supporting a role of intestinal microbiota in CD pathogenesis provide the rationale for a therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal flora through the employment of antibiotics. However, current data do not strongly support a therapeutic benefit from antibiotics, and there is still controversy regarding their use as primary therapy for treatment of acute flares of CD, and for postoperative recurrence prevention. Nevertheless, clinical practice and some studies suggest that a subgroup of patients with colonic involvement, early disease, and abnormal laboratory test of inflammation may respond better to antibiotic treatment. Since their long-term use is frequently complicated by a high rate of side effects, the use of antibiotics that work locally appears to be promising.

  3. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed

    Martínez Gómez, María Josefa; Melián Fernández, Cristóbal; Romeo Donlo, María

    2016-07-12

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic pathology that has an outbreaks course that in recent years have seen an increase in incidence, especially at younger ages. Malnutrition is frequently associated with this condition, therefore, it is very important to ensure a right nutritional intervention, especially in pediatric patients, to ensure an optimal growth and also an improvement in the clinic. Our goal will be updated the role of nutrition in this disease and in its treatment based on the published evidence. Malnutrition in these patients is frequent and is influenced by various factors such as, decreased food intake, increased nutrient requirements, increased protein loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Therefore there should be a nutritional monitoring of all of them, in which anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and densitometry were made to establish the needs and sufficient caloric intake tailored to each patient. The use of enteral nutrition as a treatment in Crohn’s disease with mild to moderate outbreak in child population, is amply demonstrated, has even shown to be superior to the use of corticosteroids. Therefore we can conclude by stressing that nutritional intervention is a mainstay in the management of patients with IBD, which aims to prevent and / or control disease-related malnutrition to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease and thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Kouklakis, Georgios; Saibil, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of vascular complications. Thromboembolic complications, both venous and arterial, are serious extraintestinal manifestations complicating the course of IBD and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with IBD are more prone to thromboembolic complications and IBD per se is a risk factor for thromboembolic disease. Data suggest that thrombosis is a specific feature of IBD that can be involved in both the occurrence of thromboembolic events and the pathogenesis of the disease. The exact etiology for this special association between IBD and thromboembolism is as yet unknown, but it is thought that multiple acquired and inherited factors are interacting and producing the increased tendency for thrombosis in the local intestinal microvasculature, as well as in the systemic circulation. Clinicians’ awareness of the risks, and their ability to promptly diagnose and manage tromboembolic complications are of vital importance. In this review we discuss how thromboembolic disease is related to IBD, specifically focusing on: (1) the epidemiology and clinical features of thromboembolic complications in IBD; (2) the pathophysiology of thrombosis in IBD; and (3) strategies for the prevention and management of thromboembolic complications in IBD patients. PMID:25320522

  5. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  6. Immune Dysfunction in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Mohd Talha; Manoria, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. It also plays an important role in acute as well as chronic decompensation. Immune paralysis can accompany it, which is characterized by increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also presence of increased gut permeability, reduced gut motility and altered gut flora, all of which leads to increased bacterial translocation. This increased bacterial translocation and consequent endotoxemia leads to increased blood stream bacterial infections that cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, multiorgan failure and death. The gut microbiota of cirrhotic patients has more pathogenic microbes than that of non-cirrhotic individuals, and this disturbs the homeostasis and favors gut translocation. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of such infections are necessary for better survival. We have reviewed the various mechanisms of immune dysfunction and its consequences in cirrhosis. Recognizing the exact pathophysiology of immune dysfunction will help treating clinicians in avoiding its complications in their patients and can lead to newer therapeutic interventions and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:28507927

  7. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Michelle L.; Chourasia, Aparajita H.; Macleod, Kay F.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability, and other established aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the significance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis, and spatial dynamics of mitochondria and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knock on effects for cell proliferation and growth. We define major forms of mitochondrial dysfunction and address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24350057

  8. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Diseases and Conditions Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Condition ... Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control ... and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors ...

  9. Dietary glutamine and oral antibiotics each improve indexes of gut barrier function in rat short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tian, Junqiang; Hao, Li; Chandra, Prakash; Jones, Dean P; Willams, Ifor R; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2009-02-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. We examined effects of dietary glutamine (GLN) or oral antibiotics (ABX) on indexes of gut barrier function in a rat model of SBS. Adult rats underwent a 60% distal small bowel + proximal colonic resection (RX) or bowel transection (TX; control). Rats were pair fed diets with or without l-GLN for 20 days after operation. Oral ABX (neomycin, metronidazole, and polymyxin B) were given in some RX rats fed control diet. Stool secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was measured serially. On day 21, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were cultured for gram-negative bacteria. IgA-positive plasma cells in jejunum, stool levels of flagellin- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific sIgA, and serum total, anti-flagellin- and anti-LPS IgG levels were determined. RX caused gram-negative bacterial translocation to MLN, increased serum total and anti-LPS IgG and increased stool total sIgA. After RX, dietary GLN tended to blunt bacterial translocation to MLN (-29%, P = NS) and significantly decreased anti-LPS IgG levels in serum, increased both stool and jejunal mucosal sIgA and increased stool anti-LPS-specific IgA. Oral ABX eliminated RX-induced bacterial translocation, significantly decreased total and anti-LPS IgG levels in serum, significantly decreased stool total IgA and increased stool LPS-specific IgA. Partial small bowel-colonic resection in rats is associated with gram-negative bacterial translocation from the gut and a concomitant adaptive immune response to LPS. These indexes of gut barrier dysfunction are ameliorated or blunted by administration of dietary GLN or oral ABX, respectively. Dietary GLN upregulates small bowel sIgA in this model.

  10. Slow transit constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Queiroz Machado, V; Monteiro, A; Peçanha, A; Garcez da Fonseca, E

    2015-12-01

    Many theories have been proposed for the coexistence of constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD), such as bladder compression from a distended rectum and stimulation of sacral reflexes from a full rectum. In these cases, successful treatment of constipation should result in resolution of bladder symptoms. Some children have refractory constipation and others respond well to treatment, but once treatment is discontinued most children relapse back into their constipation. This may indicate the existence of a defect in colon motility, with a persistent peristalsis problem. The existence of a common neuromuscular disorder should be the base for both bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD). To study colonic transit time (CTT) in children and adolescents with refractory constipation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A total of 15 children (mean age 9.7 years) with refractory constipation and LUTS were evaluated with: standardized medical history; physical examination; bladder and bowel diaries; Bristol stool scale; Rome III criteria; Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS); ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, and measurement of rectal diameter; urodynamic evaluation; and a CTT study using radiopaque markers. Urodynamic features were abnormal in 13 out of 15 children: 10 (66.7%) presented with detrusor overactivity (DO) and voiding dysfunction (VD), two (16.7%) had isolated DO, and one (8.3%) had a VD. The CTT study was abnormal in 12 out of 15 children: nine (60%) presented with slow transit constipation, three (20%) had outlet obstruction, and three (20%) had a normal CTT study. When comparing CTT and LUTD, nine (100%) children with slow transit constipation (STC) and three (50%) with no STC had DO (P = 0.04). Seven (77.8%) children with STC and three (50%) with no STC had VD (P = 0.29). The DVSS scores ranged from 6 to 21. The subgroup with STC had a DVSS score that was significantly higher than that of the subgroup with

  11. Genetics Home Reference: surfactant dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (4 links) SURFACTANT METABOLISM DYSFUNCTION, PULMONARY, 1 SURFACTANT METABOLISM DYSFUNCTION, PULMONARY, 2 ...

  12. Renal Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Corica, Domenico; Romano, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases varies from 6% to 46%. The aetiology of extraintestinal manifestations remains unclear. There are theories based on an immunological response influenced by genetic factors. Extraintestinal manifestations can involve almost every organ system. They may originate from the same pathophysiological mechanism of intestinal disease, or as secondary complications of inflammatory bowel diseases, or autoimmune diseases susceptibility. The most frequently involved organs are the joints, skin, eyes, liver and biliary tract. Renal involvement has been considered as an extraintestinal manifestation and has been described in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most frequent renal involvements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are nephrolithiasis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate and report the most important data in the literature on renal involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Bibliographical searches were performed of the MEDLINE electronic database from January 1998 to January 2015 with the following key words (all fields): (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (kidney OR renal OR nephrotoxicity OR renal function OR kidney disease OR renal disease OR glomerulonephritis OR interstitial nephritis OR amyloidosis OR kidney failure OR renal failure) AND (5-aminosalicylic acid OR aminosalicylate OR mesalazine OR TNF-α inhibitors OR cyclosporine OR azathioprine OR drugs OR pediatric). Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Defining and diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schuster, M M

    2001-07-01

    Approximately 20% of the general population has irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although the majority of these individuals do not consult a physician, IBS accounts for 25% of visits to a gastroenterologist and up to 12% of visits to a primary care physician. Consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with IBS are estimated at $8 billion annually. IBS symptoms, with no apparent structural pathology, include altered bowel habits, abdominal pain/discomfort, and bloating. The Rome II criteria, a standardized guideline for the diagnosis of IBS, contains in its definition abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. Bloating may often be present. Three patient subgroups are defined according to the predominant bowel symptom: constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea. Hematology, fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and lactose intolerance evaluations are recommended for all patients demonstrating symptoms of IBS. When indicated, tests are recommended to rule out bacterial or parasitic infections, pelvic floor muscle dyssynergia, colonic inertia, peptic ulcer, or inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Botulinum toxin in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the efficacy and safety of intravesical onabotulinum toxin A (onabotA) injections has led to them being licensed in many countries, including Korea, for the treatment of patients with urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) resulting from spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis who are refractory or intolerant to anticholinergic medications. OnabotA injections have an inhibitory effect on acetylcholine release for up to 10 months, with a recommended dose of 200 U. OnabotA treatment has a beneficial effect not only on urinary symptoms, but also on quality of life. Several clinical studies have shown onabotA to have better effects than placebo in achieving continence, reducing incontinence episodes, improving urodynamic parameters, and improving health-related quality of life. Urinary tract infections and postvoid residual volume are the most prevalent side effects. In patients with residual volume, clean intermittent catheterization may be necessary. In patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, it is recommended to evaluate physical and cognitive function before intravesical onabotA injection to ensure that the patient and caregiver are able to perform catheterization if necessary. Further controlled trials should assess the optimal dose, injection technique, long-term safety of repeated injections, and optimal timing of onabotA treatment in the treatment of NDO. PMID:28119887

  15. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-06-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)-the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality-is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications.

  16. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect.

