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Sample records for neurogenic diabetes insipidus

  1. Treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2011-12-01

    Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus results from a deficiency in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Treatment is based on replacement therapy with the hormone analog desmopressin (d-DAVP). d-DAVP can be administered subcutaneously to infants or patients with postoperative or posttraumatic brain injury being monitored for transient diabetes insipidus. Intranasal and oral forms are also available. The recently introduced lyophilisate, which melts under the tongue, has replaced the tablet form (recently withdrawn from the market in France) and provides better bioavailability. Irrespective of the mode of administration, it is usually the patient who finds the effective minimal dose necessary for a normal life, i.e. without excessive polyuria, particularly at night. Patient education is necessary to avoid the risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidneys & How They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Diabetes Insipidus What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that ... produce more urine. What are the types of diabetes insipidus? The types of diabetes insipidus include central ...

  3. Late onset of familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Cizmarova, M; Nagyova, G; Janko, V; Pribilincova, Z; Virgova, D; Ilencikova, D; Kovacs, L

    2013-10-01

    Autosomal dominant familial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare disease characterized by polydipsia and polyuria due to deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). We report the first Slovak family with the disease. Noteworthy is the concordantly belated debut of the disease symptoms in two monozygotic twin proband girls in the age of 17 years. Because of inconclusive results of water deprivation test consistent with partial diabetes insipidus (DI), missing "bright spot" of posterior pituitary gland in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and family occurrence of polyuria and polydipsia on anamnestic evaluation. Molecular genetic testing of the AVP gene was proceeded, because of the inconclusive results of water deprivation test consistent with partial diabetes insipidus, missing "bright spot" of posterior pituitary gland in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and family occurrence of polyuria and polydipsia on anamnestic evaluation. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous g.279G>A substitution that predicts a p.Ala19Thr substitution in the signal peptide of the AVP prohormone. The wide intrafamiliar variations (3 to 17 years) in disease onset together with the concordantly delayed debut of polyuria in two monozygotic twin girls suggest that individual differences in genetic influences family environmental factors may modify the penetrance of the mutation of the AVP gene. The present paper supports the notion that molecular genetic evaluation should be performed in all patients with familial occurrence of DI regardless of the clinical results.

  4. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePlus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus; NDI ... of very dilute urine. NDI is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth. It is a ...

  5. Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    John, Cynthia A; Day, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome are secondary events that affect patients with traumatic brain injury. All 3 syndromes affect both sodium and water balance; however, they have differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Differentiating between hypernatremia (central neurogenic diabetes insipidus) and the 2 hyponatremia syndromes (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome) is critical for preventing worsening neurological outcomes in patients with head injuries.

  6. Buccally Administered Intranasal Desmopressin Acetate for the Treatment of Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Smego, Allison R; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4.5 mo) with neurogenic DI treated at a tertiary care center. Treatment was with diluted IN DDAVP formulation (10 mcg/mL) administered buccally via a tuberculin syringe to the buccal mucosa. After initial DDAVP titration of 2-3 days, IN DDAVP doses ranged from 1 to 5 mcg twice daily given buccally. Mean serum sodium concentration at DI diagnosis was 159 ± 6.6 mmol/L (range, 151-178) and improved to 142 ± 3.5 mmol/L (range, 137-147) with the buccally administered IN DDAVP. Normal sodium concentrations were established without major fluctuations. Serum sodium was then maintained in the outpatient setting at a mean of 145.7 ± 4.8 mmol/L (mean duration of follow-up, 11 mo). Buccally administered IN formulation of DDAVP provides a practical and safe treatment alternative for neurogenic DI in infancy. Our approach avoided severe hypo- and hypernatremia during DDAVP titration and ongoing outpatient management of DI. The possibility for smaller dosage increments and ease of administration make IN DDAVP administered buccally preferable over other DDAVP treatment options in infants.

  7. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  8. [Diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Handzlik-Orlik, Gabriela; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disorder of water-electrolyte balance characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and increased fluid intake (polydipsia). The disease may result from the insufficient production of vasopressin, its increased degradation, an impaired response of kidneys to vasopressin, or may be secondary to excessive water intake. Patients with severe and uncompensated symptoms may develop marked dehydration, neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy, and therefore diabetes insipidus can be a life-threatening condition if not properly diagnosed and managed. Patients with diabetes insipidus require treatment with desmopressin or drugs increasing sensitivity of the distal nephron to vasopressin, but this treatment may be confusing because of the disorder's variable pathophysiology and side-effects of pharmacotherapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on different aspects of the pathophysiology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of diabetes insipidus. The reader is also provided with some practical recommendations on dealing with patients suffering from this disease.

  9. Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Lu, H A Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of water and electrolyte balance is frequently encountered in clinical medicine. Regulating water metabolism is critically important. Diabetes insipidus (DI) presented with excessive water loss from the kidney is a major disorder of water metabolism. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology of DI and rationales of clinical management of DI is important for both research and clinical practice. This chapter will first review various forms of DI focusing on central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI ) . This is followed by a discussion of regulatory mechanisms underlying CDI and NDI , with a focus on the regulatory axis of vasopressin, vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R ) and the water channel molecule, aquaporin 2 (AQP2 ). The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of various forms of DI will also be discussed with highlights of some of the latest therapeutic strategies that are developed from in vitro experiments and animal studies.

  10. Diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Maghnie, Mohamad

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused by a lack of secretion of vasopressin, its physiological suppression following excessive water intake, or kidney resistance to its action. In many patients, it is caused by the destruction or degeneration of the neurons that originate in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Known causes of these lesions include: germinoma or craniopharyngioma; Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoidosis of the central nervous system; local inflammatory, autoimmune or vascular diseases; trauma following surgery or accident; and, rarely, genetic defects in vasopressin biosynthesis inherited as autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive traits. Thirty to fifty percent of cases are considered idiopathic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows identification of the posterior pituitary hyperintensity and of hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities. Thickening of the pituitary stalk is the second most common finding on MRI scans in several local inflammatory pathologies and autoimmune diseases or germinoma, but it is not specific to any single subtype. A progressive increase in the size of the anterior pituitary gland should alert physicians to the possibility that a germinoma is present, whereas a decrease can suggest the presence of an inflammatory or autoimmune process. Most children with acquired central diabetes insipidus and a thickened pituitary stalk have anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies during follow-up. Biopsy of enlarged pituitary stalk should be reserved for patients with a hypothalamic-pituitary mass and progressive thickening of the pituitary stalk, since spontaneous recovery may occur.

  11. Genetics of Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Stratakis, Constantine A; Luger, Anton

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to inadequate release of arginine vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus) or due to arginine vasopressin insensitivity by the renal distal tubule, leading to a deficiency in tubular water reabsorption (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). This article reviews the genetics of diabetes insipidus in the context of its diagnosis, clinical presentation, and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Cruz, Oswaldo; Careaga Benítez, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon pathology; its incidence varies from two to six cases in 100,000 pregnancies. It has multiple etiologies and it is classified in central and neurogenic. Patients with diabetes insipidus generally show intense thirst, polyuria, neurologic symptoms and hypernatremia. It does not seem to alter the patient's fertility. Diabetes insipidus is usually associated with pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and fatty liver disease of pregnancy. This is a report of a case seen at the Hospital General de Cholula, in Puebla, Mexico. A 19 year-old female, with 37.2 weeks of pregnancy, had a history of Langerhans cell histiocytosis since she was four years. Patient was treated with intranasal desmopressin until 2005. She went to an obstetric evaluation; laboratory and cabinet studies were obtained. A healthy 1900 g female was obtained through vaginal delivery, with a 7/9 Apgar score. We should be familiarized with this uncommon pathology because of its association with several obstetric emergencies.

  13. Diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Karrouz, Wassila; Douillard, Claire; Do Cao, Christine; Cortet, Christine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by hypotonic polyuria greater than 3 liters/24 hours in adults and persisting even during water deprivation. It is mostly due to a defect in arginin-vasopressin (AVP) synthesis (central DI); other causes are: AVP resistance (nephrogenic DI), abnormal thirst regulation (primary polydipsia) or early destruction of AVP by placental enzymes (gestational DI). A thorough medical history is warranted to investigate nocturnal persistence of polyuria (night waking being a good sign of its organic nature) to specify the onset and duration of the trouble, the medication use and the potential hereditary nature of the disorder. The next step is based on weight and blood pressure measurements and especially the quantification of beverages and diuresis over a 24-hour cycle. Assessment of signs of dehydration, bladder distention, pituitary hormone hyper- or hyposecretion, tumor chiasmatic syndrome, granulomatosis and cancer is required. The diagnosis is based on biological assessment, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and results of a desmopressin test. In severe forms of DI, urine osmolality remains below 250 mOsmol/kg and serum sodium greater than 145 mmol/L. In partial forms of DI (urine osmolality between 250 and 750), the water deprivation test demonstrating the incapacity to obtain a maximal urine concentration is valuable, together with vasopressin or copeptin measurement. The pituitary MRI is done to investigate the lack of spontaneous hyperintensity signal in the posterior pituitary, which marks the absence of AVP and supports the diagnosis of central DI rather than primary polydipsia (although not absolute); it can also recognize lesions of the pituitary gland or pituitary stalk. Acquired central DI of sudden onset should suggest a craniopharyngioma or germinoma if it occurs before the age of 30 years, and metastasis after the age of 50 years. Fifteen to 20% of head trauma lead to hypopituitarism, including DI in 2% of

  14. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  15. History of Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giovanna; Tamma, Grazia

    2016-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis is maintained by the kidney adjusting urine volume and composition according to body needs. Diabetes Insipidus is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome affecting water balance and characterized by constant diuresis, resulting in large volumes of dilute urine. With respect to the similarly named Diabetes Mellitus, a disease already known in ancient Egypt, Greece and Asia, Diabetes Insipidus has been described several thousand years later. In 1670s Thomas Willis, noted the difference in taste of urine from polyuric subjects compared with healthy individuals and started the differentiation of Diabetes Mellitus from the more rare entity of Diabetes Insipidus. In 1794, Johann Peter Frank described polyuric patients excreting nonsaccharine urine and introduced the term of Diabetes Insipidus. An hystorical milestone was the in 1913, when Farini successfully used posterior pituitary extracts to treat Diabetes Insipidus. Until 1920s the available evidence indicated Diabetes Insipidus as a disorder of the pituitary gland. In the early 1928, De Lange first observed that some patients with Diabetes Insipidus did not respond to posterior pituitary extracts and subsequently Forssman and Waring in 1945 established that the kidney had a critical role for these forms of Diabetes Insipidus resistant to this treatment. In 1947 Williams and Henry introduced the term Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus for the congenital syndrome characterized by polyuria and renal concentrating defect resistant to vasopressin. In 1955, du Vigneaud received the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the first synthesis of the hormone vasopressin representing a milestone for the treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus.

  16. Diabetes insipidus: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Jörgen

    2004-01-01

    The contributions to our present knowledge and understanding of diabetes insipidus are briefly surveyed. Though a disease presenting with polyuria and thirst had been recognized since Antiquity, it was not until the 17. Century the distinction was made between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. At the beginning of the 20. Century almost nothing was known about the function of the pituitary. It was generally believed that diabetes insipidus was a renal disease. Two clinical observations in 1912 suggested an association between the hypophysis and diabetes insipidus. This view was supported by the recognition in 1913 that extract of the posterior lobe of the pituitary was effective in diabetes insipidus. Despite much evidence to the contrary, it was assumed that the antidiuretic hormone was produced in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary. Around 1950 it was finally established that 'the posterior lobe hormones' are in fact secreted in the hypothalamus. At the same time the antidiuretic hormone was isolated and synthesized. More recently, progress within genetics has made it possible to characterize in details other rare types of diabetes insipidus.

  17. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hague, William M

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition with various aetiologies. Recent research has uncovered new mechanisms underlying the syndrome. Careful attention to management is essential in pregnant women to avoid serious complications. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy may be due to relative reduction in secretion of AVP from the posterior pituitary (cranial DI), increase in breakdown of AVP by placental cystine aminopeptidase with vasopressinase activity, or resistance of the rental tubules to AVP (nephrogenic DI). PMID:27579058

  18. [Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel Georges

    2006-11-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressine (AVP). Polyuria, with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. Hypercalcemia, hypokaliemia, lithium administration and chronic renal failure are the principal causes of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. About 90 percent of patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are males with X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus who have mutations in the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene that codes for the vasopressin V2 receptor. The gene is located in chromosome region Xq28. In about 10 percent of the families studied, congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. In these cases, mutations have been identified in the aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2), which is located in chromosome region 12q13 and codes for the vasopressin-sensitive water channel. Other inherited disorders with mild, moderate or severe inability to concentrate urine include Bartter's syndrome and Cystinosis. Identification of the molecular defect underlying congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is of immediate clinical significance because early diagnosis and treatment of affected infants can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with episodes of dehydration.

  19. A case of idiopathic diabetes insipidus presented with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and neurogenic bladder: A pediatric case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Kivrak, Mithat; Sahin, Aytac; Akan, Serkan; Urkmez, Ahmet; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition with heterogeneous clinical symptoms characterized by polyuria (urine output >4 mL/kg/hr) and polydipsia (water intake >2 L/m (2)/d). In children, acquired nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than central DI (CDI). Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. A water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI from CDI and diagnose their incomplete forms. Neonates and young infants are better managed with hydration therapy alone. Older children with CDI are treated with desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, dDAVP). Its oral form is safe, highly effective and has dosing flexibility. We report a case of an 8-year-old male patient with CDI with severe bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis and megaureter. Dramatic clinical and radiological responses to dDAVP treatment were achieved and therapy reduced urine volume and led to marked radiological improvement in hydronephrosis.

  20. A case of idiopathic diabetes insipidus presented with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and neurogenic bladder: A pediatric case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Kivrak, Mithat; Sahin, Aytac; Akan, Serkan; Urkmez, Ahmet; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition with heterogeneous clinical symptoms characterized by polyuria (urine output >4 mL/kg/hr) and polydipsia (water intake >2 L/m 2/d). In children, acquired nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than central DI (CDI). Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. A water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI from CDI and diagnose their incomplete forms. Neonates and young infants are better managed with hydration therapy alone. Older children with CDI are treated with desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, dDAVP). Its oral form is safe, highly effective and has dosing flexibility. We report a case of an 8-year-old male patient with CDI with severe bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis and megaureter. Dramatic clinical and radiological responses to dDAVP treatment were achieved and therapy reduced urine volume and led to marked radiological improvement in hydronephrosis. PMID:26600892

  1. Diabetes insipidus in children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Ravindranath, Aathira

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of the common disorders affecting sodium and water homeostasis, and results when ADH is either inadequately produced, or unable to negotiate its actions on the renal collecting tubules through aquaporins. The diagnostic algorithm starts with exclusion of other causes of polyuria and establishing low urine osmolality in the presence of high serum osmolality. In this paper, we have reviewed the diagnosis, etiology and management of DI in children, with special emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  2. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Salwa Ramadan; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification.

  3. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  4. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted.

  5. Subclinical diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Antonio; Bizzarro, Antonio; Colella, Caterina; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Sinisi, Antonio A; De Bellis, Annamaria

    2012-08-01

    Subclinical central diabetes insipidus (CDI) can be the outcome of a number of diseases that affect the hypothalamus-infundibulum-post hypophysis axis. One of the most common forms of subclinical CDI is linked to an autoimmune pathogenesis even if other causes may be also responsible. Among these, pregnancy, traumatic and surgical brain injury and some infiltrative, vascular, infectious and neoplastic diseases have been reported with increasing frequency. The natural history of autoimmune CDI seems to evolve through 4 functional stages according to the presence of antibodies to vasopressin-secreting cells (AVPcAb) and the relationship between their behavior overtime, the variations of posterior pituitary function and the characteristics of hypothalamic-hypophyseal region on magnetic resonance imaging. This staging is of crucial importance for the therapeutic strategy, taking into account that some stages could be still reversible. Several medical treatments have been suggested to interrupt the progression toward clinical CDI but the results are still discussed.

  6. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water homeostasis and diabetes insipidus in horses.

    PubMed

    Schott, Harold C

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder of horses characterized by profound polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which can be caused by loss of production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This condition is termed neurogenic or central DI. DI may also develop with absence or loss of AVP receptors or activity on the basolateral membrane of collecting-duct epithelial cells. This condition is termed nephrogenic DI. Equine clinicians may differentiate true DI from more common causes of PU/PD by a systematic diagnostic approach. DI may not be a correctable disorder, and supportive care of affected horses requires an adequate water source.

  8. [Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Morin, D; Delenne, A L; Kervran, A

    2005-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease, characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin, responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. More than 90% of the patients are males and have the X-linked recessive form of the disease usually presenting with polyuria and polydipsia in infancy. This mode of inheritance is related to mutations in the V(2) receptor gene, located in the Xq28 chromosomal region. Less than 10% of the patients have an autosomal-recessive or an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance with clinical manifestations occurring in males and females, related to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene, located in chromosome region 12q13. The aim of the treatment is to avoid chronic and acute dehydration episodes. It remains symptomatic, mainly based on an hypoosmotic diet and the use of hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin. Recent findings showed that pharmacological chaperones, such as V(2) nonpeptide antagonists, are able to rescue some of the V(2) receptor mutants and could be useful tools for treatment in the future.

  9. Central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hiroshi; Azuma, Yoshinori; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hagiwara, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes. Familial CDI is inherited mostly in an autosomal dominant mode, and the number of causal mutations in the AVP gene locus reported so far exceeds 80. CDI is treated with desmopressin, an analogue of vasopressin, and the tablet is preferred to the nasal form because it is easier to administer. It is also shown that the oral disintegrating tablet formula increases QOL and decreases the incidence of hyponatremia in CDI patients. In some CDI patients, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus do not function and patients do not sense thirst. These adipsic CDI patients are treated with desmopressin and adjusting the amount of daily water intake based on body weight measurement; but controlling the water balance is extremely difficult, and morbidity and mortality are shown to be high in these patients.

  10. Central diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Hiroshi; Azuma, Yoshinori; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hagiwara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes. Familial CDI is inherited mostly in an autosomal dominant mode, and the number of causal mutations in the AVP gene locus reported so far exceeds 80. CDI is treated with desmopressin, an analogue of vasopressin, and the tablet is preferred to the nasal form because it is easier to administer. It is also shown that the oral disintegrating tablet formula increases QOL and decreases the incidence of hyponatremia in CDI patients. In some CDI patients, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus do not function and patients do not sense thirst. These adipsic CDI patients are treated with desmopressin and adjusting the amount of daily water intake based on body weight measurement; but controlling the water balance is extremely difficult, and morbidity and mortality are shown to be high in these patients. PMID:28008190

  11. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2006-04-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria, with hyposthenuria, and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked recessive NDI (OMIM 304800) who have mutations in the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene that codes for the vasopressin V2 receptor. In about 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (OMIM 222000 and 125800). In these families, mutations have been identified in the aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2) (OMIM 107777), which codes for the vasopressin-sensitive water channel. Most missense AVPR2 mutations lead to receptors that are trapped intracellularly; a few mutant receptors reach the cell surface but are unable to bind AVP or to properly trigger an intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal. Similarly, most AQP2 mutant proteins are also misrouted. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value because early diagnosis and treatment can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration.

  12. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bockenhauer, D; Bichet, Daniel G

    2017-04-01

    In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started. Moreover, laboratory studies have identified promising new compounds, which may help achieve urinary concentration independent of vasopressin. MAGED2 mutations caused X-linked polyhydramnios with prematurity and a severe but transient form of antenatal Bartter's syndrome.We distinguish two types of hereditary NDI: a 'pure' type with loss of water only and a complex type with loss of water and ions. Mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2 genes, encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor and the water channel Aquaporin2, respectively, lead to a 'pure' NDI with loss of water but normal conservation of ions. Mutations in genes that encode membrane proteins involved in sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop lead to Bartter syndrome, a complex polyuric-polydipsic disorder often presenting with polyhydramnios. A new variant of this was recently identified: seven families were described with transient antenatal Bartter's syndrome, polyhydramnios and MAGED2 mutations.Multiple compounds have been identified experimentally that may stimulate urinary concentration independently of the vasopressin V2 receptor. These compounds may provide new treatments for patients with X-linked NDI. A plea for early consideration of the diagnosis of NDI, confirmation by phenotypic and/or genetic testing and appropriate adjustment of treatment in affected patients.

  13. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness: A case of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Nasrollah; Bashardoust, Bahman; Zakeri, Anahita; Salehifar, Azita; Tavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, progressive optic atrophy, and deafness. A 19-year-old female patient, a known case of diabetes mellitus type I from six years before, presented with progressive vision loss since four years earlier. On fundoscopic examination, she had bilateral optic atrophy without diabetic retinopathy. The patient also had diabetes insipidus, neurosensory deafness, and neurogenic bladder. WS should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus who present with optic atrophy, and it is necessary to perform a hearing test as well as collecting 24-h urine output.

  14. Diabetes insipidus and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Nabe, K; Honjo, S; Ikeda, H; Wada, Y; Nomura, K; Hamamoto, Y; Koh, T; Tatsuoka, Y; Koshiyama, H

    2007-01-01

    It has been well known that several neuropeptides may affect human behavior, and that some endocrinopathies are associated with impaired higher function of the brain. There have been increasing evidences that vasopressin has both peripheral and central effects, the latter of which is involved in memory. In experimental animals, male mice with a null mutation in the V1a receptor (V1aR) exhibit a profound impairment in social recognition and changes in anxiety-like behavior. An AVP fragment analog has been reported to facilitate memory retention and recall in mice through protein kinase C-independent pathways. In human, a few recent reports have suggested that a familial central diabetes insipidus, caused by a heterozygous mutation in the gene for vasopressin prohormone, have minor disturbances in central nervous system. Taken together, it is hypothesized that the subject with central diabetes insipidus may frequently present with an impaired cognitive ability. It is justified to examine the cognitive function, when we make a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and to perform a clinical study to investigate whether central diabetes insipidus may be associated with impairment of higher brain functions.

  15. Diabetes insipidus in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Elizabeth; Kadakia, Rachel; Zimmerman, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in both forms of diabetes insipidus is to decrease urine output and thirst while allowing for appropriate fluid balance, normonatremia and ensuring an acceptable quality of life for each patient. An infant's obligate need to consume calories as liquid and the need for readjustment of medication dosing in growing children both present unique challenges for diabetes insipidus management in the pediatric population. Treatment modalities typically include vasopressin or thiazide diuretics. Special consideration must be given when managing diabetes insipidus in the adipsic patient, post-surgical patient, and in those undergoing chemotherapy or receiving medications that alter free water clearance.

  16. Diabetes insipidus: clinical and basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Joseph A; Srivatsa, Abhinash

    2006-12-01

    Water homeostasis in the body is finely balanced by the release of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin and the stimulation of thirst. Vasopressin acts in the kidneys to concentrate urine and reduce plasma osmolality. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of water balance characterized by a failure to concentrate urine. There are two types of diabetes insipidus: central and nephrogenic. Central diabetes insipidus is caused by insufficient production of vasopressin, while nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an impaired response of the kidneys to vasopressin. Patients with central diabetes insipidus respond to treatment with vasopressin or its synthetic analogue, desmopressin; however, caution should be utilized in treating infants with vasopressin or analogues-infants can be treated successfully with fluids alone. Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus involves removing the underlying cause, if possible, reducing solute load or therapy with a diuretic agent.

  17. Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Jasmine Kaur; Chalana, Harsh

    2011-09-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus mostly presents with polydipsia and polyuria but may also present with confusion, psychosis, seizure or coma. We present a case of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. A 21 year old Indian male had Central Diabetes Insipidus, which was confirmed by water deprivation test. He presented to our hospital with full blown manic symptoms meeting the ICD 10 criteria. He was managed with intranasal Desmopressin, water restriction and Olanzapine. In contrary to routine psychiatric patients which may present with psychogenic polydipsia or Central Diabetes Insipidus patients presenting in delirium or psychosis, our case presents a unique example of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. It hints about a relationship between a common pathway for Central Diabetes Insipidus and mood disorders which needs further research. Diencephalon has already been the focus of attention for several researchers but no concrete evidence is available yet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetes insipidus: The other diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Jain, Sunil M.; Sethi, Bipin; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Thomas, Nihal; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Thakkar, Piya Ballani; Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a hereditary or acquired condition which disrupts normal life of persons with the condition; disruption is due to increased thirst and passing of large volumes of urine, even at night. A systematic search of literature for DI was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Central DI due to impaired secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) could result from traumatic brain injury, surgery, or tumors whereas nephrogenic DI due to failure of the kidney to respond to AVP is usually inherited. The earliest treatment was posterior pituitary extracts containing vasopressin and oxytocin. The synthetic analog of vasopressin, desmopressin has several benefits over vasopressin. Desmopressin was initially available as intranasal preparation, but now the oral tablet and melt formulations have gained significance, with benefits such as ease of administration and stability at room temperature. Other molecules used for treatment include chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, thiazide diuretics, indapamide, clofibrate, indomethacin, and amiloride. However, desmopressin remains the most widely used drug for the treatment of DI. This review covers the physiology of water balance, causes of DI and various treatment modalities available, with a special focus on desmopressin. PMID:26904464

  19. ADIPSIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Yuval; Frohman, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a rare disorder consisting of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and a deficient or absent thirst response to hyperosmolality. Patients with ADI experience marked morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and management of these patients is quite challenging, even in expert hands. In this review, we aim to provide an updated overview of this difficult clinical scenario. We conducted a PubMed search for articles related to ADI. The search terms "adipsia," "adipsic," "thirst," and "diabetes insipidus" were used to identify relevant literature. ADI has been described in only approximately 100 patients. This rarity has limited the quality and quantity of literature to case reports, case series, and expert opinion. Diagnosis focuses on confirmation of CDI followed by documenting subnormal or completely absent thirst in response to a hypertonic stimulus. Among the described patients with ADI, the majority experience morbidity (e.g., severe hypernatremia, sleep apnea, venous thromboembolism [VTE], and obesity) and an increased mortality risk. Management focuses on frequent reassessment of daily prescribed water intake with fixed antidiuretic therapy (desmopressin) and comorbidity screening. The complexity of patients with ADI provides a difficult challenge for clinicians. Prompt recognition of thirst disorders in patients with CDI should lead to appropriately regimented management strategies and can result in safe outpatient care for these unique patients.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. Citation on PubMed Fujiwara TM, Bichet DG. Molecular biology of hereditary diabetes insipidus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Oct;16(10):2836-46. Epub 2005 Aug 10. Review. Citation on ... NV, Deen PM. Molecular and cellular defects in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Pediatr ...

  1. Familial cerebellar ataxia and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, I C; O'Malley, B P; Young, I D

    1988-01-01

    Two sisters are reported who both developed partial cranial diabetes insipidus in their 4th decade, followed by progressive cerebellar ataxia. This appears to be the first report of cerebellar ataxia and diabetes insipidus occurring together as a genetic entity. PMID:3221226

  2. Autoimmune endocrinopathy associated with diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Bhan, G. L.; O'Brien, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    A case is described in which diabetes insipidus was associated with hypopituitarism, insulin-independent diabetes mellitus, pernicious anaemia and circulating antibodies to the thyroid gland, adrenal gland and the pancreatic islet cells. PMID:7100039

  3. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP.

  4. Diabetes insipidus secondary to penetrating thoracic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Machiedo, G; Bolanowski, P J; Bauer, J; Neville, W E

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of diabetes insipidus following non-cranial trauma are presented. They are believed to be the first of their kind reported. The etiology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus are discussed. The literature if briefly reviewed and similarities between patients with DI due to long bone trauma with fat embolism, post open heart surgery hypotension, Sheehan's syndrome following postpartum hemorrhage, DI and our own patients are discussed. It is concluded that the diabetes insipidus is caused by selective disruption of posterior pituitary circulation due to fat globules, thrombi and hypovolemia resulting in hypoxia and tissue necrosis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1119865

  5. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: treat with caution.

    PubMed

    Boussemart, Thierry; Nsota, Jacqueline; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Champion, Gérard

    2009-09-01

    Current therapy for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus consists of appropriate water intake coupled with decreased urine output obtained by means of a low-sodium diet and a combination of thiazide diuretics with renal prostaglandins inhibitors or amiloride. We report a case of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus that was complicated by paradoxical water intoxication secondary to liberal water intake and the initiation of hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin combination therapy. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating the water balance and of a quick response with strict protocols following the initiation of indomethacin and thiazide diuretics in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  6. Diabetes insipidus in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Paulose, K P; Padmakumar, N

    2002-09-01

    The association of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Diabetes Insipidus (DI) without any congenital defects is very rare and we report here a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) whose blood sugar was controlled by insulin, developing central diabetes insipidus 2 years later, which could be successively controlled by synthetic vasopressin.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be either acquired or familial. The acquired form is brought on by injuries, tumors, and other factors, and can occur at ... are characteristic of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus . The ... by head injuries, brain tumors, brain surgery, certain diseases and infections, ...

  8. Adipsia in a Diabetes Insipidus Patient.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Conceição; Vieira, Margarida M; Pereira, Joana Simões; Salgado, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a very common disorder after brain surgery or/trauma or even in the presence of brain inflammatory diseases. Polyuria and polydipsia are the clinical markers, but sometimes clinical situations are presenting with no thirst. These are not frequent but are life-treating conditions. Diagnosis is not easy, and for this reason some cases are treated late. We describe here a very infrequent oncological case of dangerous adipsic diabetes insipidus in a young girl who survived.

  9. Diabetes insipidus following resection of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Matthew; Szerlip, Nicholas; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a common complication following pituitary surgery and can be transient or permanent. Neurogenic DI occurs following injury to the magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamus that produce and transport arginine vasopressin (AVP) and form the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract. DI is defined by a constellation of signs and symptoms resulting in dilute high-volume urine output and increasing serum osmolality. The body's inability to concentrate urine leaves the patient dehydrated and leads to metabolic abnormalities that can be life threatening if not recognized and treated in a timely manner with an exogenous AVP analog. The reported incidence of postsurgical central DI varies from 1 to 67%. This wide range likely reflects inconsistencies in the working definition of DI across the literature. Factors affecting the rate of DI include pituitary tumor size, adherence to surrounding structures, surgical approach, and histopathology of pituitary lesion. The likelihood of postoperative DI can be reduced by careful preservation of the neurovascular structures of the hypothalamus, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis. Vigilance and meticulous surgical technique are essential to minimize injury to these critical regions that can lead to postsurgical DI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and diabetes insipidus in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Koren, Ilana; Kugelman, Amir; Bader, David; Toropine, Arina; Riskin, Arieh

    2014-11-01

    We present two cases of transient central diabetes insipidus in preterm neonates with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Although the association between intraventricular hemorrhage and diabetes insipidus has been described in preterm infants, the association between diabetes insipidus and hydrocephalus, and the fact that such central diabetes insipidus could be reversible with the reduction of ventricular size, either because of spontaneous resolution or the placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is first described here in neonates.

  11. V2R mutations and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria, with hyposthenuria, and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. Nephrogenic failure to concentrate urine maximally may be due to a defect in vasopressin-induced water permeability of the distal tubules and collecting ducts, to insufficient buildup of the corticopapillary interstitial osmotic gradient, or to a combination of these two factors. Thus, the broadest definition of the term NDI embraces any antidiuretic hormone-resistant urinary-concentrating defect, including medullary disease with low interstitial osmolality, renal failure, and osmotic diuresis. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked recessive NDI (OMIM 304800)(1) and have mutations in the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene that codes for the vasopressin V(2) receptor; the gene is located in chromosome region Xq28. In about 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (OMIM 222000 and 125800)(1). Mutations have been identified in the aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2, OMIM 107777)(1), which is located in chromosome region 12q13 and codes for the vasopressin-sensitive water channel. NDI is clinically distinguishable from neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (OMIM 125700(1); also referred to as central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) by a lack of response to exogenous AVP and by plasma levels of AVP that rise normally with increase in plasma osmolality. Hereditary neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is secondary to mutations in the gene encoding AVP (OMIM 192340)(1). Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is also a component of autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome 1 or DIDMOAD syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness) (OMIM

  12. Diabetes insipidus in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, M F; Chin, N M; Lew, T W

    1998-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon but important complication in the neurosurgical population. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence, profile and outcome of patients admitted to an 18-bedded neurosurgical intensive care unit who developed DI. The overall incidence was 3.7% (29/792 admissions). Aetiologies included subarachnoid haemorrhage (12/29), severe head injury (11/29), post-surgical excision of craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma (5/29) and acute haemorrhagic stroke (1/29). All patients were treated with a regime of fluid replacement, electrolyte correction, parenteral or intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP), or parenteral pitressin. Overall mortality was 72.4%. There were no deaths in the patients who underwent excision of tumours. Complications included acute pulmonary oedema, hypernatremia and hypokalaemia. The development of DI was found to be associated with impending brain death and mortality in the majority of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and severe head injury. However, careful diagnosis and management of DI after hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal surgery did not result in any permanent neurological sequelae.

  13. Genetics and diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2012-04-01

    Most of the central diabetes insipidus cases seen in general practice are acquired but the rare cases of hereditary autosomal dominant or recessive neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus have provided further cellular understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pre-hormone folding, maturation and release. Autosomal dominant central diabetes insipidus is secondary to the toxic accumulation of vasopressin mutants as fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons producing vasopressin. As well, Trpv1(-/-) and Trpv4(-/-) mice have shed new light on the perception of tonicity through the stretch receptors TRPVs expressed both in central and peripheral neurons. The genomic information provided by sequencing the AVP gene is key to the routine care of these patients and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families. In addition, simple, inexpensive blood and urine measurements together with clinical characteristics and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish between central, nephrogenic and polydipsic cases.

  14. Pemetrexed-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Fung, Enrica; Anand, Shuchi; Bhalla, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Pemetrexed is an approved antimetabolite agent, now widely used for treating locally advanced or metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. Although no electrolyte abnormalities are described in the prescribing information for this drug, several case reports have noted nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with associated acute kidney injury. We present a case of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus without severely reduced kidney function and propose a mechanism for the isolated finding. Severe hypernatremia can lead to encephalopathy and osmotic demyelination, and our report highlights the importance of careful monitoring of electrolytes and kidney function in patients with lung cancer receiving pemetrexed.

  15. Profound hypernatremia due to central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Vaqar, Abeer; Rafiq, Asim; Javaid, Khalid Hussain; Parveen, Rashida; Sadaf, Rabia

    2012-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare endocrine disorder in paediatric patients. Polyuria is a cardinal manifestation that is extremely difficult to recognize in diapered infants. Careful urine quantification is the key to diagnosis in appropriate clinical setting. We report a case of a 4 months old infant presenting with an acute life threatening event following an episode of vomiting and decreased oral intake. She had profound hypernatremia which persisted after stabilization. Polyuria unrecognized by the mother was revealed by 24-hour urine output measurement. A diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was made after appropriate laboratory investigations including serum and urine osmolality. The central nature of the disease was confirmed by neuroimaging which showed holoprosencephaly.

  16. [Diabetes insipidus: approaches to desmopressin substitution therapy].

    PubMed

    Thanh, N C; Prokof'ev, A B

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide tendency toward the growing prevalence of diabetes insipidus due to the elevated frequency of its central form attributable to the large number of surgical brain interventions and craniocerebral injuries. The overall diabetes insipidus morbidity is estimated at 30%. During the last 100 years, the patients were treated first with pituitary posterior lobe extract then with synthetic arginine-vasopressin. The break-through came in 1974 with the advent of desmopressin, a synthetic analog of natural arginine-vasopressin, that antagonizes V2 receptors, lacks vasoconstrictor activity, and exerts strong long-term antidiuretic action.

  17. Oral Therapy of Diabetes Insipidus with Chlorpropamide

    PubMed Central

    Cushard, William G.; Beauchamp, Charles J.; Martin, Neil D.

    1971-01-01

    Chlorpropamide was found to be an effective antidiuretic agent in vasopressin-sensitive diabetes insipidus. Full clinical use of this action is limited by the frequent occurrence of hypoglycemia on higher doses. This complication can be avoided, however, by restricting the dose and by employing combination therapy with hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:5563815

  18. [Diabetes insipidus in infancy. II. Study of eleven cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Yturriaga, R; Barrio, R; Nieto, J A; Rabadán, B; Lledó, G; Gracia, R

    1977-01-01

    Eleven cases of diabetes insipidus are revised and distributed in the following four groups: I. Idiopathic diabetes insipidus, three. II. Secondary diabetes insipidus, four. III. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, two. IV. Psychogenic diabetes insipidus, two. In all these cases, clinical parameters, general analysis, hydric metabolism (static and dinamic), are studied. The precocious beginning of psychogenic diabetes insipidus, and some conclusions, on a difficult case of hard diagnosis are emphasized.

  19. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4-6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m(2)). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350-1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278-295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135-145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5-5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5-6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Gestational DI is a rare complication of pregnancy occurring in two to four out of

  20. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4–6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m2). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350–1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278–295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135–145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5–5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5–6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Learning points Gestational DI is a rare complication of

  1. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  2. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  3. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with intestinal leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Post, G S

    1999-12-15

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was diagnosed in a dog with an intestinal leiomyosarcoma. The diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was made on the basis of results of serum biochemical tests, urinalyses, and a water-deprivation test, along with a lack of response to exogenous administration of vasopressin following the water-deprivation test. The temporal association between resection of the intestinal mass and resolution of clinical signs of diabetes insipidus (i.e., polyuria and polydipsia) and between recurrence of clinical signs and detection of metastatic disease suggests that there may have been a causal relationship, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may have developed as a paraneoplastic syndrome in this dog.

  4. [Granulomatosis with polyangiitis manifested as diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Pátek, Ondřej; Horáčková, Miroslava; Vítová, Lenka; Horváth, Rudolf; Háček, Jaromír; Schück, Otto

    The case report shows a surprising presentation of pulmonary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) through symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI) with granulomatous infiltration of the pituitary gland. The pituitary hormonal dysfunction as a result of granulomatosis of the pituitary gland is rare. Several studies have demonstrated that the incidence of the pituitary dysfunction reaches approx. 1 % of the patients with GPA. However it is mostly presented in patients with the disease already diagnosed. The patient described by us had no clinical expressions of GPA in the respiratory tract. He presented with polyuria and polydipsia. It was not until a more detailed examination of these symptoms was performed that a focal lung disease was detected and diagnosed as GPA. diabetes insipidus - granulomatosis with polyangiitis - granulomatous infiltration of the pituitary gland - pituitary hormonal dysfunction.

  5. Sheehan's syndrome with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Dar, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Sheehan's syndrome refers to the occurrence of hypopituitarism after delivery, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The condition still continues to be a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries like India. The disorder usually presents with anterior pituitary failure with preservation of posterior pituitary functions. Posterior pituitary dysfunction in the form of central diabetes insipidus is rare in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a young lady who after her sixth childbirth developed severe postpartum hemorrhage followed by development of panhypopituitarism which was confirmed by hormonal investigation and demonstration of empty sella on imaging. In addition, she developed Polyuria. The water deprivation test and response to vasopressin test results indicated central diabetes insipidus. She needed oral desmopressin on a continuous basis to control polyuria.

  6. Molecular biology of hereditary diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T Mary; Bichet, Daniel G

    2005-10-01

    The identification, characterization, and mutational analysis of three different genes-the arginine vasopressin gene (AVP), the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2), and the vasopressin-sensitive water channel gene (aquaporin 2 [AQP2])-provide the basis for understanding of three different hereditary forms of "pure" diabetes insipidus: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), and non-X-linked NDI, respectively. It is clinically useful to distinguish two types of hereditary NDI: A "pure" type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients who have congenital NDI and bear mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2 genes have a "pure" NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Patients who bear inactivating mutations in genes (SLC12A1, KCNJ1, CLCNKB, CLCNKA and CLCNKB in combination, or BSND) that encode the membrane proteins of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle have a complex polyuro-polydipsic syndrome with loss of water, sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. These advances provide diagnostic and clinical tools for physicians who care for these patients.

  7. Vasopressin function in familial cranial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, P. H.; Robertson, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A family suffering from cranial diabetes insipidus, that extends over 4 generations, is described. Inheritance of polyuria was autosomal dominant. Vasopressin function was studied in members of the last 2 generations, 4 of whom had polyuria. Osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion was assessed by infusion of hypertonic saline. Plasma vasopressin remained undetectable in one patient, while 2 others had very blunted vasopressin responses to osmotic stimulation. Three non-osmotic stimuli were applied. Controlled hypotension produced by trimetaphan infusion and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia did not increase plasma vasopressin but apomorphine-induced nausea caused a minimal rise in plasma vasopressin to 0.7 pg/ml. Polyuria and thirst resolved with antidiuretic therapy in all patients studied. Congenital absence of vasopressin as in Brattleboro rats is unlikely to account for diabetes insipidus in this disorder since small increases in vasopressin have been demonstrated in these patients. In view of previous post-mortem findings, familial cranial diabetes insipidus is most likely to be due to degeneration of vasopressin-synthesizing neurones. PMID:7279821

  8. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Sahar H; Younes, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  9. Familial forms of diabetes insipidus: clinical and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Babey, Muriel; Kopp, Peter; Robertson, Gary L

    2011-07-05

    Over the past two decades, the genetic and molecular basis of familial forms of diabetes insipidus has been elucidated. Diabetes insipidus is a clinical syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and increased fluid intake (polydipsia). The most common type of diabetes insipidus is caused by lack of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (vasopressin), which is produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by the neurohypophysis. This type of diabetes insipidus is referred to here as neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. The syndrome can also result from resistance to the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin on the kidney, either at the level of the vasopressin 2 receptor or the aquaporin 2 water channel (which mediates the re-absorption of water from urine), and is referred to as renal or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Differentiation between these two types of diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia can be difficult owing to the existence of partial as well as complete forms of vasopressin deficiency or resistance. Seven different familial forms of diabetes insipidus are known to exist. The clinical presentation, genetic basis and cellular mechanisms responsible for them vary considerably. This information has led to improved methods of differential diagnosis and could provide the basis of new forms of therapy.

  10. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a review of an underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Nikolay; Audibert, François; Bedard, Marie-Josée; Mahone, Michèle; Goffinet, François; Kadoch, Isaac-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy. A search of the literature was performed in PubMed using key word searching and citation snowballing to identify articles published in English between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2008, on the subject of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy. Once the articles were identified, a thorough review of all results was conducted. Results and conclusions were compiled and summarized. We reviewed 50 studies selected using the following key words: diabetes insipidus, pregnancy, arginine vasopressin, vasopressinase. Gestational diabetes insipidus is underdiagnosed because polyuria is often considered normal during pregnancy. Clinicians caring for pregnant women should consider screening for gestational diabetes insipidus, because it could be associated with serious underlying pathology.

  11. V2R structure and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Birnbaumer, Mariel

    2002-01-01

    For most audiences, the term "diabetes" conjures thoughts of high levels of blood glucose and of the symptoms that characterize diabetes mellitus. In the last few years, a spirited campaign spear-headed by the families of affected individuals has made progress in educating nonprofessional and medical communities about diabetes insipidus (DI), the other disease characterized by polyuria (i.e., diabetes). Much work lies ahead to find better treatments for this affliction, but the progress in molecular biology over the last years made possible the identification of the genetic defects underlying the inherited forms of the disease. Numerous cases of adult-onset DI are triggered by toxic damage to the kidneys that impairs the concentrating capacity of the nephrons by a nonspecific mechanism. In these pages I shall deal mostly with the inherited forms of the disease. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by the inability of the kidneys of affected individuals to produce concentrated urine (Morello and Bichet 2001). The elimination of large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia) are the chief symptoms of the disease. Although this condition and the hints that it was a hereditary disease were described at the end of the 19th century, it took almost 100 years to gain molecular knowledge about its etiology. A brief review of the important role played by vasopressin in the maintenance of body fluids will help the reader understand the severity of this disease.

  12. Metastatic Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marilyn J; Aguinaldo, Tyler F

    2013-01-01

    To present the first reported case of metastatic Burkitt's lymphoma with a single central nervous system (CNS) metastasis to the pituitary stalk. We provided details of the case presentation and review the literature. Although other malignancies are known to metastasize to the pituitary, and diabetes insipidus is often the presenting symptom, there has not been a previously reported case of Burkitt's lymphoma with a single CNS metastasis to the pituitary. A careful history and an endocrine review of systems may aid early identification of pituitary or central nervous system metastases.

  13. Genetic forms of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Jonas; Spiess, Martin; Kopp, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia owing to partial or complete deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Although in most patients non-hereditary causes underlie the disorder, genetic forms have long been recognized and studied both in vivo and in vitro. In most affected families, the disease is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, whereas autosomal recessive forms are much less frequent. Both phenotypes can be caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP) gene. In transfected cells expressing dominant mutations, the mutated hormone precursor is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it forms fibrillar aggregates. Autopsy studies in humans and a murine knock-in model suggest that the dominant phenotype results from toxicity to vasopressinergic neurons, but the mechanisms leading to cell death remain unclear. Recessive transmission results from AVP with reduced biologic activity or the deletion of the locus. Genetic neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus occurring in the context of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness is termed DIDMOAD or Wolfram syndrome, a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the wolframin (WFS 1) gene.

  14. [Postoperative diabetes insipidus after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumor].

    PubMed

    Tao, Jia; Wen, Wei-Ping; Lei, Wen-Bin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Su, Zhen-Zhong; Mu, Yong-Gao; Xu, Geng

    2007-03-01

    To study the prevention and treatment of postoperative diabetes insipidus after removal of pituitary tumor through transsphenoidal operation, to decrease the incidence of postoperative complications and improve the treatment of pituitary tumor. The clinical data of 86 cases of transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumor in recent 8 years were retrospectively reviewed, including 35 endoscopic operation and 51 microscopic operation. The incidence, prevention and treatment of diabetes insipidus were statistically analysed. There were 18 cases of postoperative diabetes insipidus in total of 86 operations, including 15 acute cases, 3 delayed cases. Twelve were temporary , which recovered within 1 week. After prompt treatment, 14 recovered within 1 week, 4 recovered within 2 weeks. No persistent diabetes insipidus was found. The key points to prevent postoperative diabetes insipidus lay in the improvement of operative skills, careful protection during operation and avoidance of unnecessary injury. In case of diabetes insipidus occurred, rational use of antidiuretics and correction of electrolyte balance were effective in the treatment of postoperative diabetes insipidus.

  15. Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Previously Unreported Side Effect of Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. Case Presentations: A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Conclusions: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ. PMID:23928668

  16. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  17. Acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Beale, Elizabeth O; Inaba, Kenji; Chan, Linda S; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-10-01

    The incidence and risk factors for acute diabetes insipidus after severe head injury and the effect of this complication on outcomes have not been evaluated in any large prospective studies. We conducted a prospective study of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU of a Level I trauma center with severe head injury (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] >or= 3). The following potential risk factors with p < 0.2 on bivariate analysis were included in a stepwise logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus and its association with mortality: age, mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, head and other body area AIS, skull fracture, cerebral edema and shift, intracranial hemorrhage, and pneumocephaly. There were 436 patients (blunt injuries, 392; penetrating injuries, 44); 387 patients had isolated head injury. Diabetes insipidus occurred in 15.4% of all patients (blunt, 12.5%; penetrating, 40.9%; p < 0.0001) and in 14.7% of patients with isolated head injury (blunt, 11.8%; penetrating, 39.5%; p < 0.0001). The presence of major extracranial injuries did not influence the incidence of diabetes insipidus. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus in isolated head injury were Glasgow Coma Scale3. Diabetes insipidus was an independent risk factor for death (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI [1.65, 9.72]; adjusted p value = 0.002). The incidence of acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury is high, especially in penetrating injuries. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus include a Glasgow Coma Scale3. Acute diabetes insipidus was associated with significantly increased mortality.

  18. Accurate patient history contributes to differentiating diabetes insipidus: a case study.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Meek, LorieAnn G; Lynch, John R

    2004-08-01

    This case study highlights the important contribution of nursing in obtaining an accurate health history. The case discussed herein initially appeared to be neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) secondary to a traumatic brain injury. The nursing staff, by reviewing the patient's health history with his family, discovered a history of polydipsia and long-standing lithium use. Lithium is implicated in drug-induced nephrogenic DI, and because the patient had not received lithium since being admitted to the hospital, his treatment changed to focus on nephrogenic DI. By combining information from the patient history, the physical examination, and radiologic and laboratory studies, the critical care team demonstrated that the patient had been self-treating his lithium-induced nephrogenic DI and developed neurogenic DI secondary to brain trauma. Thus successful treatment required that nephrogenic and neurogenic DI be treated concomitantly.

  19. The syndrome of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy (DIDMOA) with diabetic cheiroarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, G. A.; Greally, J. F.; Drury, M. I.

    1978-01-01

    Two sisters with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy are described. One of them also has vasopressin responsive diabetes insipidus. Both have diabetic cheiroarthropathy, an unusual deformity of the hands. ImagesFig. 1

  20. Gestational Diabetes Insipidus Associated with HELLP Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gambito, Renela; Chan, Michael; Sheta, Mohamed; Ramirez-Arao, Precious; Gurm, Harmeet; Tunkel, Allan; Nivera, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, but well recognized, complication of pregnancy. It is related to excess vasopressinase enzyme activity which is metabolized in the liver. A high index of suspicion of gestational diabetes insipidus is required in a correct clinical setting especially in the presence of other risk factors such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and twin pregnancies. We are presenting a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a patient with HELLP syndrome. The newborn in this case also had hypernatremia thereby raising possibilities of vasopressinase crossing the placenta.

  1. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  2. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Martín; Hannon, Mark J; Thompson, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI. A literature search was performed to review the background, etiology, management and associated complications of this rare condition. ADI has been reported to occur in association with clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm following subarachnoid haemorrhage, major hypothalamic surgery, traumatic brain injury and toluene exposure among other conditions. Management is very difficult and patients are prone to marked changes in plasma sodium concentration, in particular to the development of severe hypernatraemia. Associated hypothalamic disorders, such as severe obesity, sleep apnoea and thermoregulatory disorders are often observed in patients with ADI. The management of ADI is challenging and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is variable; hypothalamic complications lead to early death in some patients, but recent reports highlight the possibility of recovery of thirst.

  3. Metastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting Central Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Hakkı; Kaya, Mustafa; Can, Mücteba; Özbek, Mustafa; Keyik, Bahir

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, and primary and metastatic tumors. Metastases to the pituitary gland are absolutely rare, and they are generally secondary to pulmonary carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The posterior lobe involvement may explain why patients with pituitary metastases frequently present with diabetes insipidus. We are presenting a case report of a 78-year-old male patient who had metastatic prostate with sudden onset of polyuria and persistent thirst. He had no electrolyte imbalance except mild hypernatremia. The MRI scan of the brain yielded a suspicious area in pituitary gland. A pituitary stalk metastasis was found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary. Water deprivation test was compatible with DI. A clinical response to nasal vasopressin was achieved and laboratory results revealed central diabetes insipidus. As a result, the intrasellar and suprasellar masses decreased in size, and urinary output accordingly decreased. PMID:22474455

  4. [Growth in children with diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Morla Báez, E; Dorantes Alvarez, L M; Chavarría Bonequi, C

    1980-01-01

    Commercial preparations of vasopressin for the treatment of diabetes insipidus are not available in Mexico. Besides, the hormone is useless in the nephrogenic variety. In the department of Endocrinology at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico, a preparation containing hydrochlorothiazide, aminopyrine and potassium chloride, which reduces urinary volumes in about two thirds, is employed in all varieties of the disease. Growth in stature was investigated in 44 patients under treatment, attending the Endocrine Outpatient Clinic since 1967 for a period of 2 to 12 years. Clinical material included 29 males and 15 females. There were 23 idiopathic, 7 histiocytosis, 5 nephrogenic, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 2 psychogenic polydipsia, 2 traumatic and 1, as a sequel of tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Six idiopathic, 2 nephrogenic, 2 traumatic, 1 histiocytosis, and 1 psychogenic proceeded between percentiles 3 and 97, parallel to the nearest line of reference along the whole period of study. Two nephrogenic, 2 histiocytosis, 1 psychogenic, 1 post-meningoencephalitis and 14 idiopathic, grew below the third percentile, but parallel to it. One nephrogenic, 4 histiocytosis, 4 craniopharyngioma and 3 idiopathic progressively departed from the initial centile. Two of the latter had growth hormone deficiency, and 1 had been very irregularly treated. It is concluded that the therapy employed limits stature impairment but does not produce catch-up growth. Accordingly, it is proposed that the treatment of diabetes insipidus should be started as early as possible, and that if progress in stature is appreciably deteriorated, the presence of additional pathology should be suspected.

  5. Diabetes insipidus: a challenging diagnosis with new drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Saifan, Chadi; Nasr, Rabih; Mehta, Suchita; Sharma Acharya, Pranab; Perrera, Isera; Faddoul, Giovanni; Nalluri, Nikhil; Kesavan, Mayurakhan; Azzi, Yorg; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is either due to deficient secretion of arginine vasopressin (central) or to tubular unresponsiveness (nephrogenic). Drug induced DI is a well-known entity with an extensive list of medications. Polyuria is generally defined as urine output exceeding 3 liters per day in adults. It is crucial to identify the cause of diabetes insipidus and to implement therapy as early as possible to prevent the electrolyte disturbances and the associated mortality and morbidity. It is very rare to have an idiosyncratic effect after a short use of a medication, and physicians should be aware of such a complication to avoid volume depletion. The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is very challenging because it relies on laboratory values, urine output, and the physical examination of the patient. A high clinical suspicion of diabetes insipidus should be enough to initiate treatment. The complications related to DI are mostly related to the electrolyte imbalance that can affect the normal physiology of different organ systems.

  6. Adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing a bifocal intracranial germinoma.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Julie; Potorac, Iulia; Lutteri, Laurence; Gennigens, Christine; Martin, Didier; Daly, Adrian F; Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Tshibanda, Luaba; Beckers, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of intracranial tumors in which impaired antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with the loss of thirst sensation. Here, we present the case of a patient with bifocal intracranial germinoma, diagnosed due to symptoms mainly caused by adipsic diabetes insipidus. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing an intracranial germinoma reported in the literature. We describe the diagnostic procedures and the three-year follow-up of this patient. Management of intracranial germ-cell tumors is made complex by the wide range of histological features. Although germinomas have a generally better prognosis than most nongerminomatous tumors, they can have severe or even life-threatening presentations. Adipsic diabetes insipidus is one such severe presentation and its rarity can make it difficult to recognize and manage. Awareness of this potential entity is therefore important for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Central diabetes insipidus in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Alharfi, Ibrahim M; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Foster, Jennifer; Morrison, Gavin C; Fraser, Douglas D

    2013-02-01

    To determine the occurrence rate of central diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to describe the clinical, injury, biochemical, imaging, and intervention variables associated with mortality. Retrospective chart and imaging review. Children's Hospital, level 1 trauma center. Severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 12) pediatric trauma patients (>1 month and <18 yr) with severe traumatic brain injury (presedation Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 and head Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 4) that developed acute central diabetes insipidus between January 2000 and December 2011. Of 818 severely injured trauma patients, 180 had severe traumatic brain injury with an overall mortality rate of 27.2%. Thirty-two of the severe traumatic brain injury patients developed acute central diabetes insipidus that responded to desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin and/or vasopressin infusion, providing an occurrence rate of 18%. At the time of central diabetes insipidus diagnosis, median urine output and serum sodium were 6.8 ml/kg/hr (interquartile range = 5-11) and 154 mmol/L (interquartile range = 149-159), respectively. The mortality rate of central diabetes insipidus patients was 87.5%, with 71.4% declared brain dead after central diabetes insipidus diagnosis. Early central diabetes insipidus onset, within the first 2 days of severe traumatic brain injury, was strongly associated with mortality (p < 0.001), as were a lower presedation Glasgow Coma Scale (p = 0.03), a lower motor Glasgow Coma Scale (p = 0.01), an occurrence of fixed pupils (p = 0.04), and a prolonged partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.04). Cerebral edema on the initial computed tomography, obtained in the first 24 hrs after injury, was the only imaging finding associated with death (p = 0.002). Survivors of central diabetes insipidus were more likely to have intracranial pressure monitoring (p = 0.03), have thiopental administered to induce coma (p = 0.04) and have received a

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia with diabetes insipidus and hypophyseal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Harrup, Rosemary; Pham, My; McInerney, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    It has been reported that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t(3;3)(q21;q26) translocation and monosomy 7 abnormalities may present with diabetes insipidus (DI) without neurohypophysis changes on imaging. We report a second Australian AML case with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) that presented with radiological abnormalities but without the genetic changes as previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Isolated central diabetes insipidus in a newborn with congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ahmet; Erdeve, Omer; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet; Deda, Gulhis; Ince, Erdal; Ocal, Gonul; Berberoglu, Merih

    2006-02-01

    We present a 5 day-old male newborn with isolated central diabetes insipidus due to congenital toxoplasmosis. This patient was referred to us for hydrocephalus. As we investigated the aetiology of the hydrocephalus, the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for toxoplasmosis via ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Computed tomography showed obstructive hydrocephalus and disseminated cranial calcifications. Central diabetes insipidus developed on the 10th day, apparently as a result of the toxoplasmosis infection, and was treated successfully with oral desmopressin.

  10. Non-hormonal drugs for the treatment of diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, T.; Genest, J.

    1972-01-01

    Patients with diabetes insipidus may be successfully controlled with drugs other than vasopressin. These have the advantage of being effective when administered orally. The most important are the diuretics and the hypoglycemic agent chlorpropamide. The mode of action, indications and side effects of these drugs are reviewed. A third potentially useful agent is clofibrate. Recent experience with this drug has been described but more observations are needed before its possible role in the management of diabetes insipidus can be established. PMID:4344485

  11. Central diabetes insipidus in children with acute brain insult.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Hung, Po-Cheng; Chou, Min-Liang; Hsieh, Meng-Ying; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Central diabetes insipidus occurs in patients with overwhelming central nervous system injuries, and may be associated with brain death. The clinical picture of children with acquired central diabetes insipidus after acute brain insult is seldom reported. We retrospectively reviewed cases dating from January 2000-February 2008 at a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Fifty-four patients (28 girls, 26 boys), aged 3 months to 18 years, were enrolled. Etiologies included severe central nervous system infection (35.2%), hypoxic-ischemic events (31.5%), head injury (18.5%), and vascular lesions (14.8%). In 39 (72.2%) patients, diabetes insipidus was diagnosed during the first 2 days after acute central nervous system injury, and 40 (74.0%) developed maximum serum sodium concentrations of >160 mEq/L. In 16, sequential cerebral salt wasting syndrome developed after their initial diabetes insipidus presentation. Overall mortality at 2 months after admission was 77.8%. Our results demonstrate that patients who develop central diabetes insipidus after acute central nervous system injury manifest high mortality. Development of central diabetes insipidus within the first 2 days and a maximum plasma sodium >160 mEq/L were significant predictors of outcomes.

  12. Transient Diabetes Insipidus Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Bolat, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) results from inadequate output of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland (central DI) or the inability of the kidney tubules to respond to ADH (nephrogenic DI). ADH is an octapeptide produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) has been shown to cause a six-fold increased circulating ADH levels 12 hours after surgery. However, in some cases, ADH release may be transiently suppressed due to cardioplegia (cardiac standstill) or CPB leading to DI. We present the postoperative course of a 60-year-old man who developed transient DI after CPB. He was successfully treated by applying nasal desmopressin therapy. Relevant biochemical parameters should be monitored closely in patients who produce excessive urine after open heart surgery.

  13. Physiopathology and diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Devuyst, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by an improper response of the kidney to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), leading to a decreased ability to concentrate urine which results in polyuria and polydipsia. The clinical diagnosis of NDI relies on demonstration of subnormal ability to concentrate urine despite the presence of AVP. NDI is most commonly acquired, secondary to kidney disorders, electrolyte imbalance and various drugs. Congenital forms of NDI are rare, and most commonly inherited in a X-linked manner with mutations of the AVP receptor type 2 (AVPR2). Mutations of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) can be detected in autosomal recessive or dominant forms of NDI. Management of NDI should focus on free access to drinking water and reduction of polyuria.

  14. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Janus, Dominika Malgorzata; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Zygmunt-Górska, Agata; Wyrobek, Lukasz; Urbanik, Andrzej; Starzyk, Jerzy Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    To present symptoms, complications and proposition of management protocol in children diagnosed with adipsic diabetes insipidus (aDI). Clinical and biochemical analysis of six pediatric patients diagnosed with aDI, four boys aged 5, 13, 16, and 17 y and two girls aged 2.5 and 10 y. The etiology of aDI was germinoma (n = 2), extensive surgery due to optic glioma (n = 1) and astrocytoma (n = 1), congenital brain malformations (n = 1) and complications secondary to bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Two patients had severely impaired vision and two had hemiparesis. In all the patients, loss of thirst reflex was observed. The serum electrolytes in all patients showed sodium concentration from 159 to 176.6 mmol/L with plasma osmolality from above 297 mOsmol/kg. Polyuria was absent in three most severely dehydrated patients on admission. In two patients in whom DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin; Desmopressin) therapy was withdrawn based on lack of polyuria deep venous thrombosis developed. Lack of polydipsia and polyuria, the key symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI), may delay the diagnosis of aDI and may lead to severe complications of chronic hyperosmolar status. The fluid intake in patients diagnosed with aDI need to be supervised daily based on calculated constant volume of oral fluids, daily measurements of fluid balance, body weight and sodium levels, especially in patients whose vision is compromised or who are physically unable to take care of themselves.

  15. A Rare Case of Congenital Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Rege, Tanvi; Polsani, Srujana; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a conformation disease resulting from protein misfolding. Ninety percent of mutations result from the inactivating mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene transmitted in an X-linked fashion, blocking the response to vasopressin, resulting in the inability to concentrate urine. Clinical features include polyuria, polydispsia, dehydration, and hypernatremia. They are generally more severely in affected males but present variably in females due to skewed inactivation of the X chromosome. We describe a case of a 40-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, who presents with debilitating polyuria since the age of 5 with no clear diagnosis. Interestingly, her son was diagnosed with NDI. Genetic testing revealed that she was heterozygous for the Val88Met mutation in the AVPR2 gene while her son was hemizygous for the same. The patient has since been successfully treated with diuretics and a low solute diet. We highlight that although X-linked NDI patients are mostly males, it should be considered in symptomatic females to prevent delays in the diagnosis. Conformational diseases such as NDI are presently the subject of research using pharmacological chaperones to restore proper receptor membrane localization and function.

  16. A Rare Case of Congenital Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Tanvi; Polsani, Srujana; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a conformation disease resulting from protein misfolding. Ninety percent of mutations result from the inactivating mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene transmitted in an X-linked fashion, blocking the response to vasopressin, resulting in the inability to concentrate urine. Clinical features include polyuria, polydispsia, dehydration, and hypernatremia. They are generally more severely in affected males but present variably in females due to skewed inactivation of the X chromosome. We describe a case of a 40-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, who presents with debilitating polyuria since the age of 5 with no clear diagnosis. Interestingly, her son was diagnosed with NDI. Genetic testing revealed that she was heterozygous for the Val88Met mutation in the AVPR2 gene while her son was hemizygous for the same. The patient has since been successfully treated with diuretics and a low solute diet. We highlight that although X-linked NDI patients are mostly males, it should be considered in symptomatic females to prevent delays in the diagnosis. Conformational diseases such as NDI are presently the subject of research using pharmacological chaperones to restore proper receptor membrane localization and function. PMID:26217664

  17. [Mutations in the arginine vasopressin neurophysin-II gene in familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus patients].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused by deficient arginine vasopressin hormone production. More than a 50 mutations have been identified for familial autosomic dominant neurogenic diabetes insipidus (FadNDI). These mutations can cause citotoxicity and lead to the degeneration of magnocellular neurons of the hipofisis by aberrant protein accumulation. The NDI diagnosis is based on the water deprivation test, quantification of AVP hormone and Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI), and in families with history of FadNDI has been suggested the molecular analysis of mutation in the arginine vasopressin neurophisin II gene before the signs and symptoms development, with the purpose of offering a suitable diagnosis, clinical follow up and treatment. The treatment with a synthetic analogue of AVP hormone allows the remission of the signs and symptoms in NDI patients and the advances in gene therapy in animal models has been promising, as much for NDI as for other diseases in which the mutant protein production has been involved.

  18. Maternal rhabdomyolysis and twin fetal death associated with gestational diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Price, Joan T; Schwartz, Nadav

    2013-08-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, transient complication of pregnancy typically characterized by polyuria and polydipsia that may lead to mild electrolyte abnormalities. More severe sequelae of gestational diabetes insipidus are uncommon. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman at 23 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy who developed severe symptomatic gestational diabetes insipidus complicated by rhabdomyolysis and death of both fetuses. Maternal rhabdomyolysis caused by gestational diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Early recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes insipidus is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  19. Diabetes insipidus: Differential diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Gary L

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine. It can be caused by any of 4 fundamentally different defects that must be distinguished for safe and effective management. They are: (1) pituitary DI, due to inadequate production and secretion of antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP); (2) gestational DI due to degradation of AVP by an enzyme made in placenta; (3) primary polydipsia, due to suppression of AVP secretion by excessive fluid intake; and (4) nephrogenic DI due to renal insensitivity to the antidiuretic effect of AVP. This review describes several methods of differential diagnosis, indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each and presents a new approach that is simpler and less costly but just as reliable as the best of the older methods. The various treatments for the different types of DI and recent findings on the genetic basis of the familial forms of DI are also discussed with emphasis on their contributions to improved diagnosis and management.

  20. Diabetes insipidus--diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Napoli, Flavia; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Olivieri, Irene; Bertelli, Enrica; Gallizia, Annalisa; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is the end result of a number of conditions that affect the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system. The known causes include germinoma/craniopharyngioma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), local inflammatory, autoimmune or vascular diseases, trauma resulting from surgery or an accident, sarcoidosis, metastases and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. In rare cases, the underlying cause can be genetic defects in vasopressin synthesis that are inherited as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive traits. The diagnosis of the underlying condition is challenging and raises several concerns for patients and parents as it requires long-term follow-up. Proper etiological diagnosis can be achieved via a series of steps that start with clinical observations and then progress to more sophisticated tools. Specifically, MRI identification of pituitary hyperintensity in the posterior part of the sella, now considered a clear marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, together with the careful analysis of pituitary stalk shape and size, have provided the most striking findings contributing to the diagnosis and understanding of some forms of 'idiopathic' CDI. MRI STIR (short-inversion-time inversion recovery sequencing) is a promising technology for the early identification of LCH-dependent CDI.

  1. Natural history of idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gail E; Thomsett, Michael J; Boston, Bruce A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Shulman, Dorothy I; Draznin, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To determine what percentage of diabetes insipidus (DI) in childhood is idiopathic and to assess the natural history of idiopathic DI. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 105 patients with DI who were born or had DI diagnosed between 1980-1989 at 3 medical centers. A second cohort of 30 patients from 6 medical centers in whom idiopathic DI was diagnosed after 1990 was evaluated retrospectively for subsequent etiologic diagnoses and additional hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies and prospectively for quality of life. In the first cohort, 11% of patients had idiopathic DI. In the second cohort, additional hypothalamic/pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in 33%, and 37% received an etiologic diagnosis for DI. Health-related quality of life for all the patients with idiopathic DI was comparable with the healthy reference population. Only a small percentage of patients with DI will remain idiopathic after first examination. Other hormone deficiencies will develop later in one-third of those patients, and slightly more than one-third of those patients will have an etiology for the DI diagnosed. Long-term surveillance is important because tumors have been diagnosed as long as 21 years after the onset of DI. Quality of life for these patients is as good as the reference population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. PMID:26239685

  3. Management of diabetes insipidus in children

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Garima; Chandrashekhar, Sudha Rao

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome of disturbance in water balance, characterized by polyuria (urine output > 4 ml/kg/hr), polydypsia (water intake > 2 L/m2/d) and failure to thrive. In children, Nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than Central DI (CDI), and is often acquired. The signs and symptoms vary with etiology, age at presentation and mode of onset. Neonates and infants with NDI are severely affected and difficult to treat. Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. Water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI and CDI and diagnose their partial forms. Measurement of urinary aquaporin 2 and serum copeptin levels are being studied and show promising diagnostic potential. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) pituitary helps in the etiological diagnosis of CDI, absence of posterior pituitary bright signal being the pathognomic sign. If pituitary stalk thickening of < 2 mm is present, these children need to be monitored for evolving lesion. Neonates and young infants are better managed with fluids alone. Older children with CDI are treated with desmopressin. The oral form is safe, highly effective, with more flexibility of dosing and has largely replaced the intranasal form. In NDI besides treatment of the underlying cause, use of high calorie low solute diet and drugs to ameliorate water excretion (thiazide, amelioride, indomethacin) are useful. Children with NDI however well treated, remain short and have mental retardation on follow up. PMID:22029022

  4. Diabetes insipidus secondary to sarcoidosis presenting with caseating granuloma.

    PubMed

    Alam, Taimour; Thomas, Steven

    2011-03-03

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of sarcoid infiltration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Non-caseating granuloma formation is typical of sarcoidosis. Anterior and posterior pituitary function may be affected. MRI coupled with endocrinology assessment is the usual method of investigation. A 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant medical history presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Water deprivation test confirmed diabetes insipidus. CT scanning of the chest confirmed lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy revealed caseating granuloma. Extensive investigation for tuberculosis was negative. The patient was started on intranasal desmopressin and steroids with marked improvement in symptoms. This is the first reported case of neurosarcoidosis with diabetes insipidus and caseation on histology that we are aware of. Differentiating between caseation due to sarcoidosis and tuberculosis on histology is possible by the use of special stains. Return of normal endocrine function is unusual and the patient is likely to require desmopressin therapy for life.

  5. Diabetes insipidus secondary to sarcoidosis presenting with caseating granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Taimour; Thomas, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of sarcoid infiltration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Non-caseating granuloma formation is typical of sarcoidosis. Anterior and posterior pituitary function may be affected. MRI coupled with endocrinology assessment is the usual method of investigation. A 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant medical history presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Water deprivation test confirmed diabetes insipidus. CT scanning of the chest confirmed lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy revealed caseating granuloma. Extensive investigation for tuberculosis was negative. The patient was started on intranasal desmopressin and steroids with marked improvement in symptoms. This is the first reported case of neurosarcoidosis with diabetes insipidus and caseation on histology that we are aware of. Differentiating between caseation due to sarcoidosis and tuberculosis on histology is possible by the use of special stains. Return of normal endocrine function is unusual and the patient is likely to require desmopressin therapy for life. PMID:22707619

  6. Recessive inheritance of diabetes: the syndrome of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness.

    PubMed

    Page, M M; Asmal, A C; Edwards, C R

    1976-07-01

    A few rare syndromes have been delineated in which diabetes mellitus is inherited in association with other conditions. This paper describes five patients, including four siblings in one family, who have diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness (the DIDMOAD syndrome). The parents of both families are normal but are first cousins. All the patients have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with a typical juvenile-onset. The onset of diabetes insipidus was insidious and the symptoms could easily have been ascribed to poor control of diabetes mellitus. The importance of diagnosing diabetes insipidus is that all these patients had dilatation of the urinary tract varying from mild hydroureter to severe hydronephrosis and this improved with treatment of the diabetes insipidus. It is suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy should have regular screening tests for diabetes insipidus since it is likely that they represent cases of the full syndrome with incomplete clinical expression. The occurrence of this rare syndrome in four siblings of unaffected parents indicates that the syndrome is due to a recessive gene, but the pathogenesis is unknown.

  7. Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, Solanum indicum L. has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, ascites, edema, and wound infection. The plant is rich in solanine, an alkaloidal glycoside. We report a 43-year-old man who developed polyuria and polydipsia after taking seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum L. over two weeks. A water deprivation test and a low serum antidiuretic hormone level helped to confirm a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. We suggest that excessive doses of Solanum indicum L. may cause central diabetes insipidus.

  8. Adipsic diabetes insipidus following pituitary surgery for a macroprolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, M; Agha, A; Crowley, R; Smith, D; Thompson, C J

    2006-01-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a rare condition in which thirst, an essential clinical feature for the prevention of hypernatraemic dehydration, is absent. We report the first case of adipsic diabetes insipidus to occur following surgery for a pituitary macroprolactinoma, with loss of both osmoregulated and baroregulated vasopressin release. Following extensive surgery for a vision threatening macroprolactinoma a 14-year-old boy developed profound hypernatraemia with absent thirst sensation. Detailed investigation, with hypertonic saline infusion and trimetaphan infusion, revealed absence of both osmoregulatory and baroregulatory release of vasopressin. We discuss the investigation and management of such patients and the physiology of hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal dysfunction in such patients.

  9. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and optic atrophy. An autosomal recessive syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, F C; Gunn, T

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-one families were selected from the published reports in which the propositus had the triad of juvenile diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and optic atrophy. The data were consistent with the hypothesis of an autosomal gene which, in the homozygote, causes juvenile diabetes mellitus and one or more of diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and nerve deafness. Heterozygotes appear to have an increased probability of developing juvenile diabetes mellitus. PMID:881709

  10. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus secondary to syphilis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaqiang; Hu, Chaohui; Zheng, Fenping; Cheng, Hao; Xuan, Junli; Li, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by partial or complete renal resistance to the effects of antidiuretic hormone. Acquired NDI can be caused by electrolyte imbalances (eg, hypercalcemia), renal/extrarenal diseases (eg, chronic pyelonephritis), and drugs (eg, lithium toxicity). Syphilis has never been reported to cause NDI. The aim of this study was to report the case of a 56-year-old man with NDI secondary to syphilis. The 56-year-old patient presented with polyuria and polydipsia lasting more than 40 days. His urine specific gravity was 1.002. He had no history of chronic kidney disease or contact with toxicants. He had normal blood glucose levels. A water-deprivation test and vasopressin administration indicated NDI. His rapid plasma reagin titer was 1:128. The serum Treponema pallidum-particle agglutination test was positive. He reported engaging in unprotected, extramarital sex 6 months before polydipsia onset and thereafter developing a skin lesion on the external genitalia and arthralgia, both of which resolved spontaneously. Examination of renal biopsy specimens showed abundant plasmacytic and lymphocytic infiltration of the interstitium and low and flat tubular epithelial cells, indicating renal tubular injury. Silver staining revealed T. pallidum-like organisms. Immunohistochemical analysis with T. pallidum-specific antibody confirmed the presence of treponemes. The patient received 2.4 million U of benzathine penicillin im once a week for 3 weeks. His urine output gradually reduced; he recovered 1 month later. His urine specific gravity was 1.026, and his syphilis rapid plasma reagin titer was 1:8. Syphilis can cause NDI. The manifestations of syphilis and causes of acquired NDI are diverse.

  11. [A disseminated form of Langerhans histiocytosis associated with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Ben Ghorbel, I; Houman, M H; B'chir, S; Chamakhi, S; Miled, M

    2001-05-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a wide clinical spectrum and varied behavior. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively common feature in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. The presence of both diabetes insipidus and mellitus associated with histiocytosis in an adult is rare. To our knowledge, only three previous cases have been reported. We report the clinical presentation, pathologic findings and clinical progress in an adult female who had disseminated Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (hypothalamic infiltration, multifocal bone involvement) associated with both diabetes insipidus and mellitus. The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in such an association will be discussed.

  12. A case of central diabetes insipidus associated with cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Yoshie, Tasuku; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Ebe, Katsuya; Fujita, Toshio; Fuse, Koichi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-12-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) results from a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. It is treated by replacement therapy with the synthetic AVP analogue desmopressin. To prevent heart failure in patients with CDI accompanied by cardiac dysfunction, controlling sodium and water intake is essential, using the minimum effective dose of desmopressin.

  13. Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Cause of Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Premji, Resmi; Roopnarinesingh, Nira; Cohen, Joshua; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity. The hypernatremia did not respond to hypotonic fluids. Diabetes insipidus was suspected and parenteral desmopressin was started with a prompt decrease in urinary output and improvement in mental status. Additional testing showed normal anterior pituitary hormones. The desmopressin was eventually tapered off with complete resolution of symptoms. Central diabetes insipidus occurred likely as a result of obstruction of the neurohypophyseal microvasculature. Other endocrinopathies that have been reported with malaria include hyponatremia, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyper-, and hypoglycemia, but none manifested in our patient. Though diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of malaria, clinicians need to be aware of this manifestation, as failure to do so may lead to fatality particularly if the patient is dehydrated.

  14. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a baby girl.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, R L; Skafish, P R; Anand, S K; Northway, J D

    1978-01-01

    A 6-week-old girl with fever, hypernatraemia, dehydration, and polyuria failed to concentrate urine in response to exogenous vasopressin administration. There was no family history of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. When she was 15 months old, the infusion of vasopressin did not produce an increase in urinary cyclic-AMP. PMID:215090

  15. Lithium-associated primary hyperparathyroidism complicated by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Nihat; Erçetin, Candaş; Özçınar, Beyza; Aral, Ferihan; Erbil, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of hypercalcemia in lithium-treated patients. Lithium may lead to exacerbation of pre-existing primary hyperparathyroidism or cause an increased set-point of calcium for parathyroid hormone suppression, leading to parathyroid hyperplasia. Lithium may cause renal tubular concentration defects directly by the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or indirectly by the effects of hypercalcemia. In this study, we present a female patient on long-term lithium treatment who was evaluated for hypercalcemia. Preoperative imaging studies indicated parathyroid adenoma and multinodular goiter. Parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy were planned. During the postoperative course, prolonged intubation was necessary because of agitation and delirium. During this period, polyuria, severe dehydration, and hypernatremia developed, which responded to controlled hypotonic fluid infusions and was unresponsive to parenteral desmopressin. A diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was apparent. A parathyroid adenoma and multifocal papillary thyroid cancer were detected on histopathological examination. It was thought that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was masked by hypercalcemia preoperatively. A patient on lithium treatment should be carefully followed up during or after surgery to prevent life-threatening complications of previously unrecognized nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and the possibility of renal concentrating defects on long-term lithium use should be sought, particularly in patients with impaired consciousness.

  16. Current perspective on the pathogenesis of central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Ghirardello, Stefano; Malattia, Clara; Scagnelli, Paola; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2005-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous condition characterised by polyuria and polydipsia caused by a lack of secretion of vasopressin, its physiological suppression following excessive water intake, or kidney resistance to its action. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis is confirmed by standard tests, but recent advances in molecular biology and imaging techniques have shed new light on the pathophysiology of this disease. In many patients, central diabetes insipidus is caused by a germinoma or craniopharyngioma; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and sarcoidosis of the central nervous system; local inflammatory, autoimmune or vascular diseases; trauma from surgery or accident; and, rarely, genetic defects in vasopressin biosynthesis inherited as autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive traits. Thirty to fifty percent of cases are considered idiopathic. Tumour-associated central diabetes insipidus is uncommon in children younger than 5 years old. Biopsy of enlarged pituitary stalk should be reserved for patients with hypothalamic-pituitary mass and progressive thickening of the pituitary stalk since spontaneous recovery may occur. Molecular biology in selected patients may identify those with apparently idiopathic diabetes insipidus carrying the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene mutation.

  17. Diabetes Insipidus: A Challenging Diagnosis with New Drug Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Saifan, Chadi; Nasr, Rabih; Mehta, Suchita; Sharma Acharya, Pranab; Perrera, Isera; Faddoul, Giovanni; Nalluri, Nikhil; Kesavan, Mayurakhan; Azzi, Yorg; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is either due to deficient secretion of arginine vasopressin (central) or to tubular unresponsiveness (nephrogenic). Drug induced DI is a well-known entity with an extensive list of medications. Polyuria is generally defined as urine output exceeding 3 liters per day in adults. It is crucial to identify the cause of diabetes insipidus and to implement therapy as early as possible to prevent the electrolyte disturbances and the associated mortality and morbidity. It is very rare to have an idiosyncratic effect after a short use of a medication, and physicians should be aware of such a complication to avoid volume depletion. The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is very challenging because it relies on laboratory values, urine output, and the physical examination of the patient. A high clinical suspicion of diabetes insipidus should be enough to initiate treatment. The complications related to DI are mostly related to the electrolyte imbalance that can affect the normal physiology of different organ systems. PMID:24977135

  18. Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Cause of Central Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Resmi; Roopnarinesingh, Nira; Cohen, Joshua; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity. The hypernatremia did not respond to hypotonic fluids. Diabetes insipidus was suspected and parenteral desmopressin was started with a prompt decrease in urinary output and improvement in mental status. Additional testing showed normal anterior pituitary hormones. The desmopressin was eventually tapered off with complete resolution of symptoms. Central diabetes insipidus occurred likely as a result of obstruction of the neurohypophyseal microvasculature. Other endocrinopathies that have been reported with malaria include hyponatremia, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyper-, and hypoglycemia, but none manifested in our patient. Though diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of malaria, clinicians need to be aware of this manifestation, as failure to do so may lead to fatality particularly if the patient is dehydrated. PMID:27242936

  19. Lithium-associated primary hyperparathyroidism complicated by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Aksakal, Nihat; Erçetin, Candaş; Özçınar, Beyza; Aral, Ferihan; Erbil, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of hypercalcemia in lithium-treated patients. Lithium may lead to exacerbation of pre-existing primary hyperparathyroidism or cause an increased set-point of calcium for parathyroid hormone suppression, leading to parathyroid hyperplasia. Lithium may cause renal tubular concentration defects directly by the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or indirectly by the effects of hypercalcemia. In this study, we present a female patient on long-term lithium treatment who was evaluated for hypercalcemia. Preoperative imaging studies indicated parathyroid adenoma and multinodular goiter. Parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy were planned. During the postoperative course, prolonged intubation was necessary because of agitation and delirium. During this period, polyuria, severe dehydration, and hypernatremia developed, which responded to controlled hypotonic fluid infusions and was unresponsive to parenteral desmopressin. A diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was apparent. A parathyroid adenoma and multifocal papillary thyroid cancer were detected on histopathological examination. It was thought that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was masked by hypercalcemia preoperatively. A patient on lithium treatment should be carefully followed up during or after surgery to prevent life-threatening complications of previously unrecognized nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and the possibility of renal concentrating defects on long-term lithium use should be sought, particularly in patients with impaired consciousness. PMID:26504422

  20. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  1. Partial central diabetes insipidus in patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Megías, Marta Cano; Matei, Ana Maria; Gonzalez Albarran, Olga; Perez Lopez, Gilberto

    2012-07-03

    Approximately 20% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have any autoimmune disease, as concurrent as prior to diagnosis, even during follow-up. In recent years, cases of CVID associated to endocrine autoimmune diseases have been reported. To our knowledge, no cases of CVID with diabetes insipidus has been reported previously. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old male, diagnosed of CVID, who had thirst, polyuria and nocturia for several years. After a water deprivation test and a complete resolution of patient's symptoms with vasopressin (DDAVP) treatment, diagnosis of partial central diabetes insipidus was finally made. Patients diagnosed of CVID could develop water misbalance due to posterior hypophysis autoimmune disorder. A high index of clinical suspicion, an early diagnosis and treatment of these disease could avoid future complications and improve the quality of life of these patients.

  2. Partial central diabetes insipidus in patient with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Marta Cano; Matei, Ana Maria; Gonzalez Albarran, Olga; Perez Lopez, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have any autoimmune disease, as concurrent as prior to diagnosis, even during follow-up. In recent years, cases of CVID associated to endocrine autoimmune diseases have been reported. To our knowledge, no cases of CVID with diabetes insipidus has been reported previously. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old male, diagnosed of CVID, who had thirst, polyuria and nocturia for several years. After a water deprivation test and a complete resolution of patient’s symptoms with vasopressin (DDAVP) treatment, diagnosis of partial central diabetes insipidus was finally made. Patients diagnosed of CVID could develop water misbalance due to posterior hypophysis autoimmune disorder. A high index of clinical suspicion, an early diagnosis and treatment of these disease could avoid future complications and improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:22761233

  3. Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Han Sang; Yoo, Byung Woo; Kang, Beo Deul; Kim, Min Hwan; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Hyo Song

    2014-03-01

    Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome is a rare complication that typically occurs in young patients due to a cumulative dose of ifosfamide > 40-60 g/m(2), a reduction in kidney mass, or concurrent cisplatin treatment. It is usually characterized by severe and fatal progression accompanied by type II proximal renal tubular dysfunction, as evidenced by glycosuria, proteinuria, electrolyte loss, and metabolic acidosis. Diabetes insipidus is also a rare complication of ifosfamide-induced renal disease. We herein describe a case involving a 61-year-old man who developed ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus only a few days after the first round of chemotherapy. He had no known risk factors. In addition, we briefly review the mechanisms and possible therapeutic options for this condition based on other cases in the literature. Patients who receive ifosfamide must be closely monitored for renal impairment to avoid this rare but fatal complication.

  4. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus after coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Matthew F; Vuylsteke, Alain; Ritchie, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus that occurred after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient taking long-term lithium carbonate. Lithium toxicity (2.79 mmol/L) was identified on postoperative day 9. Serum sodium peaked at 175 mmol/L on postoperative day 21. Serum osmolality peaked at 384 mOsm/kg H2O, with a urinary osmolality of 403 mOsm/kg H2O. The patient was ultimately managed with hemofiltration and high-dose 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin. Recommendations are made based on our experience of this case. In patients on long-term lithium therapy, the potentially life-threatening complication of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should be specifically anticipated and managed.

  5. Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome with diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Han Sang; Yoo, Byung Woo; Kang, Beo Deul; Kim, Min Hwan; Rha, Sun Young

    2014-01-01

    Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome is a rare complication that typically occurs in young patients due to a cumulative dose of ifosfamide > 40-60 g/m2, a reduction in kidney mass, or concurrent cisplatin treatment. It is usually characterized by severe and fatal progression accompanied by type II proximal renal tubular dysfunction, as evidenced by glycosuria, proteinuria, electrolyte loss, and metabolic acidosis. Diabetes insipidus is also a rare complication of ifosfamide-induced renal disease. We herein describe a case involving a 61-year-old man who developed ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus only a few days after the first round of chemotherapy. He had no known risk factors. In addition, we briefly review the mechanisms and possible therapeutic options for this condition based on other cases in the literature. Patients who receive ifosfamide must be closely monitored for renal impairment to avoid this rare but fatal complication. PMID:24648810

  6. Erythroleukaemia, diabetes insipidus and hypophyseal damage: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Piccin, A; Raimondi, R; Laspina, S; Marchi, M; Rodeghiero, F; Rovigatti, U

    2007-08-01

    We report on two cases of patients who developed diabetes insipidus (DI) before acute erythroleukaemia (EL). A brain MRI showed an empty sella turcica in one case and hypothalamo-hypophyseal peduncle damage in the second case. Reduced levels of TGF-beta1 and Vitamin D3, with associated EVI-1 over-expression and karyotypic abnormalities were documented. These two cases show specific chromosomal/molecular alterations in EL with DI. The hypothesis of pituitary involvement in erythroleukemogenesis is discussed.

  7. Xanthoma Disseminatum in a Young Patient with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Zhen; Chen, Jun; Kong, Qing-Tao; Chen, Huan; Du, Xue; Sang, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Xanthoma disseminatum (XD) is a nonfamilial type of normolipidemic mucocutaneous xanthomatosis that belongs to the group of non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses. More than 100 cases of XD have been reported. In this study we report a case of XD in a 4-year-old boy with diabetes insipidus (DI). This boy is one of the youngest patients ever to present with XD combined with DI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Central diabetes insipidus as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Granata, A; Figura, M; Gulisano, S; Romeo, G; Sicurezza, E; Failla, A; Scuderi, R

    2007-01-01

    The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, primary and metastatic tumors. Metastases to the pituitary gland are absolutely rare, and they are generally secondary to pulmonary carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The posterior lobe involvement may explain why patients with pituitary metastases frequently present with diabetes insipidus. We are presenting a case report of a 48-year-old male patient with sudden onset of polyuria and persistent thirst. Laboratory results revealed central diabetes insipidus. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a mass located in the sella turcica and suprasellar region. CT scan of the chest showed a mass in the right superior lobe with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Thus, we made a diagnosis of lung cancer with local and pituitary metastases. The patient received radiotherapy on the pituitary gland and adjuvant chemotherapy. As a result the intrasellar and suprasellar mass decreased in size and urinary output accordingly decreased. In conclusion, in patients presenting with sudden onset of diabetes insipidus pituitary metastases should be taken in account in differential diagnosis.

  9. Mechanisms of prolonged lithium therapy-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita; Kaur, Ishneet; Goel, Heena

    2015-05-15

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a clinical sub-type of a diversely expounded disorder, named diabetes insipidus. It is characterized by inability of the renal cells to sense and respond to the stimulus of vasopressin. Amongst its various etiologies, one of the most inevitable causes includes lithium-induced instigation. Numerous studies reported marked histological damage to the kidneys upon long-term treatment with lithium. The recent researches have hypothesized many lithium-mediated mechanisms to explain the damage and dysfunction caused in the kidneys following lithium exposure. These mechanisms, widely, intend to justify the lithium-induced electrolyte imbalance, its interference with some vital proteins and a specific steroidal hormone, obstruction caused to a certain imperative transducer pathway and the renal tubular acidification defect produced on its prolonged therapy. Thorough study of such mechanisms aids in better understanding of the role of lithium in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Hence, the ameliorated knowledge regarding disease-pathology might prove beneficial in developing therapies that aim on disrupting the various lithium-mediated pathways. Hence, this may effectively lead to the demonstration of a novel treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is, at present, limited to the use of diuretics which block lithium reuptake into the body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Diabetes insipidus in a Swiss Braunvieh heifer with internal hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Feller, B; Gerber, A; Ossent, P

    2008-08-01

    This case report describes the findings in a seven-month-old heifer with diabetes insipidus attributable to internal hydrocephalus. The heifer was referred to the clinic because of reduced appetite, polydipsia, decreased faecal output and weight loss. The heifer was examined daily for 8 days. She was thin and weak and had a dull dry hair coat and decreased appetite. The heifer urinated frequently; the urine was clear and yel low, had a specific gravity of 1.015. A complete blood cell count, biochemical profile and blood gas analysis revealed increased serum urea, increased serum creatinine, hypernatraemia, hyperchloraemia, hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. The heifer received 10 litres of water and 3 litres of ruminal fluid from a healthy cow per os daily for 5 days. The heifer had access to fresh water ad libitum. The general condition of the heifer did not improve after this treatment. Although the concentration of serum urea and creatinine decreased, the concentrations of sodium, chloride and calcium remained higher than normal. Based on the findings, a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was made and the heifer was euthanatized. Postmortem examination revealed severe internal hydrocephalus, and a definitive diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus attributable to internal hydrocephalus was made.

  11. [Clinical characteristics of 7 patients with gestational diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Qun; Xiong, Chun-Qiu; Wu, Min; Dong, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Yun-Qin; Gao, Jie; Chen, Ou-Jing; Huang, Yin-Ping

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical feature, treatment and prognosis of both the mother and the fetus with gestational diabetes insipidus. A total of 7 cases of gestational diabetes insipidus collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Medicine Hospital, and Zhejiang Taizhou Hospital from June 1993 to June 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Seven cases symptoms all characterized by excessive thirst polydipsia and polyuria. The average 24 h urinary output was between 11 L to 13 L and manifested of hypobaricuria. After effective treatment (three cases were treated with 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, another three patients were managed with hydrochlorothiazide, and the last one was cured with antisterone), seven patients with gestational diabetes insipidus did not have any severe consequences. Their symptoms of excessive thirst, polyuria, and polydypsia disappeared from 7 days to 3 months after parturition. Urinary volume returned to normal standard of 1000-2000 ml during 24 hours. Specific gravity of urine recovered normally between a range 1.015-1.025 and serum sodium recovered between 135-147 mmol/L. The average duration of illness was 52 days. Eight newborn infants survived. Two of them were sent to neonatal intensive care unit for treatment. One was because of premature delivery caused by antepartum eclampsia, and the other case was one of the twins who had hydronephrosis. The baby of the first case left hospital after 3 weeks' treatment. The latter one's symptom disappeared 2 weeks after delivery. No obvious symptom was discovered among all the babies through follow-up telephone calls 42 days after childbirth. Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare endocrinopathy complicating pregnancy. This disorder is characterized by excessive thirst, polydypsia, polyuria, hypobaric urine and electrolyte disturbances usually manifesting in the third trimester of pregnancy or puerperium

  12. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus in pregnant women: our experience.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Leonardo; Kramer, Mordechai R; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) occurs predominantly in young adult smokers. Diabetes insipidus occurs in up to 15 % patients with PLCH. Information on PLCH in pregnancy is sparse, especially associated with diabetes insipidus. We report three patients with these conditions and describe the disease history and pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a young soldier.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention.

  14. Quality of life in the patients with central diabetes insipidus assessed by Nagasaki Diabetes Insipidus Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Aya; Ando, Takao; Akazawa, Satoru; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Sagara, Ikuko; Horie, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Misa; Usa, Toshiro; Yanagisawa, Robert T; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to a deficiency of vasopressin. Currently, the treatment goal for CDI is improvement of quality of life (QOL) by desmopressin (DDAVP) without developing hyponatremia. However, there is no reliable measure for QOL in CDI patients. We evaluate our original questionnaire for QOL, consisting of 12 questions focusing on polyuria, polydipsia, and DDAVP treatment, in CDI patients who underwent a switch from nasal spray to oral disintegrating tablets of DDAVP. Twenty-five CDI patients under nasal DDAVP treatment, six with newly developed CDI, and 18 healthy individuals without known polyuric/polydipsic disorders as control subjects were enrolled. QOL scores were determined by our questionnaire at the enrollment and 3 months after the start of oral DDAVP treatment and were examined by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Eleven questions detected improvement in QOL. The sum of the QOL scores of the eleven questions increased from 29.2 ± 5.6 under nasal to 36.8 ± 4.5 under oral DDAVP (p < 0.001). There were no clinically relevant changes in serum levels of Na. After eliminating two questions about DDAVP treatment, the sum of QOL scores was 15.3 ± 6.5 in untreated CDI patients, 24.4 ± 5.2 in those with nasal treatment, 28.9 ± 4.9 in those with oral DDAVP, and 29.5 ± 3.6 in healthy controls. The difference among groups was significant (p < 0.05 in Steel-Dwass test) except between patients treated with oral DDAVP and healthy controls. Our questionnaire can be used to accurately assess QOL in CDI patients.

  15. Bendamustine-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient With AL Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Uwumugambi, Nsabimana A; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Shelton, Anthony C; Stern, Lauren; Gordon, Craig E

    2017-02-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by polyuria with dilute urine due to the inability of the principal cells of the renal collecting ducts to respond to antidiuretic hormone and concentrate urine. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be drug induced, and several chemotherapeutic agents have been reported to cause it. Bendamustine is a traditional chemotherapeutic agent being studied for treatment for relapsed systemic AL amyloidosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with AL amyloidosis who developed partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus after receiving bendamustine for treatment of AL amyloidosis. The nephrogenic diabetes insipidus responded well to sodium restriction, hydrochlorothiazide, and desmopressin treatment, allowing the patient to receive subsequent bendamustine cycles without polyuria. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus resolved shortly after completion of bendamustine therapy.

  16. Utility of genetic testing in suspected familial cranial diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramesh; Ball, Stephen; Ward-Platt, Martin; Bourn, David; McAnulty, Ciaron; Cheetham, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim Differentiating familial cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI) from primary polydipsia can be difficult. We report the diagnostic utility of genetic testing as a means of confirming or excluding this diagnosis. Patient and methods The index case presented at 3 months with polydipsia. He was diagnosed with familial CDI based on a positive family history combined with what was considered to be suspicious symptomatology and biochemistry. He was treated with desmopressin (DDAVP) but re-presented at 5 months of age with hyponatraemia and the DDAVP was stopped. Gene sequencing of the vasopressin gene in father and his offspring was undertaken to establish the underlying molecular defect. Results Both father and daughter were found to have the pathogenic mutation c.242T>C (p.Leu81Pro) in exon 2 of the AVP gene consistent with a diagnosis of familial diabetes insipidus. The index case did not have the pathogenic mutation and the family could be reassured that he would not require intervention with DDAVP. Conclusions Gene sequencing of AVP gene can have a valuable role in predicting whether or not a child is at risk of developing CDI in future. This can help to prevent family uncertainty and unnecessary treatment with its associated risks. Learning points Differentiating patients with familial cranial diabetes insipidus from those with primary polydipsia is not always straightforward.Molecular genetic analysis of the vasopressin gene is a valuable way of confirming or refuting a diagnosis of familial CDI in difficult cases and is a valuable way of identifying individuals who will develop CDI in later childhood. This information can be of great value to families. PMID:24616780

  17. Diabetes insipidus after discontinuation of vasopressin infusion for septic shock.

    PubMed

    Rana, H; Ferguson, N; Dicpinigaitis, P V

    2017-09-11

    Despite widespread use of vasopressin for the treatment of septic shock, few cases of diabetes insipidus (DI) following its discontinuation have been reported. A 54-year-old man presented with pneumonia progressing to septic shock, requiring norepinephrine and vasopressin for refractory hypotension. After clinical improvement, the patient on 3 separate occasions developed polyuria and severe hypernatremia upon discontinuation of vasopressin, with prompt recovery upon its resumption. Occurrence of DI upon discontinuation of vasopressin infusion appears to be rare, but incidence may be underestimated due to a paucity of published reports. Actual incidence and underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hyponatraemia associated with lamotrigine in cranial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Mewasingh, L; Aylett, S; Kirkham, F; Stanhope, R

    2000-08-19

    We report the cases of two children with cranial diabetes insipidus who were treated with lamotrigine for seizures and who had accompanying changes in desmopressin requirements. Lamotrigine is a new anticonvulsant chemically unrelated to other existing antiepileptic drugs. Studies suggest it acts at voltage-sensitive sodium channels and also decreases calcium conductance. Both of these mechanisms of action are shared by carbamazepine, which can cause hyponatraemia secondary to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. It is possible that the effect of lamotrigine on fluid balance in the cases described is also centrally mediated.

  19. Acute Sheehan's syndrome presenting as central diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Robalo, Raquel; Pedroso, Célia; Agapito, Ana; Borges, Augusta

    2012-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischaemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage. Improvements in obstetrical care have significantly reduced its incidence in developed countries, but postpartum pituitary infarction remains a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries. We report a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage followed by headache, central diabetes insipidus and failure to lactate, which prompted us to investigate and identify both anterior and posterior pituitary deficiency compatible with Sheehan's syndrome. A timely diagnosis allowed us to implement an adequate treatment and follow-up plan, which are known to improve clinical status and patient outcome. PMID:23131607

  20. Acute Sheehan's syndrome presenting as central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Robalo, Raquel; Pedroso, Célia; Agapito, Ana; Borges, Augusta

    2012-11-06

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischaemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage. Improvements in obstetrical care have significantly reduced its incidence in developed countries, but postpartum pituitary infarction remains a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries. We report a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage followed by headache, central diabetes insipidus and failure to lactate, which prompted us to investigate and identify both anterior and posterior pituitary deficiency compatible with Sheehan's syndrome. A timely diagnosis allowed us to implement an adequate treatment and follow-up plan, which are known to improve clinical status and patient outcome.

  1. Anterior hypopituitarism is rare and autoimmune disease is common in adults with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hannon, M J; Orr, C; Moran, C; Behan, L A; Agha, A; Ball, S G; Thompson, C J

    2012-05-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, although many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data have suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood-onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone magnetic resonance imaging scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. Thirty-three percent had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not, therefore, be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and its treatment with biologic agents.

    PubMed

    Cunnington, Joanna Rosalind; Jois, Ramesh; Zammit, Ivan; Scott, David; Isaacs, John

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis of the pituitary gland resulting in diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of the disease. Standard treatment for Wegener's granulomatosis involves a combination of prednisolone and cylophosphamide, however biologic agents are now being used in refractory cases. We report three cases of patients with diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis who were treated with biologic agents. All three cases showed clinical response to treatment with biologic agents including rituximab and alemtuzumab and two cases demonstrated improvement in pituitary gland abnormalities by MRI. Clinicians should be aware that diabetes insipidus can present as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and that biologic therapies may be effective in refractory cases.

  3. Effect of hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin treatment on renal function in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, B; Berg, U

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment with hydrochlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin combined on renal function in four boys, two with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and two with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using the clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid under water diuresis and lithium clearance. Hydrochlorothiazide reduced urine flow and lithium clearance. These effects were further potentiated by addition of indomethacin. No consistent effects on renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration rate were found. It is concluded that treatment with hydrochlorothiazide alone and hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin combined reduces urine flow in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by increasing proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium.

  4. Diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism in HIV: an unexpected cause.

    PubMed

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; Sousa Santos, Francisco; Sequeira Duarte, João; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare clinical entity characterized by low circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) presenting with polyuria and volume depletion. Pituitary surgery is the most common cause of central DI in adults. Pituitary and hypothalamic disease, particularly invasive neoplasms, rarely cause DI, being idiopathic cases responsible for the majority of non-surgical cases. HIV patients, especially those with poor virulogical control, are prone to the development of CNS neoplasms, particularly lymphomas. These neoplasms usually become manifest with mass effects and seizures. Central DI and hypopituitarism are uncommon initial manifestations of primary CNS lymphomas. The authors describe the case of 29-year-old female, HIV-positive patient whose CNS lymphoma presented with DI. Central diabetes insipidus has multiple causes and central nervous system lymphomas are not often considered in the differential diagnosis due to their low prevalence.Accurate biochemical diagnosis should always be followed by etiological investigation.The HIV population is at risk for many neoplasms, especially CNS lymphomas.New-onset polyuria in an HIV-positive patient in the absence of focal neurological signs should raise the suspicion for a central nervous system process of neoplastic nature.This clinical entity usually constitutes a therapeutical challenge, often requiring a multidisciplinary approach for optimal outcome.

  5. Heterogeneous AVPR2 gene mutations in congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Wildin, R. S.; Antush, M. J.; Bennett, R. L.; Schoof, J. M.; Scott, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the AVPR2 gene encoding the receptor for arginine vasopressin in the kidney (V2 ADHR) have been reported in patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a predominantly X-linked disorder of water homeostasis. We have used restriction-enzyme analysis and direct DNA sequencing of genomic PCR product to evaluate the AVPR2 gene in 11 unrelated affected males. Each patient has a different DNA sequence variation, and only one matches a previously reported mutation. Cosegregation of the variations with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated for two families, and a de novo mutation was documented in two additional cases. Carrier detection was accomplished in one family. All the variations predict frameshifts, truncations, or nonconservative amino acid substitutions in evolutionarily conserved positions in the V2 ADHR and related receptors. Of interest, a 28-bp deletion is found in one patient, while another, unrelated patient has a tandem duplication of the same 28-bp segment, suggesting that both resulted from the same unusual unequal crossing-over mechanism facilitated by 9-mer direct sequence repeats. Since the V2 ADHR is a member of the seven-transmembrane-domain, G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, the loss-of-function mutations from this study and others provide important clues to the structure-function relationship of this and related receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7913579

  6. [Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: about a case report].

    PubMed

    Esselmani, Hicham; Yassine, Asmaa; Bouabdellah, Mounya; Benchekroun, Laila; Handor, Najat; Elalami, Sanae; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2013-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare, hereditary in nature, characterized by an inability of the kidney to concentrate urine, secondary to the manifold resistance to the action of vasopressin. X-linked forms of transmission (90%) are expressed in boys, from the neonatal period in general, by polyuria and polydipsia. Symptomatology in transmissive girls is variable but can sometimes be quite marked. These forms are secondary to mutations in the gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor, located at position Xq28, responsible for a loss of function of this receptor. Some of these mutations may cause a partial phenotype, less severe. Forms of autosomal, recessive or dominant are more rare (10%). Treatment is symptomatic, sometimes difficult in infants. It aims to avoid episodes of dehydration. It is based on a conventional diet hypo-osmotic and administration of hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin. We report here the case of a child with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Rabat and throughout this case we review the pathophysiology and clinical and biological characteristics of the disease and including importance of contribution of clinical biochemistry laboratory in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease.

  7. [Etiological diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus: about 41 cases].

    PubMed

    Chaker, Fatma; Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with hypotonic urine requires careful diagnostic strategy. This study aims to evaluate diagnostic modalities for central diabetes insipidus. We conducted a retrospective study of 41 cases with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Data were collected at the Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital La Rabta, Tunis, from 1990 to 2013. We identified the circumstances for detecting CDI, the abnormalities in anterior pituitary assessment and pituitary imaging. CDI occurred in the postoperative period in 20 patients. The average urine 24-hour volume was significantly higher in patients with CDI outside a surgical setting. Water deprivation test was successful in all patients who benefited from it. Outside of neurosurgery, infiltration causes were found in 6 patients and tumor causes were found in 6 patients. CDI was associated with empty sella turcica in 1 case and idiopathic sella turcica in 3 patients. Hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and anterior pituitary balance sheet are systematic outside pituitary surgery setting and obvious primary polydipsia.

  8. Pituitary apoplexy precipitating diabetes insipidus after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Takashi; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Matsumi, Junya; Matsuda, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsufumi; Sato, Kenji; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Yagi, Takahito; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2011-02-01

    Pituitary apoplexy occurring after surgery is a rare but life-threatening acute clinical condition that follows extensive hemorrhagenous necrosis within a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary apoplexy has been reported to occur spontaneously in the majority of cases or in association with various inducing factors. Reported is a case of pituitary apoplexy complicated by diabetes insipidus following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. A 56-year-old woman with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis underwent LDLT from her daughter. The patient also required dopamine support and transfusions because of massive intraoperative bleeding. Postoperatively, her coagulopathy continued, and she underwent a second laparotomy because of unknown bleeding on postoperative day 7, when she needed transfusions and dopamine support to maintain her vital signs. She complained of severe headache, excessive thirst, frequent urination, and diplopia from postoperative day 10. She also had polyuria greater than 300 ml/h and was diagnosed with pituitary apoplexy precipitating diabetes insipidus on postoperative day 13. She was treated conservatively without surgery because of the hormonally inactive status and slight mass effect of her tumor. It is important for anesthesiologists and critical care personnel in LDLT settings to take into consideration this complication as a differential diagnosis.