  17. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect. PMID:24729712

  18. Macrophage-derived oncostatin M contributes to human and mouse neurogenic heterotopic ossifications

    PubMed Central

    Torossian, Frédéric; Guerton, Bernadette; Anginot, Adrienne; Alexander, Kylie A.; Desterke, Christophe; Soave, Sabrina; Tseng, Hsu-Wen; Arouche, Nassim; Boutin, Laetitia; Kulina, Irina; Salga, Marjorie; Jose, Beulah; Pettit, Allison R.; Clay, Denis; Vlachos, Erica; Genet, Guillaume; Debaud, Charlotte; Denormandie, Philippe; Genet, François; Sims, Natalie A.; Banzet, Sébastien; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Le Bousse-Kerdilès, Marie-Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is the formation of ectopic bone generally in muscles surrounding joints following spinal cord or brain injury. We investigated the mechanisms of NHO formation in 64 patients and a mouse model of spinal cord injury–induced NHO. We show that marrow from human NHOs contains hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches, in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and endothelial cells provide an environment supporting HSC maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. The transcriptomic signature of MSCs from NHOs shows a neuronal imprinting associated with a molecular network required for HSC support. We demonstrate that oncostatin M (OSM) produced by activated macrophages promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of human muscle-derived stromal cells surrounding NHOs. The key role of OSM was confirmed using an experimental model of NHO in mice defective for the OSM receptor (OSMR). Our results provide strong evidence that macrophages contribute to NHO formation through the osteogenic action of OSM on muscle cells within an inflammatory context and suggest that OSM/OSMR could be a suitable therapeutic target. Altogether, the evidence of HSCs in ectopic bones growing at the expense of soft tissue in spinal cord/brain-injured patients indicates that inflammation and muscle contribute to HSC regulation by the brain-bone-blood triad. PMID:29093266

  19. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation device for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia: technology update.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Domenico A; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2018-01-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) can occur in patients with nervous system diseases of varying etiologies. Moreover, recovery from ND is not guaranteed. The therapeutic approaches for oropharyngeal ND have drastically changed over the last decade, mainly due to a better knowledge of the neurophysiology of swallowing along with the progress of neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies. For this reason, it is a priority to develop a treatment that is repeatable, safe, and can be carried out at the bedside as well as for outpatients. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a novel rehabilitation treatment for ND. PES is carried out via location-specific intraluminal catheters that are introduced transnasally and enable clinicians to stimulate the pharynx directly. This technique has demonstrated increasingly promising evidence in improving swallowing performance in patients with ND associated with stroke and multiple sclerosis, probably by increasing the corticobulbar excitability and inducing cortical reorganization of swallowing motor cortex. In this article, we update the reader as to both the physiologic background and past and current studies of PES in an effort to highlight the clinical progress of this important technique.

  20. Genetic Evaluation of E. coli Strains Isolated from Asymptomatic Children with Neurogenic Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Kryger, John; Burleigh, Alexandra; Christensen, Melissa; Hopkins, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the genetic profiles of E. coli that colonize asymptomatic pediatric neurogenic bladders. E. coli was isolated from 25 of 80 urine samples. Patients were excluded if they presented with symptomatic urinary tract infection or received treatment with antibiotics in the preceding three months. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine E. coli phylotype (A, B1, B2, and D) and the presence of seven pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and 10 virulence factors (VFs). E. coli strains were predominantly of the B1 and B2 phylotype, with few strains in the A or D phylotype. The PAIs IV536, ICFT073, and IICFT073 had the highest prevalence: 76%, 64%, and 48%, respectively. The PAIs II536, IJ96, and IIJ96 were less prevalent: 28%, 20%, and 24%, respectively. The most prevalent VF was vat (40%), while the least prevalent VFs were sfa (8%) and iha (12%). None of the strains carried the VF fyuA, which is very common in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The genetic profiles of E. coli in this cohort seem to be more similar to UPEC than to commensal E. coli. However, they appear to have reduced virulence potential that allows them to colonize asymptomatically. PMID:26609542

  1. Neurogenic effects of β-amyloid in the choroid plexus epithelial cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bolos, Marta; Spuch, Carlos; Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Ferrer, Isidro; Carro, Eva

    2013-08-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) can promote neurogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons. The choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is burdened with amyloid deposits and hosts neuronal progenitor cells. However, neurogenesis in this brain tissue is not firmly established. To investigate this issue further, we examined the effect of Aβ on the neuronal differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells in several experimental models of AD. Here we show that Aβ regulates neurogenesis in vitro in cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells as well as in vivo in the choroid plexus of APP/Ps1 mice. Treatment with oligomeric Aβ increased proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells in cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells, but decreased survival of newly born neurons. These Aβ-induced neurogenic effects were also observed in choroid plexus of APP/PS1 mice, and detected also in autopsy tissue from AD patients. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed that pre-treating the choroid plexus epithelial cells with specific inhibitors of TyrK or MAPK diminished Aβ-induced neuronal proliferation. Taken together, our results support a role of Aβ in proliferation and differentiation in the choroid plexus epithelial cells in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. The Nuclear Receptor TLX Is Required for Gliomagenesis within the Adult Neurogenic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuhua; Niu, Wenze; Qin, Song; Downes, Michael; Burns, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually generate functional neurons in the adult brain. Due to their ability to proliferate, deregulated NSCs or their progenitors have been proposed as the cells of origin for a number of primary central nervous system neoplasms, including infiltrating gliomas. The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for proliferation of adult NSCs, and its upregulation promotes brain tumor formation. However, it is unknown whether TLX is required for gliomagenesis. We examined the genetic interactions between TLX and several tumor suppressors, as well as the role of TLX-dependent NSCs during gliomagenesis, using mouse models. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the proliferation of adult NSCs with a single deletion of p21, p53, or Pten or combined deletion of Pten and p53. While brain tumors still form in Tlx mutant mice, these tumors are less infiltrative and rarely associate with the adult neurogenic niches, suggesting a non-stem-cell origin. Taken together, these results indicate a critical role for TLX in NSC-dependent gliomagenesis and implicate TLX as a therapeutic target to inhibit the development of NSC-derived brain tumors. PMID:23028043

  3. The nuclear receptor TLX is required for gliomagenesis within the adult neurogenic niche.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuhua; Niu, Wenze; Qin, Song; Downes, Michael; Burns, Dennis K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2012-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually generate functional neurons in the adult brain. Due to their ability to proliferate, deregulated NSCs or their progenitors have been proposed as the cells of origin for a number of primary central nervous system neoplasms, including infiltrating gliomas. The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for proliferation of adult NSCs, and its upregulation promotes brain tumor formation. However, it is unknown whether TLX is required for gliomagenesis. We examined the genetic interactions between TLX and several tumor suppressors, as well as the role of TLX-dependent NSCs during gliomagenesis, using mouse models. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the proliferation of adult NSCs with a single deletion of p21, p53, or Pten or combined deletion of Pten and p53. While brain tumors still form in Tlx mutant mice, these tumors are less infiltrative and rarely associate with the adult neurogenic niches, suggesting a non-stem-cell origin. Taken together, these results indicate a critical role for TLX in NSC-dependent gliomagenesis and implicate TLX as a therapeutic target to inhibit the development of NSC-derived brain tumors.

  4. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  5. Premature aging of the hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amira A H; Schwarz-Herzke, Beryl; Stahr, Anna; Prozorovski, Timour; Aktas, Orhan; von Gall, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis undergoes dramatic age-related changes. Mice with targeted deletion of the clock geneBmal1 (Bmal1(-/-)) show disrupted regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, accelerated aging, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. As proliferation of neuronal progenitor/precursor cells (NPCs) is enhanced in young Bmal1(-/-) mice, we tested the hypothesis that this results in premature aging of hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice as compared to wildtype littermates. We found significantly reduced pool of hippocampal NPCs, scattered distribution, enhanced survival of NPCs and an increased differentiation of NPCs into the astroglial lineage at the expense of the neuronal lineage. Immunoreaction of the redox sensitive histone deacetylase Sirtuine 1, peroxisomal membrane protein at 70 kDa and expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Waf1/CIP1) were increased in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, genetic disruption of the molecular clockwork leads to accelerated age-dependent decline in adult neurogenesis presumably as a consequence of oxidative stress.

  6. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of benign neurogenic tumours of the posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The indications for videothoracoscopy are very broad and include the treatment of mediastinal tumours. Aim To present our experience of using the minimally invasive technique in treating benign neurogenic tumours. Material and methods Twenty-two patients were treated due to tumours of the posterior mediastinum from 2003 to 2012. The size of the tumours ranged from 2 cm to 25 cm. Tumours up to the size of 6 cm were treated using videothoracoscopy (VT), bigger ones through thoracotomy. Results The videothoracoscopy technique was used in 17 patients, thoracotomy in 5. In 2 cases conversion was required due to adhesions in the pleural cavity preventing VT treatment. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. The average time of hospital stay after VT treatment was 4 days, while after thoracotomy it was 6 days. Histologically, tumours of benign nature were found in all cases. Schwannoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, ganglioneuroma in 3 patients, neurofibroma in 3 patients, and chemodectoma in 1 patient. None of the 3 cases of neurofibroma was associated with Recklinghausen's disease. At a mean follow-up of 60 months no recurrence of the tumour was found. Conclusions In the case of tumours up to 6 cm the best surgical technique is videothoracoscopy. In the case of large tumours the best access is the open technique. The minimally invasive technique allows one to shorten the patient's treatment time, reduce postoperative pain and obtain a good cosmetic effect of the treatment. PMID:25337152

  7. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  8. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Christina R.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ulibarri, Adam L.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism. PMID:24952232

  9. Do patients with neurogenic bladder treated with clean intermittentcatheterization need antibacterial prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Akil, İpek; Özen, Çınar; Cengiz, Beyhan

    2016-06-23

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis (ABP) with respect to the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) and evaluated the development of renal scarring in patients treated with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). A total of 22 patients were included in the study. The patients were administered ABP in the first year (the ABP-received period) but not in the second year (the ABP-discontinued period). Twenty-eight of all cultures taken in the ABP-received period (18.2%) and 25 (16.2%) of the ABP-discontinued cultures were considered to be indicative of symptomatic UTIs (P = 0.65). The multiple antibiotic resistance rate of microorganisms in cultures taken during the ABP-discontinued period (47; 30.5%) was lower than that in those taken in the ABP-received period (62; 40.3%), (P = 0.07). There was no difference between the ABP-received and ABP-discontinued periods with respect to the development of new lesions according to dimercaptosuccinic acid results (P = 0.14). Routine ABP usage is not protective against the development of symptomatic UTIs and new lesions in neurogenic bladder patients receiving CIC. Furthermore, the growth of resistant microorganisms increased in the ABP-received period.