  9. Hypoparathyroidism and central diabetes insipidus: in search of the link

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Asaf; Jüppner, Harald; Somech, Raz; De Bellis, Annamaria; Mannstadt, Michael; Szalat, Auryan; Bleiberg, Margalit; Weisman, Yosef; Weintrob, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Two siblings (a 15-year-old boy and an 11-year-old girl) who presented with hypocalcemic seizure at the age of 2 years and 2 months (boy) and 2 years and 4 months (girl) were diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. At the age of 3 years, the girl developed central diabetes insipidus with good response to desmopressin acetate treatment. The family history was unremarkable, and there was no consanguinity between the parents. The father is of Iraqi/Egyptian Jewish origin and the mother is of Iranian/Romanian Jewish origin. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes for isolated hypoparathyroidism encoding calcium-sensing receptor, parathyroid hormone, and glial cells missing homolog B did not reveal any mutations. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in the autoimmune regulatory gene (AIRE), c.374A>G;p.Y85C, characteristic for Jewish Iranians with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), which was confirmed by the Sanger sequencing. Antibodies against the adrenal, pancreatic islet cell, ovary, thyroid, pituitary, celiac, and parietal cell were negative in both siblings, while anti-diuretic hormone antibodies were positive only in the girl. No other symptoms or signs of APS1 developed during all the years of follow-up. Conclusion APS1 should be part of the differential diagnosis in children presenting with isolated hypoparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). These cases show that the AIRE mutation characteristic of Iranian Jews can also be found in non-Iranian Jews. PMID:25367057

  10. [Perioperative management of a child with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Mizushima, T; Kitamura, S; Kinouchi, K; Taniguchi, A; Fukumitsu, K

    2001-03-01

    The key point in perioperative management of a patient with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is fluid and electrolytes management. Since the urine of these patients consists mainly of solute free water, replacement fluids should be fluids which provide free water. A 2-year-old girl with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was scheduled for dental extraction. Her daily fluid intake was 10 liter. She had a history of recurrent fever, polyuria and polydipsia since 2 months of age. Her previous perioperative course for gastric volvulus at another hospital was complicated with postoperative hyponatremia and convulsion. A venous line was secured the day before surgery and 5% dextrose in water was infused at a rate of 12 ml.kg-1.hr-1. Intraoperative infusion was mainly with 5% dextrose in water combined with maintenance fluid. Five hours after surgery oral intake was started. Her intraoperative electrolytes levels were low (Na 133 mEq.l-1, K 2.8 mEq.l-1), but otherwise her perioperative course was uneventful.

  11. Clinical characteristics of eight patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Haruo; Sugiyama, Yukari; Ohro, Yoichiro; Imamine, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Sinichi; Togari, Hajime

    2004-06-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the insensitivity of the distal nephron to arginine vasopressin. Clinical knowledge of this disease is based largely on case reports. For this study, we investigated the clinical findings of eight patients in terms of age at onset, age at diagnosis, main complaint, results of physical examination, the diagnosis, the effect of treatment, kidney function, and presence or absence of gene defects. The main complaints of all eight cases at initial examination were unknown fever, failure to thrive, and short stature. Polyuria and polydipsia are not always the chief complaints with congenital NDI. In one case, diabetes insipidus could be diagnosed based only on the results of a 5% hypertonic saline test. In six cases, we found abnormalities in the V2 receptor gene. Initially, trichlormethiazide therapy was shown to have a significant effect on polyuria; however, this effect decreased over time. In one patient with partial NDI, the addition of trichlormethiazide twice a day to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin increased urine osmolality in the morning and caused nocturia to disappear. Results of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid kidney scintigraphy revealed a slight decrease in glomerular filtration rate in three patients. No patient experienced serious renal dysfunction.

  12. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a 14-year-old gelding.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R A; Malalana, F; McGowan, C M

    2012-07-01

    A 14-year-old Cleveland Bay cross gelding was presented with severe urinary incontinence that had been present for 1 year, and chronic polydipsia and polyuria over 4 years. Water intake had been recorded as 240 L over a 24-hour period. The horse had marked urinary incontinence and polyuria and polydipsia. The urine was markedly hyposthenuric, but no abnormalities on urinalysis were detected. There were no other abnormal clinical or neurological signs. Haematological and serum biochemical examinations showed no abnormalities and ultrasonographic and endoscopic examination of the urinary tract did not reveal any abnormalities. The horse underwent a modified water deprivation test and failed to concentrate its urine after 5 days. 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was administered I/V but the urine remained isosthenuric with a specific gravity of 1.010. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A definitive cause of the urinary incontinence was not found but overflow incontinence was considered a possibility. Despite being a rare condition in the horse diabetes insipidus should be considered in cases of severe polydipsia and polyuria in mature horses.

  13. Hypoparathyroidism and central diabetes insipidus: in search of the link.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Ori; Oren, Asaf; Jüppner, Harald; Somech, Raz; De Bellis, Annamaria; Mannstadt, Michael; Szalat, Auryan; Bleiberg, Margalit; Weisman, Yosef; Weintrob, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Two siblings (a 15-year-old boy and an 11-year-old girl) who presented with hypocalcemic seizure at the age of 2 years and 2 months (boy) and 2 years and 4 months (girl) were diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. At the age of 3 years, the girl developed central diabetes insipidus with good response to desmopressin acetate treatment. The family history was unremarkable, and there was no consanguinity between the parents. The father is of Iraqi/Egyptian Jewish origin and the mother is of Iranian/Romanian Jewish origin. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes for isolated hypoparathyroidism encoding calcium-sensing receptor, parathyroid hormone, and glial cells missing homolog B did not reveal any mutations. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in the autoimmune regulatory gene (AIRE), c.374A>G;p.Y85C, characteristic for Jewish Iranians with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), which was confirmed by the Sanger sequencing. Antibodies against the adrenal, pancreatic islet cell, ovary, thyroid, pituitary, celiac, and parietal cell were negative in both siblings, while anti-diuretic hormone antibodies were positive only in the girl. No other symptoms or signs of APS1 developed during all the years of follow-up. APS1 should be part of the differential diagnosis in children presenting with isolated hypoparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). These cases show that the AIRE mutation characteristic of Iranian Jews can also be found in non-Iranian Jews.

  14. The Value of Urine Specific Gravity in Detecting Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu, Ersin; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktaran, Sebnem; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    When a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with worsening polyuria and polydipsia, what is a sensible, cost-effective approach? We report the unique coincidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A 46-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complained of polyuria with a daily output of 5 L. Although urinalysis demonstrated significant glucosuria, diabetes insipidus was suspected owing to a low urine specific gravity (1.008). The low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test. Ultimately, diabetes insipidus was confirmed when urine specific gravity and urine osmolality normalized following desmopressin administration. This case emphasizes the importance of accurately interpreting the urine specific gravity in patients with polyuria and diabetes mellitus to detect diabetes insipidus. PMID:17026722

  15. Association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. The Wolfram or DIDMOAD syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, S S; Saikaly, M G; Zaytoun, G M; Abdelnoor, A

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients with a rare syndrome of diabetes insipidus (DI), diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), neurosensory deafness (D), atony of the urinary tract, and other abnormalities (Wolfram or DIDMOAD syndrome) are reported. Of the seven patients, three siblings were followed up for 10-17 years. All seven patients had diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy; six had diabetes insipidus; and in the four patients investigated there was dilatation of the urinary tract. The severity of diabetes varied, and all required insulin for control of the hyperglycaemia. In one patient the course of the disease simulated maturity onset diabetes of the young; another presented with ketoacidosis; but none had haplotypes usually associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The diabetes insipidus responded to chlorpropamide, suggesting partial antidiuretic hormone deficiency. Onset of optic atrophy and loss of vision occurred relatively late and progressed slowly, although in one patient there was a rapid deterioration in visual acuity. Deafness was mild, of late onset, and of sensorineural origin. A degenerative process affecting the central and peripheral nervous system can explain all the manifestations of the syndrome except diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of the diabetes mellitus remains obscure. PMID:4051539

  16. Transient gestational diabetes insipidus: report of two cases and review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, A S; Bassi, T; Koradia, N; Bocirnea, A

    2003-11-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. We report two cases of transient gestational diabetes insipidus in which patients responded to intranasal DDAVP (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) with greater than 50% increase in urine osmolality and marked reduction in urine output. Intranasal DDAVP was discontinued after their discharge and both patients maintained normal urine output and appropriate urine osmolality. In determining whether diabetes insipidus is present in a patient who is polyuric and hypernatremic, a urine osmolality below that of the plasma suggests the presence of diabetes insipidus. Understanding of the pathophysiology may soon lead to improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Incidence of Diabetes Insipidus in Postoperative Period among the Patients Undergoing Pituitary Tumour Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadir, M L; Islam, M T; Hossain, M M; Sultana, S; Nasrin, R; Hossain, M M

    2017-07-01

    Post operative complications after pituitary tumour surgery vary according to procedure. There are several surgical procedures being done such as transcranial, transsphenoidal microsurgical and transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches. One of the commonest complications is diabetes insipidus (DI). Our main objective was to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in post operative period among patients undergoing surgical intervention for pituitary tumour in our institute. The presence of diabetes insipidus in the postoperative period was established by measuring serum Na+ concentration, hourly urine output and urinary specific gravity to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in postoperative period in relation to age, gender, tumour diameter, function of tumour (i.e., either hormone secreting or not) and operative procedure used for surgical resection of pituitary tumor. As it is the most common postoperative complication so, in this study we tried to find out how many of the patients develop diabetes insipidus in postoperative period following surgical resection of pituitary tumour. This cross sectional type of observational study was carried out in the department of Neurosurgery, BSMMU from May 2014 to October 2015 on 33 consecutive patients who underwent surgical intervention for pituitary tumour for the first time. Data was collected by using a data collection sheet. The incidence of diabetes insipidus was found 23.1% of patients in <30 year age group, 38.5% of patients in 31-40 year age group and 38.5% of patients in ≥40 year age group (p=0.764). In case of distribution of patients according to gender 38.5% of male and 61.5% of female developed diabetes insipidus (p=0.073). Regarding tumour size 30.8% and 69.2% of patients developed diabetes insipidus having tumour diameter <30mm and ≥30mm respectively (p=0.590). In case of operative procedure 69.2% of patients developed diabetes insipidus who was operated by transsphenoidal endoscopic approach

  18. Recurrent pregnancy-induced diabetes insipidus in a woman with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kobielusz-Gembala, Iwona; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder in pregnant women, predating pregnancy or appearing for the first time during gestation. In pregnancy it usually affects women with HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy and results from the reduced hepatic degradation of placental vasopressinase leading to its increased activity. Although infiltrative diseases have been found to cause diabetes insipidus in non-pregnant population, very few studies showed that these disorders may manifest for the first time during gestation. We describe here the case of transient diabetes insipidus in two subsequent pregnancies of a female with hemochromatosis. The first symptoms of this disease appeared for the first time at the beginning of the third trimester of her second pregnancy, and diagnosis was established on the basis of typical clinical presentation, confirmed by a water deprivation test. Diabetes insipidus resulted from the increased activity of vasopressinase, caused by hemochromatosis-induced liver dysfunction, the presence of which was confirmed between the pregnancies by liver biopsy and identification of the HFE gene mutation. Subsequent desferrioxamine treatment resulted in a less severe clinical course of diabetes insipidus in the last patient's pregnancy. In both pregnancies, the patient was successfully treated with oral desmopressin, which is resistant to degradation by placental vasopressinase. Although unrecognized pituitary disorders may pose a serious health problem to the mother and fetus, hemochromatosis-induced diabetes insipidus, as the case of our patient demonstrates, if effectively diagnosed and treated, cannot be regarded as a contraindication for pregnancy.

  19. Central diabetes insipidus following cardiopulmonary arrest in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Tara; Daly, Meredith; Davidson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    To describe a clinical case of transient central diabetes insipidus (CDI) occurring post cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in a dog. An 8-week-old dog presented for intensive care after successful resuscitation following CPA. The patient exhibited neurologic deficits at initial presentation and over the following days developed marked polyuria, isosthenuria, and low urine osmolality. Treatment with synthetic vasopressin resulted in a reduction in urine output, increase in urine specific gravity (>50%), and increase in urine osmolality, suggesting a diagnosis of partial CDI. Clinical signs resolved over the following weeks and treatment was discontinued. CPA has been described as a cause of ischemic injury to the pituitary gland resulting in CDI in people. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a dog developing transient partial CDI following CPA and successful resuscitation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  20. A Case of Multiple Myeloma Presenting with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rudrajit; Ruia, Aditya V; Saha, Asim; Mondal, Jayati; Sau, T J; Thakur, Indranil; Haldar, Kunal

    2017-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) can present with involvement of the central nervous system in the form of nerve palsy, plasma cell masses or, rarely, with endocrinological effects due to involvement of the pituitary gland. Usually, in such cases, the disease has a rapid progression and poor prognosis. We report a 52-year-old man who was admitted to the Kolkata Medical College, Kolkata, India, in 2016 with a prolonged low-grade fever and hypernatremia. Shortly afterwards, the patient began to complain of increased urinary frequency and drowsiness. The hypernatremia was treated with intranasal desmopressin and free water replacement. Serum protein electrophoresis and an immunofixation study revealed an immunoglobulin G-κ monoclonal band. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed the absence of a posterior bright spot and spotty infiltration of the pituitary fossa. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of cranial diabetes insipidus due to posterior pituitary MM infiltration.

  1. Pitfall in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sum, Melissa; Fleischer, Jessica B; Khandji, Alexander G; Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) during pregnancy and the perinatal period is an uncommon medical problem characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst. Diagnosis of DI may be overlooked in the setting of pregnancy, a time when increased water intake and urine output are commonly reported. We report two cases: one of transient DI in a young woman during her third trimester of twin pregnancy in association with acute fatty liver and hypertension and one of postpartum DI secondary to Sheehan syndrome from rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm. These cases illustrate the spectrum with which DI related to pregnancy and delivery can present and highlight the difficulty in making the diagnosis since the symptoms are often initially overlooked.

  2. Management of diabetes insipidus and adipsia in the child.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Napoli, Flavia; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome affecting the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal network and water balance. A recent national surveillance in Denmark showed a prevalence rate of twenty-three CDI patients per 100,000 inhabitants in five years. The differential diagnosis between several presenting conditions with polyuria and polydipsia is puzzling, and the etiological diagnosis of CDI remains a challenge before the identification of an underlying cause. For clinical practice, a timely diagnosis for initiating specific treatment in order to avoid central nervous system damage, additional pituitary defects and the risk of dissemination of germ cell tumor is advisable. Proper etiological diagnosis can be achieved via a series of steps that start with careful clinical observation of several signs and endocrine symptoms and then progress to more sophisticated imaging tools. This review summarizes the best practice and approach for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with CDI.

  3. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis case with diabetes insipidus and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, E; Altinisik, G; Aydogmus, U; Bir, F

    2017-04-01

    A 19-year-old male patient was observed due to having central diabetes insipidus (DI) for five years. He had a history of smoking 5-10 cigarettes a day for two years, but stopped smoking from the last month. The computerized tomography revealed thin-walled cystic lesions in different sizes more dominantly in the upper lobes and consolidated areas in the left upper and lower lobes. The wedge resection from the right lower lobe revealed pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis. Follow-up acid-fast bacteria (AFB) examinations revealed (+++) and antituberculous treatment was started. On the 40th day of the anti-tuberculosis treatment, the patient applied once again due to fever and chest pain. Although infiltrations persisted in the left upper and middle zones in the postero-anterior lung rontgenogram, right-sided pneumothorax was detected. The case is considered tuberculosis and the patient continued to receive anti-TB treatment under the close supervision.

  4. Neurosarcoidosis-associated central diabetes insipidus masked by adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Non, Lemuel; Brito, Daniel; Anastasopoulou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an infrequent complication of neurosarcoidosis (NS). Its presentation may be masked by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and uncovered by subsequent steroid replacement. A 45-year-old woman with a history of NS presented 2 weeks after abrupt cessation of prednisone with nausea, vomiting, decreased oral intake and confusion. She was diagnosed with secondary AI and intravenous hydrocortisone was promptly begun. Over the next few days, however, the patient developed severe thirst and polyuria exceeding 6 L of urine per day, accompanied by hypernatraemia and hypo-osmolar urine. She was presumed to have CDI due to NS, and intranasal desmopressin was administered. This eventually normalised her urine output and serum sodium. The patient was discharged improved on intranasal desmopressin and oral prednisone. AI may mask the manifestation of CDI because low serum cortisol impairs renal-free water clearance. Steroid replacement reverses this process and unmasks an underlying CDI. PMID:25612752

  5. Inherited secondary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: concentrating on humans.

    PubMed

    Bockenhauer, D; Bichet, D G

    2013-04-15

    The study of human physiology is paramount to understanding disease and developing rational and targeted treatments. Conversely, the study of human disease can teach us a lot about physiology. Investigations into primary inherited nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) have contributed enormously to our understanding of the mechanisms of urinary concentration and identified the vasopressin receptor AVPR2, as well as the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), as key players in water reabsorption in the collecting duct. Yet, there are also secondary forms of NDI, for instance as a complication of lithium treatment. The focus of this review is secondary NDI associated with inherited human diseases, such as Bartter syndrome or apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Currently, the underlying pathophysiology of this inherited secondary NDI is unclear, but there appears to be true AQP2 deficiency. To better understand the underlying mechanism(s), collaboration between clinical and experimental physiologists is essential to further investigate these observations in appropriate experimental models.

  6. Neurosarcoidosis-associated central diabetes insipidus masked by adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Non, Lemuel; Brito, Daniel; Anastasopoulou, Catherine

    2015-01-22

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an infrequent complication of neurosarcoidosis (NS). Its presentation may be masked by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and uncovered by subsequent steroid replacement. A 45-year-old woman with a history of NS presented 2 weeks after abrupt cessation of prednisone with nausea, vomiting, decreased oral intake and confusion. She was diagnosed with secondary AI and intravenous hydrocortisone was promptly begun. Over the next few days, however, the patient developed severe thirst and polyuria exceeding 6 L of urine per day, accompanied by hypernatraemia and hypo-osmolar urine. She was presumed to have CDI due to NS, and intranasal desmopressin was administered. This eventually normalised her urine output and serum sodium. The patient was discharged improved on intranasal desmopressin and oral prednisone. AI may mask the manifestation of CDI because low serum cortisol impairs renal-free water clearance. Steroid replacement reverses this process and unmasks an underlying CDI.

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia and diabetes insipidus with monosomy 7.

    PubMed

    Harb, Antoine; Tan, Wei; Wilding, Gregory E; Battiwalla, Minoo; Sait, Sheila N J; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2009-04-15

    The predisposition of monosomy 7 to diabetes insipidus (DI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) led us to ask whether AML associated with monosomy 7 and DI will differ from AML associated with other karyotype aberrations and DI and whether the outcome of patients with AML and DI will differ from those without DI. We describe 2 patients from Roswell Park Cancer Institute and discuss 29 additional cases from the literature. AML with monosomy 7 and DI (n = 25) had a trend towards a lower complete remission (p = 0.0936) and worse survival (p = 0.0480) than AML with other karyotype changes and DI (n = 6). Further, AML with monosomy 7 and DI had worse complete remission rate and overall survival than AML with monosomy 7 but without DI. In conclusion, it appears that AML with monosomy 7 and DI is a disease entity with specifically poor outcome.

  8. Halofenate versus clofibrate in the management of true diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Gattereau, Antoine; Davignon, Jean; Verdy, Maurice; Lewis, Winter

    1974-01-01

    The antidiuretic effect of two chemically related drugs, clofibrate and halofenate, was tested in a patient with pitressin-sensitive diabetes insipidus. The conventional daily dosage of 2 g clofibrate failed to control the symptoms of this patient; in order to obtain an adequate response the dosage had to be increased to 4 g daily. Halofenate at a dosage of 2 g daily, an amount equivalent in hypolipidemic activity to 4 g per day of clofibrate, significantly reduced water intake and output, while urinary osmolarity was markedly increased. It is concluded that (1) the antidiuretic effect of clofibrate may be dose-related, and that (2) halofenate also possesses some antidiuretic activity. PMID:4834432

  9. Mechanisms underlying progressive polyuria in familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Arima, H; Oiso, Y

    2010-07-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant disorder, is mostly caused by mutations in the gene of neurophysin II (NPII), the carrier protein of arginine vasopressin (AVP). The analyses of knock-in mice expressing a mutant NPII that causes FNDI in humans demonstrated that polyuria progressed substantially in the absence of loss of AVP neurones. Morphological analyses revealed that inclusion bodies were present in the AVP neurones in the supraoptic nucleus and that the size and numbers of inclusion bodies gradually increased in parallel with the increases in urine volume. Electron microscopic analyses showed that aggregates existed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of AVP neurones. These data suggest that cell death is not the primary cause of polyuria in FNDI, and that the aggregate formation in the ER is likely to be related to the pathogenesis of the progressive polyuria.

  10. Lymphocytic hypophysitis in a dog with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Meij, B P; Voorhout, G; Gerritsen, R J; Grinwis, G C M; Ijzer, J

    2012-11-01

    An 8-year-old male German longhaired pointer was referred for diabetes insipidus responsive to treatment with desmopressin. The dog had polyuria and polydipsia, exercise intolerance and a dull hair coat. Plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were decreased; plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was slightly elevated and plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) was within the reference range. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously contrast-enhancing pituitary mass compressing the hypothalamus. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was performed and microscopical examination of the surgical biopsy samples revealed hypophysitis without evidence of pituitary adenoma. The hypophysitis was characterized by marked lymphocytic infiltration of the adenohypophysis that contained a mixed population of neuroendocrine cells expressing GH, ACTH or α-MSH. The lymphocytes were identified as T cells, resulting in a final diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis strongly resembling human primary lymphocytic hypophysitis.

  11. Post-operative diabetes insipidus after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Matthew; Walker, Blake; Knepper, Jordan; Hornyak, Mark; Hong, David; Kim, Jung-Min; Folbe, Adam; Guthikonda, Murali; Mittal, Sandeep; Szerlip, Nicholas J

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) can lead to increased morbidity, longer hospital stays, and increased medication requirements. Predicting which patients are at high risk for developing DI can help direct services to ensure adequate care and follow-up. The objective of this study was to review our institution's experience with ETSS and determine which clinical/laboratory variables are associated with DI in this patient population. The authors wanted to see if there was an easily determined single value that would help predict which patients develop DI. This represents the largest North American series of this type. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had undergone ETSS for resection of sellar and parasellar pathology between 2006 and 2011. We examined patient and tumor characteristics and their relationship to postoperative DI. Out of 172 endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, there were 15 cases of transient DI (8.7%) and 14 cases of permanent DI (8.1%). Statistically significant predictors of postoperative DI (p < 0.05) included tumor volume and histopathology (Rathke's cleft cyst and craniopharyngioma). Significant indicators of development of DI were postoperative serum sodium, preoperative to postoperative change in sodium level, and urine output prior to administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. An increase in serum sodium of ≥2.5 mmol/L is a positive marker of development of DI with 80% specificity, and a postoperative serum sodium of ≥145 mmol/L is a positive indicator with 98% specificity. Identifying perioperative risk factors and objective indicators of DI after ETSS will help physicians care for patients postoperatively. In this large series, we demonstrated that there were multiple perioperative risk factors for the development of DI. These findings, which are consistent with other reports from microscopic surgical series, will help identify patients at risk for diabetes insipidus

  12. Clinical characteristics of central diabetes insipidus in Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Yao; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lee, Cheng-Ting; Liu, Hon-Man; Peng, Shinn-Forng; Wu, Mu-Zon; Kuo, Meng-Fai; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2013-10-01

    Data on the clinical features of children with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) are lacking in Taiwan. This study investigated the clinical manifestations and etiology of CDI in Taiwanese children. From 1983 to 2012, 62 children with permanent diabetes insipidus were enrolled in the study. They were diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics of National Taiwan University Hospital. Their medical records were thoroughly reviewed and their clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory data, and etiologies were analyzed. The patients' median age at diagnosis was 10 years and the median interval between initial manifestations and diagnosis was 0.5 years. The most common symptoms and signs were polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, and growth retardation. Most patients had low urine osmolality and elevated plasma osmolality on diagnosis. Absence of a posterior pituitary hyperintense signal and thickening of the pituitary stalk were common findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 80% of the patients had anterior pituitary hormone deficiency and all patients had growth hormone deficiency. Approximately 60% of patients had intracranial lesions, the most common causes of which were germ cell tumor and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Two patients were initially believed to have idiopathic CDI but intracranial lesions were detected during the follow-up period. Because a delayed diagnosis of CDI is common in Taiwanese children, a high index of suspicion is important. The underlying etiology of CDI in children may not initially be obvious. Long-term surveillance is therefore necessary, especially for the early detection of evolving treatable intracranial lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness. A clinical and genetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two Iraqi sisters and a female cousin developed diabetes insipidus (DI), diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), and deafness (D), (the 'DIDMOAD' syndrome) before the age of 12 years. One girl exhibited all the features of this disease complex only 3 months after an unusually late onset of recognizable symptoms at 11 years 9 months. Another girl died suddenly and unexpectedly. This family study illustrates the recessive inheritance pattern of the syndrome. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:482181

  14. Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. 3 cases of 'DIDMOAD' syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J E; Hamilton, W

    1977-01-01

    Three children with diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and high-tone deafness were shown to lack vasopressin, indicative of degeneration of the cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei. The syndrome being due to a single gene defect, inherited as an autosomal recessive, is therefore likely to be the result of an inborn error of metabolism with variable periods of latency in those affected. PMID:931428

  15. Diabetes insipidus-like state complicating percutaneous transluminal renal stenting for transplant renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lu; He, Yangyan; Zhang, Hongkun; Wu, Ziheng; Li, Donglin; Chen, Shanwen

    2014-07-01

    To report the incidence, etiology, and treatments of diabetes insipidus-like state that complicate percutaneous transluminal renal stenting (PTRS) for transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). Data from 7 patients on whom PTRS for TRAS was performed between October 2008 and March 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The parameters investigated included blood flow velocity, blood pressure, and creatinine levels before and after the intervention. The procedural success rate was 100%. Three cases developed a diabetes insipidus-like state in the immediate postprocedural period. Urine output returned to normal within 2 weeks after treatment. The median blood flow velocity was significantly reduced from 4.51 m/sec (4.31-4.61 m/sec) at the time of TRAS diagnosis to 1.33 m/sec (1.31-1.51 m/sec) at the most recent follow-up of the group with a diabetes insipidus-like state. The ratio of median blood flow velocity before and after stenting in the group with a diabetes insipidus-like state was significantly higher than that in the group without a diabetes insipidus-like state (3.39 vs. 1.93). Diabetes insipidus-like state that complicates PTRS for TRAS is not an uncommon event, but appears to be underreported in the medical literature. A high ratio of pre- and poststenting median blood flow velocity may be a predictor for a postprocedural diabetes insipidus-like state. The most probable cause may be the marked increase in renal arterial flow. Early recognition of the condition is essential to avoid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  17. Mice deficient for ERAD machinery component Sel1L develop central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G; Lussier, Yoann

    2017-10-02

    Deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) underlies diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine and persistent thirst. In this issue of the JCI, Shi et al. report that Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded pro-arginine vasopressin (proAVP) in the ER. Additionally, mice with Sel1L deficiency, either globally or specifically within AVP-expressing neurons, developed central diabetes insipidus. The results of this study demonstrate a role for ERAD in neuroendocrine cells and serve as a clinical example of the effect of misfolded ER proteins retrotranslocated through the membrane into the cytosol, where they are polyubiquitinated, extracted from the ER membrane, and degraded by the proteasome. Moreover, proAVP misfolding in hereditary central diabetes insipidus likely shares common physiopathological mechanisms with proinsulin misfolding in hereditary diabetes mellitus of youth.

  18. Hypernatremia in a non insulin dependent (type 2) diabetic patient with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kavelaars, J; Tamsma, J T; Meinders, A E

    2001-03-01

    We describe a patient with central diabetes insipidus who presented with hyperosmolar, non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. The role in this case of reduced thirst sensation with decreased water intake and abnormal AVP production illustrates the importance of these protective mechanisms in normal physiology regarding maintenance of normal plasma osmolality. Despite the complex pathophysiology in this patient, fluid resuscitation aimed at normalisation of the water deficit resulted in full recovery.

  19. Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2009-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus, a common consequence of acute central nervous system injury, causes hypernatremia; cerebral salt wasting syndrome can cause hyponatremia. The two conditions occurring simultaneous are rarely described in pediatric patients. Pediatric cases of combined diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting after acute central nervous system injury between January 2000 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, and clinical characteristics were systemically assessed. Sixteen patients, aged 3 months to 18 years, met study criteria: 11 girls and 5 boys. The most common etiologies were severe central nervous system infection (n = 7, 44%) and hypoxic-ischemic event (n = 4, 25%). In 15 patients, diabetes insipidus was diagnosed during the first 3 days after acute central nervous system injury. Onset of cerebral salt wasting syndrome occurred 2-8 days after the onset of diabetes insipidus. In terms of outcome, 13 patients died (81%) and 3 survived under vegetative status (19%). Central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome may occur after acute central nervous system injury. A combination of both may impede accurate diagnosis. Proper differential diagnoses are critical, because the treatment strategy for each entity is different.

  20. Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma precipitated by lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Azam, H.; Newton, R. W.; Morris, A. D.; Thompson, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    A 45-year-old man, with a 10-year history of manic depression treated with lithium, was admitted with hyperosmolar, nonketotic coma. He gave a five-year history of polyuria and polydipsia, during which time urinalysis had been negative for glucose. After recovery from hyperglycaemia, he remained polyuric despite normal blood glucose concentrations; water deprivation testing indicated nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, likely to be lithium-induced. We hypothesize that when this man developed type 2 diabetes, chronic polyuria due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was sufficient to precipitate hyperosmolar dehydration. PMID:9538487

  1. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: the current state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Wesche, Daniel; Deen, Peter M T; Knoers, Nine V A M

    2012-12-01

    The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary upon hypovolemia or hypernatremia, and regulates water reabsorption in the renal collecting duct principal cells. Binding of AVP to the arginine vasopressin receptor type 2 (AVPR2) in the basolateral membrane leads to translocation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channels to the apical membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, inducing water permeability of the membrane. This results in water reabsorption from the pro-urine into the medullary interstitium following an osmotic gradient. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disorder associated with mutations in either the AVPR2 or AQP2 gene, causing the inability of patients to concentrate their pro-urine, which leads to a high risk of dehydration. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the cell biological aspects of congenital X-linked, autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant NDI while specifically addressing the latest developments in the field. Based on deepened mechanistic understanding, new therapeutic strategies are currently being explored, which we also discuss here.

  2. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bockenhauer, Detlef; Bichet, Daniel G

    2015-10-01

    Healthy kidneys maintain fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis by adjusting urine volume and composition according to physiological needs. The final urine composition is determined in the last tubular segment: the collecting duct. Water permeability in the collecting duct is regulated by arginine vasopressin (AVP). Secretion of AVP from the neurohypophysis is regulated by a complex signalling network that involves osmosensors, barosensors and volume sensors. AVP facilitates aquaporin (AQP)-mediated water reabsorption via activation of the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) in the collecting duct, thus enabling concentration of urine. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), inability of the kidneys to respond to AVP results in functional AQP deficiency. Consequently, affected patients have constant diuresis, resulting in large volumes of dilute urine. Primary forms of NDI result from mutations in the genes that encode the key proteins AVPR2 and AQP2, whereas secondary forms are associated with biochemical abnormalities, obstructive uropathy or the use of certain medications, particularly lithium. Treatment of the disease is informed by identification of the underlying cause. Here we review the clinical aspects and diagnosis of NDI, the various aetiologies, current treatment options and potential future developments.

  3. Postoperative diabetes insipidus associated with pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kita, Daisuke; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Sano, Hiroki; Takamura, Toshinari; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy is so rare that only 15 cases (12 pituitary adenomas, 2 lymphocytic neurohypophysitis, and 1 normal pituitary gland) have been published to date. Here, we report the case of a pregnant woman presenting with pituitary apoplexy from a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and provide a possible mechanism and management option for postoperative diabetes insipidus (DI). A 26-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache and bitemporal hemianopsia in the 26th week of her first pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed an 18 mm pituitary mass with a fluid-fluid level component displacing the optic chiasma upward. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was successfully carried out 7 days after the onset of symptoms. DI became apparent immediately after the operation and was not controllable by arginine vasopressin (AVP) but by 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) instead. This finding suggests an association between DI and vasopressinase secretion from the placenta, because vasopressinase can degrade AVP but not DDAVP. DI had diminished by the time the patient delivered a healthy girl at the 40th week of gestation. Postoperative DI associated with pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy should be treated by DDAVP, which is not affected by placental vasopressinase secretion.

  4. A novel therapeutic effect of statins on nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Procino, Giuseppe; Wang, David Q-H; Svelto, Maria; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-02-01

    Statins competitively inhibit hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, resulting in reduced plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Recently, it has been shown that statins exert additional 'pleiotropic' effects by increasing expression levels of the membrane water channels aquaporin 2 (AQP2). AQP2 is localized mainly in the kidney and plays a critical role in determining cellular water content. This additional effect is independent of cholesterol homoeostasis, and depends on depletion of mevalonate-derived intermediates of sterol synthetic pathways, i.e. farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. By up-regulating the expression levels of AQP2, statins increase water reabsorption by the kidney, thus opening up a new avenue in treating patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a hereditary disease that yet lacks high-powered and limited side effects therapy. Aspects related to water balance determined by AQP2 in the kidney, as well as standard and novel therapeutic strategies of NDI are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Clinical characteristics and management of cranial diabetes insipidus in infants.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ambika; Abid, Noina; Sundaram, Prem C B; Shaw, Nicholas J; Barrett, Tim G; Högler, Wolfgang; Kirk, Jeremy M W

    2013-01-01

    Cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI) is rare in infants with no guidelines on its management. We describe the first case series, characterizing the clinical features and treatment challenges. Retrospective case note review of infants diagnosed with CDI between April 1992 and February 2011. Nineteen infants (52% male) were identified. Eight were born preterm. Median (range) age at diagnosis was 24 days (5-300); preterm babies were younger at diagnosis (21 vs. 46 days). In 58% (11/19) of infants, hypernatraemia was discovered incidentally. In 37% of cases there was associated midline anomalies, however, only four patients (21%) had absent posterior pituitary signal on a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. The most frequent (5/19) underlying diagnosis was septo-optic dysplasia. Eight patients had isolated CDI and 11 had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Isolated CDI tended to be more common in preterm, compared to term babies (p=0.11). Des-amino arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was administered intranasally in eight and orally in 11 infants. Plasma sodium nadir following DDAVP administration was lower following intranasal compared to an oral route of administration (median: 128 vs. 133 mmol/L, p=0.022). No cases resolved on follow-up. CDI in infants is often diagnosed incidentally. Aetiology, clinical, and imaging features are very variable, with some differences between preterm and term infants. Oral DDAVP appears to be superior to intranasal with less pronounced serum sodium fluctuations.

  6. Genetic analysis of a congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus pedigree.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunfeng; Lai, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Xinlan; Li, Jing; Yu, Rong; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Meiying

    2014-01-01

    As an X-linked recessive way, arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene mutation resulted in a hereditary disease - congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI). We found a suspect clinical CNDI pedigree. In order to identify the genetic etiology, we performed the genetic analysis. The clinical features of the proband and his family members were recorded. The laboratory tests and imaging inspections were analyzed. The water deprivation and pituitrin loading test were performed in the proband and his brother. The genomic DNA of all the members of the pedigree was extracted and then PCR amplification on AVPR2 gene was carried out. Sequencing in both directions was performed to identify mutation on AVPR2 gene. Both the proband and his brother were diagnosed as CNDI, meanwhile the other members of this pedigree were normal. No severe biochemical abnormality was found in the two CNDI patients. Both the patients had moderate urinary retention, severe megaloureter and hydronephrosis, and mild renal insufficiency. Two mutations of AVPR2 gene were discovered in the 3rd exon in the patients, a silent mutation L309L and a nonsense mutation R337X. The AVPR2 gene R337X mutation was co-segregated with CNDI. R337X mutation was not a reported mutation in the mainland of China. The AVPR2 gene R337X mutation was also a genetic etiology of CNDI patients in the mainland of China.

  7. Acute diabetes insipidus mediated by vasopressinase after placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Wallia, Amisha; Bizhanova, Aigerim; Huang, Wenyu; Goldsmith, Susan L; Gossett, Dana R; Kopp, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Postpartum, diabetes insipidus (DI) can be part of Sheehan's syndrome or lymphocytic hypophysitis in combination with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, acute onset of isolated DI in the postpartum period is unusual. This patient presented at 33 weeks gestation with placental abruption, prompting a cesarean delivery of twins. Immediately after delivery, she developed severe DI. The DI could be controlled with the vasopressinase-resistant 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), but not with arginine vasopressin (AVP), and it resolved within a few weeks. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the postpartum DI in this patient was caused by the release of placental vasopressinase into the maternal bloodstream. Cells were transiently transfected with the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) and treated with either AVP or DDAVP in the presence of the patient's serum collected postpartum or 10 weeks after delivery. The response to the different treatments was evaluated by measuring the activity of a cAMP-responsive firefly luciferase reporter construct. The in vitro studies demonstrate that the patient's postpartum serum disrupts activation of the AVPR2 by AVP, but not by the vasopressinase-resistant DDAVP. Placental abruption can rarely be associated with acute postpartum DI caused by release of placental vasopressinase into the bloodstream. This clinical entity must be considered in patients with placental abruption and when evaluating patients presenting with DI after delivery.

  8. A novel therapeutic effect of statins on nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Procino, Giuseppe; Wang, David Q-H; Svelto, Maria; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Statins competitively inhibit hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, resulting in reduced plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Recently, it has been shown that statins exert additional ‘pleiotropic’ effects by increasing expression levels of the membrane water channels aquaporin 2 (AQP2). AQP2 is localized mainly in the kidney and plays a critical role in determining cellular water content. This additional effect is independent of cholesterol homoeostasis, and depends on depletion of mevalonate-derived intermediates of sterol synthetic pathways, i.e. farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. By up-regulating the expression levels of AQP2, statins increase water reabsorption by the kidney, thus opening up a new avenue in treating patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a hereditary disease that yet lacks high-powered and limited side effects therapy. Aspects related to water balance determined by AQP2 in the kidney, as well as standard and novel therapeutic strategies of NDI are discussed. PMID:25594563

  9. Evaluation of patients with intracranial tumors and central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Varan, Ali; Atas, Erman; Aydın, Burça; Yalçın, Bilgehan; Akyüz, Canan; Kutluk, Tezer; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the etiologic and clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and outcome of the patients with intracranial tumors presenting with central diabetes insipidus (DI). Sixty-nine patients with intracranial tumors presenting with central DI between 1972 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty-three out of 69 patients were included in the analysis. Male/female ratio was 1.52, median age was 7.6 years. Of 53 patients, 37 patients (69.8%) were diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, 14 patients (26.4%) with germinoma, 1 (1.9%) with astrocytoma, and 1 (1.9%) with optic glioma. 10-year overall survival (OS) rate and disease-free survival rate for all patients were 91.7% and 52%. 10-year OS rate according to diagnostic criteria was 91% for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) cases, 79% for intracranial germinoma, which was statistically significant (P = .0001). Central DI may be very important clinical presentation of serious underlying disease in children. Intracranial tumors are the most frequent cause of DI. Most frequent diagnosis were LCH and germ cell tumors in our series.

  10. Temporary diabetes insipidus in 2 men after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Ihsan Sami; Sahin, Veysel; Akpinar, Besir; Yurtman, Volkan; Abacilar, Feyzi; Okur, Faik Fevzi; Ates, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Many complications have been reported after cardiopulmonary bypass. A common physiologic change during the early postoperative period after cardiopulmonary bypass is increased diuresis. In patients whose urine output is increased, postoperative diabetes insipidus can develop, although reports of this are rare. We present the cases of 2 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (with cardiopulmonary bypass). Each was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus postoperatively: a 54-year-old man on the 3rd day, and a 66-year-old man on the 4th day. Each patient recovered from the condition after 6 hours of intranasal therapy with synthetic vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus should be considered in patients who produce excessive urine early after cardiac surgery in which cardiopulmonary bypass has been used.

  11. A case of primary aldosteronism combined with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Lee, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Sun Chul; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kang, Young Sun

    2014-12-01

    Aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma can induce various clinical manifestations as a result of chronic exposure to aldosterone. We report a rare case of a 37-year-old man who complained of general weakness and polyuria. He was diagnosed with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Aldosterone enhances the secretion of potassium in the collecting duct, which can lead to hypokalemia. By contrast, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which manifests as polyuria and polydipsia, can occur in several clinical conditions such as acquired tubular disease and those attributed to toxins and congenital causes. Among them, hypokalemia can also damage tubular structures in response to vasopressin. The patient's urine output was >3 L/d and was diluted. Owing to the ineffectiveness of vasopressin, we eventually made a diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and intraoperative kidney biopsy were subsequently performed. The pathologic finding of kidney biopsy revealed a decrease in aquaporin-2 on immunohistochemical stain.

  12. [Kluver Bucy syndrome and central diabetes insipidus: two uncommon complications of herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Vergine, G; Ciambra, R; Leone, V; Facchini, S; Suprani, T; Casadei, G; Pocecco, M

    2003-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is an uncommon but severe disease with high mortality and morbidity. The major clinical manifestations are deteriorating consciousness with confusion, drowsiness or coma, altered behaviour, convulsions and a variety of neurological signs (hemiplegia, aphasia, ataxia, etc.). An uncommon complication of HSE is Kluver Bucy syndrome (KBS), characterized by hyperorality, bulimia and changes in emotional behaviour. Neuroimaging studies frequently show an involvement of the temporal lobes and limbic areas. Another uncommon complication of HSE is central diabetes insipidus as a result of herpes simplex infection of the hypothalamus. We report two pediatric cases of HSE complicated with Kluver Bucy syndrome and central diabetes insipidus.

  13. A non-invasive test for receptor binding applied to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, K. E.; Tedder, R. S.; Khokhar, A. M.; Brown, N. J.; Davison, A.; Slater, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Studies in animals have determined the importance of specific receptors to the action of many hormones and drugs. In man, a non-invasive external counting technique has been used and absence of receptor function has been demonstrated in a patient with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using radioactively labelled arginine vasopressin. This is in contrast to the findings in a patient with pituitary diabetes insipidus and a normal control. These results suggest a model for the study of hormone and drug kinetics in man avoiding multiple samplings of biological fluids. PMID:196275

  14. Central diabetes insipidus following a sports-related concussion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Foley, Cassidy M; Wang, David H

    2012-03-01

    A 24-year-old female swimmer presented to a sports medicine clinic with complaints of frequent urination and increased thirst. The patient admitted to progressive worsening of her symptoms over a 4-year period since suffering a concussion. A water deprivation test, antidiuretic hormone level, and diamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin challenge were completed, and the patient was diagnosed with persistent central diabetes insipidus. As concussion awareness increases, health care professionals will be faced with treatment of post-concussive patients more often. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness of possible pituitary dysfunction-specifically, central diabetes insipidus-following a concussion.

  15. A history of diabetes insipidus: paving the road to internal water balance.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an ancient disease considered under the rubric of diabetes, the Greek descriptive term for polyuria, which was unrecognized even after the sweetness of urine was reported as a characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the 17th century. It would be another century before diabetes insipidus was identified from the insipid rather than saccharine taste of urine in cases of polyuria. After its increased recognition, pathologic observations and experimental studies connected diabetes insipidus to the pituitary gland in the opening decades of the 20th century. Simultaneously, posterior pituitary lobe extracts were shown to be vasoconstrictive (vasopressin) and antidiuretic (antidiuretic hormone). As vasopressin was purified and synthesized and its assay became available, it was shown to be released in response to both osmotic and volume stimuli that are integrated in the hypothalamus, and vasopressin thereby was essential to maintaining internal water balance. The antidiuretic properties of vasopressin to treat the rare cases of diabetes insipidus were of limited clinical utility until its vasoconstrictive effects were resuscitated in the 1970s, with the consequent increasing wider use of vasopressin for the treatment of compromised hemodynamic states. In addition, the discovery of antidiuretic hormone receptor blockers has led to their increasing use in managing hypo-osmolar states.

  16. Central diabetes insipidus in an African Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Simon R; Wood, Catherine; de Matos, Ricardo; Ledbetter, Eric C; Morrisey, James K

    2010-08-15

    A 5.5-year-old sexually intact female African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated for a 1-year history of pronounced polyuria and polydipsia. The bird also had a 1-month history of signs of mild depression and mydriasis. Physical examination revealed a thin body condition and incomplete bilateral mydriasis. Other examination findings as well as CBC and screening radiography results were unremarkable. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed mild hypernatremia. The bird had a 3.3% loss in body weight over 170 minutes during a water deprivation test, and urine osmolality remained low. After IM administration of 0.9 microg of desmopressin, the rate of weight loss decreased substantially and urine osmolality increased 300% over the following 200 minutes. Initial attempts to treat the bird with orally administered desmopressin failed to correct the polydipsia and polyuria. Ultimately, IM administration of 24 microg of desmopressin/kg (10.9 microg/lb) every 12 hours yielded a noticeable reduction in water consumption and urine production over a 6- to 8-hour period. Eight months later, the bird was returned for a recheck examination, at which time it was in good health and continued to respond to the medication. Despite continued response to the medication, right-sided internal ophthalmoparesis was detected 16 months after the initial diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, central diabetes insipidus in birds has not been reported. The condition should be considered in birds with clinical signs of disease similar to those in mammals. Long-term IM administration of desmopressin may be a viable treatment option.

  17. Metformin improves urine concentration in rodents with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Efe, Orhan; Klein, Janet D; LaRocque, Lauren M; Ren, Huiwen; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-07-21

    Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/ kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI.

  18. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium–Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Theun; Sinke, Anne P.; Kortenoeven, Marleen L.A.; Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Loffing, Johannes; Wetzels, Jack F.

    2016-01-01

    To reduce lithium–induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA–specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects. PMID:26574046

  19. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Theun; Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Loffing, Johannes; Wetzels, Jack F; Deen, Peter M T

    2016-07-01

    To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA-specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects.

  20. Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus observed in Swiss Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Grahofer, Alexander; Wiedemar, Natalie; Gurtner, Corinne; Drögemüller, Cord; Nathues, Heiko

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diagnosis requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and further laboratory confirmation. This case report describes the appearance of DI in five Duroc boars in Switzerland. Two purebred intact Duroc boars at the age of 8 months and 1.5 years, respectively, with a history of polyuric and polydipsic symptoms had been referred to the Swine Clinic in Berne. Based on the case history, the results of clinical examination and the analysis of blood and urine, a tentative diagnosis of DI was concluded. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed by findings from a modified water deprivation test, macroscopic examinations and histopathology. Following the diagnosis, three genes known to be involved in inherited DI in humans were analyzed in order to explore a possible genetic background of the affected boars. The etiology of DI in pigs is supposed to be the same as in humans, although this disease has never been described in pigs before. Thus, although occurring only on rare occasions, DI should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pigs with polyuria and polydipsia. It seems that a modified water deprivation test may be a helpful tool for confirming a diagnosis in pigs. Since hereditary forms of DI have been described in humans, the occurrence of DI in pigs should be considered in breeding programs although we were not able to identify a disease associated mutation.

  1. Postoperative Copeptin Concentration Predicts Diabetes Insipidus After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winzeler, Bettina; Zweifel, Christian; Nigro, Nicole; Arici, Birsen; Bally, Martina; Schuetz, Philipp; Blum, Claudine Angela; Kelly, Christopher; Berkmann, Sven; Huber, Andreas; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh; Landolt, Hans; Mariani, Luigi; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-06-01

    Copeptin is a stable surrogate marker of vasopressin release; the peptides are stoichiometrically secreted from the neurohypophysis due to elevated plasma osmolality or nonosmotic stress. We hypothesized that following stress from pituitary surgery, patients with neurohypophyseal damage and eventual diabetes insipidus (DI) would not exhibit the expected pronounced copeptin elevation. The objective was to evaluate copeptin's accuracy to predict DI following pituitary surgery. This was a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Three Swiss or Canadian referral centers were used. Consecutive pituitary surgery patients were included. Copeptin was measured postoperatively daily until discharge. Logistic regression models and diagnostic performance measures were calculated to assess relationships of postoperative copeptin levels and DI. Of 205 patients, 50 (24.4%) developed postoperative DI. Post-surgically, median [25th-75th percentile] copeptin levels were significantly lower in patients developing DI vs those not showing this complication: 2.9 [1.9-7.9] pmol/L vs 10.8 [5.2-30.4] pmol/L; P < .001. Logistic regression analysis revealed strong association between postoperative copeptin concentrations and DI even after considering known predisposing factors for DI: adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.41 (1.16-1.73). DI was seen in 22/27 patients with copeptin <2.5 pmol/L (positive predictive value, 81%; specificity, 97%), but only 1/40 with copeptin >30 pmol/L (negative predictive value, 95%; sensitivity, 94%) on postoperative day 1. Lack of standardized DI diagnostic criteria; postoperative blood samples for copeptin obtained during everyday care vs at fixed time points. In patients undergoing pituitary procedures, low copeptin levels despite surgical stress reflect postoperative DI, whereas high levels virtually exclude it. Copeptin therefore may become a novel tool for early goal-directed management of postoperative DI.

  2. Evaluation of electrocardiographic parameters in patients with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Ferhat; Kepez, Alper; Ay, Seyit Ahmet; Ergogan, Okan; Baskoy, Kamil; Guncıkan, Mustafa Nuri; Dogan, Zekeriya; Yonem, Arif

    2015-11-01

    There is limited data regarding the effect of altered serum osmolality on cardiac electrical activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the electrocardiographic (ECG) effects of diabetes insipidus (DI) and any related hyperosmolality in a population of young patients with DI and without any known cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Twelve-lead ECG's of 44 consecutive untreated young male patients (age: 21.8 ± 2.9 years) who had been referred to endocrinology clinic and diagnosed as DI based on water deprivation test were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 30 age-matched (21.9 ± 2.4 years) healthy males were selected as control group and ECG's of these controls were obtained for comparison with ECG's of DI patients. All ECG parameters were measured and compared. Duration of QRS complex was significantly shorter in patients with DI compared with controls (85.2 ± 12.0 vs. 94.0 ± 10.6 ms, p: 0.001). P wave dispersion (PWD) of patients with DI was significantly higher compared with controls (31.9 ± 9.9 vs. 26.5 ± 10.6 ms, p: 0.03) and it was significantly correlated with serum osmolality and serum sodium level (r = - 0.36, p: 0.02 and r: - 0.35, p: 0.02, respectively). DI patients without any cardiovascular disease or risk factors displayed significantly shorter QRS duration and increased p wave dispersion compared with controls.

  3. Physiological insights into novel therapies for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M; Klein, Janet D

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental kidney physiology research can provide important insight into how the kidney works and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities to treat human diseases. This is especially true for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Over the past decade, studies elucidating the molecular physiology and signaling pathways regulating water transport have suggested novel therapeutic possibilities. In patients with congenital NDI due to mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) or acquired NDI due to lithium (or other medications), there are no functional abnormalities in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, or in another key inner medullary transport protein, the UT-A1 urea transporter. If it is possible to phosphorylate and/or increase the apical membrane accumulation of these proteins, independent of vasopressin or cAMP, one may be able to treat NDI. Sildenifil (through cGMP), erlotinib, and simvastatin each stimulate AQP2 insertion into the apical plasma membrane. Some recent human data suggest that sildenafil and simvastatin may improve urine concentrating ability. ONO-AE1-329 (ONO) stimulates the EP4 prostanoid receptor (EP4), which stimulates kinases that in turn phosphorylate AQP2 and UT-A1. Clopidogrel is a P2Y12-R antagonist that potentiates the effect of vasopressin and increases AQP2 abundance. Metformin stimulates AMPK to phosphorylate and activate AQP2 and UT-A1, and it increases urine concentrating ability in two rodent models of NDI. Since metformin, sildenafil, and simvastatin are commercially available and have excellent safety records, the potential for rapidly advancing them into clinical trials is high. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Metformin improves urine concentration in rodents with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Orhan; Klein, Janet D.; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Ren, Huiwen; Sands, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI. PMID:27478876

  5. Managing adipsic diabetes insipidus following anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Brendan; Inder, Warrick J

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus without perception of thirst, as may follow an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, requires prescription of fluid intake as well as desmopressin. The management goal of maintaining a normal serum sodium is rendered more challenging in a humid subtropical environment, where insensible losses are higher.

  6. Gestational diabetes insipidus, HELLP syndrome and eclampsia in a twin pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Woelk, J L; Dombroski, R A; Brezina, P R

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of eclampsia in a twin pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome and diabetes insipidus. This confluence of disease processes suggests that a modification of common magnesium sulfate treatment protocols may be appropriate in a certain subset of patients.

  7. Neurobrucellosis associated with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone with resultant diabetes insipidus and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Giuseppe; Mondello, Placido; Bruno, Salvatore; Bonfatto, Orsola Elena; Frattima, Sabrina; Albanese, Antonio; Restivo, Roberta; Liberti, Giuseppe; Pasquali, Paolo; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2010-10-01

    Neurological involvement of the central nervous system in brucellosis is uncommon. We describe a rare case of meningoencephalitis due to Brucella melitensis infection, associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and leading to diabetes insipidus and hypothyroidism. Neurobrucellosis, although rare, should be considered in cases of neurological disease of unknown etiology.

  8. Diabetes insipidus is an unfavorable prognostic factor for response to glucocorticoids in patients with autoimmune hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Isabella; Cosottini, Mirco; Caturegli, Patrizio; Manetti, Luca; Urbani, Claudio; Cappellani, Daniele; Scattina, Ilaria; Martino, Enio; Marcocci, Claudio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2017-08-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) has a variable clinical presentation and natural history; likewise, its response to glucocorticoid therapy is often unpredictable. To identify clinical and radiological findings associated with response to glucocorticoids. 12 consecutive patients with AH, evaluated from 2008 to 2016. AH was the exclusion diagnosis after ruling out other pituitary masses and secondary causes of hypophysitis. Mean follow-up time was 30 ± 27 months (range 12-96 months). MRI identified two main patterns of presentation: global enlargement of the pituitary gland or panhypophysitis (n = 4, PH), and pituitary stalk abnormality only, or infundibulo-neuro-hypophysitis (n = 8, INH). Multiple tropin defects were more common in PH (100%) than those in INH (28% P = 0.014), whereas diabetes insipidus was more common in INH (100%) than that in PH (50%; P = 0.028). All 4 PH and 4 out of 8 INH were treated with glucocorticoids. Pituitary volume significantly reduced in all PH patients (P = 0.012), defective anterior pituitary function recovered only in the two patients without diabetes insipidus (50%) and panhypopituitarism persisted, along with diabetes insipidus, in the remaining 2 (50%). In all INH patients, either treated or untreated, pituitary stalk diameter reduced (P = 0.008) but diabetes insipidus persisted in all. Glucocorticoid therapy may improve anterior pituitary function in a subset of patients but has no effect on restoring posterior pituitary function. Diabetes insipidus appears as a negative prognostic factor for response to glucocorticoids. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. The value of urine specific gravity in detecting diabetes insipidus in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: urine specific gravity in differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, Ersin; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktaran, Sebnem; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-11-01

    When a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with worsening polyuria and polydipsia, what is a sensible, cost-effective approach? We report the unique coincidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A 46-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complained of polyuria with a daily output of 5 L. Although urinalysis demonstrated significant glucosuria, diabetes insipidus was suspected owing to a low urine specific gravity (1.008). The low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test. Ultimately, diabetes insipidus was confirmed when urine specific gravity and urine osmolality normalized following desmopressin administration. This case emphasizes the importance of accurately interpreting the urine specific gravity in patients with polyuria and diabetes mellitus to detect diabetes insipidus.

  10. Diabetes insipidus due to herpes encephalitis in a patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, K; Schalk, E; Reschke, K; Franke, A; Mohren, M

    2006-01-01

    The major causes of central diabetes insipidus are neoplastic or infiltrative lesions of the hypothalamus or pituitary, severe head injuries and pituitary or hypothalamic surgery. Central diabetes insipidus caused by viral infections has been rarely reported in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman suffering from diffuse large cell lymphoma, who developed hypotonic polyuria, hypernatriaemia and somnolence after the first course of chemotherapy with CHOEP and rituximab. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by low urine osmolarity and an undetectable vasopressin concentration. MRI revealed no pituitary abnormalities but encephalitis, and lumbar punction confirmed herpes zoster infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of central diabetes insipidus in a lymphoma patient caused by an opportunistic CNS-infection.

  11. Diabetes insipidus as a rare cause of acute cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, V; Schlamann, M; Führer, D; Moeller, L C

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease presenting with a diversity of clinical symptoms including palsy and cognitive impairment. We present a 59-year-old woman with a history of secondary progressive MS since 1987, who was referred to our department because of recent onset of confusion and polydipsia. Initial lab tests showed mildly elevated serum sodium levels and low urine osmolality. Under water deprivation, diuresis and low urine osmolality persisted and serum sodium levels rose above 150 mmol/l. Oral desmopressin resulted in normalisation of serum sodium as well as urine osmolarity, confirming a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. As drug-induced diabetes could be excluded, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. A demyelinating lesion was detected in the hypothalamus. The patient was started on oral desmopressin treatment (0.2 mg/day). Fluid intake and serum sodium levels have since remained normal. In summary, we report the rare case of a patient presenting with diabetes insipidus due to progressive MS. Diabetes insipidus should be considered in MS patients who develop new onset of polydipsia.

  12. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  13. Central diabetes insipidus in a cat with central nervous system B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Christopher J; Mansfield, Caroline S; Milne, Marjorie E; Hodge, Priscilla J

    2011-10-01

    A 6-year-old male neutered cat presented with blindness, lethargy, polydipsia, hyposthenuria and severe hypernatraemia. Central diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by means of a low measured anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) concentration in the face of hypernatraemia, and clinical response to supplementation with desmopressin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a discrete mass in the region of the hypothalamus. The cat was euthanased and post-mortem histological examination demonstrated B cell lymphoma involving the brain, optic nerves, urinary bladder wall and diaphragm. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to describe central diabetes insipidus caused by central nervous system lymphoma in the cat. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. All rights reserved.

  14. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-05-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis.A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria.He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective.Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function.

  15. A Case of Rathke's Cleft Cyst Associated with Transient Central Adrenal Insufficiency and Masked Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Rina; Niitsu, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Tetsuo; Niwa, Arisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of headache, poor appetite, malaise, weight loss, and vomiting was found to have central adrenal insufficiency and thyrotoxicosis due to silent thyroiditis. Polyuria developed after replacement with glucocorticoid (masked diabetes insipidus), which was controlled with nasal administration of desmopressin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large cystic pituitary mass (18 × 18 × 12 mm) extending suprasellarly to the optic chiasm. Transsphenoidal surgery revealed that the pituitary tumor was Rathke's cleft cyst. Following surgery, replacement with neither glucocorticoid nor desmopressin was needed any more. Therefore, it is suggested that Rathke's cleft cyst is responsible for the masked diabetes insipidus and the central insufficiency. Furthermore, it is speculated that thyrotoxicosis with painless thyroiditis might induce changes from subclinical adrenal insufficiency to transiently overt insufficiency. PMID:25431697

  16. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria. He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective. Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function. PMID:27258490

  17. Invasive pneumococcal disease complicated by cerebral vasculitis, transient diabetes insipidus and spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Domingues, Vital; Faria, Raquel M; Mendonça, Teresa

    2013-08-19

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a potential life-threatening situation that requires immediate recognition and treatment. Cerebrovascular complications are uncommon and have been reported less frequently in adults than in children. We report a case of 59-year-old man with IPD complicated by cerebral vasculitis, transient central diabetes insipidus and spondylodiscitis. Each of these complications is rare and needs specific approach. Their association is even rarer and to the best of our knowledge this is the first case reported.

  18. Spontaneous intermittent MRI changes of a pituitary stalk lesion causing diabetes insipidus and amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Curtò, Lorenzo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavo, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis is a rare disorder. We report the case of a 29 year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and amenorrhea, in whom the magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of a pituitary stalk lesion was intermittent. We suggest that, in patients with endocrine dysfunction and positivity of circulating antipituitary antibodies at high title, magnetic resonance imaging should be repeated after few months, if negative.

  19. INCIDENCE OF CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS IN CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH POLYDIPSIA AND POLYURIA.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nadine G; Nabhan, Zeina M; Eugster, Erica A

    2016-12-01

    Polydipsia and polyuria are common reasons for referral to the Pediatric Endocrine clinic. In the absence of hyperglycemia, diabetes insipidus (DI) should be considered. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of central DI (CDI) in a group of children presenting for evaluation of polydipsia and polyuria, and to determine if predictive features were present in patients in whom the diagnosis of DI was made. The study was a retrospective chart review of children presenting to the endocrine clinic with complaints of polydipsia and polyuria over a 5-year period. The charts of 41 patients (mean age 4.9 ± 3.7 years, 28 males) were reviewed. CDI was diagnosed in 8 (20%) children based on abnormal water deprivation test (WDT) results. All but one patient had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the most common being pituitary stalk thickening. Children with DI were older (7.86 ± 4.40 vs. 4.18 ± 3.20 years, P = .01) and had a higher propensity for cold beverages intake and unusual water-seeking behaviors compared to those without DI. Baseline WDT also revealed higher serum sodium (Na) and osmolality. The incidence of CDI in children presenting with polydipsia and polyuria is low. Factors associated with higher likelihood of pathology include older age, propensity for cold beverage intake, and higher baseline serum Na and osmolality on a WDT. BMI = body mass index CDI = central diabetes insipidus DI = diabetes insipidus Na = sodium WDT = water deprivation test.

  20. Use of Chlorothiazide in the Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Raisingani, Manish; Palliyil Gopi, Resmy; Shah, Bina

    2017-01-01

    Management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy is challenging. The various forms of desmopressin, oral, subcutaneous, and intranasal, have variability in the duration of action. Infants consume most of their calories as liquids which with desmopressin puts them at risk for hyponatremia and seizures. There are few cases reporting chlorothiazide as a temporizing measure for central diabetes insipidus in infancy. A male infant presented on day of life 30 with holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, and poor weight gain to endocrine clinic. Biochemical tests and urine output were consistent with central diabetes insipidus. The patient required approximately 2.5 times the normal fluid intake to keep up with the urine output. Patient was started on low renal solute load formula and oral chlorothiazide. There were normalization of serum sodium, decrease in fluid intake close to 1.3 times the normal, and improved urine output. There were no episodes of hyponatremia/hypernatremia inpatient. The patient had 2 episodes of hypernatremia in the first year of life resolving with few hours of hydration. Oral chlorothiazide is a potential bridging agent for treatment of central DI along with low renal solute load formula in early infancy. It can help achieve adequate control of DI without wide serum sodium fluctuations.

  1. The clinical pattern of diabetes Insipidus in a large university hospital in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Amir M I; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A M; Al Jurayyan, Rushaid N A; Al Gadi, Iman; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare but serious endocrine disorder. Paediatric patients were evaluated for polyuria at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over a decade (2000-13). Relevant clinical examination and/or a triad of high serum osmolality, hypernatremia and low urine osmolality due to increased urine output confirmed the diagnosis. Water deprivation test was required in some cases with non-classic presentations. Appropriate brain imaging was performed whenever central diabetes insipidus (CDI) was suspected. Twenty-eight patients, 15 males (53.6%) and 13 females (46.4%), aged 0-17 years (mean: 6 years) were included. The calculated period prevalence was 7 in 10,000. In our cohort, 60.7% (17 of 28 patients) had CDI, 21.4% (6 of 28) were diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and 17.9% (5 of 30) had psychogenic polydipsia. CDI was due to variable aetiology. Though CDI was the commonest, NDI was not a rare encounter in our community, possibly because of high consanguineous marriages.

  2. Value of Renal Biopsy in Diagnosing Infantile Nephropathic Cystinosis Associated With Secondary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emily; Ho, Jacqueline; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Salgado, Cláudia M; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Cystinosis is the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children, and typically presents with laboratory findings of a proximal tubulopathy and corneal crystals by one year of age. We describe here renal biopsy findings in a 20-month-old patient with an atypical presentation of distal renal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, and the absence of corneal crystals. Although renal biopsy is usually not necessary to establish the diagnosis of cystinosis, when the patient presents with atypical signs and symptoms, a renal biopsy may be extremely valuable. A 20-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia, and rickets. He initially showed evidence of a renal tubular acidosis, mild renal insufficiency, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. His initial ophthalmologic examination did not demonstrate corneal crystals. His subsequent workup revealed phosphaturia, suggesting a partial proximal tubulopathy. Concomitantly, a renal biopsy revealed prominent podocytes with an immature glomerular appearance, and electron microscopy analysis showed numerous intracellular crystals within tubular epithelial cells. Subsequent laboratory and genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of infantile nephropathic cystinosis. This case highlights the variability in the clinical presentation of cystinosis, resulting in an uncommon clinical picture of a rare disease. Given that treatment is available to prolong renal function and minimize the extra-renal manifestations of this disorder, early diagnosis is essential. It is important to raise the index of suspicion of cystinosis by recognizing its subtle morphological changes in young patients, and that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be secondary to this disorder.

  3. On the Mechanism of Lithium-Induced Diabetes Insipidus in Man and the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, John N.; Cohen, Alan D.; Torretti, Jorge; Himmelhoch, Jonathan M.; Epstein, Franklin H.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanism of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus was investigated in 96 patients and in a rat model. Polydipsia was reported by 40% and polyuria (more than 3 liter/day) by 12% of patients receiving lithium. Maximum concentrating ability after dehydration and vasopressin was markedly impaired in 10 polyuric patients and was reduced in 7 of 10 nonpolyuric patients studied before and during lithium therapy. Severe polyuria (more than 6 liter/day) was unresponsive to trials of vasopressin and chlorpropamide, but improved on chlorothiazide. Rats receiving lithium (3-4 meq/kg/day) developed massive polyuria that was resistant to vasopressin, in comparison to rats with comparable polyuria induced by drinking glucose. Analysis of renal tissue in rats with lithium polyuria showed progressive increase in the concentration of lithium from cortex to papilla with a 2.9-fold corticopapillary gradient for lithium. The normal corticopapillary gradient for sodium was not reduced by lithium treatment. The polyuria was not interrupted by brief intravenous doses of vasopressin (5-10 mU/kg) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10-15 mg/kg) capable of reversing water diuresis in normal and hypothalamic diabetes insipidus rats (Brattleboro strain). The present studies suggest that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a common finding after lithium treatment and results in part from interference with the mediation of vasopressin at a step distal to the formation of 3′,5′ cyclic AMP. PMID:4360856

  4. On the mechanism of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus in man and the rat.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J N; Cohen, A D; Torretti, J; Himmelhoch, J M; Epstein, F H

    1974-04-01

    The mechanism of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus was investigated in 96 patients and in a rat model. Polydipsia was reported by 40% and polyuria (more than 3 liter/day) by 12% of patients receiving lithium. Maximum concentrating ability after dehydration and vasopressin was markedly impaired in 10 polyuric patients and was reduced in 7 of 10 nonpolyuric patients studied before and during lithium therapy. Severe polyuria (more than 6 liter/day) was unresponsive to trials of vasopressin and chlorpropamide, but improved on chlorothiazide. Rats receiving lithium (3-4 meq/kg/day) developed massive polyuria that was resistant to vasopressin, in comparison to rats with comparable polyuria induced by drinking glucose. Analysis of renal tissue in rats with lithium polyuria showed progressive increase in the concentration of lithium from cortex to papilla with a 2.9-fold corticopapillary gradient for lithium. The normal corticopapillary gradient for sodium was not reduced by lithium treatment. The polyuria was not interrupted by brief intravenous doses of vasopressin (5-10 mU/kg) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10-15 mg/kg) capable of reversing water diuresis in normal and hypothalamic diabetes insipidus rats (Brattleboro strain). The present studies suggest that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a common finding after lithium treatment and results in part from interference with the mediation of vasopressin at a step distal to the formation of 3',5' cyclic AMP.

  5. Newly developed central diabetes insipidus following kidney transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, K M; Kim, S M; Lee, J; Lee, S Y; Kwon, S K; Kim, H-Y

    2013-09-01

    Polyuria after kidney transplantation is a common, usually self-limiting disorder. However, persistent polyuria can cause not only patient discomfort, including polyuria and polydipsia, but also volume depletion that can produce allograft dysfunction. Herein, we have report a case of central diabetes insipidus newly diagnosed after kidney transplantation. A 45-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. Two months after the transplantation, she was admitted for persistent polyuria, polydipsia, and nocturia with urine output of more than 4 L/d. Urine osmolarity was 100 mOsm/kg, which implied that the polyuria was due to water rather than solute diuresis. A water deprivation test was compatible with central diabetes insipidus; desmopressin treatment resulted in immediate symptomatic relief. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated diffuse thickening of the pituitary stalk, which was considered to be nonspecific finding. MRI 12 months later showed no change in the pituitary stalk, although the patient has been in good health without polyuria or polydipsia on desmopressin treatment. The possibility of central diabetes insipidus should be considered in patients presenting with persistent polyuria after kidney transplantation.

  6. Early central diabetes insipidus: An ominous sign in post-cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Chae, Minjung Kathy; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Tae Rim; Yoon, Hee; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) after cardiac arrest is not well described. Thus, we aim to study the occurrences, outcomes, and risk factors of CDI of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We retrospectively analyzed post-OHCA patients treated at a single center. Central diabetes insipidus was retrospectively defined by diagnostic criteria. One-month cerebral performance category (CPC) scores were collected for outcomes. Of the 169 patients evaluated, 36 patients (21.3%) were diagnosed with CDI. All CDI patients had a poor neurologic outcome of either CPC 4 (13.9%) or CPC 5 (86.1%), and CDI was strongly associated with mortality. Age (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), respiratory arrest (OR, 6.62; 95% CI, 1.23-35.44), asphyxia (OR, 9.26; 95% CI, 2.17-34.61), and gray to white matter ratio on brain computed tomogram (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95) were associated with the development of CDI. The onset of CDI was earlier (P < .001) and the maximum 24-hour urine output was larger (P = .03) in patients with worst outcomes. All patients diagnosed with CDI had poor neurologic outcomes, and occurrence of CDI was associated with mortality. Central diabetes insipidus patients with death or brain death had earlier occurrence of CDI and more maximum urine output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel AVP gene mutation in a Turkish family with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, M; Tiryakioglu, N O; Karaman, O; Coskunpinar, E; Yildiz, R S; Turgut, S; Tiryakioglu, D; Toprak, H; Tasan, E

    2016-03-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare, autosomal dominant, inherited disorder which is characterized by severe polydipsia and polyuria generally presenting in early childhood. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the AVP gene in a Turkish family with FNDI. Four patients with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus and ten healthy members of the family were studied. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by the water deprivation test in affected family members. Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing the whole coding region of AVP-NPII gene using DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples. Urine osmolality was low (<300 mOsm/kg) during water deprivation test, and an increase more than 50 % in urine osmolality and recovery of the symptoms were observed by the administration of desmopressin in all patients. Plasma copeptin levels were lower than expected according to plasma osmolality. Pituitary MRI revealed partial empty sella with a bright spot in index patient and a normal neurohypophysis in the other affected subjects. Genetic screening revealed a novel, heterozygous mutation designated as c.-3A>C in all patients. c.-3A>C mutation in 5'UTR of AVP gene in this family might lead to the truncation of signal peptide, aggregation of AVP in the cytoplasm instead of targeting in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby could disrupt AVP secretion without causing neuronal cytotoxicity, which might explain the presence of bright spot. The predicted effect of this mutation should be investigated by further in vitro molecular studies.

  8. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Use of Chlorothiazide in the Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Palliyil Gopi, Resmy

    2017-01-01

    Management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy is challenging. The various forms of desmopressin, oral, subcutaneous, and intranasal, have variability in the duration of action. Infants consume most of their calories as liquids which with desmopressin puts them at risk for hyponatremia and seizures. There are few cases reporting chlorothiazide as a temporizing measure for central diabetes insipidus in infancy. A male infant presented on day of life 30 with holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, and poor weight gain to endocrine clinic. Biochemical tests and urine output were consistent with central diabetes insipidus. The patient required approximately 2.5 times the normal fluid intake to keep up with the urine output. Patient was started on low renal solute load formula and oral chlorothiazide. There were normalization of serum sodium, decrease in fluid intake close to 1.3 times the normal, and improved urine output. There were no episodes of hyponatremia/hypernatremia inpatient. The patient had 2 episodes of hypernatremia in the first year of life resolving with few hours of hydration. Oral chlorothiazide is a potential bridging agent for treatment of central DI along with low renal solute load formula in early infancy. It can help achieve adequate control of DI without wide serum sodium fluctuations. PMID:28553553

  10. An unusual case of central diabetes insipidus & hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state following cardiorespiratory arrest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We are describing an unusual case of severe hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, resistant to treatment. Case presentation A thirty year old female with adenocarcinoma of rectum was admitted with increasing lethargy, headache and drowsiness. She deteriorated rapidly and had cardiac arrest, following which she remained comatose. Her initial serum glucose and sodium were normal, but after receiving dexamethasone and mannitol, the serum glucose progressively increased to 54.7 mmol/L and sodium to 175 mmol/L, despite receiving very high dose of intravenous (IV) insulin infusion. She was evaluated for diabetes insipidus because of continued polyuria even after correction of hyperglycemia. Her serum osmolality was 337 mmol/kg, and urine osmolality was 141 mmol/kg which rose to 382 mmol/kg, after receiving 4 mcg of IV Desmopressin. Conclusion Our patient developed central diabetes insipidus post cardiac arrest and severe dehydration because of diabetes insipidus. Stress of critical illness, dehydration, dexamethasone and IV dextrose infusion were likely responsible for this degree of severe and resistant to treatment hyperglycemia. PMID:23947429

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26508947

  13. Neurogenic factors in the impaired healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Galkowska, Hanna; Olszewski, Waldemar L; Wojewodzka, Urszula; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Karnafel, Waldemar

    2006-08-01

    We hypothesize that the reduced innervation of skin can be observed both in clinically neuropathic and non-neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers and can contribute to low inflammatory cell infiltration. Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and active foot ulcers, without clinical evidence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (n = 12) and with sensory neuropathy (n = 8) were involved in this study. Biopsies from ulcer margin were examined immunohistochemically. Studies revealed presence of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)+ nerve endings only in reticular dermis in 3 of 12 non-neuropathic subjects, however, regenerating GAP-43+ endings were seen in dermis of almost all specimens. Lack of substance P+ nerve endings was characteristic for both groups. The reduced distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide+ nerves in epidermis and dermis was seen mainly in neuropathic group. In neo-epidermis lack of nerve growth factor expression was observed in both groups, whereas neurotrophin 3 immunostaining was characteristic for neuropathic specimens (P < 0.03). Expression of trkA and trkC receptors did not differ significantly between groups. Low inflammatory cell infiltration and moderate presence of fibroblasts was characteristic for all studied specimens. The observed reduction of foot skin innervation and neurogenic factors expression can be correlated with low inflammatory cell accumulation and subsequently leads to the observed chronicity of diabetic foot ulcer healing process in both neuropathic and non-neuropathic patients.

  14. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits.

  15. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  16. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature. PMID:23508726

  17. Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and nephrocalcinosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Y; Shigeno, M; Nakagawa, Y; Suganuma, A; Takeshita, A; Fujiyama, K; Ashizawa, K; Kiriyama, T; Yokoyama, N; Nagataki, S

    1994-09-01

    A 52-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of 16-year history of polyuria and polydipsia. Hyposthenuria, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and the inabilities to acidify the urine after acid-loading test and to concentrate the urine in responses to water-deprivation and antidiuretic hormone administration allowed us to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Radiographic examinations revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis. The patient was also found to have clinical and laboratory findings characteristic for Sjögren's syndrome. Thus the longstanding, poorly monitored distal renal tubular acidosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome was considered to result in very rare renal complications-nephrocalcinosis and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In patients with renal tubular acidosis and/or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology, therefore, Sjögren's syndrome should be considered as one of primary disorders.

  18. Autoimmune central diabetes insipidus in a patient with ureaplasma urealyticum infection and review on new triggers of immune response.

    PubMed

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Spanò, Francesca; Ferone, Diego; Albertelli, Manuela; Schenone, Angelo; Contatore, Miriam; Guastalla, Andrea; De Bellis, Annamaria; Garibotto, Giacomo; Puppo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)] or to AVP resistance (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). In the majority of patients, the occurrence of CDI is related to the destruction or degeneration of neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The most common and well recognized causes include local inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, vascular disorders, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sarcoidosis, tumors such as germinoma/craniopharyngioma or metastases, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial surgery, and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. Here we have the opportunity to describe an unusual case of female patient who developed autoimmune CDI following ureaplasma urealyticum infection and to review the literature on this uncommon feature. Moreover, we also discussed the potential mechanisms by which ureaplasma urealyticum might favor the development of autoimmune CDI.

  19. Severe hypernatraemia due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - a life-threatening side effect of chronic lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Sze, L; Ulrich, B; Brändle, M

    2006-11-01

    Renal toxicity of long-term lithium therapy is a common problem. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is the most frequently encountered complication, but often remains unrecognised because of the rather benign symptoms. We present a patient with long-term lithium therapy who developed life-threatening hypernatraemia due to insufficient oral fluid intake after elective spinal surgery. Careful daily substitution of up to 25 l of hypotonic fluids led to full recovery within 9 days. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should always be considered in lithium-treated patients undergoing elective surgery in order to avoid severe hypernatraemia.

  20. Predictors and incidence of central diabetes insipidus after endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Sigounas, Dimitri G; Sharpless, Julie L; Cheng, D Ming L; Johnson, Tiffany G; Senior, Brent A; Ewend, Matthew G

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of minimally invasive endoscopic pituitary surgery, there has been concern that the technique may be associated with higher rates of complications such as diabetes insipidus (DI) than traditional approaches, particularly early in a center's experience. We report the incidence and predictors of diabetes insipidus in patients after endoscopic transnasal resection (minimally invasive pituitary surgery) of pituitary lesions. Data were collected from hospital and clinic records on the first 119 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery at our center. The rate of postoperative diabetes insipidus is low in patients undergoing minimally invasive pituitary surgery (permanent, 2.7%; transient, 13.6%). Factors associated with development of DI after minimally invasive pituitary surgery include Rathke's cleft cyst histology, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and previous nonendoscopic lesion resection. Elevated serum sodium (>145 mmol/L) within the first 5 days postoperatively has a high sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (83.5%), and negative predictive value (99.5%) for permanent postoperative DI development. Transitioning from microscopic to endoscopic pituitary surgery can be achieved with a low incidence of DI. An elevated serum sodium level in the first 5 postoperative days using standard monitoring can predict the chance of developing permanent DI. Patients having no elevated serum sodium measurements, defined as >145 mmol/L, in the first 5 days postoperatively will rarely, if ever, develop permanent DI, thereby validating short postoperative inpatient stays with minimal risk of readmission for DI management. Those with a single serum sodium measurement greater than 145 mmol/L have a 15% risk of developing permanent DI.

  1. Fanconi's syndrome and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in an adult treated with ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Ingemi, Amanda I; Bota, Vasile M; Peguero, Anyeri; Charpentier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi's syndrome is a serious condition characterized by type II proximal renal tubular dysfunction, with urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, phosphate, bicarbonate, and potassium. Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi's syndrome is reported in about 1.4-5% of children being treated for solid tumors, yet only a few cases have been reported in adults. We describe a 54-year-old man who came to the hospital with symptoms of neutropenic fever 4 days after his fourth cycle of ifosfamide and doxorubicin treatment for recurrent sarcoma with metastases to the lung. During admission, he was noted to have severe renal tubular dysfunction; ifosfamide-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and Fanconi's syndrome were suspected. He received supportive therapy that resulted in incomplete resolution of signs and symptoms. The patient was discharged after a 5-day hospital stay when his white blood cell count increased from 0.1-2.5 × 10(3) /mm(3) and his fever had resolved. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 7) between the patient's development of diabetes insipidus and Fanconi's syndrome and his use of ifosfamide. This dual diagnosis of diabetes insipidus and Fanconi's syndrome in an adult makes this case unusual, as well as therapeutically challenging. We conducted a review of the existing literature regarding ifosfamide-induced Fanconi's syndrome and describe the proposed mechanisms and therapeutic options. This case suggests that patients treated with ifosfamide should be monitored closely for renal function to identify, and perhaps prevent, these rare adverse events. Preliminary animal models show promise for adding N-acetylcysteine to ifosfamide treatment, but more research is necessary before using this drug as a therapeutic option.

  2. Central diabetes insipidus: clinical profile that suggests organicity in Peruvian children: Lima - Peru 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    De Los Santos, Miguel Angel; Águila, Carlos Manuel Del; Rojas, Maria Isabel; Falen, Juan Manuel; Nuñez, Oswaldo; Chávez, Eliana Manuela; Espinoza, Oscar Antonio; Pinto, Paola Marianella; Calagua, Martha Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a heterogeneous disease caused by arginine vasopressin deficiency; its management implies a profound understanding of the pathophysiology and the clinical spectrum. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics that indicate organicity in children and adolescents with central diabetes insipidus treated at the Department of Endocrinology from The Child Health's Institute during 2001 to 2013. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. 79 cases of patients diagnosed with CDI (51 males and 28 females) from 1 month to 16 years of age were reviewed. For the descriptive analysis, measures of central tendency and dispersion were used; groups of organic and idiopathic CDI were compared using χ2-test and t-test. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. The average age of patients was 8.1±4.2 years. Organic causes were intracranial tumors, 44 (55.7%), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), 11 (13.9%) and cerebral malformations in 7 (8.9%) patients, while the idiopathic group was 14 (17.7%) patients. Regarding clinical characteristics suggestive of organicity, headache (p=0.02) and visual disturbances (p=0.01) were found statistically significant. The anterior pituitary hormonal abnormalities were documented in 34 (52.3%) organic CDI patients. Furthermore, we did not find a significant difference in the average daily dose of desmopressin between patients with permanent vs. transitory CDI (0.81±0.65 vs. 0.59±0.62; p=0.363). The main clinical features suggestive of organicity in pediatric patients with central diabetes insipidus were headache and visual disturbances; furthermore, anterior pituitary hormonal abnormalities suggest an underlying organic etiology.

  3. Novel mutations associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A clinical-genetic study.

    PubMed

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Chocron, Sara; Madrid, Alvaro; Lafita Tejedor, Francisco Javier; Gil Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez Del Pozo, Jaime; Ruiz Cano, Rafael; Espino, Mar; Gomez Vida, Jose Maria; Santos, Fernando; García Nieto, Victor Manuel; Loza, Reyner; Rodríguez, Luis Miguel; Hidalgo Barquero, Emilia; Printza, Nikoleta; Camacho, Juan Antonio; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2015-10-01

    Molecular diagnosis is a useful diagnostic tool in primary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), an inherited disease characterized by renal inability to concentrate urine. The AVPR2 and AQP2 genes were screened for mutations in a cohort of 25 patients with clinical diagnosis of NDI. Patients presented with dehydration, polyuria-polydipsia, failure to thrive (mean ± SD; Z-height -1.9 ± 2.1 and Z-weight -2.4 ± 1.7), severe hypernatremia (mean ± SD; Na 150 ± 10 mEq/L), increased plasma osmolality (mean ± SD; 311 ± 18 mOsm/Kg), but normal glomerular filtration rate. Genetic diagnosis revealed that 24 male patients were hemizygous for 17 different putative disease-causing mutations in the AVPR2 gene (each one in a different family). Of those, nine had not been previously reported, and eight were recurrent. Moreover, we found those same AVPR2 changes in 12 relatives who were heterozygous carriers. Further, in one female patient, AVPR2 gene study turned out to be negative and she was found to be homozygous for the novel AQP2 p.Ala86Val alteration. Genetic analysis presumably confirmed the diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in every patient of the studied cohort. We emphasize that we detected a high presence (50 %) of heterozygous females with clinical NDI symptoms. • In most cases (90 %), inherited nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an X-linked disease, caused by mutations in the AVPR2 gene. • In rare occasions (10 %), it is caused by mutations in the AQP2 gene. What is new: • In this study, we report 10 novel mutations associated with NDI. • We have detected a high presence (50 %) of heterozygous carriers with clinical NDI symptoms.

  4. Unusual Presentation of Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient With Neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Vedha; Kapoor, Aanchal

    2016-01-01

    Hypernatremia is a frequent cause of intensive care unit admission. The patient presented in this article had hypernatremia refractory to D5W (dextrose 5% water) therapy, which led to a complex investigation. Workup revealed central diabetes insipidus most likely secondary to flare up of neurosarcoidosis. The challenge in terms of diagnosis was a presentation with low urine output in the setting of hypernatremia resistant to treatment with desmopressin. This case unfolded the role of hypothyroidism causing secondary renal dysfunction and hence needed continued treatment with thyroxine in addition to treatment for hypernatremia.

  5. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: A Challenging Combination.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Gerard; Hansford, Jordan R; Duke, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    We describe a 2-year-old female with a suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central diabetes insipidus (DI) who developed polyuria with natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremia 36 hr after cisplatin administration. The marked urinary losses of sodium in combination with a negative sodium balance led to the diagnosis of cisplatin-induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS). The subsequent clinical management is very challenging. Four weeks later she was discharged from ICU without neurological sequela. The combination of cisplatin-induced RSWS with DI can be confusing and needs careful clinical assessment as inaccurate diagnosis and management can result in increased neurological injury.

  6. A case of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Huang, Xiaochun; Qiu, Yuan; Chen, Hanzhang; Fu, Yingyu; Li, Xinchun

    2013-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an idiopathic group of reactive proliferative diseases linked to aberrant immunity, pathologically characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. LCH rarely involves the thymus. We report a case of thymic LCH with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation, without evidence of myasthenia gravis and without evidenced involvement of the skin, liver, spleen, bones, lungs and superficial lymph nodes. This present case may have important clinical implications. In screening for LCH lesions, attention should be attached to rarely involved sites in addition to commonly involved organs. Follow-up and imageological examination are very important to a final diagnosis.

  7. Bilateral Ossified Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting as Diabetes Insipidus-Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saquib A; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sawarkar, Dattaraj; Singh, Manmohanjit; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2017-02-01

    Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are an occurrence rarely seen in neurosurgical clinical practice. And when they occur bilaterally, the radiologic image they present is fascinating, as is the clinical presentation, but their management may be challenging. They have been reported to present with a multitude of neurologic deficits but never with diabetes insipidus, which is described here. Due to the rarity of this pathology, the management protocol is not well defined, though there have been quite a few papers on this condition. This review article gathers information published over the years on this rare entity to suggest a treatment protocol.

  8. Permanent central diabetes insipidus as a complication of sphenoid sinus mucocele.

    PubMed

    Saylam, Güleser; Bayır, Omer; Girgin, Derya; Arslan, Müyesser Saykı; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Ozdek, Ali; Delibaşı, Tuncay; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Although mucocele is a benign lesion, its unavoidable expansions may result in irreversible damages in adjacent organs. In spheno-ethmoid mucoceles which are extremely rare, this condition may cause more severe problems. Central diabetes insipidus, developed secondary to sphenoid sinus mucocele, was detected in a 54-year-old male patient, who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery 2 times due to nasal polyposis. Endoscopic sphenoid mucocele marsupialization was performed to the patient, but despite partial regression in the 1-year follow up, complete recovery was not observed.

  9. Central diabetes insipidus: an unusual complication in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and monosomy 7.

    PubMed

    Surapolchai, Pacharapan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Lukito, Johannes B; Wan, Thomas S K; So, Chi-Chiu; Chiang, Alan Kwok-Shing

    2013-03-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is well-documented as a presenting feature of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia in adults. However, DI is unusual in pediatric patients with myeloid malignancies. We report here this rare complication in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and monosomy 7. Our case and previously reported cases of DI arising as a complication in myeloid malignancies demonstrate a close association with deletion of chromosome 7. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of these uncommon cases in children are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Transient Intraoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus in Moyamoya Patients Undergoing Revascularization Surgery: A Mere Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Hong, Joe C; Ramos, Emilio; Copeland, Curtis C; Ziv, Keren

    2016-04-15

    We present 2 patients with Moyamoya disease undergoing revascularization surgery who developed transient intraoperative central diabetes insipidus with spontaneous resolution in the immediate postoperative period. We speculate that patients with Moyamoya disease may be predisposed to a transient acute-on-chronic insult to the arginine vasopressin-producing portion of their hypothalamus mediated by anesthetic agents. We describe our management, discuss pertinent literature, and offer possible mechanisms of this transient insult. We hope to improve patient safety by raising awareness of this potentially catastrophic complication.

  11. Response to low dose indomethacin in two children with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Devi; Verma Attri, Savita; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Two children with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) were treated with oral indomethacin (0.75-1.2 mg/kg/day) three times a day for a mean duration of 3 yrs. Remission occurred in both patients in terms of achieving a normal fluid balance and body growth and the drug was withdrawn in one patient after 2 yrs. The treatment was well tolerated and no side effects were noted. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.5 yrs. These long-term observations of a favourable response to low dose indomethacin in 2 children with NDI need to be tested on larger number of patients.

  12. Exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes insipidus during pregnancy, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Tack, Lloyd J W; T'Sjoen, Guy; Lapauw, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, physiological changes in osmotic homeostasis cause water retention. If excessive, this can cause gestational diabetes insipidus (DI), particularly in patients with already impaired vasopressin secretion. We present the case of a 34-year-old patient with pre-existing hypopituitarism who experienced a transient exacerbation of her DI during a twin pregnancy. In contrast to typical gestational DI, polyuria and polydipsia occurred during the first trimester and remained stable thereafter. This case highlights a challenging clinical entity of which pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment will be discussed.

  13. Unusual Presentation of Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient With Neurosarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanghi, Vedha; Kapoor, Aanchal

    2016-01-01

    Hypernatremia is a frequent cause of intensive care unit admission. The patient presented in this article had hypernatremia refractory to D5W (dextrose 5% water) therapy, which led to a complex investigation. Workup revealed central diabetes insipidus most likely secondary to flare up of neurosarcoidosis. The challenge in terms of diagnosis was a presentation with low urine output in the setting of hypernatremia resistant to treatment with desmopressin. This case unfolded the role of hypothyroidism causing secondary renal dysfunction and hence needed continued treatment with thyroxine in addition to treatment for hypernatremia. PMID:27652275

  14. Hypothalamic type of hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus probably linked to Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tomoko; Yamada, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masashi; Aoki, Atsushi; Ikoma, Aki; Kusaka, Ikuyo; Toyoshima, Hideo; Kakei, Masafumi; Ishikawa, San-E

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted due to weight loss and generalized malaise. The basal levels of all the anterior pituitary hormones, except for prolactin, were reduced. However, they were all elevated in response to exogenous hypothalamic hormones. After starting hydrocortisone replacement, the patient had polyuria of >5,000 mL/day. T1-weighted MRI depicted a low signal of an oval mass in the sella turcica and an iso-intense signal of another mass at the pituitary stalk. These findings indicate a hypothalamic type of hypopituitarism and masked central diabetes insipidus which possibly derived from the atypical occupation of Rathke's cleft cyst at the pituitary stalk.

  15. Severe obesity and diabetes insipidus in a patient with PCSK1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Frank, Graeme R; Fox, Joyce; Candela, Ninfa; Jovanovic, Zorica; Bochukova, Elena; Levine, Jeremiah; Papenhausen, Peter R; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Non-synonymous mutations affecting both alleles of PCSK1 (proprotein convertase 1/3) are associated with obesity and impaired prohormone processing. We report a proband who was compound heterozygous for a maternally inherited frameshift mutation and a paternally inherited 474kb deletion that encompasses PCSK1, representing a novel genetic mechanism underlying this phenotype. Although pro-vasopressin is not a known physiological substrate of PCSK1, the development of central diabetes insipidus in this proband suggests that PCSK1 deficiency can be associated with impaired osmoregulation.

  16. Diabetes insipidus and Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report of reversibility with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, Fabio; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2003-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most common manifestation of central nervous system involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Patients with LCH involving the head and neck region are reported to have about a 40% lifetime chance of developing DI. The clinical and biochemical diagnosis of DI is sometimes supported by the absence of the posterior pituitary bright signal on magnetic resonance images. Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CDA) has been reported as an active drug in children and adults with relapsed or refractory LCH. The authors report the successful reversal of DI in a 3-year-old child with established LCH using 2-CDA.

  17. A very rare entity of diabetes insipidus associated with Edwards syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demir, Nihat; Doğan, Murat; Peker, Erdal; Bulan, Keziban; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2013-08-01

    Edwards syndrome is the second most commonly seen trisomy. It was first described by John Hamilton Edwards in 1960. Although most cases result in termination or foetal loss, live births have been documented in 5%. Edwards syndrome is characterized by multisystem anomalies, of which holoprosencephaly (HPE) is observed in 4-8% of cases. The clinical findings correspond to the degree of HPE malformation. Convulsions and endocrinopathies are among the severe clinical findings. The most common endocrinopathies are central diabetes insipidus (DI), hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism and growth hormone deficiency. The coexistence of holoproencephaly and DI in Edwards syndrome was discussed under the light of literature.

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting as central diabetes insipidus in an infant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sarar; Osman, Abdaldafae; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A; Al Nemri, Abdulrahman; Salih, Mustafa A M

    2014-03-28

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has a wide range of presentation at birth varying from severe neurological features such as hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis to a well appearing baby, who may develop complications late in infancy. While neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with congenital toxoplasmosis are uncommon, isolated central diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Here, we report on a female infant who presented with fever, convulsions, and polyuria. Examination revealed weight and length below the 3rd centile along with signs of severe dehydration. Fundal examination showed bilateral chorioretinitis. This infant developed hypernatremia together with increased serum osmolality and decreased both urine osmolality and specific gravity consistent with central diabetes insipidus. Serology for toxoplasma specific immunoglobulin M was high for both the mother and the baby and polymerase chain reaction for toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid was positive in the infant confirming congenital toxoplasmosis. Brain computerized tomography scans demonstrated ventriculomegaly associated with cerebral and cortical calcifications. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities responded to nasal vasopressin therapy. This report highlights central diabetes inspidus as a rare presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  19. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  20. Pulmonary thrombosis associated with antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Kiyohito; Watari, Taiji; Yasunari, Eisuke; Yamano, Miki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes insipidus is a well-recognized complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with post-traumatic diabetes insipidus will require antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement therapy and tend to show dehydration. On the other hand, some negative effects of ADH on blood coagulation, such as increased platelet cohesion and the promotion of von Willebrand factor release, have also been reported. However, the incidence of thrombosis during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy is disputed. PRESENTATION OF CASE A case of pulmonary thrombosis associated with ADH replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury is presented here. DISCUSSION In our case, there were three factors that may have contributed to the observed thrombosis (dehydration, bed rest for a long period and ADH replacement therapy). CONCLUSION We believe that controlling urinary output and monitoring urinary and serum osmotic pressure are necessary for the management for diabetes insipidus patients after traumatic brain injury. In particular, we must carefully monitor the management of such patients during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy. PMID:23131855

  1. Pulmonary thrombosis associated with antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kiyohito; Watari, Taiji; Yasunari, Eisuke; Yamano, Miki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a well-recognized complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with post-traumatic diabetes insipidus will require antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement therapy and tend to show dehydration. On the other hand, some negative effects of ADH on blood coagulation, such as increased platelet cohesion and the promotion of von Willebrand factor release, have also been reported. However, the incidence of thrombosis during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy is disputed. A case of pulmonary thrombosis associated with ADH replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury is presented here. In our case, there were three factors that may have contributed to the observed thrombosis (dehydration, bed rest for a long period and ADH replacement therapy). We believe that controlling urinary output and monitoring urinary and serum osmotic pressure are necessary for the management for diabetes insipidus patients after traumatic brain injury. In particular, we must carefully monitor the management of such patients during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enteroviral Meningoencephalitis Complicated by Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Garrett; Muriello, Michael; Patel, Aloka; Logan, Latania

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus is a known cause of central nervous system infection in the neonatal population and typically has a benign course; however, neurologic complications have been reported. We describe what we believe to be the first documented case of enteroviral meningoencephalitis complicated by central diabetes insipidus in a neonate.

  3. Usefulness of anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies for diagnosing central diabetes insipidus in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kanako; Yamashita, Rika; Niituma, Satsuki; Iwama, Shintaro; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arihara, Zenei; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-29

    We report a 27-year-old pregnant woman with polyuria, polydipsia and headache in the third trimester of pregnancy. Hypernatremia (153 mEq/L), high plasma osmolality (300 mOsm/kgH2O) and low urinary osmolality (92 mOsm/kgH2O) were observed at the admission to our hospital. Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level was inappropriately low (2.2 pg/mL) compared to the high plasma osmolality. Plasma AVP responses to hypertonic-saline infusion were blunted, and her urine osmolality increased in response to desmopressin. The diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus was made from these results. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hypothalamic-pituitary region demonstrated a significant enlargement of the pituitary stalk, suggesting the presence of hypophysitis. In addition, serum anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies that have been recently reported as a biomarker of lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis, were positive. Diabetes insipidus continued after delivery, suggesting that polyuria was not mainly due to excessive vasopressinase activity or reduced renal sensitivity to AVP by prostaglandin E2 that can cause temporal polyuria during pregnancy. We therefore clinically diagnosed central diabetes insipidus due to lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis, without performing invasive transsphenoidal pituitary biopsy. This case suggested the usefulness of anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies for the etiological diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

  4. The Value Of Renal Biopsy In Diagnosing Infantile Nephropathic Cystinosis Associated With Secondary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emily; Ho, Jacqueline; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Salgado, Cláudia M; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2015-11-18

    Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children. Renal biopsy is usually not necessary to establish the diagnosis, but when the patient presents with atypical signs and symptoms, a renal biopsy may be extremely valuable. We describe here renal biopsy findings in a patient with cystinosis. A 20-month-old male presented with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia and rickets. He initially showed evidence of a renal tubular acidosis, mild renal insufficiency and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. His initial ophthalmologic exam did not demonstrate corneal crystals. His subsequent workup revealed phosphaturia, suggesting a partial proximal tubulopathy. Concomitantly, a renal biopsy revealed prominent podocytes with an immature glomerular appearance and electron microscopy analysis showed numerous intracellular crystals within tubular epithelial cells. Subsequent laboratory and genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of infantile nephropathic cystinosis. This case highlights the variability in the clinical presentation of cystinosis, resulting in an uncommon clinical picture of a rare disease. Given that treatment is available to prolong renal function and minimize the extra-renal manifestations of this disorder, early diagnosis is essential. It is important to raise the index of suspicion of cystinosis by recognizing its subtle morphological changes in young patients, and that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be secondary to this disorder.

  5. [Importance of long-term follow-up of diabetes insipidus; from lymphocytic hypophysitis to germinoma].

    PubMed

    Amat Madramany, A; Gastaldo Simeón, E; Revert Ventura, A; Escobar Hoyos, L A; Riesgo Suárez, P

    2015-01-01

    A case is presented of a 10-year old boy who had a hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorder. He initially presented with diabetes insipidus that progressed to panhypopituitarism. A hidden hypothalamic lesion should be suspected in all these cases, and should be followed up. New lesions were found in the pituitary stem three years later. Although tumor markers were negative, there was an increase in size, and a biopsy was performed. The histopathology reported a Lymphocytic Hypophysitis. There were increases in the tumor markers during the follow-up, thus a second biopsy was performed, with the diagnosis of Germinoma. Lymphocytic Hypophysitis is an uncommon diagnosis in children. Few cases have been reported, and in some cases, they were later diagnosed with Germinoma. We believe this case highlights the importance of the follow-up of children with Central Diabetes Insipidus with a normal MRI, as well as not taking the diagnosis of Lymphocytic Hypophysitis/lymphocytic Infundibular neurohypophysitis as definitive, as it is a rare diagnosis at this age, and could mask a Germinoma, as recorded in some cases.

  6. Adult multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with central diabetes insipidus successfully treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hae Ri; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Juri; Lee, Seong Jin; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jung Han; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-09-01

    We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated.

  7. Altered cerebral glucose metabolism in an animal model of diabetes insipidus: a micro-PET study.

    PubMed

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Burlet, Arlette; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Boisgard, Raphaël; Coulon, Christine; Paris, Sophie; Marie, Yannick; Donadieu, Jean; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao

    2007-07-16

    The Brattleboro rat is an animal model of genetically induced central diabetes insipidus. These rats show cognitive and behavioral disorders, but no neurodegenerative disease has been observed. We studied brain glucose uptake, a marker of neuronal activity, in 6 Brattleboro rats, in comparison with 6 matched Long-Evans (LE) control rats. A group of 3 Brattleboro rats and 3 Long-Evans rats was studied in vivo and another group of animals was studied ex vivo. In vivo studies were performed using fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18 ((18)F-FDG) and a dedicated small-animal PET device. At 30 min and 60 min p.i., (18)F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellum of Brattleboro rats than in LE rats when measured by PET in vivo (p<0.05), but only a trend towards higher values was found ex vivo. Our results show for the first time that brain glucose metabolism is modified in Brattleboro rats. This altered brain glucose metabolism in Brattleboro rats may be related to the observed cognitive and behavioral disorders. Functional analyses of brain metabolism are promising to investigate cognitive behavioral disturbances observed in Brattleboro rats and their link to diabetes insipidus.

  8. An unusual case of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (HNDI) affecting mother and daughter.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dinesh; Hart, Rachel; Jones, Caroline; Ellis, Ian; Ramakrishnan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes iInsipidus (HNDI) is an uncommon disorder due to a resistance to anti-diuretic hormone leading to a reduced urinary concentrating ability. The X-linked form is fully expressed in hemizygous male patients, but diabetes insipidus may also present in heterozygous females where it must be distinguished from autosomal and other secondary causes. We report a mother and daughter in the same family with HNDI due to a heterozygous deletion in exon 1 of the AVPR2 gene, not previously described in the literature. A 5-year-old girl was referred for investigation of polyuria and polydipsia. The patient had a water deprivation test elsewhere at the age of 3 that was inconclusive. A degree of water restriction was imposed leading to headaches. The thyroid, cortisol, renal, and calcium profiles were normal. Her mother showed similar symptoms that had not been previously investigated. AQP2 (Aquaporin) and initial AVPR2 gene sequencing had not identified a mutation, but subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a heterozygous large exon 1 deletion of the AVPR2 gene. The same deletion was also found in the child's mother. The patient's symptoms have significantly improved on appropriate treatment. Further analysis revealed skewed X inactivation in mother and daughter.

  9. Wilms tumor arising in a child with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    El-Kares, Reyhan; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Blumenkrantz, Miriam; Iglesias, Diana; Ma, Kim; Jabado, Nada; Bichet, Daniel G; Goodyer, Paul

    2009-07-01

    We report on a child with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) who developed Wilms tumor (WT). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR2) or aquaporin-II (AQP2) genes. Wilms tumor is also genetically heterogeneous and is associated with mutations of WT1 (15-20%), WTX (20-30%) and other loci. The boy presented at 5 months with failure to thrive, polyuria, hypernatremia and abdominal mass. Analysis of leukocyte DNA showed a novel missense mutation (Q174H) of the AVPR2 gene, which was not present in his mother. In cells (WitS) isolated from the tumor, WTX mRNA expression and coding sequence were intact. However, we identified a 44-kb homozygous deletion of the WT1 gene spanning exons 4 to 10. The WT1 deletion was not present in leukocyte DNA from the patient or his mother. We also noted strong beta-catenin (CTNNB1) expression in the tumor cells and identified a heterozygote missense Ser45Cys mutation of exon 3 of CTNNB1. However, the mutation was absent both in the constitutional DNA of the patient and his mother. The concurrence of WT and NDI has not been previously reported and may be unrelated. Nevertheless, this case nicely illustrates the sequence of events leading to sporadic Wilms tumor.

  10. Evolutionary Influenced Interaction Pattern as Indicator for the Investigation of Natural Variants Causing Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Steffen; Labudde, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The importance of short membrane sequence motifs has been shown in many works and emphasizes the related sequence motif analysis. Together with specific transmembrane helix-helix interactions, the analysis of interacting sequence parts is helpful for understanding the process during membrane protein folding and in retaining the three-dimensional fold. Here we present a simple high-throughput analysis method for deriving mutational information of interacting sequence parts. Applied on aquaporin water channel proteins, our approach supports the analysis of mutational variants within different interacting subsequences and finally the investigation of natural variants which cause diseases like, for example, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In this work we demonstrate a simple method for massive membrane protein data analysis. As shown, the presented in silico analyses provide information about interacting sequence parts which are constrained by protein evolution. We present a simple graphical visualization medium for the representation of evolutionary influenced interaction pattern pairs (EIPPs) adapted to mutagen investigations of aquaporin-2, a protein whose mutants are involved in the rare endocrine disorder known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and membrane proteins in general. Furthermore, we present a new method to derive new evolutionary variations within EIPPs which can be used for further mutagen laboratory investigations.

  11. [Diagnosis and treatment of adipsic diabetes insipidus accompanied with intracranial calcification].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-ming; Liu, Min; Liu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    To summarize our experience in the management of adipsic central diabetes insipidus(ADI) accompanied with intracranial calcification. The clinical data of one ADI patient accompanied with intracranial calcification who was treated in our hospital since December 2011 were retrospectively summarized. The 24-hour urine volume was 800 ml. She didn't feel thirsty even with increased plasma sodium concentration(153 mmol/L) and blood osmotic pressure(333 mmol/L) . Combined water deprivation and vasopressin test revealed the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. The high intensity signal(on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging) in the posterior lobe of pituitary gland was found. Computed tomography showed calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia.Serum cytomegalovirus IgG was positive. She was treated with desmopressin and asked for regular water intake regardless of the adipsia. The plasma sodium concentration was still below 150 mmol/L during the 4-month follow-up. Routine adipsia evaluation and combined water deprivation and vasopressin test are critical for the diagnosis and treatment of ADI. Past insidious intracranial cytomegalovirus infection may explain the cause of ADI and calcification.