  10. What Is a Dysfunctional School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a school is dysfunctional depends largely on how dysfunctionality in schools is defined and measured. Dysfunctionality, as any construct, is subject to definition and interpretation, and it is thus always marked by perspectivism. But regardless of the definition games occasionally played by academics, some form of reality takes…

  11. Evaluation of gastric and small bowel transit times in coeliac disease with the small bowel PillCam®: a single centre study in a non gluten-free diet adult Italian population with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, R; Cianci, R; Bizzotto, A; Costamagna, G; Riccioni, M E

    2013-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying bowel disturbances in coeliac disease are still relatively unclear. Past reports suggested that small bowel motor abnormalities may be involved in this pathological condition; there are no studies addressing small bowel transit in coeliac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. The objective of this study was to determine whether capsule endoscopy (CE) could serve as a test for measurement of gastric and small bowel transit times in a group of symptomatic or asymptomatic coeliac patients at the time of diagnosis with respect to a control group. Thirty coeliac untreated patients and 30 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy controls underwent CE assessment of whole gut transit times. All subjects completed the study per protocol and experienced natural passage of the pill. No statistical significant differences between gastric emptying and small bowel transit times both in coeliac and control group were found (p = 0.1842 and p = 0.7134; C.I. 95%, respectively). No correlation was found in coeliac patients and control group between transit times and age, sex and BMI. By using the Pearson's correlation test, significant correlation emerged between gastric emptying time and small bowel transit times in coeliac disease (r = 0.1706). CE reveals unrecognized gender differences and may be a novel outpatient technique for gut transit times' assessment without exposure to radiation and for the evaluation of upper gut dysfunction in healthy patients suffering from constipation without evidence of intestinal malabsorption. Nevertheless, CE does not seem to be the most suitable method for studying gut transit times in untreated coeliac patients; this might be ascribed to the fact that CE consists of inert (non-digestible, non-absorbable) substances.

  12. Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live without the Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... Personal Stories Contact Us Search Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live Without the Problem Home Biofeedback ... donation. Adapted from IFFGD Publication: Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live without the Problem by Mary ...

  13. Glioplasticity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lilli, N L; Quénéhervé, L; Haddara, S; Brochard, C; Aubert, P; Rolli-Derkinderen, M; Durand, T; Naveilhan, P; Hardouin, J-B; De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Bruley des Varannes, S; Coron, E; Neunlist, M

    2018-04-01

    Growing evidence indicates a wide array of cellular remodeling in the mucosal microenvironment during irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which possibly contributes to pathophysiology and symptom generation. Here, we investigated whether enteric glial cells (EGC) may be altered, and which factors/mechanisms lead to these changes. Colonic mucosal biopsies of IBS patients (13 IBS-Constipation [IBS-C]; 10 IBS-Diarrhea [IBS-D]; 11 IBS-Mixed [IBS-M]) and 24 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed. Expression of S100β and GFAP was measured. Cultured rat EGC were incubated with supernatants from mucosal biopsies, then proliferation and Ca 2+ response to ATP were analyzed using flow cytometry and Ca 2+ imaging. Histamine and histamine 1-receptor (H1R) involvement in the effects of supernatant upon EGC was analyzed. Compared to HC, the mucosal area immunoreactive for S100β was significantly reduced in biopsies of IBS patients, independently of the IBS subtype. IBS-C supernatants reduced EGC proliferation and IBS-D and IBS-M supernatants reduced Ca 2+ response to ATP in EGC. EGC expressed H1R and the effects of supernatant upon Ca 2+ response to ATP in EGC were blocked by pyrilamine and reproduced by histamine via H1R. IBS supernatants reduced mRNA expression of connexin-43. The S100β-stained area was negatively correlated with the frequency and intensity of pain and bloating. Changes in EGC occur in IBS, involving mucosal soluble factors. Histamine, via activation of H1R-dependent pathways, partly mediates altered Ca 2+ response to ATP in EGC. These changes may contribute to the pathophysiology and the perception of pain and bloating in patients with IBS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Dermot; Kugathasan, Subra; Cho, Judy H.

    2015-01-01

    In this Review, we provide an update on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we summarize progress in defining the functional consequences of associated alleles for coding and non-coding genetic variation. In the small minority of loci where major association signals correspond to non-synonymous variation, we summarize studies defining their functional effects and implications for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, the large majority of GWAS-associated loci involve non-coding variation, many of which modulate levels of gene expression. Recent expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have established that expression of the large majority of human genes is regulated by non-coding genetic variation. Significant advances in defining the epigenetic landscape have demonstrated that IBD GWAS signals are highly enriched within cell-specific active enhancer marks. Studies in European ancestry populations have dominated the landscape of IBD genetics studies, but increasingly, studies in Asian and African-American populations are being reported. Common variation accounts for only a modest fraction of the predicted heritability and the role of rare genetic variation of higher effects (i.e. odds ratios markedly deviating from one) is increasingly being identified through sequencing efforts. These sequencing studies have been particularly productive in very-early onset, more severe cases. A major challenge in IBD genetics will be harnessing the vast array of genetic discovery for clinical utility, through emerging precision medicine initiatives. We discuss the rapidly evolving area of direct to consumer genetic testing, as well as the current utility of clinical exome sequencing, especially in very early onset, severe IBD cases. We summarize recent progress in the pharmacogenetics of IBD with respect of partitioning patient responses to anti-TNF and thiopurine therapies. Highly collaborative studies across research

  15. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Ramona; Korelitz, Burton I.

    2001-06-01

    The management of both male and female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to have a baby is challenging. For women, the most important factor to bear in mind is that the outcome of pregnancy is largely influenced by disease activity at the time of conception. Women with quiescent disease are likely to have an uncomplicated pregnancy with the delivery of a healthy baby, whereas women with active disease are more likely to have complications such as spontaneous abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and exacerbation of the disease. This is more true of patients with Crohn's disease than of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although the safety of medications used during pregnancy is an important issue, the impact of the medications used to treat IBD is less important in comparison to disease activity itself. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) products appear to be safe during pregnancy; corticosteroids are probably safe; 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine should be used with caution; and methotrexate is contraindicated. There are inadequate data on the use of infliximab during pregnancy. In regard to men with IBD, the disease itself does not seem to have any negative impact on fertility. However, there is controversy about the effects of using 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine prior to and during fertilization. In view of possible adverse pregnancy outcomes, it would be prudent to withhold 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in men with IBD for 3 months prior to conception, when feasible. Most IBD medications should be continued before, during, and after pregnancy, with careful attention to the known cautions and exceptions. If IBD in a pregnant patient is in remission, the prognosis for pregnancy is the same as if she did not have IBD. Active disease should therefore be treated aggressively and remission accomplished before pregnancy is attempted. Similarly, a woman who unexpectedly becomes pregnant while her IBD is active should be treated

  17. Neurogenic transdifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells? A critical protocol reevaluation with special emphasis on cell proliferation and cell cycle alterations.

    PubMed

    Kompisch, Kai Michael; Lange, Claudia; Steinemann, Doris; Skawran, Britta; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Reinhard; Schumacher, Udo

    2010-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are reported to display multilineage differentiation potential, including neuroectodermal pathways. The aim of the present study was to critically re-evaluate the potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation capacity of ASCs using a neurogenic induction protocol based on the combination of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), indomethacin and insulin. ASCs isolated from lipo-aspirate samples of five healthy female donors were characterized and potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses. Cell proliferation and cell cycle alterations were studied, and the expression of CREB/ATF transcription factors was analyzed. ASCs expressed CD59, CD90 and CD105, and were tested negative for CD34 and CD45. Under neurogenic induction, ASCs adopted a characteristic morphology comparable to neur(on)al progenitors and expressed musashi1, β-III-tubulin and nestin. Gene expression analyses revealed an increased expression of β-III-tubulin, GFAP, vimentin and BDNF, as well as SOX4 in induced ASCs. Cell proliferation was significantly reduced under neurogenic induction; cell cycle analyses showed a G2-cell cycle arrest accompanied by differential expression of key regulators of cell cycle progression. Differential expression of CREB/ATF transcription factors could be observed on neurogenic induction, pointing to a decisive role of the cAMP-CREB/ATF system. Our findings may point to a potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation of ASCs into early neur(on)al progenitors, but do not present definite evidence for it. Especially, the adoption of a neural progenitor cell-like morphology must not automatically be misinterpreted as a specific characteristic of a respective (trans-)differentiation process, as this may as well be caused by alterations of cell cycle progression.

  18. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Marc; Grant, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease, and its causes can be neurogenic, psychogenic, hormonal and vascular. ED is often an important indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a powerful early marker for asymptomatic CVD. Erection is a vascular event, and ED is often a vascular disease caused by endothelial damage and subsequent inhibition of vasodilation. We show here that risk factors associated with a higher CVD risk also associate with a higher ED risk. Such factors include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arterial calcification and Inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Vitamin D deficiency is one of several dynamics that associates with increased CVD risk, but to our knowledge, it has not been studied as a possible contributor to ED. Here we examine research linking ED and CVD and discuss how vitamin D influences CVD and its classic risk factors—factors that also associate to increased ED risk. We also summarize research indicating that vitamin D associates with reduced risk of several nonvascular contributing factors for ED. We conclude that VDD contributes to ED. This hypothesis should be tested through observational and intervention studies. PMID:22928068

  19. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  20. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

  1. Rheumatological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Voulgari, Paraskevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequent and include peripheral arthritis, axial involvement and peripheral enthesitis. Secondary osteoporosis and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may also occur. Complications of IBD (e.g. septic arthritis) must be distinguished from sterile inflammation. Adverse effects of corticosteroid treatment, such as osteonecrosis, may also affect joints. Axial involvement ranges from low back pain to true ankylosing spondylitis. Human leukocyte antigen B27 is associated with axial involvement of IBD. Peripheral arthritis has been classified into two types. Type I is a pauciarticular, asymmetric usually non destructive arthritis affecting large joints and is usually associated with active bowel disease. Type II is a polyarthritis affecting small joints and tends to run a course independent of the bowel disease. Treatment of joint symptoms in IBD include sulphasalazine, azathioprine, methotrexate and glucocorticoids. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies are effective in treating resistant or complicated Crohn’s disease as well as peripheral arthritis and axial involvement. PMID:24713717