  12. Cutting edge: neuronal recognition by CD8 T cells elicits central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Scheikl, Tanja; Pignolet, Béatrice; Dalard, Cécile; Desbois, Sabine; Raison, Danièle; Yamazaki, Masanori; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Bauer, Jan; Lassmann, Hans; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Liblau, Roland S

    2012-05-15

    An increasing number of neurologic diseases is associated with autoimmunity. The immune effectors contributing to the pathogenesis of such diseases are often unclear. To explore whether self-reactive CD8 T cells could attack CNS neurons in vivo, we generated a mouse model in which the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is expressed specifically in CNS neurons. Transfer of cytotoxic anti-HA CD8 T cells induced an acute but reversible encephalomyelitis in HA-expressing recipient mice. Unexpectedly, diabetes insipidus developed in surviving animals. This robust phenotype was associated with preferential accumulation of cytotoxic CD8 T cells in the hypothalamus, upregulation of MHC class I molecules, and destruction of vasopressin-expressing neurons. IFN-γ production by the pathogenic CD8 T cells was necessary for MHC class I upregulation by hypothalamic neurons and their destruction. This novel mouse model, in combination with related human data, supports the concept that autoreactive CD8 T cells can trigger central diabetes insipidus.

  13. X-Linked Recessive form of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Janchevska, A; Tasic, V; Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Cheong, H I

    2014-12-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by the inability of renal collecting duct cells to respond to arginine vasopressin (AVP)/antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of excretion of large amounts of dilute urine and polydipsia since infancy. The boy had several vomiting episodes with mild dehydration during the first 3 years of life. There was no evidence of headaches, dizziness or visual problems. He drinks between 2 and 3 L/day and has 24-hour diuresis of 2 liters, now. He has prepubertal appearance with appropriate weight [+0.85 standard deviation score (SDS)] and height (+0.15 SDS) for his age. His intelligence was also normal. The water deprivation test showed low urine osmolality after 8 hours of dehydration. After desmopressin administration, urine osmolality remained low. Serum osmolality was in the normal range for sex and age before and after desmopressin administration. This indicated a nephrogenic form of diabetes insipidus. Molecular analyses revealed a P286L [p.Pro(CCC)286Leu(CTC)] mutation in the AVPR2 gene, that was inherited from his mother. This patient is the first case with genetically confirmed X-linked inherited form of NDI in the Republic of Macedonia. Molecular analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and enabled genetic advice for this family.

  14. Amiloride blocks lithium entry through the sodium channel thereby attenuating the resultant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Li, Yuedan; Shaw, Stephen; Gaeggeler, Hans-Peter; Rossier, Bernard C; Wetzels, Jack F M; Deen, Peter M T

    2009-07-01

    Lithium therapy frequently induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; amiloride appears to prevent its occurrence in some clinical cases. Amiloride blocks the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) located in the apical membrane of principal cells; hence one possibility is that ENaC is the main entry site for lithium and the beneficial effect of amiloride may be through inhibiting lithium entry. Using a mouse collecting duct cell line, we found that vasopressin caused an increase in Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression which was reduced by clinically relevant lithium concentrations similar to what is seen with in vivo models of this disease. Further amiloride or benzamil administration prevented this lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2. Amiloride reduced transcellular lithium transport, intracellular lithium concentration, and lithium-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Treatment of rats with lithium downregulated AQP2 expression, reduced the principal-to-intercalated cell ratio, and caused polyuria, while simultaneous administration of amiloride attenuated all these changes. These results show that ENaC is the major entry site for lithium in principal cells both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking lithium entry with amiloride attenuates lithium-induced diabetes insipidus, thus providing a rationale for its use in treating this disorder.

  15. Hypernatraemia due to a reset osmostat for vasopressin release and thirst, complicated by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C. J.; Freeman, J.; Record, C. O.; Baylis, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a patient with chronic hypernatraemia (plasma sodium 148-155 mmol/l) and partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus who had received prolonged lithium treatment. Despite stopping the drug for one year the abnormalities remained. Infusion of hypertonic saline (NaCl 855 mmol/l) allowed the characterization of osmoregulation of thirst and vasopressin secretion. Linear regression analysis of plasma vasopressin and osmolality defined the function, pAVP = 0.27 (pOsm - 301), and analysis of thirst measured by a visual analogue scale and plasma osmolality, the function, thirst = 0.16 (pOsm - 302) where pAVP and pOsm represent plasma arginine vasopressin and osmolality respectively. The slopes of the regression lines which describe the sensitivity of the osmoreceptors were within the normal range, but both abscissal intercepts, which define the thresholds for vasopressin release and thirst, were markedly elevated in comparison to normal (upper limit less than 290 mOsm/kg). Other investigations of electrolytes, anterior pituitary function and high definition computed tomographic scanning of hypothalamo-pituitary region were all normal. We conclude that this patient's chronic hypernatraemia was due to resetting of the osmostats for both vasopressin release and thirst, a rarely described mechanism to account for hypernatraemia. Although it is probable that the partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was related to prolonged lithium therapy, the cause of the reset osmostats remains unclear. PMID:3451225

  16. Evolutionary Influenced Interaction Pattern as Indicator for the Investigation of Natural Variants Causing Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Labudde, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The importance of short membrane sequence motifs has been shown in many works and emphasizes the related sequence motif analysis. Together with specific transmembrane helix-helix interactions, the analysis of interacting sequence parts is helpful for understanding the process during membrane protein folding and in retaining the three-dimensional fold. Here we present a simple high-throughput analysis method for deriving mutational information of interacting sequence parts. Applied on aquaporin water channel proteins, our approach supports the analysis of mutational variants within different interacting subsequences and finally the investigation of natural variants which cause diseases like, for example, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In this work we demonstrate a simple method for massive membrane protein data analysis. As shown, the presented in silico analyses provide information about interacting sequence parts which are constrained by protein evolution. We present a simple graphical visualization medium for the representation of evolutionary influenced interaction pattern pairs (EIPPs) adapted to mutagen investigations of aquaporin-2, a protein whose mutants are involved in the rare endocrine disorder known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and membrane proteins in general. Furthermore, we present a new method to derive new evolutionary variations within EIPPs which can be used for further mutagen laboratory investigations. PMID:26180540

  17. Diabetic Neuropathy and Axon Reflex-Mediated Neurogenic Vasodilatation in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Vera; Orszag, Andrej; Ng, Eduardo; Nwe, Patti; Perkins, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Axon reflex-mediated neurogenic vasodilatation in response to cutaneous heating may reflect early, pre-clinical small fibre dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of the vascular flare area measured by laser doppler imaging (“LDIFLARE area”) in type 1 diabetes and in healthy volunteers. Research and Methods Concurrent with clinical and electrophysiological examination to classify diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP), LDIFLARE area (cm2) was determined in 89 type 1 diabetes subjects matched to 64 healthy volunteers. We examined the association and diagnostic performance of LDI with clinical and subclinical measures of DSP and its severity. Results Compared to the 64 healthy volunteers, the 56 diabetes controls without DSP had significantly lower LDIFLARE area (p = 0.006). The 33 diabetes cases with DSP had substantially lower LDIFLARE area as compared to controls without DSP (p = 0.002). There was considerable overlap in LDIFLARE area between all groups such that the ROC curve had an AUC of 0.72 and optimal sensitivity of 70% for the detection of clinical DSP. Use of a subclinical definition for DSP, according to subclinical sural nerve impairment, was associated with improved AUC of 0.75 and sensitivity of 79%. In multivariate analysis higher HbA1c and body mass index had independent associations with smaller LDIFLARE area. Conclusions Axon reflex-mediated neurogenic vasodilatation in response to cutaneous heating is a biomarker of early nerve dysfunction in DSP. Its independent association with glycemic exposure in diabetes subjects and both glycemic exposure and BMI in healthy volunteers highlights the existence of small-fibre dysfunction in the natural history of DSP. PMID:22529938

  18. Microvascular diabetes complications in Wolfram syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness [DIDMOAD]): an age- and duration-matched comparison with common type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cano, Aline; Molines, Laurent; Valéro, René; Simonin, Gilbert; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique; Vialettes, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Some previous studies suggested that patients suffering from Wolfram syndrome or DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness) might be relatively preserved from diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. However, these data were not conclusive because either observations were only anecdotic or did not match with control type 1 diabetic populations. A group of 26 French diabetic patients with DIDMOAD was compared with a population of 52 patients with common type 1 diabetes matched for age at diabetes diagnosis (8.62 +/- 1.84 vs. 8.27 +/- 1.30 years; P = NS) and diabetes duration (12.88 +/- 1.58 vs. 12.87 +/- 1.13 years; P = NS) to study the quality of glycemic control and the incidence of microvascular complications. Glycemic control was significantly better in the DIDMOAD group than in the type 1 diabetic group (A1C: 7.72 +/- 0.21 vs. 8.99 +/- 0.25%, respectively; P = 0.002), with significant lower daily insulin requirements (0.71 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.04 UI x kg(-1) x day(-1), respectively; P = 0.0325). The prevalence of microvascular complications in the DIDMOAD group was half that observed in the type 1 diabetic group, but the difference was not significant. Diabetes in DIDMOAD patients is more easily controlled despite the presence of other handicaps. This better glycemic control could explain the trend to decreased microvascular diabetes complications observed in previous studies.

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with thyrotoxicosis, renal tubular acidosis and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun Joo; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chang, Sang Ah; Moon, Sung Dae; Ahn, Yu Bae; Son, Hyun Shik; Cha, Bong Yun; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old girl presented at our emergency room with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. She had a thyrotoxic goiter and had experienced three paralytic attacks during the previous 2 years on occasions when she stopped taking antithyroid drugs. In addition to thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), she had metabolic acidosis, urinary potassium loss, polyuria and polydipsia. Her reduced ability to acidify urine during spontaneous metabolic acidosis was confirmed by detection of coexisting distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). The polyuria and polydipsia were caused by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which was diagnosed using the water deprivation test and vasopressin administration. Her recurrent and frequent paralytic attacks may have been the combined effects of thyrotoxicosis and RTA. Although the paralytic attack did not recur after improving the thyroid function, mild acidosis and nephrogenic DI have been remained subsequently. Patients with TPP, especially females with atypical metabolic features, should be investigated for possible precipitating factors.

  20. Iatrogenic water intoxication during pelvic ultrasonography in a patient with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Derinöz, Okşan; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Kalkan, Gökhan; Camurdan, Orhun

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic ultrasonography (US) is a simple and non-invasive radiologic test to evaluate the pelvic organs. It requires a full bladder for better visualization. Our case is a 14-year-old female with diabetes insipidus (DI) who admitted to the pediatric emergency service with the complaints of seizure and agitation after drinking 4 liters of water in one hour for a pelvic US examination due to work-up for delayed puberty. Her biochemical and clinical evaluation revealed water intoxication (WI). To our knowledge, this is the first WI case developed in a patient with DI. Here, we discuss the underlying factors leading to this complication and recommended an approach to obtain a better sonographic image without necessitating oral water intake to fill the urinary bladder.

  1. [Analysis of AVPR2 gene mutation in a pedigree affected with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhijuan; Ruan, Luya; Jin, Jian; Qian, Yanying; Wang, Liang; Shi, Zhen; Wu, Chaoming

    2016-10-01

    To detect potential mutation in a pedigree affected with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Clinical data of a male patient affected with NDI was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and five family members. The whole coding region of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. The patient presented polyuria and polydipsia postnatally. Computerized tomography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The patient was responsive to hydrochlorothiazide but not to desmopressin. DNA analysis identified a hemizygous missence mutation c.295 T>C in exon 2 of the AVPR2 gene in the proband. His mother and grandmother were both heterozygous for the same mutation. The congenital NDI in the patient was probably due to mutation of the AVPR2 gene.

  2. Opioid-induced hyponatremia in a patient with central diabetes insipidus: independence from ADH.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Nandini; Balliu, Erjola; Osipoff, Jennifer; Lane, Andrew; Wilson, Thomas

    2017-05-24

    Hyponatremia can be a complication of opioid therapy, which has been postulated to occur secondary to inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion [SIADH]). We report severe hyponatremia following wisdom teeth extraction with opioid analgesia in a 19-year-old female with diabetes insipidus (DI) and acquired panhypopituitarism that challenges this theory. As this patient has DI, we believe opioid treatment caused severe hyponatremia by the following mechanisms: (1) Opioids have a direct antidiuretic effect independent of changes in ADH, as demonstrated in Brattleboro rats with central DI. (2) Hydrocodone may have stimulated this patient's thirst center contributing to hyponatremia, as demonstrated in animal studies. Opioid use can cause hyponatremia in patients independent of ADH. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this so that patients can be appropriately counseled.

  3. Hyperactivation of Nrf2 in early tubular development induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Seki, Shiori; Hiramoto, Keiichiro; Naganuma, Eriko; Kobayashi, Eri H.; Yamaoka, Ayaka; Baird, Liam; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates cellular responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Loss of Keap1 increases Nrf2 protein levels, and Keap1-null mice die of oesophageal hyperkeratosis because of Nrf2 hyperactivation. Here we show that deletion of oesophageal Nrf2 in Keap1-null mice allows survival until adulthood, but the animals develop polyuria with low osmolality and bilateral hydronephrosis. This phenotype is caused by defects in water reabsorption that are the result of reduced aquaporin 2 levels in the kidney. Renal tubular deletion of Keap1 promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus features, confirming that Nrf2 activation in developing tubular cells causes a water reabsorption defect. These findings suggest that Nrf2 activity should be tightly controlled during development in order to maintain renal homeostasis. In addition, tissue-specific ablation of Nrf2 in Keap1-null mice might create useful animal models to uncover novel physiological functions of Nrf2. PMID:28233855

  4. Adipsic diabetes insipidus and venous thromboembolism (VTE): recommendations for addressing its hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Miljic, Dragana; Miljic, Predrag; Doknic, Mirjana; Pekic, Sandra; Stojanovic, Marko; Petakov, Milan; Popovic, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a rare disorder. It can occur after transcranial surgery for craniopharyngeoma, suprasellar pituitary adenoma and anterior communicating artery aneurysm but also with head injury, toluene exposure and developmental disorders. It is often associated with significant hypothalamic dysfunction and complications like obesity, sleep apnea, thermoregulatory disorders, seizures and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Morbidity and mortality data have been reported as single case reports with only one large series suggesting increased risk for VTE in patients with ADI. Here we report a mini-series of four patients with ADI and VTE. Post-surgery immobilization, obesity, infection, with prolonged hospitalization, hemoconcentration and changes in coagulation which might be induced by inadequate hormone treatment in the postoperative period (high doses of glucocorticoids, sex steroids and DDAVP replacement) may all contribute to the pathogenesis of VTE. Thromboprophylactic treatment after pituitary surgery and during episodes of hypernatremia is therefore warranted.

  5. Hyperactivation of Nrf2 in early tubular development induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Seki, Shiori; Hiramoto, Keiichiro; Naganuma, Eriko; Kobayashi, Eri H; Yamaoka, Ayaka; Baird, Liam; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-02-24

    NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates cellular responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Loss of Keap1 increases Nrf2 protein levels, and Keap1-null mice die of oesophageal hyperkeratosis because of Nrf2 hyperactivation. Here we show that deletion of oesophageal Nrf2 in Keap1-null mice allows survival until adulthood, but the animals develop polyuria with low osmolality and bilateral hydronephrosis. This phenotype is caused by defects in water reabsorption that are the result of reduced aquaporin 2 levels in the kidney. Renal tubular deletion of Keap1 promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus features, confirming that Nrf2 activation in developing tubular cells causes a water reabsorption defect. These findings suggest that Nrf2 activity should be tightly controlled during development in order to maintain renal homeostasis. In addition, tissue-specific ablation of Nrf2 in Keap1-null mice might create useful animal models to uncover novel physiological functions of Nrf2.

  6. Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 and diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Samborek, Malgorzata

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are rarely diagnosed conditions characterized by the association of at least 2 organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Very few cases of these syndromes have been described during pregnancy. The authors report a case of a patient diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and a history of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome in a prior pregnancy. After increasing the levothyroxine dose, she developed Addisonian crisis. Normalization of adrenal cortex function resulted in the appearance of diabetes insipidus. This report shows that pregnancy may influence the course of preexisting endocrine disorders and lead to their unmasking. Although the risk of the development of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes during pregnancy is small, they may pose a serious health problem. The possible presence of these clinical entities should be considered in every woman with 1 or more endocrine disturbances.

  7. Familial ADH-responsive diabetes insipidus: response to thiazides and chlorpropamide

    PubMed Central

    Driedger, A. A.; Linton, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty cases of familial ADH-responsive diabetes insipidus were identified within five generations, and eight patients were studied by one of two established dehydration protocols. In each case there was partial to total failure of response to the initial administration of ADH which was slowly corrected by continued administration. This initial failure can lead to misinterpretation of the dehydration test unless the medullary solute washout effect is taken into account in chronically polyuric patients. Treatment consisted of thiazides and/or chlorpropamide. All cases responded well. The response to chlorpropamide suggests that the failure of ADH production is not complete in these patients, and that the major defect is a failure of ADH release in response to normal stimuli. Chlorpropamide may act by either facilitating ADH release or by synergistically interacting with available ADH at the tubular level. PMID:4742488

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia, the 3q21q26 syndrome and diabetes insipidus: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Curley, Cameron; Kennedy, Glen; Haughton, Anne; Love, Amanda; McCarthy, Catherine; Boyd, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare presenting complication of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Typically, the combination of DI and AML is associated with structural abnormalities of the neurohypophysis. We present a case of AML and DI presenting without any abnormalities of the neurohypophysis on radiological scanning and with normal cerebrospinal fluid examination. The AML karyotype at presentation was characterized by the presence of a t(3; 3)(q21; q26) translocation and monosomy 7. After treatment with induction chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission and his DI resolved. At subsequent AML relapse, characterized by a complex karyotype without the t(3; 3)(q21; q26) translocation or monosomy 7, DI did not recur. Our case provides clinical support to the hypothesis that the t(3; 3)(q21; q26) translocation and/or monosomy 7 in AML may directly result in dysregulation of transcription factors resulting in development of DI in AML patients.

  9. Growth hormone deficiency and diabetes insipidus as a complication of endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Kimberly S; Wilson, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has become the procedure of choice for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in children and adults. Endocrinological complications of ETV in children are rare. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most common and accounts for only 0.5% of complications from ETV. The majority of documented cases are transient. To date, there are no documented cases of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. We present here a 6-year-old girl with growth hormone deficiency and permanent DI which developed as a complication of ETV. This patient is unique in both demonstrating multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies and the classical triphasic response of DI after ETV. We postulate that these complications were caused by compression of the pituitary stalk and hypothalamic injury during the procedure. We compare our case presentation to experimental studies conducted in rats.

  10. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with intracranial calcification in a child with thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Dimple, Jain; Alka, Jadhav; Mona, Gajre; Atul, Deshmukh

    2013-09-01

    There are numerous causes for intracranial calcification in children. We describe an unusual cause of intracranial calcification in a child, namely, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). A 12-year-old boy presented with seizures and developmental delay. MRI of the brain revealed intracranial calcification. Evaluation showed findings suggestive of NDI. The lack of evidence of any other metabolic defect suggests that these calcifications were secondary to NDI. He also had anemia for which he was investigated and diagnosed as thalassemia minor. Detailed literature review failed to reveal any reported association between NDI and thalassemia minor. We report this case to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of NDI to prevent organic brain damage.

  11. Holoprosencephaly and diabetes insipidus in a 3-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Maria; Pavlou, Evaggelos; Rousso, Israel; Economou, Ippolyti; Athanassiadou, Fani

    2008-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly is a developmental defect caused by incomplete cleavage of the embryonic forebrain structures during early embryogenesis. We describe a 3-month-old boy with median cleft palate, surgically reconstructed cleft lip, hypotelorism with a flat nose, cryptorchidism, clubfoot, and microcephaly. During the laboratory investigation, his blood sodium level was 154 mmol/L and urine specific gravity was 1.007. Serum osmolarity was 317 mOsm/kg and urine osmolarity was 268 mOsm/kg. Given these findings and the clinical response to vasopressin, diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus was made. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed semilobar holoprosencephaly. The patient responded very well to vasopressin treatment with restoration of serum electrolytes, which remained within normal limits on follow-up. In case of midline facial defects accompanied by hypotelorism with or without developmental delay, the brain should be imaged to confirm its morphology and investigations should be directed by a high index of suspicion of associated endocrinologic dysfunctions.

  12. Dysregulation of renal aquaporins and epithelial sodium channel in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jakob; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren

    2008-05-01

    Lithium is used commonly to treat bipolar mood disorders. In addition to its primary therapeutic effects in the central nervous system lithium has a number of side effects in the kidney. The side effects include nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with polyuria, mild sodium wasting, and changes in acid/base balance. These functional changes are associated with marked structural changes in collecting duct cell composition and morphology, likely contributing to the functional changes. Over the past few years, investigations of lithium-induced renal changes have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the disturbances in water, sodium, and acid/base metabolism. This includes dysregulation of renal aquaporins, epithelial sodium channel, and acid/base transporters. This review focuses on these issues with the aim to present this in context with clinically relevant features.

  13. A case of transient central diabetes insipidus after aorto-coronary bypass operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Hoon; Cho, Jang-Hee; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Lim, Jeong-Hoon; Jin, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Owen; Hong, Kyung-Deuk; Choi, Ji-Young; Yoon, Se-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Gun-Jik; Park, Sun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by excessive urination and thirst. This disease results from inadequate output of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland or the absence of the normal response to ADH in the kidney. We present a case of transient central DI in a patient who underwent a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A 44-yr-old male underwent a CABG operation. An hour after the operation, the patient developed polyuria and was diagnosed with central DI. The patient responded to desmopressin and completely recovered five days after surgery. It is probable that transient cerebral ischemia resulted in the dysfunction of osmotic receptors in the hypothalamus or hypothalamus-pituitary axis during CPB. It is also possible that cardiac standstill altered the left atrial non-osmotic receptor function and suppressed ADH release. Therefore, we suggest that central DI is a possible cause of polyuria after CPB.

  14. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented with Bilateral Hydronephrosis: Genetic Analysis of V2R Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Song, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kim, Joo Seong; Choi, Hoon Young

    2006-01-01

    Most cases of hydronephrosis are caused by urinary tract obstruction. However, excessive polyuric syndrome rarely gives rise to non-obstructive hydronephrosis, megaureter, and a distended bladder. The authors report here on two cases of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) with severe bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureter. It is Interesting that the patients were symptomless except for their polyuria, and they both presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Fluid deprivation testing revealed the presence of AVP resistant NDI. Gene analysis for these patients showed the AVP receptor 2 (V2R) missense mutations (Q225X and S126F), which have previously been reported on in other studies. We made the diagnosis of NDI by using a physiologic test, and we confirmed it by mutation analysis of the V2R gene. PMID:16502494

  15. A Case of Turner Syndrome with Concomitant Transient Hypogammaglobulinaemia of Infancy and Central Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl; Özkan, Behzat; Hazan, Filiz; Büyükinan, Muammer; Çelik, Tanju

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder that affects development in females and is characterized by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, or monosomy X. TS is associated with abnormalities in lymphatic and skeletal development, in growth, and in gonadal function. Cardiac and renal malformations and a number of specific cognitive findings may also be encountered in these patients. An increased risk for hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, hypertension, and other problems has also been reported. We present the case of a patient with TS accompanied by transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and central diabetes insipidus, which we believe is the first reported TS patient with these concomitant disorders. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419422

  16. Heterogenous patterns of recovery of thirst in adult patients with adipsic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, M; Gupta, S; Salehmohamed, R; Dineen, R; Hannon, M J; Tormey, W; Thompson, C J

    2016-05-01

    The natural history of adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is not well described, and reports of recovery of thirst are rare. Case histories presentation. ADI was identified by demonstrating absent thirst and arginine vasopressin (AVP) responses to hypertonic saline infusion. Twelve patients with ADI were identified (craniopharyngioma 5, anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACOM) repair 4, congenital 1, neurosarcoidosis 1, prolactinoma 1). Three patients died. Six patients had permanent ADI. Three patients had recovery of thirst, with a heterogenous pattern of recovery. In the first case, ADI had developed after clipping of an ACOM aneurysm. Ten years after surgery; he sensed the return of thirst; repeated hypertonic saline infusion showed recovery of thirst and AVP secretion. In the second case, a 41-year-old female with an intrasellar craniopharyngioma developed post-operative ADI with persistent hypernatremia. Two years post-operatively, she complained of thirst, and hypertonic saline infusion showed normalization of thirst but absent AVP responses, confirming recovery of thirst, but with persistent diabetes insipidus (DI). In the third case, a 29-year-old Caucasian had craniotomy and radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma and developed ADI post-operatively. Eight years post-op, she presented with thirst, seizures and pNa of 112 mmol/l. Hypertonic saline infusion showed persistent DI but thirst responses typical of compulsive water drinking; she has had recurrent hyponatraemia since then. We report that 3/12 patients with ADI recovered thirst after longstanding adipsia with heterogenous pattern of recovery. Both the mortality of 25% and the recovery rate of 25% should be considered when planning long-term surveillance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Objective assessment of thirst recovery in patients with adipsic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Ball, S; Jenkins, A; Hale, J; Cheetham, T

    2011-12-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is characterised by impaired thirst and defective AVP secretion. We have assessed the thirst response to graded osmotic stimulation using a visual analog scale (VAS) in patients with a history of ADI following surgery for a craniopharyngioma. The patients were thought to be regaining their thirst response but we wanted to confirm that this was the case objectively before relaxing their strict fluid balance regimen. Three patients with adipisa in the presence of hypernatremia following surgery for a craniopharyngioma are described. Their median age at surgery was 13 years (range 11-15 years). All patients had previously demonstrated no desire to drink despite a serum osmolality in excess of 300 mOsmol/kg. Fluid balance was maintained postoperatively with a regimen involving a fixed daily fluid intake and DDAVP dose together with daily weights and regular assessment of capillary sodium concentrations. Patients were thought to be regaining thirst sensation and so were assessed by hypertonic saline infusion (HSI) with thirst measured using a VAS. Patients underwent a HSI test 4, 6 and 9 months post surgery. All had abnormally low AVP production at raised plasma osmolalities but the visual analogue scale confirmed partial or complete thirst recovery. The intensive regimen used to maintain stable serum sodium concentrations was relaxed without the patients subsequently developing a significant hyperosmolar state. We have shown objective recovery of thirst perception in patients with adipsia within 9 months of surgery, despite persistence of cranial diabetes insipidus. These observations indicate that both osmoreceptors regulating thirst and their efferent pathways demonstrate more plasticity than those regulating AVP production. The HSI and thirst VAS are an objective way of assessing patients known to have ADI who are thought to be recovering thirst perception.

  18. Desmopressin administration in children with central diabetes insipidus: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Hooi Leng; Maguire, Ann M; Ambler, Geoffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder in children caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone arginine (vasopressin). Desmopressin is the first line agent in management of central DI. However, one of the side effects of desmopressin is water intoxication and hyponatraemia. This study reviews the patterns of desmopressin use and side effects in our institution. Retrospective chart review of all patients with central DI followed up in one tertiary centre between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. Forty-one patients (22 males and 19 females) were included. Twelve patients (29.3%) had congenital and 29 patients (70.7%) had acquired DI, mostly as a result of intracranial tumours. Thirty-six (87.8%) patients were on oral desmopressin and the remaining on nasal formulation. The median oral dose was 9.5 (4.2-17.0) μg/kg/day with median frequency of 2.5 (2-3). The median nasal dose was 0.7 (0.4-1.4) μg/kg/day with median frequency of 2.0 (2-3.5). Fourteen patients (34.1%) were switched from nasal to oral desmopressin with the median dose conversion factor of 20.1 (10.7-31.8). Forty percent of patients on nasal desmopressin experienced hypo/hypernatraemia compared to 18.1% on oral, however, there were no significance difference between standardized hypo/hypernatraemia episodes per treatment year. Oral desmopressin is used in the majority of our patients including infants and toddlers. There is wide inter-individual variation in dose requirement and dosing intervals. Management of central diabetes insipidus remains a challenge in adipsic patients and in young children during intercurrent illness regardless of the desmopressin formulation.

  19. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation causing diagnostic misinterpretation in congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Mia; Corydon, Thomas J; Rittig, Søren; Christensen, Jane H; Hertz, Jens Michael; Jendle, Johan

    2010-11-01

    To establish the clinical phenotype and genetic background in a family with diabetes insipidus. The subjects were a sister and brother, aged 34 and 27 years, respectively, with a history of polyuria since infancy. Clinical testing confirmed a diagnosis of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in both. Samples of purified genomic DNA were analysed. The sequence of the entire coding region of the AQP2 gene as well as the AVPR2 gene was determined. Sequence analysis revealed no variations in the AQP2 gene. A missense variation in exon 2 of the AVPR2 gene (g.685G>A), predicting a p.Asp85Asn substitution, was identified in the X-chromosome of the affected male and one allele in the sister and the asymptomatic mother. The p.Asp85Asn variation in AVPR2 is known to cause CNDI, and has previously been described as inducing a partial phenotype treatable with dDAVP. However, in this family dDAVP had no influence on urine osmolality, whereas combination therapy with indomethacin and hydrochlorothiazide increased urine osmolality to 299 mosm/l in the proband. A skewed X-inactivation pattern (93%) occurring in the normal X allele was recognized in the sister. This study demonstrates the effect of skewed X-chromosome inactivation associated with X-linked CNDI. Polydipsia in early childhood could be due to X-linked CNDI despite affecting both genders. The significant heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype in CNDI carries a risk of diagnostic misinterpretation and emphasizes the need for genetic characterization. Treatment combining indomethacin and hydrochlorothiazide results in a marked response on both urine output and urine osmolality.

  20. 3T renal (23)Na-MRI: effects of desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Haneder, Stefan; Michaely, Henrik J; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R; Morelli, John N; Krämer, Bernhard K; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Lammert, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess physiologic changes in the renal corticomedullary (23)Na-concentration ([(23)Na]) gradient with (23)Na-MRI at 3.0T in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) before and after intranasal administration of 20 μg desmopressin (DDAVP). Four patients with CDI (all male, mean age 60.2 years) were included in this IRB-approved study. For (23)Na-imaging, a 3D density adapted, radial GRE-sequence (TE = 0.55 ms; TR = 120 ms; projections = 8,000; spatial resolution = 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3)) was used in combination with a dedicated (23)Na-coil and reference phantoms. The corticomedullary [(23)Na] gradient (in mmol/L/mm) was calculated pixel-by-pixel along a linear region-of-interest (ROI) spanning from the renal cortex in the direction of the medulla. Mean ± SDs of [(23)Na] were calculated for each patient as well as for the entire group. Mean [(23)Na] increased along the corticomedullary gradient from the cortex (pre-DDAVP 38.0 ± 6.3 mmol/L vs. post-DDAVP 30.7 ± 3.5 mmol/L) to the medulla (pre-DDAVP 71.6 ± 14.8 mmol/L vs. post-DDAVP 59.7 ± 10.8 mmol/L). The overall mean decrease of [(23)Na] after DDAVP administration was 17.1 ± 1.1 %. (23)Na-MRI with state-of-the-art techniques at 3T depicts the physiologic renal response to the administration of desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

  1. Dengue fever with diffuse cerebral hemorrhages, subdural hematoma and cranial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nayomi Shermila; Thalagala, Eranga; Wattegama, Milanka; Thirumavalavan, Kanapathipillai

    2016-05-10

    Neurological manifestations in dengue fever occur in <1 % of the patients and known to be due to multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leakage. Occurrence of wide spread cerebral haemorrhages with subdural hematoma during the leakage phase without profound thrombocytopenia and occurrence of cranial diabetes insipidus are extremely rare and had not been reported in published literature earlier, thus we report the first case. A 24 year old previously healthy lady was admitted on third day of fever with thrombocytopenia. Critical phase started on fifth day with evidence of pleural effusion and moderate ascites. Thirty one hours into critical phase she developed headache, altered level of consciousness, limb rigidity and respiratory depression without definite seizures. Non-contrast CT brain done at tertiary care level revealed diffuse intracranial haemorrhages and sub arachnoid haemorrhages in right frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and brainstem, cerebral oedema with an acute subdural hematoma in right temporo- parietal region. Her platelet count was 40,000 at this time with signs of vascular leakage. She was intubated and ventilated with supportive care. Later on she developed features of cranial diabetes insipidus and it responded to intranasal desmopressin therapy. In spite of above measures signs of brainstem herniation developed and she succumbed to the illness on day 8. Dengue was confirmed serologically. Exact pathophysiological mechanism of diffuse cerebral haemorrhages without profound thrombocytopenia is not well understood. Increased awareness and high degree of clinical suspicion is needed among clinicians for timely diagnosis of this extremely rare complication of dengue fever. We postulate that immunological mechanisms may play a role in pathogenesis. However further comprehensive research and studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this complication.

  2. Identification, characterization and rescue of a novel vasopressin-2 receptor mutation causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Ranadive, Sayali A; Ersoy, Baran; Favre, Helene; Cheung, Clement C; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Miller, Walter L; Vaisse, Christian

    2009-09-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI), caused by mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), is clinically distinguished from central diabetes insipidus (CDI) by elevated serum vasopressin (AVP) levels and unresponsiveness to 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). We report two infants with XNDI, and present the characterization and functional rescue of a novel V2R mutation. Two male infants presented with poor growth and hypernatraemia. Both patients had measurable pretreatment serum AVP and polyuria that did not respond to DDAVP, suggesting NDI. However, both also had absent posterior pituitary bright spot on MRI, which is a finding more typical of CDI. The AVPR2 gene encoding V2R was sequenced. The identified novel missense mutation was re-created by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in HEK293 cells. V2R activity was assessed by the ability of transfected cells to produce cAMP in response to stimulation with DDAVP. Membrane localization of V2R was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Patient 1 had a deletion of AVPR2; patient 2 had the novel mutation L57R. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, DDAVP induced detectable but severely impaired L57R V2R activity compared to cells expressing wild-type V2R. Fluorescence microscopy showed that myc-tagged wild-type V2R localized to the cell membrane while L57R V2R remained intracellular. A nonpeptide V2R chaperone, SR121463, partially rescued L57R V2R function by allowing it to reach the cell membrane. L57R V2R has impaired in vitro activity that can be partially improved by treatment with a V2R chaperone. The posterior pituitary hyperintensity may be absent in infants with XNDI.

  3. Diabetes Insipidus: An Unusual Presentation of Adenocarcinoma of the Lung in a Patient with no Identifiable Lung Mass.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Shuchi; Kiefer, Christoper; Karim, Nagla Abdel

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancers are known to metastasize to unusual sites. Despite this knowledge often times the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer gets delayed especially when the patient presents without respiratory symptoms. The patient discussed in our review is a 47-year-old female, smoker who had presented to several hospitals with months of headache, nausea and intermittent episodes of vomiting. She was noted to have hypernatremia due to diabetes insipidus and a pituitary lesion on her magnetic resonance images. The pituitary mass on biopsy was found to represent a metastatic focus from a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Clinicians should be aware of malignancies that are well known to metastasize to the posterior pituitary. Conversely, since not every patient presents with symptoms of metastasis, there is a need to recognize the clinical syndromes (e. g., diabetes insipidus-like symptoms or more subtle symptoms like cranial nerve palsies) associated with potential metastasis to the pituitary.

  4. Transient gestational diabetes insipidus diagnosed in successive pregnancies: review of pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of delivery.

    PubMed

    Kalelioglu, Ibrahim; Kubat Uzum, Ayse; Yildirim, Alkan; Ozkan, Tulay; Gungor, Funda; Has, Recep

    2007-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) is a rare disorder characterised by polyuria, polydypsia, and excessive thirst usually manifesting in the third trimester of pregnancy. The etiology is thought to depend on excessive vasopressinase activity, a placental enzyme that degrades arginine-vasopressin (AVP), but not 1-deamino-8-D: -arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), which is a synthetic form. This is a transient syndrome and may be associated with acute fatty liver of pregnancy and preeclampsia. The use of dDAVP in symptomatic cases has been proven as a safe method for both the mother and the fetus during the pregnancy. We report a case of recurrent gestational diabetes insipidus in successive pregnancies, which responded to dDAVP and subsided after delivery.

  5. Lymphocytic hypophysitis causing hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, and associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, in a non-pregnant woman.

    PubMed Central

    Paja, M.; Estrada, J.; Ojeda, A.; Ramón y Cajal, S.; García-Uría, J.; Lucas, T.

    1994-01-01

    A 25 year old non-pregnant woman presented with a one-year history of amenorrhoea and polyuria. Three months before her admission, she had suffered lymphocytic meningitis. Hormonal studies revealed hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus, with associated primary autoimmune hypothyroidism. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary mass with suprasellar extension and thickened stalk. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and the histological study revealed fibrosis and diffuse lymphocytic infiltration with predominance of CD4 lymphocytes. This further case of lymphocytic hypophysitis was not related to pregnancy and produced diabetes insipidus, two uncommon associations. We discuss the features that can lead to a preoperative suspicion of this rare disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7910396

  6. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs Fact Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal ... Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs Fact Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal ...

  7. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  8. Diabetes insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by: Certain drugs (such as lithium) Genetic problems High level of calcium in the ... years of use of some medicines, such as lithium, nephrogenic DI can be permanent. Hereditary nephrogenic DI ...

  9. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider's office, or at a commercial facility. A health care provider tests the sample in the same location or sends ... urine sample. A formal fluid deprivation test. A health care provider performs this test in a hospital to continuously monitor the patient ...

  10. Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus presenting in a very low birth weight infant successfully managed with lyophilized sublingual desmopressin.

    PubMed

    Hanta, Deniz; Törer, Birgin; Temiz, Fatih; Kılıçdağ, Hasan; Gökçe, Mahmut; Erdoğan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal central diabetes insipidus (DI) is an extremely rare disorder that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. We have reported a very low birth weight infant with idiopathic central DI presenting in the first month of life who was successfully treated with sublingual desmopressin therapy. In this report, we emphasize that central DI should be kept in mind in an infant with unexplained hypernatremia and polyuria. Timely diagnosis and treatment with lyophilized desmopressin may prevent severe morbidity and mortality.

  11. Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a Burned Patient Receiving Sevoflurane Sedation With an Anesthetic Conserving Device-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Marie; Jennes, Serge; Morrison, Stuart; Soete, Olivier; François, Pierre-Michel; Keersebilck, Elkana; Rose, Thomas; Pantet, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a burned patient after prolonged delivery of low inspired concentrations of sevoflurane via an Anesthetic Conserving Device. Clinical observation. Case report. Relevant clinical information. A 34-year-old man was admitted with burns covering 52% of his total body surface area. Mechanical ventilation was provided during sedation with continuous infusions of sufentanil and midazolam. Sedation became increasingly difficult, and in order to limit administration of IV agents, sevoflurane was added to the inspiratory gas flow. This was provided using an Anesthetic Conserving Device and continued for 8 days. The patient rapidly developed polyuria and hypernatremia with an inappropriate decrease in urinary osmolality. Administration of desmopressin resulted in only a modest effect on renal concentrating ability. After cessation of sevoflurane, all variables returned to normal within 5 days. The results of further investigations (cerebral computed tomographic scan, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and serum arginine vasopressin concentration) were compatible with a diagnosis of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The temporal sequence of clinical findings in relation to sevoflurane administration suggests that the sevoflurane was the probable underlying cause. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sevoflurane-induced diabetes insipidus not only during general anesthesia but also in the intensive care setting of sedation in critically ill patients. This is especially important in patients, such as those with severe burns, in whom preserved renal concentrating ability is important to ensure compensation for extrarenal fluid losses.

  12. Mutations in the AVPR2, AVP-NPII, and AQP2 genes in Turkish patients with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Duzenli, Duygu; Saglar, Emel; Deniz, Ferhat; Azal, Omer; Erdem, Beril; Mergen, Hatice

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify mutations in three different genes, the arginine-vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene, the arginine-vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene, and the vasopressin-sensitive water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene in Turkish patients affected by central diabetes insipidus or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This study included 15 patients from unrelated families. Prospective clinical data were collected for all patients including the patients underwent a water deprivation-desmopressin test. The coding regions of the AVPR2, AQP2, and AVP-NPII genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and submitted to direct sequence analysis. Of the 15 patients with diabetes insipidus referred to Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, eight patients have AVPR2 mutations, five patients have AQP2 mutations and two patients have AVP-NPII mutations. Of the patients, which have AVPR2 mutations, one is compound heterozygous for AVPR2 gene. Seven of these mutations are novel. Comparison of the clinical outcomes of these mutations may facilitate in understanding the functions of AVP-NPII, AQP2, and AVPR2 genes in future studies.

  13. [Acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7 and inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated with central diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Nanno, Satoru; Hagihara, Kiyoyuki; Sakabe, Manami; Okamura, Hiroshi; Inaba, Akiko; Nagata, Yuki; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Koh, Hideo; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakane, Takahiko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Shimono, Taro; Hino, Masayuki

    2013-04-01

    A 20-year-old female presented with thirst, polyposia, and polyuria and was referred to our hospital because of leukocytosis and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 66.8% myeloperoxidase-positive blasts and trilineage myelodysplasia. The karyotype was 45, XX, inv(3)(q21q26.2), -7[19]. Therefore, a diagnosis of AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated by -7 was made. Moreover, hyposthenuria and a low anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) level were observed. Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the absence of hyperintensity in the neurohypophysis in T1-weighted images. Therefore, she was also diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. After she was administered a desmopressin nasal spray, the volume of urine produced decreased. Following treatment with second induction therapy containing high-dose cytarabine for AML, she achieved complete remission in the bone marrow. Moreover, when the abnormality on MRI and the volume of urine were normalized, she discontinued desmopressin. Although diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of AML, the majority of AML patients who have diabetes insipidus have the abnormal karyotypes with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis and develop a strategy for the treatment of this category of AML.

  14. Apoptosis of supraoptic AVP neurons is involved in the development of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Zhao, Cuiping; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Chengwei; Feng, Wenfeng; Huang, Lijin; Zhang, Jialin; Qi, Songtao

    2008-06-25

    It has been reported that various types of axonal injury of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract can result in degeneration of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) in hypothalamus and development of central diabetes insipidus (CDI). However, the mechanism of the degeneration and death of MCNs after hypophysectomy in vivo is still unclear. This present study was aimed to disclose it and to figure out the dynamic change of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy. The analysis on the dynamic change of daily water consumption (DWC), daily urine volume(DUV), specific gravity of urine(USG) and plasma vasopressin concentration showed that the change pattern of them was triphasic and neuron counting showed that the degeneration of vasopressin neurons began at 10 d, aggravated at 20 d and then stabilized at 30 d after hypophysectomy. There was marked upregulation of cleaved Caspase-3 expression of vasopressin neurons in hypophysectomy rats. A "ladder" pattern of migration of DNA internucleosomal fragments was detected and apoptotic ultrastructure was found in these neurons. There was time correlation among the occurrence of diabetes insipidus, the changes of plasma vasopressin concentration and the degeneration of vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy. This study firstly demonstrated that apoptosis was involved in degeneration of supraoptic vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy in vivo and development of CDI. Our study on time course and correlations among water metabolism, degeneration and apoptosis of vasopressin neurons suggested that there should be an efficient therapeutic window in which irreversible CDI might be prevented by anti-apoptosis.

  15. [A Case of Central Diabetes Insipidus That Was Caused by Pituitary Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma and Was Controlled by Radiation Therapy].

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yusuke; Masuda, Takeshi; Nabeshima, Shinji; Horimasu, Yasushi; Nakashima, Taku; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Yuji; Hamada, Hironobu; Nagata, Yasushi; Hattori, Noboru

    2017-06-01

    Pituitary metastasis of lung cancer is rare; however, it often causes diabetes insipidus. Although the majority of such patients are treated with radiation therapy, it remains unclear whether diabetes insipidus can be controlled by radiation therapy. A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for hemosputum, headache, and polyuria. A chest CT scan showed a 3.0 cm mass in the left upper lobe of his lung. Bronchofiberscopy results confirmed the pathological diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Based on the findings from PET-CT, head MRI, and endocrine tests, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma( cT1bN0M1b, stage IV)accompanied with central diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary metastasis was made. Oral administration of desmopressin reduced urine volumes; however, chemotherapy for achieving stable disease in the primary tumor was ineffective in controlling the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Chemotherapy was discontinued after 4 months because of severe hematological toxicity. During 2 months after the cessation of chemotherapy, polyuria worsened and, therefore, radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis was started. Following the radiation therapy, an apparent reduction in urine volume was observed. Our experience of this case suggests that radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis should be considered at the time when diabetes insipidus becomes clinically overt.

  16. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Gordon, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I(131) therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH.

  17. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D.; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D.; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A.; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-01-01

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI. PMID:26674602

  18. Novel AQP2 mutation causing congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: challenges in management during infancy.

    PubMed

    Rugpolmuang, Rottanat; Deeb, Asma; Hassan, Yousef; Deekajorndech, Tawatchai; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2014-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare inherited disorder, mostly caused by AVPR2 mutations. Less than 10% of cases are due to mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. Diagnosis and management of this condition remain challenging especially during infancy. Here, we report two unrelated patients, a 6-month-old Thai boy and a 5-year-old Emirati girl, with a history of failure to thrive, chronic fever, polydipsia, and polyuria presented in early infancy. The results of water deprivation test were compatible with a diagnosis of NDI. The entire coding regions of the AVPR2 and AQP2 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Patient 1 was homozygous for a novel missense AQP2 mutation p.G96E, inherited from both parents. Patient 2 harbored a previously described homozygous p.T126M mutation in the AQP2 gene. Both patients were treated with a combination of thiazide diuretics and amiloride. Patient 1 developed paradoxical hyponatremia and severe dehydration 2 weeks after medical treatment began. In conclusion, we report a novel mutation of the AQP2 gene and highlight an important role of genetic testing for definite diagnosis. Vigilant monitoring of the fluid status and electrolytes after beginning the therapy is mandatory in infants with NDI.

  19. Oral administration of diluted nasal desmopressin in managing neonatal central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Mavinkurve, Meenal; McGrath, Niamh; Johnston, Niall; Moloney, Sinead; Murphy, Nuala P; Hawkes, Colin P

    2017-05-23

    Neonatal central diabetes insipidus (NCDI) remains a therapeutic challenge, as extremely low doses of enteral desmopressin cannot be titrated with current preparations. The aim of this study was to describe the use of orally administered dilute desmopressin in NCDI. Nasal desmopressin (100 μg/mL) was diluted in 0.9% saline to 10 μg/mL. Infants were treated with 1-5 μg and doses were titrated to a twice-daily regimen. The feed volume was 150 mL/kg/day and titrated according to weight gain. Five infants aged 6-105 days were included. Stabilizing treatment doses ranged from 2 to 5 μg twice daily in neonates, and 12 μg twice daily in the older infant who was diagnosed at 105 days. Dilution of nasal desmopressin with saline facilitates safe administration and dose titration in NCDI. We recommend considering this therapeutic approach to NCDI, particularly in small infants or where alternative treatment regimens have been unsuccessful.

  20. Amyloid-like aggregation of provasopressin in diabetes insipidus and secretory granule sorting.

    PubMed

    Beuret, Nicole; Hasler, Franziska; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Birk, Julia; Rutishauser, Jonas; Spiess, Martin

    2017-01-26

    Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting. Here we identified two sequences responsible for fibrillar aggregation of mutant precursors in the ER: the N-terminal vasopressin nonapeptide and the C-terminal glycopeptide. To test their role in granule sorting, the glycopeptide was deleted and/or vasopressin mutated to inactivate ER aggregation while still permitting precursor folding and ER exit. These mutations strongly reduced sorting into granules and regulated secretion in endocrine AtT20 cells. The same sequences - vasopressin and the glycopeptide - mediate physiological aggregation of the wild-type hormone precursor into secretory granules and the pathological fibrillar aggregation of disease mutants in the ER. These findings support the amyloid hypothesis for secretory granule biogenesis.

  1. Identification of five novel arginine vasopressin gene mutations in patients with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dan; Cen, Jing; Nie, Min; Gu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a genetic disorder presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The clinical manifestations of this disorder vary greatly depending on different mutations. The present study reports the genetic, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with FNDI caused by five novel mutations. Ten patients encompassing two pedigrees and four individual cases diagnosed with FNDI were included. Biochemical markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated and genomic DNA was sequenced. The results revealed that age at onset ranged from 1.0 to 11.0 years. Daily urine volumes ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 liters. One patient had mental retardation and three patients had puberty retardation; one patient had nausea, vomiting and mental retardation; and two patients had fever. Treatments, if given, included desmopressin and vasopressin tannate. Posterior pituitary T1-weighted MRI high-intensity signals were absent in two cases and present in four cases. Sequencing revealed five novel mutations in the AVP-NPII gene. On the whole, the findings of the present study indicate that FNDI exhibits different clinical manifestations and a diverse age at onset. Posterior pituitary MRI does not provide a definite diagnosis of FNDI. We also identified five novel AVP-NPII mutations. Thus, an enhanced understanding of FNDI pathogenesis may provide a basis for the development of presymptomatic FNDI diagnotic tools.

  2. Disorders of water metabolism: diabetes insipidus and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of body fluids are among the most commonly encountered problems in the practice of clinical medicine. This is in large part because many different disease states can potentially disrupt the finely balanced mechanisms that control the intake and output of water and solute. It therefore behooves clinicians treating such patients to have a good understanding of the pathophysiology, the differential diagnosis and the management of these disorders. Since body water is the primary determinant of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), disorders of body water homeostasis can be divided into hypoosmolar disorders, in which there is an excess of body water relative to body solute, and hyperosmolar disorders, in which there is a deficiency of body water relative to body solute. The classical hyperosmolar disorder is diabetes insipidus (DI), and the classical hypoosmolar disorder is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This chapter first reviews the regulatory mechanisms underlying water and sodium metabolism, the two major determinants of body fluid homeostasis. The major disorders of water metabolism causing hyperosmolality and hypoosmolality, DI and SIADH, are then discussed in detail, including the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  3. Membrane Protein Stability Analyses by Means of Protein Energy Profiles in Case of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Heinke, Florian; Labudde, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare endocrine, inheritable disorder with low incidences in an estimated one per 25,000–30,000 live births. This disease is characterized by polyuria and compensatory polydypsia. The diverse underlying causes of DI can be central defects, in which no functional arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary or can be a result of defects in the kidney (nephrogenic DI, NDI). NDI is a disorder in which patients are unable to concentrate their urine despite the presence of AVP. This antidiuretic hormone regulates the process of water reabsorption from the prourine that is formed in the kidney. It binds to its type-2 receptor (V2R) in the kidney induces a cAMP-driven cascade, which leads to the insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the apical membrane. Mutations in the genes of V2R and aquaporin-2 often lead to NDI. We investigated a structure model of V2R in its bound and unbound state regarding protein stability using a novel protein energy profile approach. Furthermore, these techniques were applied to the wild-type and selected mutations of aquaporin-2. We show that our results correspond well to experimental water ux analysis, which confirms the applicability of our theoretical approach to equivalent problems. PMID:22474537

  4. Comparison of incidence of hyponatremia between intranasal and oral desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yuko; Nishida, Sachi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), which is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by a deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). While CDI is treated with desmopressin, an analogue of AVP, the intranasal formulation is inconvenient and CDI patients reportedly prefer the oral formulation to the intranasal one. In Japan, intranasal desmopressin had been the only formulation for the treatment of CDI until 2012, when the desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) was approved for treatment. In this study we analyzed 26 patients with CDI in whom intranasal desmopressin was switched to desmopressin ODT. The mean daily dose of intranasal desmopressin was 10 ± 8 μg/day, and that of desmopressin ODT was 142 ± 59 μg/day. The mean serum sodium levels were 140 ± 5 mmol/L and 140 ± 3 mmol/L with intranasal desmopressin and desmopressin ODT, respectively, and there were no significant differences between these values. The frequency of hyponatremia (<135 mmol/L) with intranasal desmopressin was 11.7% and that with desmopressin ODT was 7.6%, while the frequency of hyponatremia (<130 mmol/L) with intranasal desmopressin was 4.2% and that with desmopressin ODT was 1.3%. Statistical analyses revealed that incidence of hyponatremia was significantly decreased after the switch to desmopressin ODT. Thus, it is suggested that water balance is better controlled with desmopressin ODT than with intranasal desmopressin in patients with CDI.

  5. Stiletto stabbing: penetrating injury to the hypothalamus with hyperacute diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Itshayek, Eyal; Gomori, John Moshe; Spektor, Sergey; Cohen, José E

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a well documented complication observed after traumatic head injuries. We report a case of hyperacute onset DI in a 19-year-old male who sustained a hypothalamic-pituitary injury when he was stabbed in the head with a 30-cm long thin-bladed knife. At CT, our patient showed significant hemorrhagic contusions of the lower hypothalamus. He developed polydipsia, polyuria, and mild hypernatremia in the Emergency Department. Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography showed a hypervascular congestive pituitary gland with prominent draining veins. On the third day his hypernatremia became severe (183mEq/L). He was managed with parenteral fluids and a regimen of intranasal DDAVP (1-desamino 8-d-arginine vasopressin), leading to improved plasmatic sodium levels, urine output, and urinary specific gravity. In patients presenting with hyperacute posttraumatic DI, emergency room physicians and neurosurgeons should rule out direct injury to the hypothalamus and/or the posterior lobe of the pituitary, and initiate early pharmacological treatment.

  6. Novel autosomal recessive gene mutations in aquaporin-2 in two Chinese congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Jing; Nie, Min; Duan, Lian; Gu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has linked novel mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2) and aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2) present in Southeast Asian populations to congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). To investigate mutations in 2 distinct Chinese pedigrees with NDI patients, clinical data, laboratory findings, and genomic DNA sequences from peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed in two 5.5- and 8-year-old boys (proband 1 and 2, respectively) and their first-degree relatives. Water intake, urinary volume, body weight and medication use were recorded. Mutations in coding regions and intron-exon borders of both AQP2 and AVPR2 gene were sequenced. Three mutations in AQP2 were detected, including previously reported heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.127_128delCA, p.Gln43Aspfs ×63) inherited from the mother, a novel frameshift mutation (c.501_502insC, p.Val168Argfs ×30, inherited from the father) in proband 1 and a novel missense mutation (c. 643G>A, p. G215S), inherited from both parents in proband 2. In family 2 both parents and one sister were heterozygous carriers of the novel missense mutation. Neither pedigree exhibited mutation in the AVPR2 gene. The patient with truncated AQP2 may present with much more severe NDI manifestations. Identification of these novel AQP2 gene mutations expands the AQP2 genotypic spectrum and may contribute to etiological diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:26064258

  7. Novel autosomal recessive gene mutations in aquaporin-2 in two Chinese congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Cen, Jing; Nie, Min; Duan, Lian; Gu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has linked novel mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2) and aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2) present in Southeast Asian populations to congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). To investigate mutations in 2 distinct Chinese pedigrees with NDI patients, clinical data, laboratory findings, and genomic DNA sequences from peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed in two 5.5- and 8-year-old boys (proband 1 and 2, respectively) and their first-degree relatives. Water intake, urinary volume, body weight and medication use were recorded. Mutations in coding regions and intron-exon borders of both AQP2 and AVPR2 gene were sequenced. Three mutations in AQP2 were detected, including previously reported heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.127_128delCA, p.Gln43Aspfs ×63) inherited from the mother, a novel frameshift mutation (c.501_502insC, p.Val168Argfs ×30, inherited from the father) in proband 1 and a novel missense mutation (c. 643G>A, p. G215S), inherited from both parents in proband 2. In family 2 both parents and one sister were heterozygous carriers of the novel missense mutation. Neither pedigree exhibited mutation in the AVPR2 gene. The patient with truncated AQP2 may present with much more severe NDI manifestations. Identification of these novel AQP2 gene mutations expands the AQP2 genotypic spectrum and may contribute to etiological diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  8. [Cutaneous non-Langerhans cells histiocytoses as cause of central diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Paulo A C; Miranda, Silvana M C; Bittencourt, Flávia V; Machado, Lucas J C; Castro, Lucia P F de; Leite, Virginia H R; Lauria, Márcio W; Braga, Walter R C; Oliveira, Antônio Ribeiro de

    2007-08-01

    The histiocytoses are rare diseases caused by alterations in the monocyte-histiocytic series with several clinical findings. Among the cutaneous syndromes of non-Langerhans cells, xanthoma disseminatum is the only disease of this group that has been classically associated to the central diabetes insipidus (CDI). The case reported describes a 30-year-old man that two years after presenting with CDI developed non confluent disseminated cutaneous brown papular lesions throughout the body. The histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and electronic microscopy were compatible with the diagnosis of non-Langerhans histiocytoses, suggesting the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. The endocrine-metabolic evaluation did not show other alterations besides CDI in a 10-year follow up. The magnetic resonance of hypophysis showed absence of the pituitary hyperintense sign (bright spot). The radiologic and scinthigraphic evaluation of the bones did not show the presence of osteolytic lesions. This case prints out the importance of skin examination in cases of CDI and its association with cutaneous non-Langerhans histiocytoses in a broader spectrum, rather then restricted to the cases of xanthoma disseminatum.

  9. Diabetes insipidus contributes to traumatic brain injury pathology via CD36 neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, Theo; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S; Staples, Meaghan; Borlongan, Mia C; Hernandez, Diana; Acosta, Sandra; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-11-01

    Each year, over one million people in the United States are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of both acute and chronic neuroinflammation follow TBI, coinciding with a robust immune response and activation of the brain's endogenous repair mechanisms. TBI can lead to endocrine failure as a result of damage to the thalamic region of the brain, evidenced by excessive thirst and polyuria often accompanying TBI. These symptoms indicate the presence of diabetes insipidus (DI), a disruption of water homeostasis due to antidiuretic hormone deficiency. This deficiency accompanies a mechanical or neuroinflammatory damage to the thalamic region during TBI, evidenced by increased expression of inflammatory microglial marker MHCII in this brain region. Excessive thirst and urinations, which are typical DI symptoms, in our chronic TBI rats also suggest a close connection between TBI and DI. We seek to bridge this gap between TBI and DI through investigation of the Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) receptor. This receptor is associated with Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) deregulation, pro-inflammatory events, and innate immunity regulation. We posit that CD36 exacerbates TBI through immune activation and subsequent neuroinflammation. Indeed, scientific evidence already supports pathological interaction of CD36 in other neurological disorders including stroke and Alzheimer's disease. We propose that DI contributes to TBI pathology via CD36 neuroinflammation. Use of CD36 as a biomarker may provide insights into treatment and disease pathology of TBI and DI. This unexplored avenue of research holds potential for a better understanding and treatment of TBI and DI.

  10. Progressive polyuria without vasopressin neuron loss in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hiroi, Maiko; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Ueda, Masatsugu; Shiota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka

    2009-05-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant disorder, is mostly caused by mutations in the gene of neurophysin II (NPII), the carrier protein of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Previous studies suggest that loss of AVP neurons might be the cause of polyuria in FNDI. Here we analyzed knockin mice expressing mutant NPII that causes FNDI in humans. The heterozygous mice manifested progressive polyuria as do patients with FNDI. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that inclusion bodies that were not immunostained with antibodies for mutant NPII, normal NPII, or AVP were present in the AVP cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), and that the size of inclusion bodies gradually increased in parallel with the increases in urine volume. Electron microscopic analyses showed that aggregates existed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in the nucleus of AVP neurons in 1-mo-old heterozygous mice. At 12 mo, dilated ER filled with aggregates occupied the cytoplasm of AVP cells, while few aggregates were found in the nucleus. Analyses with in situ hybridization revealed that expression of AVP mRNA was significantly decreased in the SON in the heterozygous mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Counting cells expressing AVP mRNA in the SON indicated that polyuria had progressed substantially in the absence of neuronal loss. These data suggest that cell death is not the primary cause of polyuria in FNDI, and that the aggregates accumulated in the ER might be involved in the dysfunction of AVP neurons that lead to the progressive polyuria.

  11. X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a clinico-genetic study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Che Ry; Kang, Hee Gyung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Cho, Min Hyun; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Ju Hyung; Park, Hye Won; Koo, Ja Wook; Ha, Tae-Sun; Kim, Su-Yung; Il Cheong, Hae

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective genotype and phenotype analysis of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was conducted on a nationwide cohort of 25 (24 male, 1 female) Korean children with AVPR2 gene mutations, comparing non-truncating and truncating mutations. In an analysis of male patients, the median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years old. At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, urinary tract dilatations were evident in 62% of patients and their median glomerular filtration rate was 72 mL/min/1.73 m2. Weights and heights were under the 3rd percentile in 22% and 33% of patients, respectively. One patient had low intelligence quotient and another developed end-stage renal disease. No statistically significant genotype-phenotype correlation was found between non-truncating and truncating mutations. One patient was female; she was analyzed separately because inactivation and mosaicism of the X chromosome may influence clinical manifestations in female patients. Current unsatisfactory long-term outcome of congenital NDI necessitates a novel therapeutic strategy.

  12. Adipsia increases risk of death in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Murase, Takashi; Yambe, Yuko; Yamada, Tsutomu; Yamakawa, Fumiko; Yamamori, Ikuo; Yamauchi, Masako; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. Patients with CDI manifest polyuria which is usually compensated for by increases in water intake. However, some patients are not able to sense thirst due to the destruction of osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. These adipsic CDI patients are easily dehydrated and the consequent dehydration could be life-threatening. The objective of this study was to investigate the prognosis of adipsic CDI patients. We have reviewed 149 patients with CDI in three hospitals using databases of the electronic medical recording systems, and examined whether adipsia could affect the morbidity and mortality in CDI patients with multivariable analyses. Twenty-three patients with CDI were adipsic while the remaining 126 patients were non-adipsic. The multivariate analyses showed that the incidence of serious infections which required hospitalization was significantly higher in the adipsic CDI patients compared to that in non-adipsic CDI patients (p <0.001). A total of 6 patients with CDI died during the follow-up (median duration; 60 months, range 1 to 132 months). Four of them were adipsic, three of whom died of infection. The statistical analyses revealed that the risk of death in adipsic CDI patients was significantly higher than in non-adipsic patients (p =0.007). It is thus suggested that adipsic CDI patients were susceptible to serious infections which could be the causes of death.

  13. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a novel mutation in the aquaporin 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn Jong; Baik, Haing Woon; Cheong, Hae Il; Kang, Ju Hyung

    2014-07-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of (108)Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62. The molecular genetic analysis of the parents showed that the missense mutation was inherited maternally and the deletion mutation was inherited paternally. The parents showed no signs or symptoms of CNDI, indicating autosomal recessive inheritance. The (108)Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG) mutation was confirmed as a novel mutation. Therefore, the molecular identification of the AQP2 gene has clinical significance, as early recognition of CNDI in infants that show only non-specific symptoms, can be facilitated. Thus, repeated episodes of dehydration, which may cause physical and mental retardation can be avoided.

  14. A Case of IgG4-Related Hypophysitis Presented with Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Harano, Yumi; Honda, Kazufumi; Akiyama, Yurika; Kotajima, Lisa; Arioka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related systemic syndrome is a recently described entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Pituitary gland can be involved as hypophysitis. We report a case of a 72-year-old man, who presented with general fatigue and weakness. Laboratory tests revealed diabetes insipidus as well as hypopituitarism including adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism. His serum IgG4 was elevated. MR images showed enlargement of the pituitary stalk. Multiple nodules in bilateral kidneys were pointed out in the abdominal CT. Histological examination of the nodules showed increased IgG4-positive plasma cells. We diagnosed him with IgG4-related kidney disease and hypophysitis. After treatment with hydrocortisone, his symptoms improved. The follow-up images showed that almost all renal nodules disap-peared and his pituitary stalk was shrinking. Our case appears to be very sensitive to glucocorticoid and suggests the possibility of treating IgG4-related hypophysitis successfully with a lower dose of glucocorticoid.

  15. Mouse model of inducible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus produced by floxed aquaporin-2 gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue; Zhao, Dan; Qian, Liman; Verkman, A S

    2006-08-01

    Transgenic mouse models of defective urinary concentrating ability produced by deletion of various membrane transport or receptor proteins, including aquaporin-2 (AQP2), are associated with neonatal mortality from polyuria. Here, we report an inducible mouse model of AQP2 gene deletion with severe polyuria in adult mice. LoxP sequences were inserted into introns 1 and 2 in the mouse AQP2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mating of germ-line AQP2-loxP mice with tamoxifen-inducible Cre-expressing mice produced offspring with inducible homozygous Cre-AQP2-loxP, which had a normal phenotype. Tamoxifen injections over 10 days resulted in AQP2 gene excision, with undetectable full-length AQP2 transcript in kidney and a >95% reduction in immunoreactive AQP2 protein. Urine osmolality decreased from approximately 2,000 to <500 mosmol/kgH(2)O after 4-5 days, with urine output increasing from 2 to 25 ml/day. Urine osmolality did not increase after water deprivation. Interestingly, AQP3 protein expression in the collecting duct was increased by about fivefold after AQP2 gene excision. Mild renal damage was seen after 6 wk of polyuria, with collecting duct dilatation, yet normal creatinine clearance and serum chemistries. These results establish the first adult model of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) caused by AQP2 deficiency, with daily urine output comparable to body weight, although remarkable preservation of renal function compared with non-inducible NDI models.

  16. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: essential insights into the molecular background and potential therapies for treatment.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Hanne B; Rittig, Søren; Fenton, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), expressed in the kidney collecting ducts, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body water balance. The channel is regulated by the peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which exerts its effects through the type 2 vasopressin receptor (AVPR2). Disrupted function or regulation of AQP2 or the AVPR2 results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a common clinical condition of renal origin characterized by polydipsia and polyuria. Over several years, major research efforts have advanced our understanding of NDI at the genetic, cellular, molecular, and biological levels. NDI is commonly characterized as hereditary (congenital) NDI, arising from genetic mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2; or acquired NDI, due to for exmple medical treatment or electrolyte disturbances. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic, cell biological, and pathophysiological causes of NDI, with emphasis on the congenital forms and the acquired forms arising from lithium and other drug therapies, acute and chronic renal failure, and disturbed levels of calcium and potassium. Additionally, we provide an overview of the exciting new treatment strategies that have been recently proposed for alleviating the symptoms of some forms of the disease and for bypassing G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

  17. Unmasking of undiagnosed pre-existing central diabetes insipidus after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, David D W; Holdaway, Ian M

    2012-03-01

    Acquired central diabetes insipidus (CDI) often occurs abruptly after a cranial event causing hypothalamic or pituitary damage. We present a case of a patient with pre-existing and clinically unapparent CDI which was unmasked after renal transplantation. A 60 year old woman with end-stage renal failure due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent renal transplantation. She was noted to be markedly polyuric and polydipsic after the transplant. A fluid deprivation test was unequivocally positive for CDI, and desmopressin treatment resulted in immediate symptom relief. Neuroimaging revealed a midline defect in the region of the hypothalamus. She had a history of an intracerebral aneurysm that had ruptured, requiring extensive neurosurgery many years previously. This case demonstrates a rare instance of pre-existing but clinically unapparent CDI unmasked by renal transplantation. It is likely that renal failure due to ADPKD disguised her CDI prior to transplantation. A previous intracerebral insult from an aneurysmal bleed is the likely cause of her vasopressin deficiency.

  18. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice lacking all nitric oxide synthase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Tsuyoshi; Tsutsui, Masato; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sabanai, Ken; Tasaki, Hiromi; Suda, Osamu; Nakata, Sei; Tanimoto, Akihide; Wang, Ke-Yong; Ueta, Yoichi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Nakashima, Yasuhide; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in almost all tissues and organs, exerting a variety of biological actions under physiological and pathological conditions. NO is synthesized by three different isoforms of NO synthase (NOS), including neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOSs. Because there are substantial compensatory interactions among the NOS isoforms, the ultimate roles of endogenous NO in our body still remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have successfully developed mice in which all three NOS genes are completely deleted by crossbreeding singly NOS-/- mice. NOS expression and activities were totally absent in the triply NOS-/- mice before and after treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Although the triply NOS-/- mice were viable and appeared normal, their survival and fertility rates were markedly reduced as compared with the wild-type mice. Furthermore, these mice exhibited marked hypotonic polyuria, polydipsia, and renal unresponsiveness to an antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin, all of which are characteristics consistent with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In the kidney of the triply NOS-/- mice, vasopressin-induced cAMP production and membranous aquaporin-2 water channel expression were reduced associated with tubuloglomerular lesion formation. These results provide evidence that the NOS system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, especially in the kidney. PMID:16024729

  19. Signaling Modification by GPCR Heteromer and Its Implication on X-Linked Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hans K H; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of secretin (SCT) and secretin receptor (SCTR) in regulating body water homeostasis is well established. Identified as one of the vasopressin (Vp)-independent mechanisms in fluid balance, SCT regulates aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney distal collecting duct cells through activating intracellular cAMP production. This ability to bypass Vp-mediated water reabsorption in kidney implicates SCT's potential to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Research on NDI in the past has largely been focused on the searching for mutations in vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2), while the functional relationship between SCTR, AVPR2 and NDI remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the interaction between SCTR and AVPR2 to modulate cellular signaling in vitro. Interestingly, we show in this report that upon heteromer formation with SCTR, R137H, a NDI-causing AVPR2 mutant that is defective in trafficking to cell surface, can functionally be rescued. Our data may provide an explanation for this clinically mild case of NDI, and insights into the pathological development of NDI in the future.

  20. Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Presenting with Diabetes Insipidus Completely Cured Through Transsphenoidal Surgery: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Gao, Lu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenze; Xing, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH) is extremely rare. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature. No XH patient presenting with diabetes insipidus (DI) has been completely cured through surgery. Here, we describe the first XH case of a DI patient whose pituitary function was normalized postoperatively, without hormone replacement therapy. A 41-year-old woman suffered from polydipsia, DI, headache, and breast discharge. Laboratory investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a 2.0-cm × 1.4-cm × 1.6-cm lesion that demonstrated heterogeneous intensity on T1-weighted imaging and peripheral ring enhancement following contrast; the lesion was totally removed through transsphenoidal surgery. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of XH. At the 4- and 15-month follow-up visits, all pituitary-related hormones were normal, and the patient was not taking medication. A repeat pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first documented occurrence of XH with DI completely cured through surgery. If XH is suspected, total surgical resection of the lesion is recommended and normal pituitary tissue should be carefully protected intraoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Systemic necrotizing vasculitis presenting as gangrene combined with diabetes insipidus: a case report].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Liu, Yu-lan

    2015-12-18

    The male patient reported here presented as gangrene and central diabetes insipidus (CDI), who had characteristics of vasculitis. The patient complained about polydipsia and polyuria half a year ago, and then developed tingling, pain and blackish discoloration of some fingers and toes 3 month ago. He also had Raynaud's phenomenon. After admission, his laboratory examination showed the rise of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, β2-glycoprotein I and the activity of rheumatoid factors, lupus anticoagulant test. his pituitary gland showed loss of posterior signal on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, his vasopressin test was active. However, there was no sufficient evidence to diagnose any specific disease; as a consequence the patient was diagnosed as idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV). For SNV, the patient was treated with glucocorticoid 40 mg/d and impact therapy of cyclophosphamide 0.4 g every 2 weeks. He also received symptomatic treatment for gangrene and CDI. Cutaneous involvement leading to gangrene was widely reported in SNV, however pituitary involvement in SNV leading to CDI was rare. The prognosis of this patient was poor.

  2. Cholesteatoma in the Sellar Region Presenting as Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wu, Huanwen; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Kong, Yanguo; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-03-01

    Clinically significant sellar cysts unrelated to pituitary adenomas are uncommon. Intracranial cholesteatomas are also rare and are most common in the middle ear and mastoid region. We report an even rarer case of cholesteatoma in the sellar region-a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological signs, and biopsy, aiming at emphasize the importance of considering cholesteatoma when making differential diagnoses of sellar lesions.We present a case of cholesteatoma in the sellar region in a 56-year-old man with hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and cystic imaging findings. It was difficult to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We present detailed analysis of the patient's disease course and review pertinent literature.The patient underwent a surgical exploration and tumor resection through a transsphenoidal approach. Pathologic results revealed a cholesteatoma. The patient's symptoms improved a lot after surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful. Taken together, the lesion's imaging appearance, pathological characteristics, and clinical features were all unique features that lead to a diagnosis of cholesteatoma.As we did not see such reports by Pubmed and EMBASE, we believe this is the first reported case of sellar cholesteatoma presenting in this manner. This article emphasized that cholesteatomas, although rare, should be considered part of the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

  3. Deletion of the V2 vasopressin receptor gene in two Chinese patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Sheng, Haihui; Chen, Xueru; Yin, Jun; Su, Qing

    2006-01-01

    Background Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare X-linked inherited disorder characterized by the excretion of large volumes of diluted urine and caused by mutations in arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene. To investigate the mutation of AVPR2 gene in a Chinese family with congenital NDI, we screened AVPR2 gene in two NDI patients and eight family members by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Results Five specific fragments, covering entire coding sequence and their flanking intronic sequences of AVPR2 gene, were not observed in both patients, while those fragments were all detected in the control subjects. Several different fragments around the AVPR2 locus were amplified step by step. It was revealed that a genomic fragment of 5,995-bp, which contained the entire AVPR2 gene and the last exon (exon 22) of the C1 gene, was deleted and a 3-bp (GAG) was inserted. Examination of the other family members showed that the mothers and the grandmother were carriers for this deletion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the two patients in a Chinese family suffering from congenital NDI had a 5,995-bp deletion and 3-bp (GAG) insertion at Xq28. The deletion contained the entire AVPR2 gene and exon 22 of the C1 gene. PMID:17101063

  4. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Essential Insights into the Molecular Background and Potential Therapies for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), expressed in the kidney collecting ducts, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body water balance. The channel is regulated by the peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which exerts its effects through the type 2 vasopressin receptor (AVPR2). Disrupted function or regulation of AQP2 or the AVPR2 results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a common clinical condition of renal origin characterized by polydipsia and polyuria. Over several years, major research efforts have advanced our understanding of NDI at the genetic, cellular, molecular, and biological levels. NDI is commonly characterized as hereditary (congenital) NDI, arising from genetic mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2; or acquired NDI, due to for exmple medical treatment or electrolyte disturbances. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic, cell biological, and pathophysiological causes of NDI, with emphasis on the congenital forms and the acquired forms arising from lithium and other drug therapies, acute and chronic renal failure, and disturbed levels of calcium and potassium. Additionally, we provide an overview of the exciting new treatment strategies that have been recently proposed for alleviating the symptoms of some forms of the disease and for bypassing G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:23360744

  5. Acute leukemia presenting as diabetes insipidus and bilateral exudative retinal detachment--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, M T; Wu, H J

    2001-03-01

    To report an unusual case of leukemia presenting as both bilateral exudative retinal detachment (ERD) and central diabetes insipidus (DI), we evaluate the clinical hematological records including bone marrow aspirations and CSF tapping, both osmolarity and electrolytes concentration of the serum and urine, brain MRI, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiographs in this 25-year-old female patient. Examinations of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M0). Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed bilateral ERD, dense choroidal leukemia cell infiltration with overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and focal areas of choroidal infarction. Changes in both osmolarity and electrolytes concentration of the serum and urine from vasopressin test supported the diagnosis of central DI. Central DI and ERD may be presenting signs of acute leukemia and both may represent CNS involvement. In our case, dense choroidal leukemic cell infiltration results in devitalization of RPE and choroidal infarction. Leukemic disruption of hypothalamic pituitary area may lead to complete or partial deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Rapid improvement in visual acuity and partial symptom relief of DI may ensue from appropriate chemotherapy and nasal DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) supply.

  6. Pre- and post-treatment urinary tract findings in children with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Caletti, María Gracia; Balestracci, Alejandro; Di Pinto, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate urine, which causes intense polyuria that may lead to urinary tract dilation. We report the morphological findings of the urinary tract in ten boys with NDI specifically addressing the presence and changes of urinary tract dilation during treatment. Patients were diagnosed at a median age of 1.6 years (range, 0.16-6.33 years) and treated with a low osmotic diet, hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride and indomethacin, which decreased the diuresis from a median of 10.5 ml/kg/h to 4.4 ml/kg/h (p < 0.001). Three patients showed normal renal ultrasound before treatment until last control, while the remaining seven showed urinary tract dilation. In this second group, dilation was reduced with treatment in four patients and disappeared in the remaining three. Children without dilation or in whom the dilation disappeared were diagnosed and treated earlier than those with persistent dilation (median 1.66 versus 4.45 years, respectively). After a median of 10.4 (range, 2.3-20.3) years of follow-up, no patients showed urological complications. Medical treatment of the disease improved the dilation in all cases, preventing its potential complications. Regardless of the good outcome of our patients, periodic urologic follow-up is recommended in NDI patients.

  7. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-12-17

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.

  8. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R; Fagerberg, Christina; Dieperink, Hans; Rittig, Søren; Jensen, Boye L

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis or congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We present a novel mutation in codon 137 within AVPR2 with substitution of glycine for arginine in male dizygotic twins. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by water deprivation test and resistance to vasopressin administration. While a similar urine exosome release rate was shown between probands and controls by western blotting for the marker ALIX, there was a selective decrease in exosome aquaporin-2 versus aquaporin-1 protein in probands compared to controls. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. [Vasopressin V2 receptor-related pathologies: congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropiate antidiuresis].

    PubMed

    Morin, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease with mainly an X-linked inheritance (90% of the cases) but there are also autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the arginine vasopressin hormone responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. The X-linked form is due to inactivating mutations of the vasopressin 2 receptor gene leading to a loss of function of the mutated receptors. Affected males are often symptomatic in the neonatal period with a lack of weight gain, dehydration and hypernatremia but mild phenotypes may also occur. Females carrying the mutation may be asymptomatic but, sometimes, severe polyuria is found due to the random X chromosome inactivation. The autosomal recessive and dominant forms, occurring in both genders, are linked to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene. The treatment remains difficult, especially in infants, and is based on a low osmotic diet with increased water intake and the use of thiazides and indomethacin. The main goal is to avoid hypernatremic episodes and maintain a good hydration state. Potentially, specific treatment, in some cases of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with pharmacological chaperones such as non-peptide vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists will be available in the future. Conversely, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is linked to a constitutive activation of the V(2)-receptor due to activating mutations with clinical and biological features of inappropriate antidiuresis but with low or undetectable plasma arginine vasopressin hormone levels.

  10. A novel variation in the AVP gene resulting in familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in a large Italian kindred.

    PubMed

    Birkegaard, Camilla; Christensen, Jane H; Falorni, Alberto; Marzotti, Stefania; Minarelli, Viviana; Gregersen, Niels; Rittig, Søren

    2013-06-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is mostly an autosomal dominant inherited disorder presenting with severe polydipsia and polyuria typically in early childhood. To date, 69 different variations in the AVP gene encoding the AVP prohormone have been identified in autosomal dominant FNDI (adFNDI). In this study we present a family of seven generations, in which a novel variation in the AVP gene seems to cause adFNDI. Clinical assessment by 24 h urine collection, water deprivation test, desmopressin (dDAVP) challenge, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the posterior pituitary are presented. The diagnosis of adFNDI was confirmed by direct DNA sequence analysis of the AVP gene. Inheritance pattern and clinical history clearly pointed towards adFNDI. Inability of concentrating urine upon dehydration was demonstrated by a water deprivation test, and neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus was strongly suspected after dDAVP administration, during which renal concentration ability quadrupled. MRI revealed a very weak pituitary "bright spot" in each of six subjects and a further reduction in the size of the neurohypophysis in a 7-year follow-up MRI scan in one subject. DNA sequence analysis revealed heterozygousity for a novel g.1785T > C gene variation predicting a p.Leu63Pro substitution in four affected subjects. Genetic testing in the diagnostic evaluation of families in which diabetes insipidus segregates is highly recommended in that interpretation of clinical assessments can be difficult. Furthermore, presymptomatic diagnosis can ease the parental concern of the carrier status of their offspring, and also avoid unnecessary surveillance of those being unaffected.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Combined Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuehai; Zhou, Xiaolan; Gao, Liang; Wu, Xing; Fei, Li; Mao, Ying; Hu, Jin; Zhou, Liangfu

    2016-04-01

    Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rare, is characterized by massive polyuria leading to severe water and electrolyte disturbances, and usually is associated with very high mortality mainly as a result of delayed diagnosis and improper management. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of 11 patients who developed combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury to define distinctive features for timely diagnosis and proper management. The most typical clinical presentation was massive polyuria (10,000 mL/24 hours or >1000 mL/hour) refractory to vasopressin alone but responsive to vasopressin plus cortisone acetate. Other characteristic presentations included low central venous pressure, high brain natriuretic peptide precursor level without cardiac dysfunction, high 24-hour urine sodium excretion and hypovolemia, and much higher urine than serum osmolarity; normal serum sodium level and urine specific gravity can also be present. Timely and adequate infusion of sodium chloride was key in treatment. Of 11 patients, 5 had a good prognosis 3 months later (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≥6), 1 had an Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4, 2 died in the hospital of brain hernia, and 3 developed a vegetative state. For combined diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury, massive polyuria is a major typical presentation, and intensive monitoring of fluid and sodium status is key for timely diagnosis. To achieve a favorable outcome, proper sodium chloride supplementation and cortisone acetate and vasopressin coadministration are key. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Two novel mutations in seven Czech and Slovak kindreds with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus-benefit of genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Hrčková, Gabriela; Jankó, Viktor; Kytnarová, Jitka; Čižmárová, Michaela; Tesařová, Markéta; Košťálová, Ľudmila; Virgová, Daniela; Dallos, Tomáš; Hána, Václav; Lebl, Jan; Zeman, Jiří; Kovács, László

    2016-09-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare hereditary disorder with unknown prevalence characterized by arginine-vasopressin hormone (AVP) deficiency resulting in polyuria and polydipsia from early childhood. We report the clinical manifestation and genetic test results in seven unrelated kindreds of Czech or Slovak origin with FNDI phenotype. The age of the sign outset ranged from 2 to 17 years with remarkable interfamilial and intrafamilial variability. Inconclusive result of the fluid deprivation test in three children aged 7 and 17 years old might cause misdiagnosis; however, the AVP gene analysis confirmed the FNDI. The seven families segregated together five different mutations, two of them were novel (c.164C > A, c.298G > C). In addition, DNA analysis proved mutation carrier status in one asymptomatic 1-year-old infant. The present study together with previously published data identified 38 individuals with FNDI in the studied population of 16 million which predicts a disease prevalence of 1:450,000 for the Central European region. The paper underscores that diagnostic water deprivation test may be inconclusive in polyuric children with partial diabetes insipidus and points to the clinical importance and feasibility of molecular genetic testing for AVP gene mutations in the proband and her/his first degree relatives. • At least 70 different mutations were reported to date in about 100 families with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), and new mutations appear sporadically. What is New: • Two novel mutations of the AVP gene are reported • The importance of molecular testing in children with polyuria and inconclusive water deprivation test is emphasized.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for central diabetes insipidus in cardiac arrest survivor treated with targeted temperature management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Byung Kook; Song, Kyoung Hwan; Jung, Yong Hun; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Sung Min; Cho, Yong Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Jeung, Kyung Woon

    2016-08-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a marker of severe brain injury. Here we aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CDI in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management (TTM). This retrospective observational study included consecutive adult cardiac arrest survivors treated with TTM between 2008 and 2014. Central diabetes insipidus was confirmed if all of the following criteria were met: urine volume >50 cc kg(-1) d(-1), serum osmolarity >300 mmol/L, urine osmolarity <300 mmol/L, and serum sodium >145 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the incidence of CDI. Of the 385 included patients, 45 (11.7%) had confirmed central CDI. Univariate analysis showed that younger age, nonwitness of collapse, nonshockable rhythm, a high incidence of asphyxia arrest, longer downtime, and lower initial core temperature were associated with CDI development. Patients with CDI had a higher incidence of poor neurologic outcomes at discharge and higher in-hospital mortality rate (20/45 vs 76/340, P= .001) as well as 180-day mortality (44/45 vs 174/340, P< .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.963; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.942-0.984), shockable rhythm (OR, 0.077; 95% CI, 0.009-0.662), downtime (OR, 1.025; 95% CI, 1.006-1.044), and asphyxia etiology (OR, 6.815; 95% CI, 2.457-18.899) were independently associated with CDI development. Central diabetes insipidus developed in 12% of cardiac arrest survivors treated with TTM, and those with CDI showed poor neurologic outcomes and high mortality rates. Younger age, nonshockable rhythm, long downtime, and asphyxia arrest were significant risk factors for development of CDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel AVPR2 splice site mutation leads to partial X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Adams, David; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Raygada, Margarita; Golas, Gretchen; Faucz, Fabio R; Nilsson, Ola; Nella, Aikaterini A; Dileepan, Kavitha; Lodish, Maya; Lee, Paul; Tifft, Cynthia; Markello, Thomas; Gahl, William; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI, OMIM#304800) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP, OMIM*192340) receptor type 2 (AVPR2, OMIM*300538) gene. A 20-month-old boy and his 8-year-old brother presented with polyuria, polydipsia, and failure to thrive. Both boys demonstrated partial DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D AVP or desmopressin) responses; thus, NDI diagnosis was delayed. While routine sequencing of AVPR2 showed a potential splice site variant, it was not until exome sequencing confirmed the AVPR2 splice site variant and did not reveal any more likely candidates that the patients' diagnosis was made and proper treatment was instituted. Both patients were hemizygous for two AVPR2 variants predicted in silico to affect AVPR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. A minigene assay revealed that the novel AVPR2 c.276A>G mutation creates a novel splice acceptor site leading to 5' truncation of AVPR2 exon 2 in HEK293 human kidney cells. Both patients have been treated with high-dose DDAVP with a remarkable improvement of their symptoms and accelerated linear growth and weight gain. We present here a unique case of partial X-linked NDI due to an AVPR2 splice site mutation; patients with diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology may harbor splice site mutations that are initially underestimated in their pathogenicity on sequence analysis. • X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by AVPR2 mutations, and disease severity can vary depending on the functional effect of the mutation. What is New: • We demonstrate here that a splice site mutation in AVPR2 leads to partial X-linked NDI in two brothers. • Treatment with high-dose DDAVP led to improvement of polyuria and polydipsia, weight gain, and growth.

  15. Clinical guidelines for management of diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Cristina; del Pozo, Carlos; Villabona, Carles

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water metabolism and regulation of vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are common complications of pituitary surgery. The scarcity of studies comparing different treatment and monitoring strategies for these disorders and the lack of prior clinical guidelines makes it difficult to provide recommendations following a methodology based on grades of evidence. This study reviews the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH secretion after pituitary surgery, and is intended to serve as a guide for their diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

  16. Myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome with peculiar change in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Sano, Soichi; Yamagami, Keiko; Morikawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Katsunobu

    2010-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) could occurs in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the neurohypophysis or some other reason and it is closely associated with abnormalities of chromosome 7. We report a case of MDS with abnormalities of chromosome 7, presenting as CDI followed by deterioration of polyuria and hyponatremia with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrically enhanced lesions in the hypothalamus. Fludrocortisone treatment normalized his serum sodium level and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) was suspected.

  17. Proximal tubular dysfunction associated with tenofovir and didanosine causing Fanconi syndrome and diabetes insipidus: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Irizarry-Alvarado, Joan M; Dwyer, Jamie P; Brumble, Lisa M; Alvarez, Salvador; Mendez, Julio C

    2009-03-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with HIV/AIDS in whom Fanconi syndrome and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus developed secondary to use of an antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine. These patients presented with a history of polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, anorexia, and wasting. Interestingly, 1 patient was not taking protease inhibitors. This response is a well-documented yet uncommon complication of tenofovir use in the HIV population. We recommend continued monitoring for renal toxicity when using NRTI combination of tenofovir and didanosine.

  18. From idiopathic diabetes insipidus to neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis--an unusual presentation and progression of disease.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Rachel M; Nicolin, Gary; Kennedy, Charles; Joy, Harriet; Davies, Justin H

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in childhood and has a wide-ranging aetiology including the involvement of uncontrolled proliferation of dendritic cells in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). DI may manifest as a sequela of multisystem LCH disease involving skin, bone, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. In very rare cases patients diagnosed with LCH exhibit neurodegenerative changes, such as severe ataxia, tremor, dysarthria and intellectual impairment. We report a 2 1/2-year-old boy who presented initially with apparent idiopathic DI, developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency and progressive neurological deterioration secondary to neurodegenerative LCH.

  19. Transient polyuria related to central diabetes insipidus caused by lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis in a patient treated for Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masanori; Sato, Ai; Nishio, Shin-ichi; Uehara, Takeshi; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of weight loss, finger tremor, thirst, polydipsia and increased urinary frequency. He was diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the enlarged posterior pituitary with thickened stalk. Histological examination obtained from biopsy of the pituitary revealed lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. He received treatment with thiamazole (MMI) for GD and desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) for CDI. However, DDAVP administration could be discontinued as GD was gradually improved. This course indicates that not only the recovered renal response to arginine-vasopressin but also the immunomodulative effects of MMI might attribute to the improvement of polyuria.

  20. Pathogenesis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to chronic administration of lithium in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, S; Kusano, E; Yusufi, A N; Murayama, N; Dousa, T P

    1985-01-01

    A polyuric syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a frequent consequence of prolonged administration of lithium (Li) salts. Studies in the past, mainly the acute and in vitro experiments, indicated that Li ions can inhibit hydroosmotic effect of [8-arginine]vasopressin (AVP) at the step of cAMP generation in vitro. However, the pathogenesis of the NDI due to chronic oral administration of low therapeutic doses of Li salts is not yet clarified. We conducted a comprehensive study to clarify the mechanism by which Li administered orally for several weeks induces polyuria and NDI in rats. Albino rats consuming a diet which contained Li (60 mmol/kg) for 4 wk developed marked polyuria and polydipsia; at the end of 4 wk the plasma Li was 0.7 +/- 0.09 mM (mean +/- SEM; n = 36). Li-treated rats had a significantly decreased (-33%) tissue osmolality in papilla and greatly reduced cortico-papillary gradient of urea (cortex--43%; medulla--64%; papilla--74%). Plasma urea was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower in Li-treated rats (5.4 +/- 0.2 mM) compared with controls (6.8 +/- 0.3 mM). Medullary collecting tubules (MCT) and papillary collecting ducts (PCD) microdissected from Li-treated animals had higher content of protein than MCT and PCD from the control rats. The cAMP accumulation in response to AVP added in vitro was significantly (delta = -60%) reduced. Also, the cAMP accumulation in MCT and PCD after incubation with forskolin was markedly lower in Li-treated rats. Addition of 0.5 mM 1-methyl,3-isobutyl-xanthine did not restore the cAMP accumulation in response to AVP and forskolin in MCT from Li-treated animals. In collecting tubule segments from polyuric rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro homozygotes) the AVP-dependent cAMP accumulation was not diminished. The activity of adenylate cyclase (AdC) in MCT of Li-treated rats, both the basal and the activity stimulated by AVP, forskolin, or fluoride, was significantly (delta

  1. Defective Store-Operated Calcium Entry Causes Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Mamenko, Mykola; Dhande, Isha; Tomilin, Viktor; Zaika, Oleg; Boukelmoune, Nabila; Zhu, Yaming; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Pochynyuk, Oleh; Doris, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the mechanism by which extracellular signals elicit prolonged intracellular calcium elevation to drive changes in fundamental cellular processes. Here, we investigated the role of SOCE in the regulation of renal water reabsorption, using the inbred rat strain SHR-A3 as an animal model with disrupted SOCE. We found that SHR-A3, but not SHR-B2, have a novel truncating mutation in the gene encoding stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), the endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor that triggers SOCE. Balance studies revealed increased urine volume, hypertonic plasma, polydipsia, and impaired urinary concentrating ability accompanied by elevated circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in SHR-A3 compared with SHR-B2. Isolated, split-open collecting ducts (CD) from SHR-A3 displayed decreased basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and a major defect in SOCE. Consequently, AVP failed to induce the sustained intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization that requires SOCE in CD cells from SHR-A3. This effect decreased the abundance of aquaporin 2 and enhanced its intracellular retention, suggesting impaired sensitivity of the CD to AVP in SHR-A3. Stim1 knockdown in cultured mpkCCDc14 cells reduced SOCE and basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and prevented AVP-induced translocation of aquaporin 2, further suggesting the effects in SHR-A3 result from the expression of truncated STIM1. Overall, these results identify a novel mechanism of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and uncover a role of SOCE in renal water handling. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

    2014-03-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  3. CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LONG-TERM COURSE IN A LARGE COHORT OF ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Masri-Iraqi, Hiba; Hirsch, Dania; Herzberg, Dana; Lifshitz, Avner; Tsvetov, Gloria; Benbassat, Carlos; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-22

    Purpose Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare heterogeneous condition with various underlying causes. This study sought to increase the still-limited data on the clinical characteristics and long-term course in adults diagnosed with CDI. Methods Data on demographics, presentation, imaging findings, affected pituitary axes, treatment, and complications were collected retrospectively from the files of 70 adult patients with CDI followed at a referral endocrine clinic. Results 40 women and 30 men were included. Mean age was 46.8±15 years at the time of this study and 29.3±20 years at CDI diagnosis. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed in childhood. Forty patients (57%) acquired CDI following surgery. Main sellar pathologies were: craniopharyngioma, 17 patients (11 diagnosed in childhood); Langerhans histiocytosis, 10 patients (5 diagnosed in childhood); 7 patients (all diagnosed as adults) had a growth-hormone-secreting adenoma; twelve patients (17%; 6 diagnosed in childhood) had idiopathic CDI. At least one anterior pituitary axis was affected in 73% of the cohort: 59% had growth hormone deficiency, 56% hypogonadism, 55% central hypothyroidism, 44% ACTH-cortisol deficiency. Patients with post-operative/trauma CDI (n=44) tended to have multiple anterior pituitary axes deficits compared to the non-surgical group of patients. All patients were treated with vasopressin preparations, mostly nasal spray. Hyponatremia developed in 32 patients, more in women and was severe (<125 mEq/l) in 10. Hypernatremia (>150 mEq/l) was noticed in 5 patients. Overall, the calculated complication rate was 22/1250 treatment-years. Conclusions Most adult patients with CDI have anterior pituitary dysfunction. Stability is usually achieved with long-term treatment. Women were more susceptible to desmopressin complications, albeit with an overall relatively low complication rate.

  4. Prasugrel suppresses development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, János; Brandes, Anna U; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Carlson, Noel G; Müller, Christa E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2017-02-23

    Previously, we localized ADP-activated P2Y12 receptor (R) in rodent kidney and showed that its blockade by clopidogrel bisulfate (CLPD) attenuates lithium (Li)-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here, we evaluated the effect of prasugrel (PRSG) administration on Li-induced NDI in mice. Both CLPD and PRSG belong to the thienopyridine class of ADP receptor antagonists. Groups of age-matched adult male B6D2 mice (N = 5/group) were fed either regular rodent chow (CNT), or with added LiCl (40 mmol/kg chow) or PRSG in drinking water (10 mg/kg bw/day) or a combination of LiCl and PRSG for 14 days and then euthanized. Water intake and urine output were determined and blood and kidney tissues were collected and analyzed. PRSG administration completely suppressed Li-induced polydipsia and polyuria and significantly prevented Li-induced decreases in AQP2 protein abundance in renal cortex and medulla. However, PRSG either alone or in combination with Li did not have a significant effect on the protein abundances of NKCC2 or NCC in the cortex and/or medulla. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that PRSG administration prevented Li-induced alterations in cellular disposition of AQP2 protein in medullary collecting ducts. Serum Li, Na, and osmolality were not affected by the administration of PRSG. Similar to CLPD, PRSG administration had no effect on Li-induced increase in urinary Na excretion. However, unlike CLPD, PRSG did not augment Li-induced increase in urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) excretion. Taken together, these data suggest that the pharmacological inhibition of P2Y12-R by the thienopyridine group of drugs may potentially offer therapeutic benefits in Li-induced NDI.

  5. Role of adenylyl cyclase 6 in the development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Kristensen, Tina Bøgelund; Brooks, Heddwen L; Kohan, Donald E; Rieg, Timo; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-04-06

    Psychiatric patients treated with lithium (Li(+)) may develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Although the etiology of Li(+)-induced NDI (Li-NDI) is poorly understood, it occurs partially due to reduced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the kidney collecting ducts. A mechanism postulated for this is that Li(+) inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, leading to decreased cAMP, reduced AQP2 abundance, and less membrane targeting. We hypothesized that Li-NDI would not develop in mice lacking AC6. Whole-body AC6 knockout (AC6(-/-)) mice and potentially novel connecting tubule/principal cell-specific AC6 knockout (AC6(loxloxCre)) mice had approximately 50% lower urine osmolality and doubled water intake under baseline conditions compared with controls. Dietary Li(+) administration increased water intake and reduced urine osmolality in control, AC6(-/-), and AC6(loxloxCre) mice. Consistent with AC6(-/-) mice, medullary AQP2 and pS256-AQP2 abundances were lower in AC6(loxloxCre) mice compared with controls under standard conditions, and levels were further reduced after Li(+) administration. AC6(loxloxCre) and control mice had a similar increase in the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in response to Li(+). However, AC6(loxloxCre) mice had a higher number of H(+)-ATPase B1 subunit-positive cells under standard conditions and after Li(+) administration. Collectively, AC6 has a minor role in Li-NDI development but may be important for determining the intercalated cell-to-principal cell ratio.

  6. Hypercalcemia induces targeted autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 at the onset of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Boonkrai, Chatikorn; Somparn, Poorichaya; Uawithya, Panapat; Chomanee, Nusara; Payne, D Michael; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2017-05-01

    Hypercalcemia can cause renal dysfunction such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the mechanisms underlying hypercalcemia-induced NDI are not well understood. To elucidate the early molecular changes responsible for this disorder, we employed mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) isolated from parathyroid hormone-treated rats at onset of hypercalcemia-induced NDI. Forty-one proteins, including the water channel aquaporin-2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the downregulated proteins were associated with cytoskeletal protein binding, regulation of actin filament polymerization, and cell-cell junctions. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblot studies confirmed the downregulation of 16 proteins identified in the initial proteomic analysis and in additional experiments using a vitamin D treatment model of hypercalcemia-induced NDI. Evaluation of transcript levels and estimated half-life of the downregulated proteins suggested enhanced protein degradation as the possible regulatory mechanism. Electron microscopy showed defective intercellular junctions and autophagy in the IMCD cells from both vitamin D- and parathyroid hormone-treated rats. A significant increase in the number of autophagosomes was confirmed by immunofluorescence labeling of LC3. Colocalization of LC3 and Lamp1 with aquaporin-2 and other downregulated proteins was found in both models. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed aquaporin-2 in autophagosomes in IMCD cells from both hypercalcemia models. Finally, parathyroid hormone withdrawal reversed the NDI phenotype, accompanied by termination of aquaporin-2 autophagic degradation and normalization of both nonphoshorylated and S256-phosphorylated aquaporin-2 levels. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins plays an important role in the initial mechanism of hypercalcemic-induced NDI.

  7. Aliskiren Increases Aquaporin-2 Expression and Attenuates Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Zhang, Tiezheng; Feng, Pinning; Qiu, Miaojuan; Liu, Qiaojuan; Li, Suchun; Zheng, Peili; Kong, Yonglun; Levi, Moshe; Li, Chunling; Wang, Weidong

    2017-02-22

    The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren has been shown to retain and persist in medullary collecting ducts even after treatment was discontinued, suggesting a new mechanism of action for this drug. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether aliskiren regulates renal aquaporin expression in the collecting ducts and improves urinary concentrating defect induced by lithium in mice. The mice were either fed with normal chow or LiCl diet (40mM/kg dry food/day for 4 days and 20mM/kg dry food/day for last 3 days) for seven days. Some mice were intraperitoneally injected with aliskiren (50mg/kg BW/day in saline). Aliskiren significantly increased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney inner medulla in mice. In inner medulla collecting duct cell suspension, aliskiren markedly increased AQP2 and pS256-AQP2 protein abundance which was significantly inhibited either by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL-12330A or by PKA inhibitor H89, indicating an involvement of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in aliskiren-induced increased AQP2 expression. Aliskiren treatment improved urinary concentrating defect in lithium-treated mice, and partially prevented the decrease of AQP2 and pS256-AQP2 protein abundance in inner medulla of the kidney. In conclusion, the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren upregulates AQP2 protein expression in inner medullary collecting duct principal cells and prevents lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) likely via cAMP-PKA pathways.

  8. Role of adenylyl cyclase 6 in the development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Kristensen, Tina Bøgelund; Brooks, Heddwen L.; Kohan, Donald E.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric patients treated with lithium (Li+) may develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Although the etiology of Li+-induced NDI (Li-NDI) is poorly understood, it occurs partially due to reduced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the kidney collecting ducts. A mechanism postulated for this is that Li+ inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, leading to decreased cAMP, reduced AQP2 abundance, and less membrane targeting. We hypothesized that Li-NDI would not develop in mice lacking AC6. Whole-body AC6 knockout (AC6–/–) mice and potentially novel connecting tubule/principal cell–specific AC6 knockout (AC6loxloxCre) mice had approximately 50% lower urine osmolality and doubled water intake under baseline conditions compared with controls. Dietary Li+ administration increased water intake and reduced urine osmolality in control, AC6–/–, and AC6loxloxCre mice. Consistent with AC6–/– mice, medullary AQP2 and pS256-AQP2 abundances were lower in AC6loxloxCre mice compared with controls under standard conditions, and levels were further reduced after Li+ administration. AC6loxloxCre and control mice had a similar increase in the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen–positive cells in response to Li+. However, AC6loxloxCre mice had a higher number of H+-ATPase B1 subunit–positive cells under standard conditions and after Li+ administration. Collectively, AC6 has a minor role in Li-NDI development but may be important for determining the intercalated cell–to–principal cell ratio. PMID:28405619

  9. Surgical biopsies in patients with central diabetes insipidus and thickened pituitary stalks.

    PubMed

    Jian, Fangfang; Bian, Liuguan; Sun, Shouyue; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Yufan; Ma, Qinyun; Miao, Fei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Sun, Qingfang

    2014-09-01

    Thickened pituitary stalks (TPSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) result from diverse pathologies; therefore, it is essential to make specific diagnoses for clinical decision-making. The diagnoses and indications for surgical biopsies in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and TPSs are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Thirty-seven patients with CDI and TPSs were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age at the diagnosis of CDI was 29.0 ± 15.9 years (range 8.0-63.3), and the median duration of follow-up was 5.5 ± 2.8 years (range 0.7-13.0). Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were documented in 26 (70.3 %) patients. All patients had a TPS on MRI at the diagnosis of CDI, and 21 (56.8 %) patients exhibited radiological changes during the follow-up. Of these 21 patients, 11 exhibited increases in the thickness of the stalk, and two patients exhibited reversals of the TPSs. Involvements of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, basal ganglia or supersellar, and pineal gland were found in four, three, one, and 1 patient, respectively. Ultimately, clear diagnoses were established in 17 patients who underwent biopsies, nine of whom had germinomas, six of whom had Langerhans cell histiocytosis, one of whom had a granular cell tumor, and one of whom had Erdheim-Chester disease. Patients with CDI and TPSs should submit to periodic clinic follow-ups with serial MRI assessments to establish anterior pituitary deficiencies and to detect radiological progressions that are appropriate for surgical biopsies. Endoscopic-assisted microsurgery via the supraorbital keyhole approach is a good choice for the biopsy of pituitary stalk lesions.