  2. Female sexual dysfunction and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Matytsina, Lyubov

    2010-10-01

    To review recent publications in the area of sexual dysfunction in females including the adolescent age group. Though as many as 40% of adult females have a sexual dysfunction, the incidence among adolescent females is unknown. Though over half of adolescents are sexually active, sexual dysfunction is not a term universally accepted among the general public as well as researchers. Research on sexual dysfunction in females typically starts with age 18 years or over. Causes of sexual dysfunction include medical disorders, gynecological problems, which started from the adolescent age, psychiatric disorders, and complications of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics, and others. Management includes identification of the specific sexual dysfunction and treatment of the underlying condition, including surgical treatment in such cases as absent vagina or obstetrics fistula. Psychological therapy is helpful when psychological factors are contributory to the dysfunction. Pharmacologic principles of management cases can, for example, include treatment of gynecological problems such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometriosis as a cause of sexual dysfunction or include removal of the offending drug, use of glutamatergic strategies or trazodone in SSRI-association dysfunction, and addition of bupropion or other medications in select cases. No medication is FDA-approved for sexual dysfunction in females. Sexual dysfunction in females includes lack of sexual desire, sexual pain disorders (as dyspareunia), anorgasmia, and sexual arousal dysfunction. Acceptance of the high incidence of sexual dysfunction in all female populations is necessary to appreciate this phenomenon in the adolescent cohort, because some gynecological disease can arise from the adolescent age and can cause sexual dysfunction. Some sexual dysfunctions require immediate treatment, including surgical in the case of congenital anomaly, ovarian cyst, or

  3. Percutaneous Perineal Electrostimulation Induces Erection: Clinical Significance in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury and Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ali A; Shafik, Ismail A; Sibai, Olfat El

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third to one half of the penis is embedded in the pelvis and can be felt through the scrotum and in the perineum. The main arteries and nerves enter the penis through this perineal part of the penis, which seems to represent a highly sensitive area. We investigated the hypothesis that percutaneous perineal stimulation evokes erection in patients with neurogenic erectile dysfunction. Methods: Percutaneous electrostimulation of the perineum (PESP) with synchronous intracorporeal pressure (ICP) recording was performed in 28 healthy volunteers (age 36.3 ± 7.4 y) and 18 patients (age 36.6 ± 6.8 y) with complete neurogenic erectile dysfunction (NED). Current was delivered in a sine wave summation fashion. Average maximal voltages and number of stimulations delivered per session were 15 to 18 volts and 15 to 25 stimulations, respectively. Results: PESP of healthy volunteers effected an ICP increase (P < 0.0001), which returned to the basal value upon stimulation cessation. The latent period recorded was 2.5 ± 0.2 seconds. Results were reproducible on repeated PESP in the same subject but with an increase of the latent period. Patients with NED recorded an ICP increase that was lower (P < 0.05) and a latent period that was longer (P < 0.0001) than those of healthy volunteers. Conclusion: PESP effected ICP increase in the healthy volunteers and patients with NED. The ICP was significantly higher and latent period shorter in the healthy volunteers than in the NED patients. PESP may be of value in the treatment of patients with NED, provided that further studies are performed to reproduce these results. PMID:18533410

  4. Targeting vascular (endothelial) dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Sebastian; Weber, Alina; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Laher, Ismail; Li, Huige; Lamas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are major contributors to global deaths and disability‐adjusted life years, with hypertension a significant risk factor for all causes of death. The endothelium that lines the inner wall of the vasculature regulates essential haemostatic functions, such as vascular tone, circulation of blood cells, inflammation and platelet activity. Endothelial dysfunction is an early predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We review the prognostic value of obtaining measurements of endothelial function, the clinical techniques for its determination, the mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction and the therapeutic treatment of endothelial dysfunction. Since vascular oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of endothelial function, we have also addressed current antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory therapies. In the light of recent data that dispute the prognostic value of endothelial function in healthy human cohorts, we also discuss alternative diagnostic parameters such as vascular stiffness index and intima/media thickness ratio. We also suggest that assessing vascular function, including that of smooth muscle and even perivascular adipose tissue, may be an appropriate parameter for clinical investigations. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc PMID:27187006

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recording and Analysis of Bowel Sounds.

    PubMed

    Zaborski, Daniel; Halczak, Miroslaw; Grzesiak, Wilhelm; Modrzejewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an electronic bowel sound recording system and determine its usefulness for the diagnosis of appendicitis, mechanical ileus and diffuse peritonitis. A group of 67 subjects aged 17 to 88 years including 15 controls was examined. Bowel sounds were recorded using an electret microphone placed on the right side of the hypogastrium and connected to a laptop computer. The method of adjustable grids (converted into binary matrices) was used for bowel sounds analysis. Significantly, fewer (p ≤ 0.05) sounds were found in the mechanical ileus (1004.4) and diffuse peritonitis (466.3) groups than in the controls (2179.3). After superimposing adjustable binary matrices on combined sounds (interval between sounds <0.01 s), significant relationships (p ≤ 0.05) were found between particular positions in the matrices (row-column) and the patient groups. These included the A1_T1 and A1_T2 positions and mechanical ileus as well as the A1_T2 and A1_T4 positions and appendicitis. For diffuse peritonitis, significant positions were A5_T4 and A1_T4. Differences were noted in the number of sounds and binary matrices in the groups of patients with acute abdominal diseases. Certain features of bowel sounds characteristic of individual abdominal diseases were indicated. BS: bowel sound; APP: appendicitis; IL: mechanical ileus; PE: diffuse peritonitis; CG: control group; NSI: number of sound impulses; NCI: number of combined sound impulses; MBS: mean bit-similarity; TMIN: minimum time between impulses; TMAX: maximum time between impulses; TMEAN: mean time between impulses. Zaborski D, Halczak M, Grzesiak W, Modrzejewski A. Recording and Analysis of Bowel Sounds. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):67-73.

  7. Stricturoplasty-a bowel-sparing option for long segment small bowel Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Alexandra M; Koh, Hoey C; Gilmore, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Stricturoplasty is a surgical option for management of severe stricturing Crohn's disease of the small bowel. It avoids the need for small bowel resection and the associated metabolic complications. This report contrasts the indications and technical aspects of two different stricturoplasty techniques. Case 1 describes an extensive Michelassi (side-to-side isoperistaltic) stricturoplasty performed for a 100 cm segment of diseased small bowel in a 45-year-old patient. Case 2 describes the performance of 12 Heineke-Mikulicz stricturoplasties in a 23-year-old patient with multiple short fibrotic strictures.

  8. Stricturoplasty—a bowel-sparing option for long segment small bowel Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hoey C.; Gilmore, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stricturoplasty is a surgical option for management of severe stricturing Crohn's disease of the small bowel. It avoids the need for small bowel resection and the associated metabolic complications. This report contrasts the indications and technical aspects of two different stricturoplasty techniques. Case 1 describes an extensive Michelassi (side-to-side isoperistaltic) stricturoplasty performed for a 100 cm segment of diseased small bowel in a 45-year-old patient. Case 2 describes the performance of 12 Heineke-Mikulicz stricturoplasties in a 23-year-old patient with multiple short fibrotic strictures. PMID:29423160

  9. An Overview of Bowel Incontinence: What Can Go Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Bowel incontinence, also called fecal incontinence, is the loss of control over liquid or solid stools. It can occur at any age--as a child, teenager, or adult. Severity can range from infrequent leakage of a small amount of stool to total loss of bowel control. Some persons might feel the urge to have a bowel movement but be unable to control it…

  10. Meckel diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Alistair James

    2010-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted with generalised abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. His abdomen was markedly distended and tender on general examination with signs of local peritonism in the left iliac fossa. He was initially diagnosed with likely acute diverticulitis and treated conservatively. A CT scan the next day showed fluid filled, dilated small bowel loops consistent with small bowel obstruction and there was a suggestion of an abscess in the left iliac fossa region. An urgent laparotomy was performed, which identified a perforated Meckel diverticulum. PMID:22479299

  11. [Neurological complications of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Cieplik, N; Stangel, M; Bachmann, O

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoantibody driven celiac disease and infectious Whipple's disease can all be associated with neurological symptoms. The neurological manifestation may occur even before the gastrointestinal symptoms or the enteropathic symptoms can even be absent as in celiac disease. These diseases can be caused by malresorption and lack of vitamins due to enteral inflammation as well as (auto-)immunological mechanisms and drug-associated side effects. Thus, inflammatory bowel diseases have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this review the most common neurological manifestations of these diseases will be described as well as the diagnostic approach.

  12. The molecular biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Corfield, Anthony P; Wallace, Heather M; Probert, Chris S J

    2011-08-01

    IBDs (inflammatory bowel diseases) are a group of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The diseases are multifactorial and cover genetic aspects: susceptibility genes, innate and adaptive responses to inflammation, and structure and efficacy of the mucosal protective barrier. Animal models of IBD have been developed to gain further knowledge of the disease mechanisms. These topics form an overlapping background to enable an improved understanding of the molecular features of these diseases. A series of articles is presented based on the topics covered at the Biochemical Society Focused Meeting The Molecular Biology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

  13. Antibiotics during childhood and inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Four epidemiological studies, including two large cohort studies in children aged 17 years or under, have studied the link between antibiotic therapy and inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of inflammatory bowel disease appeared to be twice as high in children exposed to an antibiotic as in unexposed children. The risk appeared higher following exposure during the first year of life, with beta-lactam antibiotics, and with repeated antibiotic courses. One postulated mechanism is through destruction of the anaerobic intestinal flora by antibiotics. In practice, these data provide yet another reason to avoid unnecessarily exposing children to antibiotics.