  10. Targeting renal purinergic signalling for the treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kishore, B K; Carlson, N G; Ecelbarger, C M; Kohan, D E; Müller, C E; Nelson, R D; Peti-Peterdi, J; Zhang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Lithium still retains its critical position in the treatment of bipolar disorder by virtue of its ability to prevent suicidal tendencies. However, chronic use of lithium is often limited by the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a debilitating condition. Lithium-induced NDI is due to resistance of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP), leading to polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Purinergic signalling mediated by extracellular nucleotides (ATP/UTP), acting via P2Y receptors, opposes the action of AVP on renal collecting duct (CD) by decreasing the cellular cAMP and thus AQP2 protein levels. Taking a cue from this phenomenon, we discovered the potential involvement of ATP/UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor in lithium-induced NDI in rats and showed that P2Y2 receptor knockout mice are significantly resistant to Li-induced polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Extension of these studies revealed that ADP-activated P2Y12 receptor is expressed in the kidney, and its irreversible blockade by the administration of clopidogrel bisulphate (Plavix(®)) ameliorates Li-induced NDI in rodents. Parallel in vitro studies showed that P2Y12 receptor blockade by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 sensitizes CD to the action of AVP. Thus, our studies unravelled the potential beneficial effects of targeting P2Y2 or P2Y12 receptors to counter AVP resistance in lithium-induced NDI. If established in further studies, our findings may pave the way for the development of better and safer methods for the treatment of NDI by bringing a paradigm shift in the approach from the current therapies that predominantly counter the anti-AVP effects to those that enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to AVP action. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Diabetes Insipidus Contributes to Traumatic Brain Injury Pathology Via CD36 Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Meaghan; Borlongan, Mia C.; Hernandez, Diana; Acosta, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Each year, over one million people in the United States are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of both acute and chronic neuroinflammation follow TBI, coinciding with a robust immune response and activation of the brain’s endogenous repair mechanisms. TBI can lead to endocrine failure as a result of damage to the thalamic region of the brain, evidenced by excessive thirst and polyuria often accompanying TBI. These symptoms indicate the presence of diabetes insipidus (DI), a disruption of water homeostasis due to antidiuretic hormone deficiency. This deficiency accompanies a mechanical or neuroinflammatory damage to the thalamic region during TBI, evidenced by increased expression of inflammatory microglial marker MHCII in this brain region. Excessive thirst and urinations, which are typical DI symptoms, in our chronic TBI rats also suggest a close connection between TBI and DI. We seek to bridge this gap between TBI and DI through investigation of the Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) receptor. This receptor is associated with Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) deregulation, proinflammatory events, and innate immunity regulation. We posit that CD36 exacerbates TBI through immune activation and subsequent neuroinflammation. Indeed, scientific evidence already supports pathological interaction of CD36 in other neurological disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. We propose that DI contributes to TBI pathology via CD36 neuroinflammation. Use of CD36 as a biomarker may provide insights into treatment and disease pathology of TBI and DI. This unexplored avenue of research holds potential for a better understanding and treatment of TBI and DI. PMID:24021616

  12. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice caused by deleting COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peijun P.; Cao, Xiao R.; Qu, Jing; Volk, Ken A.; Kirby, Patricia; Williamson, Roger A.; Stokes, John B.; Yang, Baoli

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the hormonal regulation of water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-2 water channel (Aqp2) of the collecting duct (CD). Vasopressin induces redistribution of Aqp2 from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of CD principal cells, accompanied by increased water permeability. Mutations of AQP2 gene in humans cause both recessive and dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disease in which the kidney is unable to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin. In this study, we generated a line of mice with the distal COOH-terminal tail of the Aqp2 deleted (Aqp2Δ230), including the protein kinase A phosphorylation site (S256), but still retaining the putative apical localization signal (221–229) at the COOH-terminal. Mice heterozygous for the truncation appear normal. Homozygotes are viable to adulthood, with reduced urine concentrating capacity, increased urine output, decreased urine osmolality, and increased daily water consumption. Desmopressin increased urine osmolality in wild-type mice but had no effect on Aqp2Δ230/Δ230 mice. Kidneys from affected mice showed CD and pelvis dilatation and papillary atrophy. By immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses using antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the protein Aqp2 Δ230/Δ230 mice had a markedly reduced protein abundance. Expression of the truncated protein in MDCK cells was consistent with a small amount of functional expression but no stimulation. Thus we have generated a mouse model of NDI that may be useful in studying the physiology and potential therapy of this disease. PMID:17229678

  13. 4-PBA improves lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by attenuating ER stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peili; Lin, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Luo, Renfei; Zhang, Tiezheng; Hu, Shan; Feng, Pinning; Liang, Xinling; Li, Chunling; Wang, Weidong

    2016-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in some types of glomerular and tubular disorders. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the role of ER stress in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and to investigate whether attenuation of ER stress by 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) improves urinary concentrating defect in lithium-treated rats. Wistar rats received lithium (40 mmol/kg food), 4-PBA (320 mg/kg body wt by gavage every day), or no treatment (control) for 2 wk, and they were dehydrated for 24 h before euthanasia. Lithium treatment resulted in increased urine output and decreased urinary osmolality, which was significantly improved by 4-PBA. 4-PBA also prevented reduced protein expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), pS256-AQP2, and pS261-AQP2 in the inner medulla of kidneys from lithium-treated rats after 24-h dehydration. Lithium treatment resulted in increased expression of ER stress markers in the inner medulla, which was associated with dilated cisternae and expansion of ER in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) principal cells. Confocal immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of a molecular chaperone, binding IgG protein (BiP), with AQP2 in principal cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased intracellular expression of BiP and decreased AQP2 expression in IMCD principal cells of kidneys from lithium-treated rats. 4-PBA attenuated expression of ER stress markers and recovered ER morphology. In IMCD suspensions isolated from lithium-treated rats, 4-PBA incubation was also associated with increased AQP2 expression and ameliorated ER stress. In conclusion, in experimental lithium-induced NDI, 4-PBA improved the urinary concentrating defect and increased AQP2 expression, likely via attenuating ER stress in IMCD principal cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Absence of PKC-Alpha Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae H.; Himmel, Nathaniel J.; Redd, Sara K.; Pulous, Fadi E.; Rogers, Richard T.; Black, Lauren N.; Hong, Seongun M.; von Bergen, Tobias N.; Blount, Mitsi A.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, an effective antipsychotic, induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) in ∼40% of patients. The decreased capacity to concentrate urine is likely due to lithium acutely disrupting the cAMP pathway and chronically reducing urea transporter (UT-A1) and water channel (AQP2) expression in the inner medulla. Targeting an alternative signaling pathway, such as PKC-mediated signaling, may be an effective method of treating lithium-induced polyuria. PKC-alpha null mice (PKCα KO) and strain-matched wild type (WT) controls were treated with lithium for 0, 3 or 5 days. WT mice had increased urine output and lowered urine osmolality after 3 and 5 days of treatment whereas PKCα KO mice had no change in urine output or concentration. Western blot analysis revealed that AQP2 expression in medullary tissues was lowered after 3 and 5 days in WT mice; however, AQP2 was unchanged in PKCα KO. Similar results were observed with UT-A1 expression. Animals were also treated with lithium for 6 weeks. Lithium-treated WT mice had 19-fold increased urine output whereas treated PKCα KO animals had a 4-fold increase in output. AQP2 and UT-A1 expression was lowered in 6 week lithium-treated WT animals whereas in treated PKCα KO mice, AQP2 was only reduced by 2-fold and UT-A1 expression was unaffected. Urinary sodium, potassium and calcium were elevated in lithium-fed WT but not in lithium-fed PKCα KO mice. Our data show that ablation of PKCα preserves AQP2 and UT-A1 protein expression and localization in lithium-induced NDI, and prevents the development of the severe polyuria associated with lithium therapy. PMID:25006961

  15. Targeting Renal Purinergic Signalling for the Treatment of Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, B. K.; Carlson, N. G.; Ecelbarger, C. M.; Kohan, D. E.; Müller, C. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Peti-Peterdi, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium still retains its critical position in the treatment of bipolar disorder by virtue of its ability to prevent suicidal tendencies. However, chronic use of lithium is often limited by the development nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a debilitating condition. Lithium-induced NDI is due to resistance of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP), leading to polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Purinergic signalling mediated by extracellular nucleotides (ATP/UTP), acting via P2Y receptors, opposes the action of AVP on renal collecting duct (CD) by decreasing the cellular cAMP and thus AQP2 protein levels. Taking a cue from this phenomenon, we discovered the potential involvement of ATP/UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor in lithium-induced NDI in rats, and showed that P2Y2 receptor knockout mice are significantly resistant to Li-induced polyuria, natriuresis and kaliuresis. Extension of these studies revealed that ADP-activated P2Y12 receptor is expressed in the kidney, and its irreversible blockade by the administration of clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix®) ameliorates Li-induced NDI in rodents. Parallel in vitro studies showed that P2Y12 receptor blockade by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 sensitizes CD to the action of AVP. Thus, our studies unraveled the potential beneficial effects of targeting P2Y2 or P2Y12 receptors to counter AVP resistance in lithium-induced NDI. If established in further studies, our findings may pave the way for the development of better and safer methods for the treatment of NDI by bringing a paradigm shift in the approach from the current therapies that predominantly counter the anti-AVP effects to those that enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to AVP action. PMID:25877068

  16. Aquaporin-2: new mutations responsible for autosomal-recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus-update and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G; El Tarazi, Abdulah; Matar, Jessica; Lussier, Yoann; Arthus, Marie-Françoise; Lonergan, Michèle; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Bissonnette, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    It is clinically useful to distinguish between two types of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): a 'pure' type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients with congenital NDI bearing mutations in the vasopressin 2 receptor gene, AVPR2, or in the aquaporin-2 gene, AQP2, have a pure NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. Patients with hereditary hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies have a complex phenotype with loss of water and ions. They have polyhydramnios, hypercalciuria and hypo- or isosthenuria and were found to bear KCNJ1 (ROMK) and SLC12A1 (NKCC2) mutations. Patients with polyhydramnios, profound polyuria, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis and sensorineural deafness were found to bear BSND mutations. These clinical phenotypes demonstrate the critical importance of the proteins ROMK, NKCC2 and Barttin to transfer NaCl in the medullary interstitium and thereby to generate, together with urea, a hypertonic milieu. This editorial describes two new developments: (i) the genomic information provided by the sequencing of the AQP2 gene is key to the routine care of these patients, and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families and (ii) the expression of AQP2 mutants in Xenopus oocytes and in polarized renal tubular cells recapitulates the clinical phenotypes and reveals a continuum from severe loss of function with urinary osmolalities <150 mOsm/kg H2O to milder defects with urine osmolalities >200 mOsm/kg H2O.

  17. X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: From the ship Hopewell to RFLP studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bichet, D.G.; Lonergan, M.; Arthus, M.F.; Ligier, S.; Kluge, R. ); Hendy, G.N.; Pausova, Z.; Zingg, H.; Morgan, K.; Saenger, P. )

    1992-11-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI; designated 304800 in Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is an X-linked disorder with abnormal renal and extrarenal V[sub 2] vasopression receptor responses. The mutant gene has been mapped to Xq28 by analysis of RFLPs, and tight linkage between DXS52 and DNI has been reported. In 1969, Bode and Crawford proposed, under the term, the Hopewell hypothesis' that most cases in North America could be traced to descendants of Ulster Scots who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1761 on the ship Hopewell. They also suggested a link between this family and a large Mormon pedigree. DNA samples obtained from 13 independent affected families, including 42 members of the Hopewell and Mormon pedigrees, were analyzed with probes in the Xq28 region. Genealogical reconstructions were performed. Linkage between NDI and DXS304 (probe U6:2.spl), DXS305 (St35-691), DXS52 (St14-1), DXS15 (DX13), and F8C (F814) showed no recombination in 12 families, with a maximum lod score of 13.5 for DXS52. A recombinant between NDI and DXS304, DXS305, was identified in one family. The haplotype segregating with the disease in the Hopewell pedigree was not shared by other North American families. PCR analysis of the St14 VNTR allowed the distinction of two alleles that were not distinguishable by Southern analysis. Carrier status was predicted in 24 of 26 at-risk females. The Hopewell hypothesis cannot explain the origin of NDI in many of the North American families, since they have no apparent relationship with the Hopewell earlier settlers, either by haplotype or by genealogical analysis. PCR analysis of the DXS52 VNTR in NDI families is very useful for carrier testing and presymptomatic diagnosis, which can prevent the first manifestations of dehydration. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Acute compensatory adaptation of renal function following contralateral kidney exclusion in Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, D G; Skinner, J

    1978-01-01

    1. The function of the remaining kidney following ligation of a single renal pedicle in anaesthetized rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI) was studied using clearance methods. Values were compared with those obtained in DI rats which had been sham operated. 2. A small increase in the glomerular filtration rate of the remaining kidney was observed, which was statistically significant after 150 min. Increases in effective renal plasma flow were also observed, but these were not statistically significant. 3. The fractional excretion rates of Na and K increased immediately after contralateral kidney ligation; as a result total Na and K excretion rates remained similar to values in sham operated animals with both kidneys intact. 4. Fractional urine flow (V/GFR) increased by approximately 40% after contralateral ligation. It is argued that, since water reabsorption in the diluting segments of the nephron was unlikely to have been reduced, the increase in V/GFR was an indication that fractional fluid reabsorption in the proximal nephron had been inhibited. 5. Clearance determinations showed that the fractional reabsorption of Na in the proximal nephron was similarly reduced after contralateral ligation. However, Na reabsorption in the distal nephron increased, though not by enough to prevent a doubling of fractional sodium excretion. 6. The osmolalities of interstitial fluids obtained from the medulla and papilla of the contralateral kidney 2 hr after unilateral renal pedicle ligation were slightly, but significantly, higher than corresponding values in sham operated rats. This raises the possibility that salt reabsorption in the ascending limb of Henle might be enhanced immediately after contralateral renal exclusion. PMID:722584

  19. Low serum urea level in dehydrated patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Comtois, R; Bertrand, S; Beauregard, H; Vinay, P

    1988-01-01

    Dehydrated patients usually present with an elevated serum urea level, owing in part to increased renal reabsorption of urea mediated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). We carried out a study to examine whether, during dehydration, the variations in the serum urea level could discriminate patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) from those with dehydration not due to CDI. We studied retrospectively 27 episodes of dehydration in 23 patients with CDI and 14 episodes in 14 patients without CDI. The mean serum urea level was 2.9 mmol/L in the CDI group and 15.4 mmol/L in the patients without CDI (p less than 0.001); the mean serum sodium level was 155 mmol/L in both groups. All the patients with CDI had a sodium/urea ratio greater than 24.2, whereas the ratio was less than 21.7 in all the patients without CDI. In the patients with CDI a positive correlation was found between the magnitude of diuresis and the percentage decrease in the serum urea level compared with the level before dehydration (p less than 0.001). In the patients with CDI the serum urea level returned to the level before dehydration after the administration of vasopressin; a striking increase in the clearance of urea, which exceeded the creatinine clearance, was observed during dehydration in the three patients in whom clearance studies were done. The results suggest that serum urea values can be used to distinguish patients dehydrated because of CDI from those with hypertonic dehydration but without ADH deficiency and that during dehydration the net reabsorption of urea is dependent on the renal action of ADH. PMID:3179869

  20. Absence of PKC-alpha attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae H; Himmel, Nathaniel J; Redd, Sara K; Pulous, Fadi E; Rogers, Richard T; Black, Lauren N; Hong, Seongun M; von Bergen, Tobias N; Blount, Mitsi A

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, an effective antipsychotic, induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) in ∼40% of patients. The decreased capacity to concentrate urine is likely due to lithium acutely disrupting the cAMP pathway and chronically reducing urea transporter (UT-A1) and water channel (AQP2) expression in the inner medulla. Targeting an alternative signaling pathway, such as PKC-mediated signaling, may be an effective method of treating lithium-induced polyuria. PKC-alpha null mice (PKCα KO) and strain-matched wild type (WT) controls were treated with lithium for 0, 3 or 5 days. WT mice had increased urine output and lowered urine osmolality after 3 and 5 days of treatment whereas PKCα KO mice had no change in urine output or concentration. Western blot analysis revealed that AQP2 expression in medullary tissues was lowered after 3 and 5 days in WT mice; however, AQP2 was unchanged in PKCα KO. Similar results were observed with UT-A1 expression. Animals were also treated with lithium for 6 weeks. Lithium-treated WT mice had 19-fold increased urine output whereas treated PKCα KO animals had a 4-fold increase in output. AQP2 and UT-A1 expression was lowered in 6 week lithium-treated WT animals whereas in treated PKCα KO mice, AQP2 was only reduced by 2-fold and UT-A1 expression was unaffected. Urinary sodium, potassium and calcium were elevated in lithium-fed WT but not in lithium-fed PKCα KO mice. Our data show that ablation of PKCα preserves AQP2 and UT-A1 protein expression and localization in lithium-induced NDI, and prevents the development of the severe polyuria associated with lithium therapy.

  1. Expression of a dominant negative PKA mutation in the kidney elicits a diabetes insipidus phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Merle L; Yang, Linghai; Su, Thomas; McKnight, G Stanley

    2015-03-15

    PKA plays a critical role in water excretion through regulation of the production and action of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The AVP prohormone is produced in the hypothalamus, where its transcription is regulated by cAMP. Once released into the circulation, AVP stimulates antidiuresis through activation of vasopressin 2 receptors in renal principal cells. Vasopressin 2 receptor activation increases cAMP and activates PKA, which, in turn, phosphorylates aquaporin (AQP)2, triggering apical membrane accumulation, increased collecting duct permeability, and water reabsorption. We used single-minded homolog 1 (Sim1)-Cre recombinase-mediated expression of a dominant negative PKA regulatory subunit (RIαB) to disrupt kinase activity in vivo and assess the role of PKA in fluid homeostasis. RIαB expression gave rise to marked polydipsia and polyuria; however, neither hypothalamic Avp mRNA expression nor urinary AVP levels were attenuated, indicating a primary physiological effect on the kidney. RIαB mice displayed a marked deficit in urinary concentrating ability and greatly reduced levels of AQP2 and phospho-AQP2. Dehydration induced Aqp2 mRNA in the kidney of both control and RIαB-expressing mice, but AQP2 protein levels were still reduced in RIαB-expressing mutants, and mice were unable to fully concentrate their urine and conserve water. We conclude that partial PKA inhibition in the kidney leads to posttranslational effects that reduce AQP2 protein levels and interfere with apical membrane localization. These findings demonstrate a distinct physiological role for PKA signaling in both short- and long-term regulation of AQP2 and characterize a novel mouse model of diabetes insipidus.

  2. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice caused by deleting COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peijun P; Cao, Xiao R; Qu, Jing; Volk, Ken A; Kirby, Patricia; Williamson, Roger A; Stokes, John B; Yang, Baoli

    2007-05-01

    In mammals, the hormonal regulation of water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-2 water channel (Aqp2) of the collecting duct (CD). Vasopressin induces redistribution of Aqp2 from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of CD principal cells, accompanied by increased water permeability. Mutations of AQP2 gene in humans cause both recessive and dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disease in which the kidney is unable to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin. In this study, we generated a line of mice with the distal COOH-terminal tail of the Aqp2 deleted (Aqp2(Delta230)), including the protein kinase A phosphorylation site (S256), but still retaining the putative apical localization signal (221-229) at the COOH-terminal. Mice heterozygous for the truncation appear normal. Homozygotes are viable to adulthood, with reduced urine concentrating capacity, increased urine output, decreased urine osmolality, and increased daily water consumption. Desmopressin increased urine osmolality in wild-type mice but had no effect on Aqp2(Delta230/Delta230) mice. Kidneys from affected mice showed CD and pelvis dilatation and papillary atrophy. By immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses using antibody against the NH(2)-terminal region of the protein Aqp2(Delta230/Delta230) mice had a markedly reduced protein abundance. Expression of the truncated protein in MDCK cells was consistent with a small amount of functional expression but no stimulation. Thus we have generated a mouse model of NDI that may be useful in studying the physiology and potential therapy of this disease.

  3. Central Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy With or Without Hypothalamic Adipsic Hypernatremia Syndrome: Early Identification and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Djermane, Adel; Elmaleh, Monique; Simon, Dominique; Poidvin, Amélie; Carel, Jean-Claude; Léger, Juliane

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal central diabetes insipidus (CDI) with or without adipsia is a very rare complication of various complex hypothalamic disorders. It is associated with greater morbidity and a high risk of developing both hypernatremia and hyponatremia, due to the condition itself or secondary to treatment with vasopressin analogs or fluid administration. Its outcomes have yet to be evaluated. To investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with neonatal-onset CDI or adipsic CDI with hypernatremia. All patients diagnosed with neonatal CDI in a university hospital-based observational study and followed between 2005 and 2015 were included and analyzed retrospectively. The various causes of CDI were grouped. Clinical outcome and comorbidities were analyzed. Ten of the 12 patients had an underlying condition with brain malformations: optic nerve hypoplasia (n = 3), septo-optic dysplasia (n = 2), semilobar holoprosencephaly (n = 1), ectopic neurohypophysis (n = 3), and unilateral absence of the internal carotid artery (n = 1). The other two were idiopathic cases. During the median follow-up period of 7.8 (4.9-16.8) years, all but one patient displayed anterior pituitary deficiency. Transient CDI was found in three (25%) patients for whom a posterior pituitary hyperintense signal was observed with (n = 2) and without (n = 1) structural hypothalamic pituitary abnormalities, and with no other underlying cerebral malformations. Patients with permanent CDI with persistent adipsia (n = 4) and without adipsia (n = 5) required adequate fluid intake and various doses of desamino-D-arginine-8-vasopressin. Those with adipsia were more likely to develop hypernatremia (45 vs 33%), hyponatremia (16 vs 4%) (P < .0001), and severe neurodevelopmental delay (P < .05) than those without adipsia. Comorbidities were common. The underlying cause remains unknown at the age of 23 years for one patient with CDI and normal thirst. Neonatal CDI may be transient or permanent. These vulnerable patients have

  4. Pediatric Central Diabetes Insipidus: Brain Malformations Are Common and Few Patients Have Idiopathic Disease.

    PubMed

    Werny, David; Elfers, Clinton; Perez, Francisco A; Pihoker, Catherine; Roth, Christian L

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric cohorts of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) have shown varying prevalences for the different causes of CDI, including idiopathic. The objective of the study was to determine the causes of CDI at a pediatric tertiary care center and to characterize their clinical outcomes. All patients with CDI at Seattle Children's Hospital were identified and retrospectively analyzed. From 2000 to 2013, 147 patients with CDI were encountered (mean age 7 y at diagnosis, mean follow-up 6.2 y). The different causes of CDI were grouped, and age of diagnosis, anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (APHDs), and presence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS) were analyzed. Patients with idiopathic CDI had infundibular thickening measured using a systematic method. Brain malformations caused 24% of CDI cases, and 12.2% were idiopathic. Four of 22 patients with initially idiopathic CDI were diagnosed with an underlying condition, none occurring later than 2.5 years from diagnosis. APHDs were as common in the brain malformation group as they were in the tumor/infiltrative group (72% vs 85%; P = .09). The PPBS was present in at least 13% of patients and in 19% of those with brain malformations. Patients with idiopathic CDI and stalk thickening on the initial magnetic resonance imaging were more likely to have an underlying diagnosis (40% vs 0%; P = .03). Brain malformations were a more common cause of pediatric CDI than previously reported. These patients have a high rate of APHDs, and many have persistence of the PPBS. Idiopathic CDI is an uncommon diagnosis, and none of our patients were diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis or germinoma for more than 3 years from CDI diagnosis. Providers can consider less frequent magnetic resonance imaging after this time point. A systematic method of infundibular measurement on the initial magnetic resonance imaging may predict an underlying germinoma or Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  5. The McGill Geriatric Lithium-Induced Diabetes Insipidus Clinical Study (McGLIDICS).

    PubMed

    Rej, Soham; Segal, Marilyn; Low, Nancy C P; Mucsi, Istvan; Holcroft, Christina; Shulman, Kenneth; Looper, Karl

    2014-06-01

    Despite being a common and potentially serious condition, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) remains poorly understood in older lithium users. Our main objective was to compare the prevalence of NDI symptoms and decreased urine osmolality ([UOsm] < 300 milli-Osmoles [mOsm/kg]) among geriatric and adult lithium users. We also assessed NDI symptoms, serum sodium (Na+), and urine specific gravity (USG) as possible surrogate measures of decreased UOsm, and ascertained whether potential etiologic factors independently correlated with decreased UOsm. This was a cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive outpatients treated with lithium from 6 tertiary care clinics, of which 45 were geriatric (aged 65 years and older) and 55 adult (aged 18 to 64 years). Patients completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent laboratory tests, including UOsm, serum Na+, and USG. Geriatric and adult lithium users had similar rates of decreased UOsm (12.5%, compared with 17.9%, P = 0.74), but geriatric patients reported less symptoms (P < 0.05). Although UOsm did not correlate with symptoms or current serum Na+, USG of less than 1.010 was suggestive of UOsm of less than 300 mOsm/kg. Age, lithium duration, and serum lithium level were independently associated with UOsm. The prevalence of decreased UOsm is similar in geriatric and adult lithium users, but older patients are less likely to report urinary and thirst symptoms. Although subjective symptoms do not correlate with UOsm, USG may be a cost-efficient clinical surrogate measure for UOsm. We suggest clinicians increase their vigilance for decreased UOsm, especially in lithium users with advanced age, longer duration of lithium exposure, and higher lithium levels. This may potentially prevent lithium intoxication, falls, hypernatremic events, and renal dysfunction.

  6. Clinical Predictors of Diabetes Insipidus After Transcranial Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songquan; Li, Deling; Ni, Ming; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Qing; He, Jue; Jia, Guijun

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a well-known complication of transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery. However, the risk factors for DI after transcranial surgery have not been clarified. In this study, the clinical parameters for predicting DI after transcranial surgery were investigated. The perioperative records of 90 patients who underwent transcranial (TC) surgery at the authors' institution between November 2011 and March 2013 were chosen from 1657 patients with pituitary adenoma and retrospectively analyzed. The degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus were assessed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Immediate postoperative DI was found in 30 patients (33.3%). Persistent DI was noted in 11 patients (12.6%). Compared with patients in the nonpostoperative DI group, those with postoperative DI had a higher degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (P < 0.001). In a binary logistic regression analysis, the degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (odds ratio [OR], 3.079; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.600-5.925; P = 0.001) had a significant positive correlation with immediate postoperative DI, as well as postoperative hemorrhage (OR, 6.235, 95% CI, 1.457-26.689; P = 0.014). Postoperative hemorrhage (OR, 4.363; 95% CI, 1.021-18.647; P = 0.047) showed a positive correlation with permanent DI, as well as the degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (OR, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.005-5.427; P = 0.049). The degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus assessed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging may help to predict postoperative DI. Postoperative hemorrhage might increase the incidence of postoperative DI, whether it is immediate postoperative DI or permanent DI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurring dominant-negative mutations in the AVP-NPII gene cause neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, D.R.; Phillips, J.A.; Krishnamani, M.R.S.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a familial form of arginine vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) deficiency that is usually manifest in early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia and an antidiuretic response to exogenous vasopressin or its analogs. The phenotype is postulated to arise from gliosis and depletion of the magnocellular neurons that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. ADNDI is caused by heterozygosity for a variety of mutations in the AVP-NPII gene which encodes vasopressin, its carrier protein (NPII) and a glycoprotein (copeptin) of unknown function. These mutations include: (1) Ala 19{r_arrow}Thr (G279A) in AVP`s signal peptide, (2) Gly 17{r_arrow}Val (G1740T), (3) Pro 24{r_arrow}Leu (C1761T), (4) Gly 57{r_arrow}Ser (G1859A) and (5) del Glu 47({delta}AGG 1824-26), all of which occur in NPII. In characterizing the AVP-NPII mutations in five non-related ADNDI kindreds, we have detected two kindreds having mutation 1 (G279A), two having mutation 3 (C1761T) and one having mutation 4 (G1859A) without any other allelic changes being detected. Two of these recurring mutations (G279A and G1859A) are transitions that occur at CpG dinucleotides while the third (C1761T) does not. Interestingly, families with the same mutations differed in their ethnicity or in their affected AVP-NPII allele`s associated haplotype of closely linked DNA polymorphisms. Our data indicated that at least three of five known AVP-NPII mutations causing ADNDI tend to recur but the mechanisms by which these dominant-negative mutations cause variable or progressive expression of the ADNDI phenotype remain unclear.

  8. Desmopressin duration of antidiuretic action in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Juul, Kristian Vinter; Bichet, Daniel G; Nørgaard, Jens Peter

    2011-08-01

    The key question answered by this study is whether it is possible to deliver a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic duration of antidiuretic action long enough to ensure adequate antidiuresis with two daily administrations of desmopressin in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). We studied the efficacy and safety of desmopressin i.v. in 13 CDI patients using two 3-way crossover designs, in the doses 30, 60, 125 ng, and 125, 250 and 500 ng. Duration of action, minimum output rate, max osmolality and average osmolality during action (AUC osmolality) were measured every 30 min for the first 2 h during the infusion, and then every hour or every second hour until the urine output rate was greater than 2 ml/kg/30 min. The duration of antidiuretic action was 4, 8 and 11 h, respectively, for 125, 250, and 500 ng, increasing from 250 to 500 ng but for the remaining secondary dynamic efficacy parameters no difference could be detected based on descriptive statistics between the doses 250 and 500 ng, indicating that the upper plateau region of the dose-response curve had been reached. All treatment emergent adverse events were classified as unrelated or unlikely related to trial medication. No serious adverse events occurred. Data on duration of action indicates that it is possible to achieve antidiuretic control with 500 ng i.v. corresponding to 160 μg orodispersible tablets twice daily in CDI patients. Today, the Minirin Melt label recommends the majority of CDI patients a dose of 60 to 120 μg t.i.d.

  9. Juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, atonia of the urinary tract and bladder, and other abnormalities (Wolfram syndrome). A review of 88 cases from the literature with personal observations on 3 new patients.

    PubMed

    Cremers, C W; Wijdeveld, P G; Pinckers, A J

    1977-01-01

    A review of 88 cases from the literature with personal observations on 3 new patients is given of the syndrome featured by juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, atonia of the urinary tract and bladder and other abnormalities. The postmortem in one of our cases is mentioned. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive. The interpretation of the data on diabetes insipidus from the literature and in our three patients is also discussed. It can only be stated that neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can be a component of the syndrome and that in many cases--particularly in the presence of lesions of the efferent urinary tract--the possibility of nephrogenous diabetes insipidus can not be excluded with certainty. It seems probable that the same mechanism can be held responsible for the lesions of the olfactory, optic, vestibular and cochlear nerves, the hypophyseal form of diabetes insipidus, retarded sexual maturation, abnormal pupillary reaction, myelopathy and the electro-encephalographic, electroneurological and electromyographic changes in the Wolfram syndrome. The process underlying this affection of neural structures remains obscure.

  10. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Karras, Alexandre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Furco, André; Bourgarit, Anne; Droz, Dominique; Sereni, Daniel; Legendre, Christophe; Martinez, Frank; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2003-04-15

    We report 3 cases of renal toxicity associated with use of the antiviral agent tenofovir. Renal failure, proximal tubular dysfunction, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus were observed, and, in 2 cases, renal biopsy revealed severe tubular necrosis with characteristic nuclear changes. Patients receiving tenofovir must be monitored closely for early signs of tubulopathy (glycosuria, acidosis, mild increase in the plasma creatinine level, and proteinuria).

  11. Clinical and molecular analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a novel missense mutation in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongfeng; Wang, Binbin; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Chuan; Jin, Chengluo; Zhao, Yakun; Zhu, Qingguo; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Complete physical examination, fluid deprivation, and DDAVP tests were performed in three affected and three healthy members of the family. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of venous blood of these individuals for polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all three coding exons of arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. Seven members of this family were suspected to have symptomatic vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus. The water deprivation test in all the patients confirmed the diagnosis of vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus, with the pedigree demonstrating an autosomal dominant inheritance. Direct sequence analysis revealed a novel mutation (c.193T>A) and a synonymous mutation (c.192C>A) in the AVP-NPII gene. The missense mutation resulted in the substitution of cysteine by serine at a highly conserved codon 65 of exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene in all affected individuals, but not in unaffected members. We concluded that a novel missense mutation in the AVP-NPII gene caused neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in this family, due to impaired neurophysin function as a carrier protein for AVP. The Cys65 is essential for NPII in the formation of a salt bridge with AVP. Presence of this mutation suggests that the portion of the neurophysin peptide encoded by this sequence is important for the normal expression of vasopressin.

  12. Cooperative mechanisms involved in chronic antidiuretic response to bendroflumethiazide in rats with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, S M S; Karimi, Z

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of central diabetes insipidus suggested that thiazides acutely exerted a paradoxical antidiuresis by either indirectly activating volume-homeostatic reflexes to decrease distal fluid-delivery, or directly stimulating distal water-reabsorption. This study investigated whether the direct and indirect actions of bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ) simultaneously cooperated and also whether the renal nerves were involved in inducing long-term antidiuresis in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). BFTZ or vehicle was gavaged into bilateral renal denervated and innervated rats with lithium-induced NDI for 10 days, constituting four groups. At one day before (D0) and one, five and ten days after starting administration of BFTZ or vehicle, rats were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine for 6 hours. BFTZ-treatment in both renal innervated and denervated rats caused equivalent reductions in urine-flow, creatinine clearance, lithium clearance and free-water clearance, but rises in urine-osmolality, fractional proximal reabsorption and fractional distal reabsorption at all days compared to D0, as well as to those of their relevant vehicle-received group. Therefore, the chronic antidiuretic response to BFTZ in conscious NDI rats was exerted through a concomitant cooperation of its direct distal effect of stimulating water-reabsorption and its indirect effect of reducing distal fluid-delivery by activating volume-homeostatic mechanisms, which appeared independent of the renal nerves.

  13. Novel mutations in aquaporin-2 gene in female siblings with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: evidence of disrupted water channel function.

    PubMed

    Goji, K; Kuwahara, M; Gu, Y; Matsuo, M; Marumo, F; Sasaki, S

    1998-09-01

    Novel mutations of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene have been detected in Japanese female siblings with autosomal-recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The patients were compound heterozygote for point mutations at nucleotide position 374 (C374T) and at position 523 (G523A) in exon 2 of the AQP2 gene, resulting in substitution of methionine for threonine at codon 125 (T125M) and arginine for glycine at codon 175 (G175R). The water permeability (Pf) of oocytes injected with wild-type complementary RNA increased 9.0-fold compared with the Pf of water-injected oocytes, whereas the increases in the Pf of oocytes injected with T125M and G175R complementary RNA were only 1.7-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. Immunoblot and immunocytochemistry indicated that the plasma membrane expressions of T125M and G175R AQP2 proteins were comparable to that of the wild-type, suggesting that although neither the T125M nor G175R mutation had a significant effect on plasma membrane expression, they both distorted the structure and function of the aqueous pore of AQP2. These results provide evidence that the nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in patients with T125M and G175R mutations is attributable not to the misrouting of AQP2, but to the disrupted water channel function.

  14. Vasopressin-independent targeting of aquaporin-2 by selective E-prostanoid receptor agonists alleviates nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Emma T B; Rützler, Michael R; Moeller, Hanne B; Praetorius, Helle A; Fenton, Robert A

    2011-08-02

    In the kidney, the actions of vasopressin on its type-2 receptor (V2R) induce increased water reabsorption alongside polyphosphorylation and membrane targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Loss-of-function mutations in the V2R cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Treatment of this condition would require bypassing the V2R to increase AQP2 membrane targeting, but currently no specific pharmacological therapy is available. The present study examined specific E-prostanoid receptors for this purpose. In vitro, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and selective agonists for the E-prostanoid receptors EP2 (butaprost) or EP4 (CAY10580) all increased trafficking and ser-264 phosphorylation of AQP2 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Only PGE2 and butaprost increased cAMP and ser-269 phosphorylation of AQP2. Ex vivo, PGE2, butaprost, or CAY10580 increased AQP2 phosphorylation in isolated cortical tubules, whereas PGE2 and butaprost selectively increased AQP2 membrane accumulation in kidney slices. In vivo, a V2R antagonist caused a severe urinary concentrating defect in rats, which was greatly alleviated by treatment with butaprost. In conclusion, EP2 and EP4 agonists increase AQP2 phosphorylation and trafficking, likely through different signaling pathways. Furthermore, EP2 selective agonists can partially compensate for a nonfunctional V2R, providing a rationale for new treatment strategies for hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  15. Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene in two pedigrees with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Oiso, Yutaka; Kurokawa, Masaei; Saito, Hidehiko; Watanabe, Tohru; Oda, Yoshihiko; Ishizuka, Toshie; Tani, Nagayuki; Ito, Seiki; Shibata, Akira

    1994-08-01

    Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene were identified in two Japanese pedigrees with X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The V2 receptor belongs to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors that contain seven distinct transmembrane domains, and the V2 receptor gene is encoded by three exons. The coding regions amplified by polymerase chain reaction were directly sequenced. In a pedigree, one of four consecutive guanine sequences (nucleotides 528-531) in the second exon was deleted (528delG). This deletion mutation results in a frame shift beginning at codon 154 in the second intracellular domain and a premature termination at codon 161. In another pedigree, a missense mutation (A{yields}G) was identified at nucleotide position 310 in the second exon. This point mutation, H80R, changes a histidine at codon 80 in the second transmembrane domain to an arginine that is more positively charged than histidine under the neutral environment. Each mutation cosegregated with the phenotype of diabetes insipidus and supposed to be a cause for resistance to arginine vasopressin. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Central diabetes insipidus associated with impaired renal aquaporin-1 expression in mice lacking liver X receptor β.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kong, Xiaomu; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Gao, Min; Jia, Xiao; Ohnishi, Hideo; Ueta, Yoichi; Warner, Margaret; Guan, Youfei; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2012-02-21

    The present study demonstrates a key role for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the etiology of diabetes insipidus (DI). Given free access to water, LXRβ(-/-) but not LXRα(-/-) mice exhibited polyuria (abnormal daily excretion of highly diluted urine) and polydipsia (increased water intake), both features of diabetes insipidus. LXRβ(-/-) mice responded to 24-h dehydration with a decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality. To determine whether the DI was of central or nephrogenic origin, we examined the responsiveness of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP). An i.p. injection of AVP to LXRβ(-/-) mice revealed a partial kidney response: There was no effect on urine volume, but there was a significant increase of urine osmolality, suggesting that DI may be caused by a defect in central production of AVP. In the brain of WT mice LXRβ was expressed in the nuclei of magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In LXRβ(-/-) mice the expression of AVP was markedly decreased in the magnocellular neurons as well as in urine collected over a 24-h period. The persistent high urine volume after AVP administration was traced to a reduction in aquaporin-1 expression in the kidney of LXRβ(-/-) mice. The LXR agonist (GW3965) in WT mice elicited an increase in urine osmolality, suggesting that LXRβ is a key receptor in controlling water balance with targets in both the brain and kidney, and it could be a therapeutic target in disorders of water balance.

  17. A novel AVPR2 gene mutation of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in an Asian pedigree.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-Hong; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Yan; Qu, Hui-Qi; Zhu, Mei

    2016-10-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia are the characteristics of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI). Approximately 90% of all patients with CNDI have X-linked hereditary disease, which is due to a mutation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 ( AVPR2) gene. This case report describes a 54-year-old male with polyuria and polydipsia and several male members of his pedigree who had the same symptoms. The proband was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus using a water-deprivation and arginine vasopressin stimulation test. Genomic DNA from the patient and his family members was extracted and the AVPR2 gene was sequenced. A novel missense mutation of a cytosine to guanine transition at position 972 (c.972C > G) was found, which resulted in the substitution of isoleucine for methionine at amino acid position 324 (p.I324M) in the seventh transmembrane domain of the protein. The proband's mother and daughter were heterozygous for this mutation. The novel mutation of the AVPR2 gene further broadens the phenotypic spectrum of the AVPR2 gene.

  18. Effect of Preserving the Pituitary Stalk During Resection of Craniopharyngioma in Children on the Diabetes Insipidus and Relapse Rates and Long-Term Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Fan, Yanqin; Cen, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preserving an infiltrated pituitary stalk during the resection of craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin on postoperative outcomes and thus provide a theoretical basis for microsurgical treatment and prognosis. We screened the clinical data of all 103 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma undergoing surgical treatment at our department between January 2006 and January 2013 and conducted a retrospective analysis of 82 patients with craniopharyngioma originating in the pituitary stalk. The patients were followed up from 12 months to 8 years. We analyzed the effect of preserving the pituitary stalk on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates, postoperative relapse rate, and mortality. In the total resection group (n = 67), the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates were significantly lower in the 46 patients (68.7%) with a pituitary stalk than in those whose pituitary stalk was removed (P < 0.05); no significant difference was observed in the relapse rate between the 2 subgroups (P > 0.05). In the subtotal resection group (n = 15), a significant difference was observed in the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in the relapse rate between the patients with a pituitary stalk and those whose pituitary stalk was removed (P > 0.05). For children with craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin, preserving the pituitary stalk has a significant effect on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates. When intraoperative exploration showed excessive adhesion between the tumor and pituitary stalk, we opted to preserve the pituitary stalk, which significantly reduced the early and persistent postoperative diabetes insipidus rates, without significantly increasing the relapse or mortality rate.

  19. Mechanism of antidiuresis caused by bendroflumethiazide in conscious rats with diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Grønbeck, Lene; Marples, David; Nielsen, Søren; Christensen, Sten

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the antidiuretic effect of thiazide diuretics in diabetes insipidus (DI) is unknown. This study addressed two specific questions: is the reduction in urine flow rate (V) related to a decrease in the delivery of fluid from the pars recta of the proximal tubules ('distal delivery'), and are there any changes in the expression and/or intracellular distribution of vasopressin stimulated water channels (AQP2) in the collecting ducts, during chronic thiazide-induced antidiuresis? Nine Brattleboro rats with vasopressin-deficient DI were treated for 5 days with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), 9 mg kg−1 day−1 orally, and 9 Brattleboro rats were left untreated. BFTZ-treated DI rats showed a fall in V from ∼200 to ∼75 ml day−1 and an increase in urine osmolality from ∼130 to ∼400 mosmol kg−1. BFTZ-induced antidiuresis was associated with a persistent loss of sodium, but not of potassium. After 5 days of treatment, clearance studies in conscious rats showed a tendency towards decreases in effective renal plasma flow (−7%), GFR (−12%) and lithium clearance (CLi; used as marker for distal delivery) (−25%), compared with untreated controls, but none of these changes were statistically significant. There was no apparent relationship between CLi and V in BFTZ-treated or untreated DI rats. BFTZ treatment did not change the expression of AQP2 in homogenates of cortex, outer or inner medulla from DI rats, or from normal Long Evans rats. Light and electron microscopic immunocyto-chemistry revealed no changes in intracellular distribution of AQP2 in principal cells from inner medullary collecting ducts of BFTZ-treated DI rats. We concluded, (i) that although the antidiuretic effect of BFTZ in rats with DI is associated with a net loss of Na, the decrease in V shows no association with changes in distal delivery, as estimated by CLi. (ii) Antidiuretic treatment with BFTZ does not alter the expression of subcellular distribution of AQP2

  20. A micropuncture study of collecting tubule function in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Rex L.; Buerkert, John; Lacy, Frank; Marcus, Dan; Henton, Betty

    1971-01-01

    The reabsorption of water and solute by the papillary collecting duct was studied during water diuresis and vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in young rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. The tip of the left renal papilla was exposed and fluid was obtained by micropuncture from loops of Henle and from collecting ducts at the papillary tip, and at an average of 1 mm proximal to the tip. In water diuresis the ratio of tubule fluid to plasma (TF/P) osmolality (osm) of loop fluid was 1.73 ±0.058 (SE); of fluid from the proximal collecting duct, 0.63 ±0.027; and from the tip, 0.55 ±0.024; indicating a substantial osmotic pressure difference across the collecting duct epithelium. The fraction of filtered water reabsorbed (× 100) by the terminal collecting duct was 1.58% ±0.32. In antidiuresis the TF/P osm of loop fluid was 2.65 ±0.109; of fluid from the proximal collecting duct, 2.20 ±0.093; and from the tip, 2.71 ±0.111; indicating a marked decrease in the driving force for water reabsorption. The fraction of filtered water reabsorbed (× 100) by the terminal collecting duct was reduced to 0.58% ±0.08, while the delivery of solute to the same segment was unchanged from that in water diuresis. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the right kidney declined from 327 ±24.4 μl/min in water diuresis to 274 ±24.4 μl/min in antidiuresis (P < 0.005); similar results were obtained in a study comparing right and left GFRs in five additional rats. Thus, fractional reabsorption (and very likely the absolute volume) of water reabsorbed by the terminal collecting duct was less in antidiuresis than in water diuresis (mean difference, 1.01% ±0.29, P < 0.005). PMID:5096527

  1. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Irwin; Rotenberg, Donald; Puschett, Jules B.

    1972-01-01

    The physiological basis for the polyuria and polydipsia occurring in some manic-depressive patients treated with lithium salts was studied in vivo and in vitro. Three lithium-treated polyuric patients, in whom other causes of a concentrating defect were excluded, had abnormal urinary concentrating abilities after a standard water depreviation test. Two of these patients failed to respond to exogenous vasopressin (ADH) and one had a subnormal response. The abilities of these patients to excrete solute-free water (CH2O) was comparable to normal subjects during steady-state water diuresis, suggesting no gross abnormalities in sodium transport. However, each of these patients demonstrated abnormally low capacities to reabsorb solute-free water (TCH2O) under hydropenic conditions after administration of hypertonic saline and vasopressin. These in vivo findings demonstrate at least a nephrogenic basis for the diabetes insipidus syndrome manifested by these three patients. The defect in water transport was further characterized in toad urinary bladders in vitro. Short-circuit current (I) and water flow (W) were studied under basal, ADH-stimulated, and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (c-AMP)-stimulated conditions. Increasing mucosal [Li+] progressively inhibited basal I, and both I and W induced by ADH. Significant inhibition of basal and ADH-induced I was observed at mucosal [Li+] < 1.1 mEq/liter, and of ADH-induced W at mucosal [Li+] = 11 mEq/liter. On the other hand, at these lithium concentrations, neither c-AMP-stimulated W nor I was inhibited. Increasing serosal [Li+] produced significant inhibition of basal I only at [Li+] at least 50-fold greater than at the mucosal (urinary) surface. These in vitro studies confirm that mucosal lithium inhibits the action of ADH, but not c-AMP. Hence, lithium appears to be a significant inhibitor of ADH-stimulated water flow, probably acts from the urinary surface, and appears to exert its effect at a site biochemically

  2. Thickened pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging in children with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Czernichow, P; Garel, C; Léger, J

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed isolated pituitary stalk thickening (PST) in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (DI) due to infiltrative processes. Twenty-six children with DI and PST underwent cerebral MRI at the age of 8 +/- 4 years and were followed (n = 25) by clinical and MRI evaluation for 5.5 +/- 3.6 and 3.0 +/- 2 years, respectively, but given no treatment other than hormonal substitutive therapy. Patients were subdivided into groups according to the etiology of the DI: germinoma (n = 4), Langerhans' histiocytosis (n = 5) or 'idiopathic' DI with PST (n = 17). Complete anterior pituitary evaluation in 24 of the 26 patients revealed that 14 children were suffering from associated growth hormone deficiency and 7 had multiple hormone deficiencies. At the first MRI evaluation, pituitary stalk enlargement varied from 2.2 to 9.0 mm. The anterior pituitary gland was found to be normal (n = 12), small (n = 8) or enlarged (n = 6). At the final evaluation, a change in MRI features had occurred in 16 patients: morphological and/or signal changes in the PST (n = 16; 6 of whom showed an increase in PST) and changes in anterior pituitary gland size (n = 8; 3 of whom had increased and 5 had decreased). The presence of a growing suprasellar mass with a progressively enlarging pituitary stalk was demonstrated in the 6 patients who had shown increased pituitary stalk enlargement 1.8 +/- 1.6 years after the first MRI. In 4 of these patients, a diagnosis of germinoma was made 1.3 +/- 0.6 years after PST identification by MRI at the onset of DI, but the other 2 patients showing a suprasellar mass were still categorized as 'idiopathic' at the final clinical evaluation performed 7.8 and 12.3 years after DI onset. In 10 patients (all but 1 with Langerhans' histiocytosis, showing 'idiopathic' DI) the pituitary stalk enlargement was diminished after 2.0 +/- 1.9 years of MRI follow-up, and there was a complete reversal of pituitary stalk

  3. Cell biological aspects of the vasopressin type-2 receptor and aquaporin 2 water channel in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Robben, Joris H; Knoers, Nine V A M; Deen, Peter M T

    2006-08-01

    In the renal collecting duct, water reabsorption is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP). Binding of this hormone to the vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R) leads to insertion of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in the apical membrane, thereby allowing water reabsorption from the pro-urine to the interstitium. The disorder nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate pro-urine in response to AVP, which is mostly acquired due to electrolyte disturbances or lithium therapy. Alternatively, NDI is inherited in an X-linked or autosomal fashion due to mutations in the genes encoding V2R or AQP2, respectively. This review describes the current knowledge of the cell biological causes of NDI and how these defects may explain the patients' phenotypes. Also, the increased understanding of these cellular defects in NDI has opened exciting initiatives in the development of novel therapies for NDI, which are extensively discussed in this review.

  4. A case of Sjögren's syndrome complicated by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, W; Kawagoe, M

    2000-09-01

    Abstract We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) presenting with a 6-year history of polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory data revealed hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, a normal anion gap, and an inability to acidify urine following an acid loading test and to concentrate the urine in response to water deprivation and antidiuretic hormone administration. Lymphocyte infiltration in the interstitium was found on renal biopsy. These findings allowed us to diagnose distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Steroid pulse therapy resulted in normalization of the blood pH, but failed to remit the inability to concentrate the urine. These observations suggest therapeutic applications for RTA in SS, and that further investigation is required to design a therapeutic strategy for NDI in SS.

  5. Competing interests in a lung cancer with metastasis to the pituitary gland: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion versus diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gulsin, Gaurav Singh; Jacobs, Madeleine Louisa Bryson; Gohil, Shailesh; Thomas, Adam; Levy, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland are rare; cancers that most commonly metastasize to the pituitary are breast and lung cancers. No specific computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging features reliably distinguish primary pituitary masses from metastases. A combination of a detailed clinical assessment together with specialist endocrine and neuroradiology support is essential to make the rare diagnosis of a pituitary metastasis. We present the case of a man with metastatic lung cancer, initially presenting as hypopituitarism. Subtle features in the history, together with neuroimaging findings atypical for pituitary adenomas, provided clues that the diagnosis was one of the pituitary metastases. Treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) with replacement antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was complicated by extreme difficulties in achieving a satisfactory sodium and water balance. This was the result of coexistent DI and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion perpetuated by the patient's primary lung cancer, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature.

  6. A Case of Osteomyelitis of the toe caused by Coccidioidomycosis in a 17 year-old with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ahmer; Boken, Daniel J; Nelson, Christine A; Totten, Vicken Y

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old male who presented with pain in his right first toe. His pain and swelling had worsened and x-rays of his foot revealed erosive changes of the great toe distal phalanx suggesting possible osteomyelitis. His co-morbidities were morbid obesity and diabetes insipidus. He was admitted to the hospital, blood cultures were drawn, and he was started on vancomycin for presumed bacterial osteomyelitis. He underwent incision and drainage of the fluctuant abscess of the toe, where a culture of the wound was taken. Preliminary results grew fungi. Being located in an endemic area, he was started on anti-fungal treatment for presumed disseminated coccidioidomycosis; culture was positive for Coccidiodes immitis. He also had serology positive for coccidioidomycosis titers. He had uneventful hospital stay and was discharged on long-term oral antifungal therapy.

  7. Central diabetes insipidus as a very late relapse limited to the pituitary stalk in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Hazeki, Daisuke; Imamura, Mari; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and relapse are frequently seen in multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We present two females with multifocal LCH who developed CDI 9 and 5 years after the initial diagnosis, respectively, as a relapse limited to the pituitary stalk. Combination chemotherapy with cytarabine reduced the mass in the pituitary stalk. Although CDI did not improve, there has been no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APHD), neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system (ND-CNS) or additional relapse for 2 years after therapy. It was difficult to predict the development of CDI in these cases. CDI might develop very late in patients with multifocal LCH, and therefore strict follow-up is necessary, especially with regard to symptoms of CDI such as polydipsia and polyuria. For new-onset CDI with LCH, chemotherapy with cytarabine might be useful for preventing APHD and ND-CNS.

  8. Hereditary central diabetes insipidus: plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone in a family with a possible osmoreceptor defect.

    PubMed Central

    Toth, E L; Bowen, P A; Crockford, P M

    1984-01-01

    A large Canadian kindred of Irish extraction extending from Quebec to British Columbia with autosomal dominant diabetes insipidus responsive to exogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is described. Out of 121 individuals 34 have been identified as affected in seven generations. The disorder is characterized by variability in age at onset and in severity, and by apparently spontaneous abatement in old age. The affected subjects do not appear to manifest hypertension or its sequelae. In three individuals tested the plasma ADH level was very low in spite of adequate osmotic stimulation. However, the level rose in two of them when they were given furosemide, which suggests an osmoreceptor defect and a normal ADH response to volume change. PMID:6498676

  9. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus partially responsive to oral desmopressin in a subject with lithium-induced multiple endocrinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kamath, C; Govindan, J; Premawardhana, A D; Wood, S J; Adlan, M A; Premawardhana, L D

    2013-08-01

    Lithium (Li) may cause multiple endocrinopathies, including hypercalcaemia, thyroid dysfunction and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but rarely in the same patient. The management of NDI remains a challenge. We report on a patient on long-term Li who had simultaneous NDI (paired serum and urine samples had abnormal osmolalities, typical of NDI, and treatment with parenteral desmopressin failed to affect urinary volume and serum osmolality), 'destructive' thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism, absent radioiodine uptake and absent thyrotrophin receptor antibodies) and primary hyperparathyroidism (compatible biochemistry, urine calcium excluding 'set point' anomalies and hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia, and normal parathyroid imaging). The thyroiditis resolved spontaneously and hypercalcaemia responded to reduction of Li dose. The NDI was unresponsive to amiloride, thiazides and ibuprofen in combination. However, urine output was reduced by 50% when a high dose of oral desmopressin was given. We conclude that Li-induced multiple endocrinopathy remains rare and, although NDI is difficult to manage, high dose oral desmopressin should be tried when other medications fail.

  10. A novel missense mutation in the AVPR2 gene of a Japanese infant with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Tomozumi; Matsuo, Kaoru; Kinoshita, Kaori; Takatani, Rieko; Minagawa, Masanori; Kohno, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    We describe an infant with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) with a novel mutation in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene. A 1-month-old infant showed failure to thrive and hypernatremia. The water deprivation test revealed elevated serum osmolality and low urine osmolality. The patient showed a slight but not significant response to intramuscular injection of arginine vasopressin (AVP). DNA analysis revealed a novel missense mutation involving substitution of proline for leucine at position 173 (P173L), which was reported to be important for stabilizing the hydrogen bond between tyrosine at position 205 and leucine at position 169. This mutation was not detected in 116 ethnic-matched controls. This case, with clinical data including the water deprivation test and P173L mutation, will facilitate understanding the structure and function of the A VPR2.