  14. Probiotic Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, George; Graham, Deborah B.; Borum, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is thought to be multifactorial, with several factors (including alterations in gut motility, small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, microscopic inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity) potentially playing a role. Recent studies have suggested that probiotics may be useful in the treatment of IBS. Although the exact mechanism for how probiotics may aid in the reduction of symptoms commonly found in IBS is unknown, the effects of probiotics on alterations in gut bacteria appear to play a part. This review focuses on recent studies examining the role of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:20567539

  15. Achieving the best bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Ruiz, Alex; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Amorós, Ana; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Ibáñez, Patricio; Ono, Akiko; Fujii, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Bowel preparation is a core issue in colonoscopy, as it is closely related to the quality of the procedure. Patients often find that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part of the examination. It is widely accepted that the quality of cleansing must be excellent to facilitate detecting neoplastic lesions. In spite of its importance and potential implications, until recently, bowel preparation has not been the subject of much study. The most commonly used agents are high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate. There has been some confusion, even in published meta-analyses, regarding which of the two agents provides better cleansing. It is clear now that both PEG and sodium phosphate are effective when administered with proper timing. Consequently, the timing of administration is recognized as one of the central factors to the quality of cleansing. The bowel preparation agent should be administered, at least in part, a few hours in advance of the colonoscopy. Several low volume agents are available, and either new or modified schedules with PEG that usually improve tolerance. Certain adjuvants can also be used to reduce the volume of PEG, or to improve the efficacy of other agents. Other factors apart from the choice of agent can improve the quality of bowel cleansing. For instance, the effect of diet before colonoscopy has not been completely clarified, but an exclusively liquid diet is probably not required, and a low-fiber diet may be preferable because it improves patient satisfaction and the quality of the procedure. Some patients, such as diabetics and persons with heart or kidney disease, require modified procedures and certain precautions. Bowel preparation for pediatric patients is also reviewed here. In such cases, PEG remains the most commonly used agent. As detecting neoplasia is not the main objective with these patients, less intensive preparation may suffice. Special considerations must be made for patients

  16. Association between neuropathic pain, pregabalin treatment, and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehtap; Gocmez, Cuneyt; Soylemez, Haluk; Daggulli, Mansur; Em, Serda; Yildiz, Mehmet; Atar, Murat; Bozkurt, Yasar; Ozbey, Isa

    2014-07-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) may be vasculogenic, hormonal, anatomical, neurogenic, drug-induced and/or psychogenic in origin. Neuropathic pain (NP) may facilitate ED, because it is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and its drug, pregabalin, may also contribute ED. The objective of this study was to determine whether pregabalin treatment for patients with neuropathic pain promotes erectile dysfunction. The study sample consisted of a total of 102 male subjects that were subdivided into three groups. Group 1 patients (n = 31) had a pre-existing diagnosis of NP and was treated with 300 mg/day of pregabalin for at least 3 months. Group 2 patients (n = 34) were diagnosed with NP for at least 3 months; however, neither were they treated with pregabalin nor did they received physical therapy throughout the study. Lastly, healthy age-matched control subjects comprised group 3 (n = 37). Patients in all groups completed the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Mean age and mean body mass index did not differ significantly between each of the three groups. The cause of NP and the mean duration of having a diagnosis of NP did not differ significantly in groups 1 and 2. However, IIEF scores were significantly lower for group 1 when compared to group 2 in terms of erectile function, orgasmic function, overall satisfaction and total score. Yet groups 1 and 2 did not diverge significantly in the intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. Overall IIEF scores for group 3 were significantly higher than those of group 2 except for mean erectile function scores. Taking pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain poses an increased risk for developing ED in male patients. Thus, clinicians prescribing pregabalin to patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain should assess for ED before and during treatment with this medication. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chakiath, Rosemary J; Siddall, Philip J; Kellow, John E; Hush, Julia M; Jones, Mike P; Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J

    2015-12-10

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other chronic pain conditions. The presence of widespread hypersensitivity and extra-intestinal pain conditions suggests central nervous dysfunction. While central nervous system dysfunction may involve the spinal cord (central sensitisation) and brain, this review will focus on one brain mechanism, descending pain modulation. We will conduct a comprehensive search for the articles indexed in the databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) from their inception to August 2015, that report on any aspect of descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract relevant data. Results will be tabulated and, if possible, a meta-analysis will be carried out. The systematic review outlined in this protocol aims to summarise current knowledge regarding descending pain modulation in IBS. PROSPERO CRD42015024284.

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax and chronic pelvic and perineal pain].

    PubMed

    Watier, Alain; Rigaud, Jérôme; Labat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    To define functional gastrointestinal pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, the pathophysiology of these syndromes and the treatments that can be proposed. Review of articles published on the theme based on a Medline (PubMed) search and consensus conferences selected according to their scientific relevance. IBS is very common. Patients report abdominal pain and/or discomfort, bloating, and abnormal bowel habit (diarrhoea, constipation or both), in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS has a complex, multifactorial pathophysiology, involving biological and psychosocial interactions resulting in dysregulation of the brain-gut axis associated with disorders of intestinal motility, hyperalgesia, immune disorders and disorders of the intestinal bacterial microflora and autonomic and hormonal dysfunction. Many treatments have been proposed, ranging from diet to pharmacology and psychotherapy. Patients with various types of chronic pelvic and perineal pain, especially those seen in urology departments, very often report associated IBS. This syndrome is also part of a global and integrated concept of pelviperineal dysfunction, avoiding a rigorous distinction between the posterior segment and the midline and anterior segments of the perineum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual and reproductive issues and inflammatory bowel disease: a neglected topic in men.

    PubMed

    Allocca, Mariangela; Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Furfaro, Federica; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Danese, Silvio

    2018-03-01

    There has been considerable literature on sexual issues in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but relatively little attention has been paid to these aspects in men. To review the available literature and to provide the best management of sexual and reproductive issues in male patients with IBD. The scientific literature on sexual and reproductive issues in men with IBD was reviewed. Several factors, including surgical and medication treatments, disease activity, lifestyle, and psychological factors, may play a role in the development of infertility and sexual dysfunction and may negatively impact pregnancy outcomes. Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis increases the risk of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction by up to 26%. A treatment with sildenafil can be effective. Sperm banking should be advised to young men with IBD before surgery. Both sulfasalazine and methotrexate may be responsible for reversible sexual dysfunction and infertility. Furthermore, sulfasalazine should be switched to mesalazine at least 4 months before conception because of a higher risk of congenital malformations in pregnancies fathered by men treated with this drug. Psychotropic drugs, frequently used in IBD, may cause sexual dysfunction up to 80%. Last but not the least, voluntary childlessness occurs frequently, mainly because of concerns about medication safety in pregnancy and fear of transmitting disease. Accurate counseling, and where necessary, psychological support can decrease any misperceptions and fears. Close collaboration between the gastroenterologist and the patient is recommended for the best management of these relevant, neglected aspects in men with IBD.

  20. Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhu, Wenhua; Liu, Wenhui; Wu, Yingqiao; Wu, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The current treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are suboptimal. The findings of previous studies of rifaximin treatment for IBS may have differed due to variations in study design. Our study aimed to determine the therapeutic and adverse effects of rifaximin treatment for IBS based on a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for RCTs investigating the effects of rifaximin on IBS. Data from each selected RCT was evaluated individually based on an intention-to-treat analysis, and a meta-analysis was performed in which the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of clinical outcomes and adverse events were calculated using fixed-effects models. Four eligible studies were identified. Overall relief of IBS symptoms in the rifaximin groups was greater than that in the placebo groups at the ends of both the treatment and follow-up periods (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08–1.32 and OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.18–1.58, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). Significant relief of abdominal distention was observed at the follow-up endpoint (OR = 1.69; 95% Cl: 1.27–2.23; P < 0.05), but not at the treatment endpoint (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.96–1.49; P > 0.05). Abdominal pain (OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98–1.03; P > 0.05), nausea (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98–1.02; P > 0.05), vomiting (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98–1.01; P > 0.05), and headache (OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98–1.03; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the rifaximin and placebo groups. In the RCTs selected, our meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of rifaximin for the resolution of overall IBS symptoms was greater than that of the placebos, and that rifaximin was well-tolerated. The course of relief from abdominal distention in IBS patients treated with rifaximin may be delayed in some patients, compared with that of overall IBS symptom

  1. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  2. Characterization of kinin receptors modulating neurogenic contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Maas, J; Rae, G A; Huidobro-Toro, J P; Calixto, J B

    1995-04-01

    1. This study analyses the receptors mediating the effects of bradykinin (BK) and analogues on neurogenic twitch contractions of the mouse isolated vas deferens evoked, in the presence of captopril (3 microM), by electrical field stimulation with trains of 4 rectangular 0.5 ms pulses of supramaximal strength, delivered at a frequency of 10 Hz every 20 s. 2. BK (0.1-300 nM) induced a graded potentiation of twitches, with an EC50 (geometric mean and 95% confidence limits) of 4.5 nM (1.7-11.6) and an Emax of 315 +/- 19 mg per 10 mg of wet tissue (n = 6). Similar results were obtained in tissues challenged with Lys-BK, [Hyp3]-BK, Met,Lys-BK and the selective B2 receptor agonist [Tyr(Me)8]-BK (0.1-300 nM). 3. The selective B2 receptor antagonists, Hoe 140 (1-10 nM) and NPC 17731 (3-30 nM), caused graded rightward shifts of the curve to BK-induced twitch potentiation, yielding apparent pA2 values of 9.65 +/- 0.09 and 9.08 +/- 0.13, respectively, and Schild plot slopes not different from 1. Both antagonists (100 nM) failed to modify similar twitch potentiations induced by substance P (3 nM) or endothelin-1 (1 nM). Preincubation with the selective B1 receptor antagonist, [Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1 microM), increased the potentiating effect of BK on twitches at 30-300 nM. 4. In contrast to BK, the selective B1 receptor agonist, [des-Arg9]-BK (0.3-1000 nM) reduced the amplitude of twitches in a graded fashion, with an IC50 of 13.7 nM (10.4-16.1) and an Imax of 175 +/- 11 mg (n = 4). The twitch depression induced by [des-Arg9]-BK (300 nM) was not affected by Hoe140 (30nM) or NPC 17731 (100nM), but was abolished by the selective B1 receptor antagonist,[Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1 microM), which did not modify the twitch inhibitory effect of clonidine (1 nM) or morphine (300 nM).5. In non-stimulated preparations, BK (100 nM) also potentiated, in a Hoe 140-sensitive (10 nM)manner, the contractions induced by ATP (100 microM), but not by noradrenaline (10 microM), whereas[des-Arg9]-BK (300 n

  3. Gut microbiota and its implications in small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyang; Li, Qiurong; Li, Jieshou

    2018-06-01

    The gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBTand the potential roles of these alterations in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection. We also reviewed important advances with respect to the interplays between the microbiota and host immune systems in SBT. Furthermore, we explored the potential of the gut microbiota as a microbial marker and/or therapeutic target for the predication and intervention of allograft rejection and chronic dysfunction. Given that current research on the gut microbiota has become increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive, large cohort studies employing metagenomic analysis and multivariate linkage should be designed for the characterization of host-microbe interaction and causality between microbiota alterations and clinical outcomes in SBT. The findings are expected to provide valuable insights into the role of gut microbiota in the development of allograft rejection and other transplant-related complications and introduce novel therapeutic targets and treatment approaches in clinical practice.

  4. Nephrolithiasis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in the community

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Dídia Bismara; Moss, Alan C; Schor, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with renal stone formation. The objective of this study was to determine prospectively the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in a community-based population of patients with IBD and to analyze factors associated with renal calculus formation. Methods Screening renal ultrasound was performed in a well characterized cohort of patients seen between 2009 and 2012 at an IBD clinic. We enrolled 168 patients, including 93 with Crohn’s disease and 75 with ulcerative colitis. Clinical and phenotypic variables associated with asymptomatic nephrolithiasis were determined. Results Nephrolithiasis was detected in 36 patients with Crohn’s disease and in 28 patients with ulcerative colitis (38% for both). Although none of the patients had been previously hospitalized for symptomatic nephrolithiasis, nine with Crohn’s disease and five with ulcerative colitis had recurrent urinary tract infections or hydronephrosis. In patients with Crohn’s disease, ileocolonic (L3) disease was associated with a greater risk of nephrolithiasis than was ileal (L1) or colonic (L2) disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–7). Active ulcerative colitis (regardless of severity) represented a significant risk factor for formation of renal calculi (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1–15, P = 0.02). Conclusion In surgery-naïve patients with IBD in the community, asymptomatic nephrolithiasis is common and should be considered when renal dysfunction or infection is detected. PMID:23935383

  5. Alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2010-01-20

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for alpha(2)-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than alpha(2)-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Furthermore, coadministration of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short-duration (7 d) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action

  6. Droxidopa in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension associated with Parkinson's disease (NOH306A).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Hewitt, L Arthur; Isaacson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and represents a failure to generate norepinephrine responses appropriate for postural change. Droxidopa (L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) is an oral norepinephrine prodrug. Interim analyses of the initial patients enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of droxidopa for nOH in PD (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176240). PD patients with documented nOH underwent ≤ 2 weeks of double-blind droxidopa or placebo dosage optimization followed by 8 weeks of maintenance treatment (100-600 mg t.i.d.). The primary efficacy measure was change in Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ) composite score from baseline to Week 8. Key secondary variables included dizziness/lightheadedness score (OHQ item 1) and patient-reported falls. Among 24 droxidopa and 27 placebo recipients, mean OHQ composite-score change at Week 8 was -2.2 versus -2.1 (p = 0.98); in response to this pre-planned futility analysis, the study was temporarily stopped and all data from these patients were considered exploratory. At Week 1, mean dizziness/lightheadedness score change favored droxidopa by 1.5 units (p = 0.24), with subsequent numerical differences favoring droxidopa throughout the observation period, and at Week 1, mean standing systolic blood-pressure change favored droxidopa by 12.5 mmHg (p = 0.04). Compared with placebo, the droxidopa group exhibited an approximately 50% lower rate of reported falls (p = 0.16) and fall-related injuries (post-hoc analysis). This exploratory analysis of a small dataset failed to show benefit of droxidopa, as compared with placebo by the primary endpoint. Nonetheless, there were signals of potential benefit for nOH, including improvement in dizziness/lightheadedness and reduction in falls, meriting evaluation in further trials.

  7. Analysis of number needed to treat for droxidopa in patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    François, Clément; Rowse, Gerald J; Hewitt, L Arthur; Vo, Pamela; Hauser, Robert A

    2016-08-18

    Droxidopa is an orally active prodrug that significantly improved dizziness/lightheadedness measured using the Orthostatic Hypotension Symptom Assessment (OHSA) Item 1 in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) caused by primary autonomic failure (Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure), dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy. The efficacy and safety of droxidopa were assessed by determining the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH). Data collected in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies in adults with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic nOH were pooled for efficacy and safety analyses. NNT and NNH were calculated as reciprocals of the risk difference (difference in event rates) for droxidopa versus placebo. The NNT for droxidopa for improvement in OHSA Item 1 was <10. The NNH for adverse events (AEs) leading to discontinuation in the pooled studies was 81. The likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) calculated from pooled analysis of the NNT for ≥2 units of improvement in OHSA Item 1 score and the NNH for discontinuations due to AEs were 7.8, 8.8, 3.1, and 3.5 for weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 after randomization, respectively. Droxidopa is efficacious for treatment of nOH, with an NNT below 10 and an acceptable tolerability profile with NNH ranging from 23 to 302 in the pooled analysis of frequently occurring AEs. Based on the LHH for the pooled analysis at week 1, droxidopa is 7.8 times more likely than placebo to show a clinical benefit than result in discontinuation because of an AE. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00782340 , first received October 29, 2008; NCT00633880 , first received March 5, 2008; and NCT01176240 , first received July 30, 2010.

  8. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: roles of norepinephrine deficiency in its causes, its treatment, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Loavenbruck, Adam; Sandroni, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Although a diversity of neurotransmitters and hormones participate in controlling blood pressure, norepinephrine released from postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals is an important mediator of the rapid regulation of cardiovascular function required for homeostasis of cerebral perfusion. Hence, neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) often represents a deficiency of noradrenergic responsiveness to postural change. PubMed searches with 'orthostatic hypotension' and 'norepinephrine' as conjoint search terms and no restriction on language or date, so as to survey the pathophysiologic and clinical relevance of norepinephrine deficiency for current NOH interventions and for future directions in treatment and research. Norepinephrine deficiency in NOH can arise peripherally, due to cardiovascular sympathetic denervation (as in pure autonomic failure, Parkinson's disease, and a variety of neuropathies), or centrally, due to a failure of viscerosensory signals to generate adequate sympathetic traffic to intact sympathetic nerve endings (as in multiple system atrophy). Nonpharmacologic countermeasures such as pre-emptive water intake may yield blood-pressure increases exceeding those achieved pharmacologically. For patients with symptomatic NOH unresponsive to such strategies, a variety of pharmacologic interventions have been administered off-label on the basis of drug mechanisms expected to increase blood pressure via blood-volume expansion or vasoconstriction. Two pressor agents have received FDA approval: the sympathomimetic midodrine and more recently the norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa. Pressor agents are important for treating symptomatic NOH in patients unresponsive to lifestyle changes alone. However, the dysautonomia underlying NOH often permits blood-pressure excursions toward both hypotension and hypertension. Future research should aim to shed light on the resulting management issues, and should also explore the possibility of pharmacotherapy selectively

  9. α2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U.; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V.; Vadodaria, Krishna C.; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2010-01-01

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. α2-adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of α2-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that α2-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for α2-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than α2-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of α2-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Further, co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short duration (7 day) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that α2-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action, highlighting their importance as targets for

  10. Transcriptional upregulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 protects against oxidative stress-associated neurogenic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Samuel H H; Wu, Chiung-Ai; Wu, Kay L H; Ho, Ying-Hao; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H

    2009-10-23

    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to a superfamily of mitochondrial anion transporters that uncouple ATP synthesis from oxidative phosphorylation and mitigates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. We assessed the hypothesis that UCP2 participates in central cardiovascular regulation by maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where sympathetic premotor neurons that maintain vasomotor tone located. We also elucidated the molecular mechanisms that underlie transcriptional upregulation of UCP2 in response to oxidative stress in RVLM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, transcriptional upregulation of UCP2 in RVLM by rosiglitazone, an activator of its transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma, reduced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide level in RVLM and systemic arterial pressure. Oxidative stress induced by microinjection of angiotensin II into RVLM augmented UCP2 mRNA or protein expression in RVLM, which was antagonized by comicroinjection of NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium chloride), superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol), or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580) but not by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor (U0126). Angiotensin II also induced phosphorylation of the PPARgamma coactivator, PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, and an increase in formation of PGC-1alpha/PPARgamma complexes in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin II promoted an increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in RVLM and chronic pressor response, which was potentiated by gene knockdown of UCP2 but blunted by rosiglitazone. These results suggest that transcriptional upregulation of mitochondrial UCP2 in response to an elevation in superoxide plays an active role in feedback regulation of reactive oxygen species production in RVLM and neurogenic hypertension associated

  11. Diagnostic value of "dysphagia limit" for neurogenic dysphagia: 17 years of experience in 1278 adults.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kiylioglu, Nefati; Tarlaci, Sultan; Tanriverdi, Zeynep; Alpaydin, Sezin; Acarer, Ahmet; Baysal, Leyla; Arpaci, Esra; Yuceyar, Nur; Secil, Yaprak; Ozdemirkiran, Tolga; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-03-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) is a prevalent condition that accounts for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Screening and follow-up are critical for early diagnosis and management which can mitigate its complications and be cost-saving. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive investigation of the dysphagia limit (DL) in a large diverse cohort and to provide a longitudinal assessment of dysphagia in a subset of subjects. We developed a quantitative and noninvasive method for objective assessment of dysphagia by using laryngeal sensor and submental electromyography. DL is the volume at which second or more swallows become necessary to swallow the whole amount of bolus. This study represents 17 years experience with the DL approach in assessing ND in a cohort of 1278 adult subjects consisting of 292 healthy controls, 784 patients with dysphagia, and 202 patients without dysphagia. A total of 192 of all patients were also reevaluated longitudinally over a period of 1-19 months. DL has 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 88% negative predictive value with an accuracy of 0.92. Patients with ALS, stroke, and movement disorders have the highest sensitivity (85-97%) and positive predictive value (90-99%). The clinical severity of dysphagia has significant negative correlation with DL (r=-0.67, p<0.0001). We propose the DL as a reliable, quick, noninvasive, quantitative test to detect and follow both clinical and subclinical dysphagia and it can be performed in an EMG laboratory. Our study provides specific quantitative features of DL test that can be readily utilized by the neurologic community and nominates DL as an objective and robust method to evaluate dysphagia in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurotrophic Properties, Chemosensory Responses and Neurogenic Niche of the Human Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Villadiego, Javier; Pardal, Ricardo; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemoreceptor that triggers the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia necessary for the maintenance of O(2) homeostasis essential for the survival of organs such as the brain or heart. Glomus cells, the sensory elements in the CB, are also sensitive to hypercapnia, acidosis and, although less generally accepted, hypoglycemia. Current knowledge on CB function is mainly based on studies performed on lower mammals, but the information on the human CB is scant. Here we describe the structure, neurotrophic properties, and cellular responses to hypoxia and hypoglycemia of CBs dissected from human cadavers. The adult CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. As reported for other mammalian species, glomus cells responded to hypoxia by external Ca(2+)-dependent increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and quantal catecholamine release. Human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycemia and together the two stimuli, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, can potentiate each other's effects. The chemo-sensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. Interestingly, a neurogenic niche similar to that recently described in rodents is also preserved in the adult human CB. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans.

  13. Sensory and other neurogenic effects of exposures to airborne office dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Attermann, J.

    This Danish Office Dust Experiment investigated the response of 24 healthy non-sensitive adult subjects to exposure to normal office dust in the air (7 μg m -3 clean air, 136 and 390 μg m -3 TSP). The dust had no major identifiable specific reactive components. The exposure duration was 5 1/4 h and was arranged in a climate chamber in controlled atmospheric conditions. Measurements were made acutely at exposure onset, subacutely at exposure end and next day (late). As secondary aims the time course and threshold of any observed effect of the exposures, and the characteristics of any hyperresponding subgroup were investigated. In a questionnaire with 36 questions the dust exposures caused increased acute, subacute and late perceptions of reduced air quality, acute and subacute increased odor intensity, acute eye irritation, acute and late heavy head, subacute feeling of perspiration, and subacute general irritation. Cough increased subacutely during exposures. In addition, a performance test showed effects of dust exposures which also affected "Mood Scale" ratings. No effect was seen on an addition test for distraction, and objective measurements of skin humidity. The overall conclusion of the study is that healthy subjects without hypersensitivity reactions seem to respond to airborne house dust. The responses are both subjective sensory reactions and other neurogenic effects even at exposure levels within the range found in normal buildings. Some of the effects appeared acutely and decreased through adaptation while others increased during prolonged exposure and remained for more than 17 h after the exposure ended. The findings may indicate for this type of dust a threshold level for the dose-response relationships below 140 μg m -3.

  14. Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom induces both neurogenic and inflammatory pain behavior in rodents.

    PubMed

    Kimura, L F; Santos-Neto, M; Barbaro, K C; Picolo, G

    2018-05-25

    Freshwater stingray accidents cause an immediate, intense, and unrelieved pain which is followed by edema, erythema and necrosis formation. Treatment for stingray envenomation is based on administration of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Concerning pain control, it is prescribed to immerse punctured limb on hot water to alleviate pain. There are no studies demonstrating specific targets on which stingray venom acts to promote pain. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate some mechanisms of Potamotrygon motoro venom (PmV) that contribute to nociception induction. Evaluating spontaneous pain behavior in mice injected i.pl. with PmV, it was seen that PmV induced both neurogenic and inflammatory pain. PmV also induced hyperalgesia in both mice and rats, evaluated through electronic von Frey and rat paw pressure test, respectively. Partial inhibition of hyperalgesia was observed in mice treated with cromolyn or promethazine, which indicated that mast cell and histamine via H1 receptor participate in the inflammatory pain. To search for some targets involved in PmVinduced hyperalgesia, the participation of TRPV1, calcium channels, neurokinins, CGRP, and norepinephrine, was evaluated in rats. It was seen that PmV-induced hyperalgesia occurs with the participation of neurokinins, mainly via NK1 receptor, CGRP, and calcium influx, through both P/Q and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, besides TRPV1 activation. The data presented herein indicate that PmV causes hyperalgesia in rodents which is dependent on the participation of several neuroinflammatory mediators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas Casado, J; Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39 ± 13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6 ± 4.3 months after the treatment. New urodynamic studies were subsequently performed up to an interval of 16 ± 12.2 months. The BTX-A significantly increased (p < .05) the cystomanometric bladder capacity, the bladder volume of the first involuntary contraction of the detrusor and the postvoid residue. We observed a decrease that tended towards statistical significance (p < .1) of the maximum detrusor pressure and the maximum urine flow. Neither the bladder accommodation nor the urethral resistance index (bladder outlet obstruction index) varied significantly. The increase in vesical capacity was maintained in 50% of the sample for more than 32 months. Age, sex, anticholinergic treatment and lesion age showed no influence in terms of the increase in bladder capacity. The indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was the only statistically significant negative factor. The urodynamic effect of BTX-A is maintained for a considerable time interval. The IUC negatively influences the result of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical profile of motor neuron disease patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Costa, Juan Francisco; Arlandis, Salvador; Hervas, David; Martínez-Cuenca, Esther; Cardona, Fernando; Pérez-Tur, Jordi; Broseta, Enrique; Sevilla, Teresa

    2017-07-15

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are frequent in motor neuron disease (MND) patients, but clinical factors related to them are unknown. We describe differences in LUTS among MND phenotypes and their relationship with other clinical characteristics, including prognosis. For this study, we collected clinical data of a previously published cohort of patients diagnosed with classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (cALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) with and without LUTS. Familial history was recorded and the C9ORF72 expansion was analysed in the entire cohort. Patients were followed-up for survival until August 2016. Fifty-five ALS patients (37 cALS, 10 PMA and 8 PLS) were recruited. Twenty-four reported LUTS and neurogenic bladder (NB) could be demonstrated in nine of them. LUTS were not influenced by age, phenotype, disability, cognitive or behavioural impairment, or disease progression, but female sex appeared to be a protective factor (OR=0.39, p=0.06). Neither family history nor the C9ORF72 expansion was linked to LUTS or NB. In the multivariate analysis, patients reporting LUTS early in the disease course tended to show poorer survival. In this study, LUTS appear to be more frequent in male MND patients, but are not related to age, clinical or genetic characteristics. When reported early, LUTS could be a sign of rapid disease spread and poor prognosis. Further prospective longitudinal and neuroimaging studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutral endopeptidase and kininase II mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of neurogenic inflammation in the rat trachea.

    PubMed Central

    Piedimonte, G; McDonald, D M; Nadel, J A

    1991-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit plasma extravasation induced in the rat tracheal mucosa by substance P and other tachykinins released from sensory nerves. This study was performed to determine whether this antiinflammatory effect of glucocorticoids is mediated by the tachykinin-degrading enzymes neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and kininase II (angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE). In addition, we studied the effect of dexamethasone on a nonpeptide inflammatory mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is not degraded by NEP or ACE. Adult male pathogen-free F344 rats were treated for 2 d with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per d i.p.), or with the vehicle used to dissolve the steroid. The magnitude of plasma extravasation produced by an intravenous injection of substance P (5 micrograms/kg) or PAF (10 micrograms/kg) was then assessed by using Monastral blue pigment as an intravascular tracer. The role of NEP and ACE activities in the changes produced by dexamethasone was investigated by examining the effect of the selective inhibitors of these enzymes, phosphoramidon and captopril. Dexamethasone reduced the substance P-induced extravasation by 57% but did not affect the PAF-induced extravasation. The suppressive effect of dexamethasone on substance P-induced extravasation was completely reversed by simultaneously inhibiting NEP and ACE activities, but the inhibition of these enzymes had no effect on PAF-induced extravasation, regardless of whether the rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or not. These results suggest that NEP and ACE mediate a selective inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on neurogenic plasma extravasation. PMID:1711545

  18. Recurrent spontaneous hypoglycaemia causes loss of neurogenic and neuroglycopaenic signs in infants with congenital hyperinsulinism.

    PubMed

    Christesen, Henrik T; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hussain, Khalid

    2012-04-01

    Hypoglycaemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) with impaired neurogenic and neuroglycopaenic responses occurs in adults following recent, repeated hypoglycaemia. We aimed to evaluate whether HAAF also occurs in patients with infant-onset congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). A controlled fast was performed in (i) seven CHI infants with initial symptomatic hypoglycaemia and three recent episodes of spontaneous recurrent hypoglycaemia each lasting <5 min and in (ii) seven infants with idiopathic ketotic hypoglycaemia for control. At the time of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose <3 mmol/l or clinical signs), blood was drawn for serum insulin, cortisol, glucagon, adrenalin and nor-adrenalin. Signs of hypoglycaemia were documented. In CHI patients, the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes were analysed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and/or direct bidirectional sequencing. Two CHI patients had a paternal ABCC8 mutation, five had no mutations. When repeated hypoglycaemia was provoked, all CHI patients exhibited a complete loss of clinical signs of hypoglycaemia, along with a global blunting of the counter-regulatory hormones cortisol, glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and nor-adrenalin responses (median values 256 nmol/l, 23 pmol/l, 5·6 mU/l, 390 pmol/l and 2·9 nmol/l, respectively), irrespective of mutational status. In the controls, hypoglycaemia was always clinically overt with normal counter-regulatory cortisol, glucagon, adrenalin and nor-adrenalin responses (530 nmol/l, 60, 920 pmol/l and 4·0 nmol/l, respectively). Recurrent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia even of short duration blunts the autonomic, neuroglycopaenic and glucose counter-regulatory hormonal responses in patients with infant-onset CHI resulting in clinically silent hypoglycaemia. Tight, or continuous, glucose monitoring is therefore recommended, especially in conservatively treated patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. Relevance and novel information The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs. PMID:29318025

  20. Position statement: a clinical approach to the management of adult non-neurogenic overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Lee, Dominic; Gani, Johan; Gillman, Michael; Maher, Christopher; Brennan, Janelle; Johns Putra, Lydia; Ahmad, Laura; Chan, Lewis Lw

    2018-01-15

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent medical condition that has an adverse impact on various health-related quality-of-life domains, including a significant psychosocial and financial burden. This position statement, formulated by members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand and the UroGynaecological Society of Australasia, summarises the current recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies in patients with non-neurogenic OAB, and guides clinicians in the decision-making process for managing the condition using evidence-based medicine. Main recommendations: Diagnosis and initial management should be based on thorough clinical history, examination and basic investigations to exclude underlying treatable causes such as urinary tract infection and urological malignancy. Initial treatment strategies for OAB involve conservative management with behavioural modification and bladder retraining. Second-line management involves medical therapy using anticholinergic or β3 agonist drugs provided there is adequate assessment of bladder emptying. If medical therapy is unsuccessful, further investigations with urodynamic studies and cystourethroscopy are recommended to guide further treatment. Intravesical botulinum toxin and sacral neuromodulation should be considered in medical refractory OAB. Changes in management as a result of this statement: OAB is a constellation of urinary symptoms and is a chronic condition with a low likelihood of cure; managing patient expectations is essential because OAB is challenging to treat. At present, the exact pathogenesis of OAB remains unclear and it is likely that there are multiple factors involved in this disease complex. Current medical treatment remains far from ideal, although minimally invasive surgery can be effective. Further research into the pathophysiology of this common condition will hopefully guide future developments in disease management.

  1. Long-term results with percutaneous interspinous process devices in the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) is the main symptom of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Percutaneous interspinous process decompression devices (IPDs) have been designed as an alternative therapy to conservative treatment and to open decompressive surgery for patients suffering from NIC. Initial short-term results were encouraging. We present the long-term results of a group of patients that we followed to provide insight on long-term outcomes and effectiveness of this technique compared to other decompression methods. Fifteen patients operated for NIC by implantation of percutaneous IPDs have been prospectively monitored for reoperations or complications. Follow-up (FU) was interrupted if the patient was reoperated. Results were considered poor if the patient had to be reoperated at any stage of the FU or if the treatment failed to alleviate the pain after 6 months. Results were considered average if the patient still suffered some pain but did not require reoperation. The patients were followed up to 7 years after the initial surgery. The mean length of the FU was 3.53 years and all patients could be followed. At the end of the FU, the results were good in only 20.0% (3/15), average in 13.3% (2/15) and poor in 66.7% (10/15). Despite initial satisfactory results, long-term FU is disappointing, with 80% poor or average results. The long-term reoperation rate is high (66.6%), increases over time and is higher than after implantation of IPDs for decompression augmentation. Although this technique is simple and safe, its effectiveness seems short-lived. We recommend cautious use and informing patients about the risk of relatively early failure and recurrence.

  2. Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 1 induce plasma extravasation by a neurogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    de Garavilla, L; Vergnolle, N; Young, S H; Ennes, H; Steinhoff, M; Ossovskaya, V S; D'Andrea, M R; Mayer, E A; Wallace, J L; Hollenberg, M D; Andrade-Gordon, P; Bunnett, N W

    2001-08-01

    Thrombin, generated in the circulation during injury, cleaves proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) to stimulate plasma extravasation and granulocyte infiltration. However, the mechanism of thrombin-induced inflammation in intact tissues is unknown. We hypothesized that thrombin cleaves PAR1 on sensory nerves to release substance P (SP), which interacts with the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) on endothelial cells to cause plasma extravasation. PAR1 was detected in small diameter neurons known to contain SP in rat dorsal root ganglia by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Thrombin and the PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH(2) (TF-NH(2)) increased [Ca(2+)](i) >50% of cultured neurons (EC(50)s 24 mu ml(-1) and 1.9 microM, respectively), assessed using Fura-2 AM. The PAR1 agonist completely desensitized responses to thrombin, indicating that thrombin stimulates neurons through PAR1. Injection of TF-NH(2) into the rat paw stimulated a marked and sustained oedema. An NK1R antagonist and ablation of sensory nerves with capsaicin inhibited oedema by 44% at 1 h and completely by 5 h. In wild-type but not PAR1(-/-) mice, TF-NH(2) stimulated Evans blue extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and pancreas by 2 - 8 fold. Extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus and stomach was abolished by an NK1R antagonist. Thus, thrombin cleaves PAR1 on primary spinal afferent neurons to release SP, which activates the NK1R on endothelial cells to stimulate gap formation, extravasation of plasma proteins, and oedema. In intact tissues, neurogenic mechanisms are predominantly responsible for PAR1-induced oedema.

  3. Molecular analyses of neurogenic defects in a human pluripotent stem cell model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael J; Nazor, Kristopher L; Tran, Ha T; Szücs, Attila; Lynch, Candace L; Paredes, Ryder; Tassone, Flora; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Hagerman, Randi J; Loring, Jeanne F

    2017-03-01

    New research suggests that common pathways are altered in many neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder; however, little is known about early molecular events that contribute to the pathology of these diseases. The study of monogenic, neurodevelopmental disorders with a high incidence of autistic behaviours, such as fragile X syndrome, has the potential to identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder as well as fragile X syndrome. In vitro generation of human disease-relevant cell types provides the ability to investigate aspects of disease that are impossible to study in patients or animal models. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells recapitulates development of the neocortex, an area affected in both fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. We have generated induced human pluripotent stem cells from several individuals clinically diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. When differentiated to dorsal forebrain cell fates, our fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cell lines exhibited reproducible aberrant neurogenic phenotypes. Using global gene expression and DNA methylation profiling, we have analysed the early stages of neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cells. We discovered aberrant DNA methylation patterns at specific genomic regions in fragile X syndrome cells, and identified dysregulated gene- and network-level correlates of fragile X syndrome that are associated with developmental signalling, cell migration, and neuronal maturation. Integration of our gene expression and epigenetic analysis identified altered epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation of a distinct set of genes in fragile X syndrome. These fragile X syndrome-aberrant networks are significantly enriched for genes associated with autism spectrum disorder, giving support to the idea that underlying similarities exist among these neurodevelopmental diseases. © The

  4. Selective Deletion of the Brain-Specific Isoform of Renin Causes Neurogenic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Keisuke; Liu, Xuebo; Morgan, Donald A; Davis, Deborah R; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Cassell, Martin D; Grobe, Justin L; Rahmouni, Kamal; Sigmund, Curt D

    2016-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a). Preservation of renal renin was confirmed by measurements of renin gene expression and immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, renin-b-deficient mice exhibited hypertension, increased sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney and heart, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. Whereas these mice displayed decreased circulating RAS activity, there was a paradoxical increase in brain RAS activity. Physiologically, renin-b-deficient mice exhibited an exaggerated depressor response to intracerebroventricular administration of losartan, captopril, or aliskiren. At the molecular level, renin-b-deficient mice exhibited increased expression of angiotensin-II type 1 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus, which correlated with an increased renal sympathetic nerve response to leptin, which was dependent on angiotensin-II type 1 receptor activity. Interestingly, despite an ablation of renin-b expression, expression of renin-a was significantly increased in rostral ventrolateral medulla. These data support a new paradigm for the genetic control of RAS activity in the brain by a coordinated regulation of the renin isoforms, with expression of renin-b tonically inhibiting expression of renin-a under baseline conditions. Impairment of this control mechanism causes neurogenic hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation Approach Applied to Patients With Neurogenic Dysphagia: A Case Series Design Study.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Rajappa, Akila; Kantarcigil, Cagla; Wagner, Elise; Ivey, Chandra; Youse, Kathleen

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effects of the Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach on physiological and functional swallowing outcomes in adults with neurogenic dysphagia. Intervention study; before-after trial with 4-week follow-up through an online survey. Outpatient university clinics. A consecutive sample of subjects (N=10) recruited from outpatient university clinics. All subjects were diagnosed with adult-onset neurologic injury or disease. Dysphagia diagnosis was confirmed through clinical and endoscopic swallowing evaluations. No subjects withdrew from the study. Participants completed the 4-week Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation protocol, including 2 oropharyngeal exercise regimens, a targeted swallowing routine using salient stimuli, and caregiver participation. Treatment included hourly sessions twice per week and home practice for approximately 45 min/d. Outcome measures assessed pre- and posttreatment included airway safety using an 8-point Penetration Aspiration Scale, lingual isometric pressures, self-reported swallowing-related quality of life (QOL), and level of oral intake. Also, patients were monitored for adverse dysphagia-related effects. QOL and adverse effects were also assessed at the 4-week follow-up (online survey). The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach was effective in improving maximum and mean Penetration Aspiration Scale scores (P<.05, η(2)=.8146 and P<.05, η(2)=.799708, respectively) and level of oral intake (P<.005, Cohen d=-1.387). Of the 5 patients who were feeding tube dependent initially, 2 progressed to total oral nutrition, and 2 progressed to partial oral nutrition. One patient remained tube dependent. QOL was significantly improved at the 4-week follow-up (95% confidence interval, 6.38-14.5; P<.00), but not at the posttreatment. No adverse effects were observed/reported. The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach was safe and improved physiological and some functional swallowing outcomes in our sample; however

  6. Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching experiences in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Melissa J.; Gibson, Erin M.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Sprague–Dawley rats and modifies their neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On embryonic days (ED) 12−17, pregnant rats ate a choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet. Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten exploration days, all rats received daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in cognitive function governed by the availability of choline during gestation. PMID:17445242

  7. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit neurogenic inflammations in guinea pig airways.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Ohori, Makoto; Yamada, Yumi; Abe, Toshio; Arisaka, Osamu

    2005-09-01

    Although neurogenic inflammation via the activation of C fibers in the airway must have an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, their regulatory mechanism remains uncertain. The pharmacological profiles of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists on the activation of C fibers in airway tissues were investigated and the mechanisms how cannabinoids regulate airway inflammatory reactions were clarified. The effects of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists on electrical field stimulation-induced bronchial smooth muscle contraction, capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction and capsaicin-induced substance P release in guinea pig airway tissues were investigated. The influences of cannabinoid receptor antagonists and K+ channel blockers to the effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on these respiratory reactions were examined. Both endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists, anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced guinea pig bronchial smooth muscle contraction, but not neurokinin A-induced contraction. A cannabinoid CB2 antagonist, SR 144528, reduced the inhibitory effect of endogenous agonists, but not a cannabinoid CB1 antagonist, SR 141716A. Inhibitory effects of agonists were also reduced by the pretreatment of large conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel (maxi-K+ channel) blockers, iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin, but not by other K+ channel blockers, dendrotoxin or glibenclamide. Anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide blocked the capsaicin-induced release of substance P-like immunoreactivity from guinea pig airway tissues. Additionally, intravenous injection of palmitoylethanolamide dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced guinea pig bronchoconstriction, but not neurokinin A-induced reaction. However, anandamide did not reduce capsaicin-induced guinea pig bronchoconstriction. These findings suggest that endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit the activation of C fibers via cannabinoid CB2 receptors and

  8. Suprapubic cystostomy for neurogenic bladder using Lowsley retractor method: a procedure revisited.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Leonard U; Foster, Harris E

    2011-11-01

    To report our experience with the Lowsley retractor method for suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) in patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). A retrospective study was performed of 44 patients with NGB who underwent SPC with the Lowsley retractor method. The subjects were selected from 90 patients undergoing SPC by 1 surgeon from 1995 to 2010. The age, sex, indication, anesthesia type, catheter type, blood loss, fluids administered, and duration and complications were recorded. A total of 49 primary catheter placements were performed in 44 patients. A total of 23 men and 21 women were included. The etiology of NGB was spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis in 38 subjects (86%). The mean age was 44 years (range 18-86). The cases were performed under general anesthesia, except for 8 (16%) that were successfully performed with local and monitored anesthesia. The operation time documented in 19 cases (39%) was 20.2 ± 5.5 minutes (range 11-31). The Foley catheter size ranged from 16F to 22F. The blood loss was minimal, and there were no intraoperative complications or incorrect catheter placements. One patient returned with significant hematuria 1 day after the procedure. No other minor or major complications were noted. Patients with NGB have been shown to have a greater risk of complication during percutaneous suprapubic catheter placement. SPC using the Lowsley retractor was described by Zeidman et al in 1988. Their report did not detail the patient characteristics or operative experience. To our knowledge, no other institutional experience with the technique has been reported. The present report describes the Lowsley retractor method as a quick and safe ambulatory procedure for patients with NGB. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Actions of rilmenidine on neurogenic hypertension in BPH/2J genetically hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristy L; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Nguyen-Huu, Thu-Phuc; Davern, Pamela J; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-03-01

    BPH/2J hypertensive mice have an exaggerated sympathetic contribution to blood pressure (BP). Premotor sympathetic neurons within the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are a major source of sympathetic vasomotor tone and major site of action of the centrally acting sympatholytic agent, rilmenidine. The relative cardiovascular effect of rilmenidine in BPH/2J versus normotensive BPN/3J mice was used as an indicator of the involvement of the RVLM in the sympathetic contribution to hypertension in BPH/2J mice. BPH/2J and BPN/3J mice were pre-implanted with telemetry devices to measure BP in conscious unrestrained mice. Rilme