  11. Two novel mutations in the coding region for neurophysin-II associated with familial central diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Yuasa, Hiromitsu

    1995-04-01

    Familial central diabetes insipidus is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP). We previously reported three distinct mutations in the AVP gene in Japanese familial central diabetes insipidus pedigrees that result in substitution of Ser for Gly{sup 57} in the neurophysin-II (NPII) moiety of the AVP precursor, a substitution of Thr for Ala at the COOH-terminus of the signal peptide, and a deletion of Glu{sup 47} in the NPII moiety. In this study, we analyzed the AVP gene in two pedigrees by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA and found two novel mutations in exon 2, which encodes the central part of the NPII moiety of the precursor. The mutation in one pedigree was a C to A transition at nucleotide position 1891, which replaces Cys{sup 67} (TGC) with stop codon (TGA). As the premature termination eliminates part of the COOH domain of the NPII moiety and the glycoprotein moiety, the conformation of the truncated protein is likely to be markedly different from that of normal precursor. In another pedigree, a G to T transversion was detected at nucleotide position 1874, which substitutes polar Trp (TGG) for hydrophobic Gly{sup 62}(GGG). It is possible that mutated NPII molecules, as a consequence of a conformational change, cannot bind AVP or self-associate to form higher oligomer complexes. Interestingly, all mutations we have identified to date, with the exception of the signal peptide mutation, are located in exon 2, suggesting the importance of the highly conserved central part of the NPII molecules and/or the NPII moiety in the precursor for AVP synthesis. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cooperative mechanisms of acute antidiuretic response to bendroflumethiazide in rats with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, S Mostafa Shid; Haghani, Masoud

    2010-12-01

    The exact mechanism underlying thiazides-induced paradoxical antidiuresis in diabetes insipidus is still elusive, but it has been hypothesized that it is exerted either via Na+-depletion activating volume-homeostatic reflexes to decrease distal delivery, or direct stimulation of distal water reabsorption. This study examined how these two proposed mechanisms actually cooperate to induce an acute bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ)-antidiuretic effect in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Anaesthetized rats with lithium (Li)-induced NDI were prepared in order to measure their renal functional parameters, and in some of them, bilateral renal denervation (DNX) was induced. After a 30 min control clearance period, we infused either BFTZ into 2 groups, NDI+BFTZ and NDI/DNX+BFTZ, or its vehicle into a NDI+V group, and six 30 min experimental clearance periods were taken. During BFTZ infusion in the NDI+BFTZ group, transiently elevated Na+ excretion was associated with rapidly increased urinary osmolality and decreased free water clearance, but Li clearance and urine flow declined in the later periods. However, in the NDI/DNX+BFTZ group, there was persistently elevated Na+ excretion with unchanged Li clearance and urine flow during the experimental period, while alterations in free water clearance and urinary osmolality resembled those in the NDI+BFTZ group. In conclusion, BFTZ initially exerted two direct effects of natriuresis-diuresis and stimulating free water reabsorption at the distal nephron in NDI, which together elevated Na+ excretion and urinary osmolality but kept the urine volume unchanged in the first hour. Thereafter, the resultant sodium depletion led to the activation of neural reflexes that reduced distal fluid delivery to compensate for BFTZ-induced natriuresis-diuresis which, in cooperation with the direct distal BFTZ-antidiuretic effect, resulted in excretion of urine with a low volume, high osmolality, and normal sodium.

  13. A large deletion of the AVPR2 gene causing severe nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Saglar, Emel; Deniz, Ferhat; Erdem, Beril; Karaduman, Tugce; Yönem, Arif; Cagiltay, Eylem; Mergen, Hatice

    2014-05-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare hereditary disease caused by mutations in arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor (AVPR2) and characterized by the production of large amounts of urine and an inability to concentrate urine in response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. We have identified a novel 388 bp deletion starting in intron 1 and ending in exon 2 in the AVPR2 gene in a patient with NDI and in his family. We have revealed that this mutation is a de novo mutation for the mother of the proband patient. Prospective clinical data were collected for all family members. The water deprivation test confirmed the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. The patient has severe symptoms like deep polyuria nocturia, polydipsia, and fatigue. He was given arginine vasopressin treatment while he was a child. However, he could not get well due to his nephrogenic type of illness. Both of his nephews have the same complains in addition to failure to grow. We have sequenced all exons and intron-exon boundaries of the AVPR2 gene of all family members. The analyses of bioinformatics and comparative genomics of the deletion were done via considering the DNA level damage. AVPR2 gene mutation results in the absence of the three transmembrane domains, two extracellular domains, and one cytoplasmic domain. Three-dimensional protein structure prediction was shown. We concluded that X-linked NDI and severity of illness in this family is caused by a novel 388 bp deletion in the AVPR2 gene that is predicted to truncate the receptor protein, and also this deletion may lead to dysfunctioning in protein activity and inefficient or inadequate binding abilities.

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging in central diabetes insipidus in children and adolescents. findings at diagnosis and during follow-up].

    PubMed

    Alonso, G; Bergadá, I; Heinrich, J J

    2000-08-01

    The absence of the hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered by some authors to be evidence of neurohypophyseal dysfunction. To evaluate the utility of MRI as a complementary diagnostic aid in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI), we studied the MR images of pediatric patients at diagnosis and during follow-up. MR images from 14 patients (4 females, 10 males; mean age 8.5 years) who were referred for polyuria and polydipsia and whose diagnosis was central diabetes insipidus (CDI) were analyzed. Mean time of evolution from onset of polyuria until the first MRI was 1.5 years. In 11 patients more than one MR image was obtained during follow-up. Mean time of follow-up was 2.8 years. In 10 patients CDI was idiopathic, in 3 it was secondary to a hypothalamic tumor and in 1 it was secondary to histiocytosis. In one patient with idiopathic CDI, the hyperintense signal was present at diagnosis but disappeared during the following 15 months. Four of the patients with idiopathic CDI developed thickening of the pituitary stalk, some at their diagnosis and others during follow-up. Of the three patients in whom CDI was secondary to a germinoma, the hyperintense signal was absent in two of them, while in one the signal was ectopic and associated with a thickened pituitary stalk. In the patient with histiocytosis, the hyperintense signal was absent at diagnosis. 1. In most of the patients with CDI the hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary was absent at diagnosis; however in one patient this signal disappeared during follow-up and consequently its presence does not rule out a diagnosis of CDI. 2. Although a thickened pituitary stalk could reflect only a non-specific, transient inflammatory process, its presence makes ruling out tumoral or infiltrative disease obligatory.

  15. Central diabetes insipidus associated with impaired renal aquaporin-1 expression in mice lacking liver X receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kong, Xiaomu; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Gao, Min; Jia, Xiao; Ohnishi, Hideo; Ueta, Yoichi; Warner, Margaret; Guan, Youfei; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a key role for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the etiology of diabetes insipidus (DI). Given free access to water, LXRβ−/− but not LXRα−/− mice exhibited polyuria (abnormal daily excretion of highly diluted urine) and polydipsia (increased water intake), both features of diabetes insipidus. LXRβ−/− mice responded to 24-h dehydration with a decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality. To determine whether the DI was of central or nephrogenic origin, we examined the responsiveness of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP). An i.p. injection of AVP to LXRβ−/− mice revealed a partial kidney response: There was no effect on urine volume, but there was a significant increase of urine osmolality, suggesting that DI may be caused by a defect in central production of AVP. In the brain of WT mice LXRβ was expressed in the nuclei of magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In LXRβ−/− mice the expression of AVP was markedly decreased in the magnocellular neurons as well as in urine collected over a 24-h period. The persistent high urine volume after AVP administration was traced to a reduction in aquaporin-1 expression in the kidney of LXRβ−/− mice. The LXR agonist (GW3965) in WT mice elicited an increase in urine osmolality, suggesting that LXRβ is a key receptor in controlling water balance with targets in both the brain and kidney, and it could be a therapeutic target in disorders of water balance. PMID:22323586

  16. Partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by a novel AQP2 variation impairing trafficking of the aquaporin-2 water channel.

    PubMed

    Dollerup, Pia; Thomsen, Troels Møller; Nejsum, Lene N; Færch, Mia; Österbrand, Martin; Gregersen, Niels; Rittig, Søren; Christensen, Jane H; Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-12-29

    Autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is rare and usually caused by variations in the AQP2 gene. We have investigated the genetic and molecular background underlying symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI) in a Swedish family with autosomal dominant inheritance of the condition. The proband and her father were subjected to water deprivation testing and direct DNA sequencing of the coding regions of the AQP2 and AVP genes. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably expressing AQP2 variant proteins were generated by lentiviral gene delivery. Localization of AQP2 variant proteins in the cells under stimulated and unstimulated conditions was analyzed by means of immunostaining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Intracellular trafficking of AQP2 variant proteins was studied using transient expression of mutant dynamin2-K44A-GFP protein and AQP2 variant protein phosphorylation levels were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Clinical and genetic data suggest that the proband and her father suffer from partial nephrogenic DI due to a variation (g.4807C > T) in the AQP2 gene. The variation results in substitution of arginine-254 to tryptophan (p.R254W) in AQP2. Analysis of MDCK cells stably expressing AQP2 variant proteins revealed disabled phosphorylation, impaired trafficking and intracellular accumulation of AQP2-R254W protein. Notably, blocking of the endocytic pathway demonstrated impairment of AQP2-R254W to reach the cell surface. Partial CNDI in the Swedish family is caused by an AQP2 variation that seems to disable the encoded AQP2-R254W protein to reach the subapical vesicle population as well as impairing its phosphorylation at S256. The AQP2-R254W protein is thus unable to reach the plasma membrane to facilitate AVP mediated urine concentration.

  17. Bulbocavernosus Reflex Test for Diagnosis of Pudendal Nerve Injury in Female Patients with Diabetic Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoting; Wang, Xun; Huang, Huanjie; Ni, Peiqi; Lin, Yuanshao; Shao, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the clinical application and significance of the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) test for diagnosing diabetic neurogenic bladder (DNB) in female subjects. In this study, 68 female patients with DNB and 40 female normal controls were subjected to a nerve conduction study (NCS) of all four limbs and the BCR test. The data were analyzed and compared, and the corresponding diagnostic sensitivities were discussed. Mean BCR latency for female DNB patients was significantly prolonged, compared to that of the control group, suggesting pudendal nerve injuries in female DNB patients. Moreover, DNB patients were categorized according to the diabetes course. Compared to that of Group A (diabetes course < 5 y), the mean BCR latency was significantly prolonged in Group B (diabetes course between 5 and 10 y) and then further prolonged in Group C (diabetes course > 10 y), which were all longer than the control group. Furthermore, compared with that of the controls, the mean BCR latency was prolonged in DNB patients with or without NCS abnormalities in limbs. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in BCR latency between DNB patients with and without NCS abnormalities. Significantly increasing trends were also observed in the NCS and BCR abnormality rates along with increased diabetes course. Most importantly, compared with the NCS of limbs, the BCR test was more sensitive in diagnosing DNB in the female subjects. Overall, our findings suggest that the BCR test would help to assess the pudendal nerve injury in female DNB patients, which might be a potential diagnostic tool in the clinic. PMID:28053822

  18. A novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene (222delA) associated with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a boy with growth failure.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Ayhan; Wood, Kent; Demir, Korcan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Böber, Ece; Kopp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To study the case of a 2 10/12-year-old boy who had growth failure and delayed bone maturation. We reviewed the history, which revealed that he had had polyuria, polydipsia, lack of weight gain, and frequent vomiting since the age of 5 months. On physical examination, his height was 86 cm (-1.93 standard deviation [SD]), his weight 10.5 kg (-2.67 SD), and he had motor and mental retardation. His maternal great-grandfather also had polyuria and polydipsia (but not diabetes mellitus), suggesting X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as the underlying cause. The patient underwent a water deprivation-desmopressin test. The coding region of the AVPR2 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and submitted to direct sequence analysis. The water deprivation test confirmed the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus, and administration of desmopressin did not diminish his water secretion. Direct sequencing of the AVPR2 gene revealed a novel deletion of adenine at position 222 (222delA) in exon 2. This mutation is predicted to lead to a frameshift beginning at amino acid 75 and a premature stop codon at position 115 (FS75>115X). His height and weight, as well as his motor skills, improved after initiation of therapy with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride. Growth delay can be associated with diabetes insipidus. The X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in this boy is caused by a novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene that is predicted to truncate the receptor protein.

  19. Thickened pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging in children with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Leger, J; Velasquez, A; Garel, C; Hassan, M; Czernichow, P

    1999-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed isolated pituitary stalk (PS) thickening (PST) in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (DI) due to infiltrative processes. Twenty-six children with DI and PST underwent cerebral MRI at the age of 8 +/- 4 yr and were followed (n = 24) by clinical and MRI evaluation, respectively, for 5.5 +/- 3.6 and 3.0 +/- 2 yr in the absence of any treatment other than hormonal substitutive therapy. Patients were subdivided into groups according to the etiology of the DI: germinoma (n = 4), Langerhans' histiocytosis (n = 5), or idiopathic DI with PST (n = 17). Complete anterior pituitary evaluation for 24 of the 26 patients revealed those suffering from associated GH deficiency (n = 14; with germinoma, n = 1; histiocytosis, n = 3; idiopathic, n = 10) and from multiple hormone deficiencies (n = 7; with germinoma, n = 3; histiocytosis, n = 1; idiopathic, n = 3). At the first MRI evaluation, PS enlargement varied from 2.2-9.0 mm at a proximal (n = 10), distal (n = 2), or middle (n = 6) PS level or along the entire PS (n = 8). The intrasellar content, which usually reflects the anterior pituitary gland, was normal (n = 12), small (n = 8), or enlarged (n = 6). At the last evaluation, a change in MRI features was found in 16 patients; morphological and/or signal changes in the PST (n = 16, of whom 6 showed an increase in PST) and changes in anterior pituitary gland size (n = 8; increased, n = 3; decreased, n = 5) were noted. The presence of a growing suprasellar mass with progressively enlarging PS was demonstrated in the 6 patients who had shown increased PS enlargement 1.8 +/- 1.6 yr after the first MRI. For 4 of them, a diagnosis of germinoma was made 1.3 +/- 0.6 yr after PST identification by MRI performed after the onset of DI, but the other 2 patients showing a suprasellar mass were still categorized as idiopathic at the final clinical evaluation performed 7.8 and 12.3 yr, respectively, after DI onset. In

  20. Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD) caused by mutations in a novel gene (wolframin) coding for a predicted transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Strom, T M; Hörtnagel, K; Hofmann, S; Gekeler, F; Scharfe, C; Rabl, W; Gerbitz, K D; Meitinger, T

    1998-12-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy and a number of neurological symptoms including deafness, ataxia and peripheral neuropathy. Mitochondrial DNA deletions have been described in a few patients and a locus has been mapped to 4p16 by linkage analysis. Susceptibility to psychiatric illness is reported to be high in affected individuals and increased in heterozygous carriers in Wolfram syndrome families. We screened four candidate genes in a refined critical linkage interval covered by an unfinished genomic sequence of 600 kb. One of these genes, subsequently named wolframin, codes for a predicted transmembrane protein which was expressed in various tissues, including brain and pancreas, and carried loss-of-function mutations in both alleles in Wolfram syndrome patients.

  1. Dilatative uropathy as a manifestation of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a novel mutation in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II gene.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, V; Mainberger, A; Morris-Rosendahl, D J; Löning, L; Mayer, W; Müller, H L

    2013-12-01

    Polydypsia and polyuria are frequent symptoms in patients with sellar masses caused by neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI), a disorder caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) -neurophysin II (NPII) gene, should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. A delayed diagnosis bears the risk of life-threatening electrolyte imbalances and permanent urinary tract damage, leading to impaired quality of life.We present a Caucasian kindred of at least 4 generations with FNDI.Clinical histories, endocrine para-meters, and results of molecular analyses of the AVP gene are presented with a review of the literature on diabetes insipidus (DI) related urinary tract dilatation.Polyuria and polydipsia were only reported based on explicit and thorough interrogation after more than 4 years of clinical follow-up. A novel heterozygous mutation in the AVP gene was found in all examined symptomatic subjects (c.1-33_c.4del37nt). A literature review revealed that non-obstructive hydronephrosis (NOH) is a rare but known complication of DI.Since increased fluid intake is often a typical familial pattern in adFNDI, it is frequently missed as being pathologic in affected patients, therefore a detailed clinical history of drinking volumes is of critical importance. AVP gene testing is an important component in the confirmation of the diagnosis. Otherwise unexplainable NOH should lead to further investigations and evaluation of rare diseases like FNDI.

  2. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  3. Exome Sequencing Finds a Novel PCSK1 Mutation in a Child With Generalized Malabsorptive Diarrhea and Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Yourshaw, Michael; Solorzano-Vargas, R. Sergio; Pickett, Lindsay A.; Lindberg, Iris; Wang, Jiafang; Cortina, Galen; Pawlikowska-Haddal, Anna; Baron, Howard; Venick, Robert S.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Martín, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Congenital diarrhea disorders are a group of genetically diverse and typically autosomal recessive disorders that have yet to be well characterized phenotypically or molecularly. Diagnostic assessments are generally limited to nutritional challenges and histologic evaluation, and many subjects eventually require a prolonged course of intravenous nutrition. Here we describe next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate a child with perplexing congenital malabsorptive diarrhea and other presumably unrelated clinical problems; this method provides an alternative approach to molecular diagnosis. Methods We screened the diploid genome of an affected individual, using exome sequencing, for uncommon variants that have observed protein-coding consequences. We assessed the functional activity of the mutant protein, as well as its lack of expression using immunohistochemistry. Results Among several rare variants detected was a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 gene. The mutation abolishes prohormone convertase 1/3 endoprotease activity as well as expression in the intestine. These primary genetic findings prompted a careful endocrine reevaluation of the child at 4.5 years of age, and multiple significant problems were subsequently identified consistent with the known phenotypic consequences of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene mutations. Based on the molecular diagnosis, alternate medical and dietary management was implemented for diabetes insipidus, polyphagia, and micropenis. Conclusions Whole-exome sequencing provides a powerful diagnostic tool to clinicians managing rare genetic disorders with multiple perplexing clinical manifestations. PMID:24280991

  4. Acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7, ectopic virus integration site-1 overexpression and central diabetes insipidus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongbing; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Bing; Jia, Yongqian

    2015-06-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), typically occurring in patients with abnormalities of chromosomes 3 or 7. The association between AML with monosomy 7 and DI has been described in a number of studies; however, DI has been rarely reported in cases of ectopic virus integration site-1 (EVI1)-positive AML with monosomy 7. The current study reports a case of AML with monosomy 7 and EVI1 overexpression, with central DI as the initial symptom. The patient was an 18-year-old female who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 83.5% myeloperoxidase-positive blasts without trilineage myelodysplasia. The karyotype was 45,XX,-7, and the patient presented monosomy 7 and EVI1 overexpression (-7/EVI1(+)) without 3q aberration. Treatment with induction therapy was unsuccessful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of DI-AML with -7/EVI1(+) and without a 3q aberration. The possible mechanisms associated with EVI1, monosomy 7 and DI were investigated.

  5. Identification of Potential Pharmacoperones Capable of Rescuing the Functionality of Misfolded Vasopressin 2 Receptor Involved in Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emery; Janovick, Jo Ann; Bannister, Thomas D; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Conn, P Michael; Spicer, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacoperones correct the folding of otherwise misfolded protein mutants, restoring function (i.e., providing "rescue") by correcting their trafficking. Currently, most pharmacoperones possess intrinsic antagonist activity because they were identified using methods initially aimed at discovering such functions. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput homogeneous cell-based assay with a cAMP detection system, a method specifically designed to identify pharmacoperones of the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R), a GPCR that, when mutated, is associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Previously developed methods to identify compounds capable of altering cellular trafficking of V2R were modified and used to screen a 645,000 compound collection by measuring the ability of library compounds to rescue a mutant hV2R [L83Q], using a cell-based luminescent detection system. The campaign initially identified 3734 positive modulators of cAMP. The confirmation and counterscreen identified only 147 of the active compounds with an EC50 of ≤5 µM. Of these, 83 were reconfirmed as active through independently obtained pure samples and were also inactive in a relevant counterscreen. Active and tractable compounds within this set can be categorized into three predominant structural clusters, described here, in the first report detailing the results of a large-scale pharmacoperone high-throughput screening campaign. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Identification of a Novel Deletion in AVP-NPII Gene in a Patient with Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Ferhat; Acar, Ceren; Saglar, Emel; Erdem, Beril; Karaduman, Tugce; Yonem, Arif; Cagiltay, Eylem; Ay, Seyit Ahmet; Mergen, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) is caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone and characterized by polyuria, polydipsia and inability to concentrate urine. Our objective was to present the results of the molecular analyses of AVP-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene in a large familial neurohypophyseal (central) DI pedigree. A male patient and his family members were analyzed and the prospective clinical data were collected. The proband applied to hospital for eligibility to be a recruit in Armed Forces. The patient had severe polyuria (20 L/day), polydipsia (20.5 L/day), fatique, and deep thirstiness. CDI was confirmed with the water deprivation-desmopressin test according to an increase in urine osmolality from 162 mOsm/kg to 432 mOsm/kg after desmopressin acetate injection. To evaluate the coding regions of AVP-NPII gene, polymerase chain reactions were performed and amplified regions were submitted to direct sequence analysis. We detected a heterozygous three base pair deletion at codon 69-70 (207_209delGGC) in exon 2, which lead to a deletion of the amino acid alanine. A three-dimensional protein structure prediction was shown for the deleted AVP-NPII and compared with the wild type. The three base pair deletion may yield an abnormal AVP precursor in neurophysin moiety, but further functional analyses are needed to understand the function of the deleted protein.

  7. A novel SLC12A1 gene mutation associated with hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and nephrocalcinosis in four patients.

    PubMed

    Wongsaengsak, Sariya; Vidmar, Alaina P; Addala, Ananta; Kamil, Elaine S; Sequeira, Paola; Fass, Benjamin; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit

    2017-04-01

    Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities. However, to date, only two reports have described hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in patients with SLC12A1 gene mutations. We describe 4 patients with 4 novel mutation variants in the SLC12A1 gene (c.735C>G, c.1137del, c.2498-2499del, and c.1833delT) presenting with variable degrees of hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, nephrocalcinosis, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The link between calcium and parathyroid hormone abnormalities in patients with SLC12A1 mutations is unclear; the cases described suggest an association between primary hyperparathyroidism and loss of function mutation of SLC12A1, which may result in an aberrant threshold of the calcium sensing receptor at the level of the kidney.

  8. Combination of secretin and fluvastatin ameliorates the polyuria associated with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice.

    PubMed

    Procino, Giuseppe; Milano, Serena; Carmosino, Monica; Barbieri, Claudia; Nicoletti, Maria C; Li, Jian H; Wess, Jürgen; Svelto, Maria

    2014-07-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (X-NDI) is a disease caused by inactivating mutations of the vasopressin (AVP) type 2 receptor (V2R) gene. Loss of V2R function prevents plasma membrane expression of the AQP2 water channel in the kidney collecting duct cells and impairs the kidney concentration ability. In an attempt to develop strategies to bypass V2R signaling in X-NDI, we evaluated the effects of secretin and fluvastatin, either alone or in combination, on kidney function in a mouse model of X-NDI. The secretin receptor was found to be functionally expressed in the kidney collecting duct cells. Based on this, X-NDI mice were infused with secretin for 14 days but urinary parameters were not altered by the infusion. Interestingly, secretin significantly increased AQP2 levels in the collecting duct but the protein primarily accumulated in the cytosol. Since we previously reported that fluvastatin treatment increased AQP2 plasma membrane expression in wild-type mice, secretin-infused X-NDI mice received a single injection of fluvastatin. Interestingly, urine production by X-NDI mice treated with secretin plus fluvastatin was reduced by nearly 90% and the urine osmolality was doubled. Immunostaining showed that secretin increased intracellular stores of AQP2 and the addition of fluvastatin promoted AQP2 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these findings open new perspectives for the pharmacological treatment of X-NDI.

  9. Coexistence of central diabetes insipidus and salt wasting: the difficulties in diagnosis, changes in natremia, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Laredo, S; Yuen, K; Sonnenberg, B; Halperin, M L

    1996-12-01

    Both central diabetes insipidus (DI) and a high rate of excretion of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) contributed to the development of polyuria and dysnatremia in two patients during the acute postoperative period after neurosurgery. To minimize difficulties in diagnosis and projections for therapy, two available (but not often used) clinical tools were helpful. First, the osmole excretion rate early on revealed the co-existence of central DI and an osmotic diuresis. The osmoles excreted were largely Na salts; after antidiuretic hormone acted, this electrolyte diuresis caused the urine flow rate to be much higher than otherwise anticipated. Interestingly, part of this saline diuresis occurred when the extracellular fluid volume was contracted. The tool to explain the basis for the dysnatremias was a tonicity balance. Hypernatremia, which developed before treatment of central DI, was primarily a result of a positive balance for Na rather than a large negative balance for water. Moreover, hyponatremia that developed once antidiuretic hormone acted was primarily a result of a negative balance for Na; the urine volume was large and its Na concentration was hypertonic. To prevent a further decline in the plasma Na concentration, either the Na concentration in the urine should be decreased by provision of urea or a loop diuretic while replacing all unwanted water and electrolyte losses; alternatively, the fluid infused should have a similar Na concentration and volume as the urine (infuse hypertonic saline).

  10. [Perioperative management of a child with central diabetes insipidus who underwent two surgeries before and after desmopressin administration].

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Keiji; Tachibana, Kazuya; Nishimura, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Kinouchi, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl weighing 32 kg was diagnosed with suprasellar tumor causing hydrocephalus, hypothyroidism, adrenal dysfunction and central diabetes insipidus. She was treated with levothyroxine and hydrocortisone and urged to take fluid to replace urine. She was scheduled to undergo ventricular drainage to relieve hydrocephalus prior to tumor resection. For the first surgery, desmopressin was not started and urine output reached 4,000 to 6,000 ml x day(-1), urine osmolality 64 mOsm x l(-1) and urine specific gravity 1.002. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. Maintenance fluid was with acetated Ringer's solution and urine loss was replaced with 5% dextrose. Bradycardia and hypotension occurred after intubation, which was treated with volume load. Infusion volume was 750 ml and urine output was 1100 ml during 133 min of anesthesia. Postoperative day 1 nasal desmopressin was started. Ten days later, partial tumor resection was performed. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Infusion volume was 610 ml, urine output 380 ml, and blood loss 151 ml during 344 min of anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters were stable throughout the procedure. Pathology of the tumor was revealed to be germinoma. Bradycardia and hypotension experienced during the first surgery was suspected to be caused by preoperative hypovolemia brought by polyuria. Desmopressin was proved to be effective to treat excessive urine output and to maintain good perioperative water balance.

  11. Radiological remission and recovery of thirst appreciation after infliximab therapy in adipsic diabetes insipidus secondary to neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, M W; Sexton, D J; Dennedy, M C; Counihan, T J; Finucane, F M; O'Brien, T; O'Regan, A W

    2015-08-01

    Neurosarcoidosis is a rare and aggressive variant of systemic sarcoidosis which may result in hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. We report a case of hypothalamic hypopituitarism secondary to neurosarcoidosis complicated by adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI). Initiation of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy resulted in both radiological disease remission and recovery of osmoregulated thirst appreciation after 3 months. A 22-year-old man was referred to the endocrinology service with profound weight gain, polyuria and lethargy. Biochemical testing confirmed anterior hypopituitarism while posterior pituitary failure was confirmed by hypotonic polyuria responding to desmopressin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated extensive hypothalamic infiltration; neurosarcoidosis was confirmed histologically after excisional cervical lymph node biopsy. Osmoregulated thirst appreciation was normal early in the disease course despite severe hypotonic polyuria. However, subsequent subjective loss of thirst appreciation and development of severe hypernatraemia in the setting of normal cognitive function indicated onset of ADI. Clinical management involved daily weighing, regular plasma sodium measurement, fixed daily fluid intake and oral desmopressin. We initiated immunosuppressive therapy with pulsed intravenous anti-TNF-α therapy (infliximab) after multidisciplinary team consultation. Infliximab therapy resulted in successful radiological disease remission and complete recovery of osmoregulated thirst appreciation. This was confirmed by subjective return of thirst response and maintenance of plasma sodium in the normal range in the absence of close biochemical monitoring. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Prenatal growth restriction, retinal dystrophy, diabetes insipidus and white matter disease: expanding the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Dupuis, Lucie; Blaser, Susan; Heon, Elise; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Marshall, Christian R; Paton, Tara; Scherer, Stephen W; Roelofsen, Jeroen; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    PRPS1 codes for the enzyme phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRS-1). The spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders associated with reduced activity includes Arts syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5) and X-linked non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2). We describe a novel phenotype associated with decreased PRS-1 function in two affected male siblings. Using whole exome and Sanger sequencing techniques, we identified a novel missense mutation in PRPS1. The clinical phenotype in our patients is characterized by high prenatal maternal α-fetoprotein, intrauterine growth restriction, dysmorphic facial features, severe intellectual disability and spastic quadraparesis. Additional phenotypic features include macular coloboma-like lesions with retinal dystrophy, severe short stature and diabetes insipidus. Exome sequencing of the two affected male siblings identified a shared putative pathogenic mutation c.586C>T p.(Arg196Trp) in the PRPS1 gene that was maternally inherited. Follow-up testing showed normal levels of hypoxanthine in urine samples and uric acid levels in blood serum. The PRS activity was significantly reduced in erythrocytes of the two patients. Nucleotide analysis in erythrocytes revealed abnormally low guanosine triphosphate and guanosine diphosphate. This presentation is the most severe form of PRPS1-deficiency syndrome described to date and expands the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders.

  13. A case of central diabetes insipidus following probable type A/H1N1 influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The major causes of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) are neoplastic or infiltrative lesions of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, severe head injuries, or pituitary or hypothalamic surgery. Lymphocytic infundibuloneurophysitis (LINH) is associated with autoimmune inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland, but the exact etiology is unknown. CDI caused by viral infections has been rarely reported. Here, we describe the case of a 22-year-old man who was in good health until 2 months prior to admission, presented with acute development of polyuria and polydipsia, and showed increased urinary volume up to 9000 mL/day. The patient showed elevated serum osmolality and low urine osmolality, with a low level of antidiuretic hormone. Endocrinological findings revealed CDI, but his arterial pituitary function appeared normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant enlargement of the pituitary stalk. We suspected CDI due to LINH based on non-transsphenoidal biopsy findings. He was diagnosed as type A influenza,and given oral therapeutic agents. However, acute onset of polyuria and polydipsia occurred 10 days after the influenza diagnosis. The available epidemiological information regarding the outbreak of influenza around that time strongly suggested that the patient was infected with the A/H1N1 influenza virus, although this virus had not been detected on polymerase chain reaction testing. In the present case, the autoimmune mechanism of LINH may have been associated with novel influenza A/H1N1 virus infection.

  14. X-ray structure of human aquaporin 2 and its implications for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Frick, Anna; Eriksson, Urszula Kosinska; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Oberg, Fredrik; Hedfalk, Kristina; Neutze, Richard; de Grip, Willem J; Deen, Peter M T; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2014-04-29

    Human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the kidney collecting duct, where it plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin and defective trafficking results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here we present the X-ray structure of human AQP2 at 2.75 Å resolution. The C terminus of AQP2 displays multiple conformations with the C-terminal α-helix of one protomer interacting with the cytoplasmic surface of a symmetry-related AQP2 molecule, suggesting potential protein-protein interactions involved in cellular sorting of AQP2. Two Cd(2+)-ion binding sites are observed within the AQP2 tetramer, inducing a rearrangement of loop D, which facilitates this interaction. The locations of several NDI-causing mutations can be observed in the AQP2 structure, primarily situated within transmembrane domains and the majority of which cause misfolding and ER retention. These observations provide a framework for understanding why mutations in AQP2 cause NDI as well as structural insights into AQP2 interactions that may govern its trafficking.

  15. Combination of secretin and fluvastatin ameliorates the polyuria associated with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Procino, Giuseppe; Milano, Serena; Carmosino, Monica; Barbieri, Claudia; Nicoletti, Maria C; H. Li, Jian; Wess, Jürgen; Svelto, Maria

    2014-01-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (X-NDI) is a disease caused by inactivating mutations of the vasopressin (AVP) type 2 receptor (V2R) gene. Loss of V2R function prevents plasma membrane expression of the AQP2 water channel in the kidney collecting duct cells and impairs the kidney concentration ability. In an attempt to develop strategies to bypass V2R signaling in X-NDI, we evaluated the effects of secretin and fluvastatin, either alone or in combination, on kidney function in a mouse model of X-NDI. The secretin receptor was found to be functionally expressed in the kidney collecting duct cells. Based on this, X-NDI mice were infused with secretin for 14 days but urinary parameters were not altered by the infusion. Interestingly, secretin significantly increased AQP2 levels in the collecting duct but the protein primarily accumulated in the cytosol. Since we previously reported that fluvastatin treatment increased AQP2 plasma membrane expression in wild-type mice, secretin-infused X-NDI mice received a single injection of fluvastatin. Interestingly, urine production by X-NDI mice treated with secretin plus fluvastatin was reduced by nearly 90% and the urine osmolality was doubled. Immunostaining showed that secretin increased intracellular stores of AQP2 and the addition of fluvastatin promoted AQP2 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these findings open new perspectives for the pharmacological treatment of X-NDI. PMID:24522493

  16. Exome sequencing finds a novel PCSK1 mutation in a child with generalized malabsorptive diarrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Yourshaw, Michael; Solorzano-Vargas, R Sergio; Pickett, Lindsay A; Lindberg, Iris; Wang, Jiafang; Cortina, Galen; Pawlikowska-Haddal, Anna; Baron, Howard; Venick, Robert S; Nelson, Stanley F; Martín, Martín G

    2013-12-01

    Congenital diarrhea disorders are a group of genetically diverse and typically autosomal recessive disorders that have yet to be well characterized phenotypically or molecularly. Diagnostic assessments are generally limited to nutritional challenges and histologic evaluation, and many subjects eventually require a prolonged course of intravenous nutrition. Here we describe next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate a child with perplexing congenital malabsorptive diarrhea and other presumably unrelated clinical problems; this method provides an alternative approach to molecular diagnosis. We screened the diploid genome of an affected individual, using exome sequencing, for uncommon variants that have observed protein-coding consequences. We assessed the functional activity of the mutant protein, as well as its lack of expression using immunohistochemistry. Among several rare variants detected was a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 gene. The mutation abolishes prohormone convertase 1/3 endoprotease activity as well as expression in the intestine. These primary genetic findings prompted a careful endocrine reevaluation of the child at 4.5 years of age, and multiple significant problems were subsequently identified consistent with the known phenotypic consequences of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene mutations. Based on the molecular diagnosis, alternate medical and dietary management was implemented for diabetes insipidus, polyphagia, and micropenis. Whole-exome sequencing provides a powerful diagnostic tool to clinicians managing rare genetic disorders with multiple perplexing clinical manifestations.

  17. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of vasopressin deficiency and acute desmopressin administration on melatonin secretion in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Catrina, S B; Rotarus, R; Wivall, I-L; Coculescu, M; Brismar, K

    2004-01-01

    Melatonin secretion is modulated by the light-dark schedule, mainly through a sympathetic input to the pineal gland. Besides this, arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been found in the pineal glands of several animal species and there is experimental evidence that AVP modulates melatonin secretion in animals. However, the interaction between vasopressin and melatonin secretion in humans has not been systematically investigated. We proposed to study the nocturnal melatonin pattern in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) who lack endogenous secretion of AVP, and the effect on their melatonin secretion of the agonist for V2 type receptors: desmopressin (1-Desamino [8-D Arginine] vasopressin). Plasma melatonin levels were measured in 14 patients with CDI, every 2 h starting from 22:00 h until 06:00 h, following iv injection of saline (day 1) and 3 microg desmopressin (day 2) at 20:00 h. The lights were turned off at 22:30 h and the samples were taken in a dim light. The plasma melatonin secretion pattern was normal in patients with CDI. Desmopressin at a dose 3 times higher than the antidiuretic one did not modify the melatonin levels or the time of the peak secretion. In conclusion melatonin secretion is not modulated by AVP in humans.

  19. X-ray structure of human aquaporin 2 and its implications for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Anna; Eriksson, Urszula Kosinska; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Öberg, Fredrik; Hedfalk, Kristina; Neutze, Richard; de Grip, Willem J.; Deen, Peter M. T.; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the kidney collecting duct, where it plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin and defective trafficking results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here we present the X-ray structure of human AQP2 at 2.75 Å resolution. The C terminus of AQP2 displays multiple conformations with the C-terminal α-helix of one protomer interacting with the cytoplasmic surface of a symmetry-related AQP2 molecule, suggesting potential protein–protein interactions involved in cellular sorting of AQP2. Two Cd2+-ion binding sites are observed within the AQP2 tetramer, inducing a rearrangement of loop D, which facilitates this interaction. The locations of several NDI-causing mutations can be observed in the AQP2 structure, primarily situated within transmembrane domains and the majority of which cause misfolding and ER retention. These observations provide a framework for understanding why mutations in AQP2 cause NDI as well as structural insights into AQP2 interactions that may govern its trafficking. PMID:24733887

  20. Lack of effect of Pitressin on the learning ability of Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus using positively reinforced operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B

    1985-08-01

    Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.

  1. Identification of Potential Pharmacoperones Capable of Rescuing the Functionality of Misfolded Vasopressin 2 Receptor Involved in Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emery; Janovick, Jo Ann; Bannister, Thomas D.; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Conn, P. Michael; Spicer, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacoperones correct the folding of otherwise misfolded protein mutants, restoring function (i.e. providing “rescue”) by correcting their trafficking. Currently most pharmacoperones possess intrinsic antagonist activity because they were identified using methods initially aimed at discovering such functions. Here, we describe an ultra-high throughput homogeneous cell-based assay with a cAMP detection system, a method specifically designed to identify pharmacoperones of the vasopressin type 2 (V2) receptor (V2R); a GPCR that, when mutated, is associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Previously developed methods to identify compounds capable of altering cellular trafficking of V2R were modified and used to screen a 645K compound collection by measuring the ability of library compounds to rescue a mutant hV2R [L83Q], using a cell-based luminescent detection system. The campaign initially identified 3,734 positive modulators of cAMP. The confirmation and counterscreen identified only 147 of the active compounds with an EC50 ≤ 5 μM. Of these, 83 were reconfirmed as active through independently-obtained pure samples and were also inactive in a relevant counterscreen. Active and tractable compounds within this set can be categorized into three predominant structural clusters, described here, in the first report detailing the results of a large scale pharmacoperone HTS campaign. PMID:27280550

  2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus native valve endocarditis in a diabetic patient with neurogenic bladder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Kusaba, Koji; Yamakuchi, Hiroki; Hamada, Yohei; Urakami, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-09-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 2-day history of malaise and dyspnea. He had mitral prolapse and type II diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder, which was cared for by catheterization on his own. On arrival the patient was in septic condition with hypoxemia, and physical examination revealed systolic murmur at the apex. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation of the mitral and the aortic valve. The presence of continuous bacteremia was confirmed by multiple sets of blood culture, whereby gram-positive cocci was retrieved and identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) both phenotypically and genetically. Because two major criteria of the Modified Duke Criteria were met, the patient was diagnosed with native valve endocarditis due to S. saprophyticus. The urine culture was also positive for gram-positive cocci, phenotypically identified as Staphylococcus warneri, which was subsequently identified as S. saprophyticus with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry), indicating strongly that the intermittent catheterization-associated urinary tract infection resulted in bacteremia that eventually lead to infective endocarditis. This patient was treated with vancomycin and clindamycin. Because of multiple cerebral infarctions, the patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement on hospital day 5. Blood culture turned negative at 6th hospital day. Antibiotic therapy was continued for six weeks after surgery. The patient's clinical course was uneventful thereafter, and was discharged home. This is the first case report of native valve endocarditis caused by S. saprophyticus of confirmed urinary origin.

  3. Diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary gland metastasis accompanied by iris metastasis of small cell lung cancer: case presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alacacioğlu, Ahmet; Oztop, Ilhan; Fidan, Fatma; Akkoçlu, Atila; Kargi, Aydanur; Osma, Emine; Ada, Emel; Yilmaz, Uğur

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland and iris is rarely seen in cancer patients. Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common tumors that metastasize to these sites. Most lung cancer patients have non-small cell lung cancer and metastasis of small cell lung cancer to the pituitary gland and iris have been very rarely reported in the literature. Here we present a case of iris metastasis and pituitary gland metastasis which caused diabetes insipidus in a patient with small cell lung cancer.

  4. [Clinical case of the month. Renovascular arterial hypertension complicated by diabetes insipidus: report of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Feloni, S; Radermacher, L; Remy, C; Jousten, J; Corman, V

    2013-01-01

    Mrs. A, a 62 year old patient with a history of hypertension, polyuria and polydipsia is hospitalized after a malaise. A severe hypokalemia, which is the cause of the polyuria and polydipsia, is discovered. The presence of hypertension and hypokalemia arises suspicion of a primary hyperaldosteronism and the plasma levels of renin and aldosterone are measured. Elevated aldosterone levels are combined with high plasma renin concentrations which permits to rule out primary hyperaldosteronism. Further explorations reveal a subocclusive ostial stenosis of the right renal artery. A treatment by sartan is instaured, which allows arterial pressure control and kalemia normalization. Chronic hypokalemia can be the cause of tubular nephropathy manifested by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  5. Acute myeloid leukemia presenting with panhypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus: a case series with molecular genetic analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cull, Elizabeth H; Watts, Justin M; Tallman, Martin S; Kopp, Peter; Frattini, Mark; Rapaport, Franck; Rampal, Raajit; Levine, Ross; Altman, Jessica K

    2014-09-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare finding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), usually occurring in patients with chromosome 3 or 7 abnormalities. We describe four patients with AML and concurrent DI and a fifth patient with AML and panhypopituitarism. Four of five patients had monosomy 7. Three patients had chromosome 3q21q26/EVI-1 gene rearrangements. The molecular genotype of patients with AML and DI is not known. Therefore, we performed gene sequencing of 30 genes commonly mutated in AML in three patients with available leukemia cell DNA. One patient had no identifiable mutations, and two had RUNX1 F158S mutations.

  6. Central diabetes insipidus in an HHV6 encephalitis patient with a posterior pituitary lesion that developed after tandem cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Hatanaka, Kazuo; Imakita, Masami; Tamaki, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old myelodysplastic syndrome patient underwent tandem cord blood transplantation. The primary cord blood graft was rejected, and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalitis developed after engraftment of secondary cord blood. Polyuria and adipsic hypernatremia were observed during treatment of the encephalitis. The patient died of bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Streptococcus epidermis. HHV6 infection in the posterior pituitary was confirmed on autopsy, as was infection of the hippocampus, but not of the hypothalamus. This is the first case report of central diabetes insipidus caused by an HHV6 posterior pituitary infection demonstrated on a pathological examination.

  7. The AQP2 mutation V71M causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in humans but does not impair the function of a bacterial homolog.

    PubMed

    Klein, Noreen; Kümmerer, Nadine; Hobernik, Dominika; Schneider, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Several point mutations have been identified in human aquaporins, but their effects on the function of the respective aquaporins are mostly enigmatic. We analyzed the impact of the aquaporin 2 mutation V71M, which causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in humans, on aquaporin structure and activity, using the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF as a model. Importantly, the sequence and structure around the V71M mutation is highly conserved between aquaporin 2 and GlpF. The V71M mutation neither impairs substrate flux nor oligomerization of the aquaglyceroporin. Therefore, the human aquaporin 2 mutant V71M is most likely active, but cellular trafficking is probably impaired.

  8. Hsp90 inhibitor partially corrects nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a conditional knock-in mouse model of aquaporin-2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue; Zhao, Dan; Verkman, A S

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) that interfere with its cellular processing can produce autosomal recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Prior gene knock-in of the human NDI-causing AQP2 mutation T126M produced mutant mice that died by age 7 days. Here, we used a novel "conditional gene knock-in" strategy to generate adult, AQP2-T126M mutant mice. Mice separately heterozygous for floxed wild-type AQP2 and AQP2-T126M were bred to produce hemizygous mice, which following excision of the wild-type AQP2 gene by tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombinase gave AQP2(T126M/-) mice. AQP2(T126M/-) mice were polyuric (9-14 ml urine/day) compared to AQP2(+/+) mice (1.6 ml/day) and had reduced urine osmolality (400 vs. 1800 mosmol). Kidneys of AQP2(T126M/-) mice expressed core-glycosylated AQP2-T126M protein in an endoplasmic reticulum pattern. Screening of candidate protein folding "correctors" in AQP2-T126M-transfected kidney cells showed increased AQP2-T126M plasma membrane expression with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). 17-AAG increased urine osmolality in AQP2(T126M/-) mice by >300 mosmol but had no effect in AQP2(-/-) mice. Kidneys of 17-AAG-treated AQP2(T126M/-) mice showed partial rescue of defective AQP2-T126M cellular processing. Our results establish an adult mouse model of NDI and demonstrate partial restoration of urinary concentration function by a compound currently in clinical trials for other indications.

  9. Diabetes Insipidus as an Initial Presentation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Diagnosis with Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array-Based Karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruixue; Wang, Chun; Zhong, Xushu; Wu, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of clonal hematopoietic diseases characterized by cytopenia, dysplasia and increased risk of development to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfavorable cytogenetic changes such as complex karyotypes or chromosome 7 anomalies are predictive of the progression to AML and poor prognosis. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is the result of a deficiency of arginine vasopressin, and its major causes are idiopathic, primary or secondary tumors, neurosurgery and trauma. Importantly, CDI is a rare complication of MDS. To date, only 5 cases of MDS co-occurring with CDI have been reported; 3 of 5 had cytogenetic abnormalities uncovered by metaphase cytogenetics and 3 of 5 evolved to AML. Here, we describe a 74-year-old woman who presented with CDI as her initial symptom of MDS and eventually progressed to AML. The metaphase cytogenetics, combined with the single-nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping, with superiority in resolution and detecting copy number variation, revealed a complex karyotype that included monosomy of chromosome 7, deletion of 20q, and absence of heterogeneity (AOH) in more than one chromosome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of MDS co-occurring with CDI with numerous cytogenetic abnormalities revealed by the SNP-A-based karyotyping. Our case supports that the cytogenetic abnormalities may be associated with the clinical features and the prognosis of MDS co-occurring with CDI. The SNP-A-based karyotyping is helpful in revealing more subtle cytogenetic abnormalities and unveiling their roles in the pathogenesis of MDS.

  10. Vasopressin Bolus Protocol Compared to Desmopressin (DDAVP) for Managing Acute, Postoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hypovolemic Shock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anukrati; Alqadri, Syeda; Ausmus, Ashley; Bell, Robert; Nattanmai, Premkumar; Newey, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI) can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol. This protocol consisted of 1 unit of vasopressin in 1 liter of 0.45% normal saline. This protocol was given in boluses based on the formula: urine output minus one hundred. Initial serum sodium was 148 mmol/L, and one-hour urine output was 1 liter. After 48 hours, he transitioned to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Pre-DDAVP serum sodium was 149 mmol/L and one-hour urine output 320 cc. Comparing the bolus protocol to the DDAVP protocol, the average sodium was 143.8 ± 3.2 and 149.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L (p = 0.0001), average urine output was 433.2 ± 354.4 and 422.3 ± 276.0 cc/hr (p = 0.90), and average specific gravity was 1.019 ± 0.009 and 1.016 ± 0.01 (p = 0.42), respectively. Conclusion. A protocol using dilute vasopressin bolus can be an alternative for managing acute, central DI postoperatively, particularly in setting of hypovolemic shock resulting in a consistent control of serum sodium.

  11. Desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet in Japanese patients with central diabetes insipidus: a retrospective study of switching from intranasal desmopressin.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takaaki; Hatoko, Tomonobu; Nambu, Takuo; Matsuda, Yuki; Matsuo, Koji; Yonemitsu, Shin; Muro, Seiji; Oki, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disease characterized by polyuria and polydipsia. Patients with CDI have been successfully treated with desmopressin administered either by intranasal instillation or oral tablets. Recently, a desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) was approved as the first oral desmopressin tablet for CDI treatment in Japan. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 15 Japanese CDI patients treated with desmopressin ODT therapy, which aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switching to desmopressin ODT and to analyze the clinical factors that affect the desmopressin ODT dose in Japanese patients. The daily mean dose of desmopressin ODT was 104 ± 46.30 μg and the mean ratio of oral to nasal desmopressin dose was 17.0 ± 7.6, both of which are considerably smaller than those of previous dose-titration study. Moreover, the nasal spray group needed significantly smaller ratios of nasal to oral desmopressin than the nasal drop group (11.7 ± 6.5 vs 21.0 ± 5.5, p = 0.02). The ratio of oral to nasal desmopressin dose had a significant inverse correlation with the required nasal desmopressin dose. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated the ratios of nasal to oral desmopressin dose depended on intranasal formulations. In conclusion, desmopressin ODT was safe and effective in the treatment of Japanese adult CDI patients. When switching to ODT, we should care about the possibility that patients require smaller ODT doses than what was initially expected based on previously published data and also nasal formulations in terms of their differences of expected switching ratio.

  12. Vasopressin Bolus Protocol Compared to Desmopressin (DDAVP) for Managing Acute, Postoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anukrati; Alqadri, Syeda; Ausmus, Ashley; Bell, Robert; Nattanmai, Premkumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI) can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol. This protocol consisted of 1 unit of vasopressin in 1 liter of 0.45% normal saline. This protocol was given in boluses based on the formula: urine output minus one hundred. Initial serum sodium was 148 mmol/L, and one-hour urine output was 1 liter. After 48 hours, he transitioned to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Pre-DDAVP serum sodium was 149 mmol/L and one-hour urine output 320 cc. Comparing the bolus protocol to the DDAVP protocol, the average sodium was 143.8 ± 3.2 and 149.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L (p = 0.0001), average urine output was 433.2 ± 354.4 and 422.3 ± 276.0 cc/hr (p = 0.90), and average specific gravity was 1.019 ± 0.009 and 1.016 ± 0.01 (p = 0.42), respectively. Conclusion. A protocol using dilute vasopressin bolus can be an alternative for managing acute, central DI postoperatively, particularly in setting of hypovolemic shock resulting in a consistent control of serum sodium. PMID:28127476

  13. Diabetes insipidus in pediatric germinomas of the suprasellar region: characteristic features and significance of the pituitary bright spot.

    PubMed

    Kilday, John-Paul; Laughlin, Suzanne; Urbach, Stacey; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary bright spot is acknowledged to indicate functional integrity of the posterior pituitary gland, whilst its absence supports a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus (DI). This feature was evaluated, together with the incidence and clinical characteristics of DI in children with suprasellar/neurohypophyseal germinomas. We performed a review of all suprasellar (SS) or bifocal (BF) germinoma pediatric patients treated in Toronto since 2000. Demographics, symptomatology, treatment outcome and imaging were evaluated. Nineteen patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (10 SS, 9 BF; median age 12.5 years (6.2-16.8 years)). All remained alive at 6.4 years median follow-up (1.2-13.7 years) after receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy (13 focal/ventricular, four whole brain, two neuraxis), with only one progression. All had symptoms of DI at presentation with a symptom interval above one year in eight cases (42 %). Desmopressin was commenced and maintained in 16 patients (84 %). The pituitary bright spot was lost in most diagnostic interpretable cases, but was appreciated in three patients (18 %) who had normal serum sodium values compared to 'absent' cases (p = 0.013). For two such cases, spots remained visible until last follow-up (range 0.4-3.3 years), with one still receiving desmopressin. No case of bright spot recovery was observed following therapy. Protracted symptom intervals for germinoma-induced central DI may reflect poor clinical awareness. Explanations for persistence of the pituitary bright spot in symptomatic patients remain elusive. Desmopressin seldom reverses the clinical features of germinoma-induced DI to allow discontinuation, nor does treatment cause bright spot recovery.

  14. Activation of vasopressin neurons leads to phenotype progression in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Maiko; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Shiota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In a previous study, we made a mouse model for FNDI, which showed progressive polyuria accompanied by inclusion bodies in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons formed by aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. The present study was conducted to determine whether the activities of AVP neurons are related to the phenotype progression in the FNDI model. In the first experiment, female heterozygous mice were administered either desmopressin (dDAVP) or a vehicle (control) subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 30 days. The dDAVP treatment significantly decreased the urine volume, AVP mRNA expression, and inclusion bodies in the AVP neurons. Urine volume in the dDAVP group remained significantly less than the control for 14 days even after the minipumps were removed. In the second experiment, the males were fed either a 0.2% Na or 2.0% Na diet for 6 mo. Urine AVP excretion was significantly increased in the 2.0% Na group compared with the 0.2% Na group for the first 2 mo but gradually decreased thereafter. Throughout the experiments, urine volume increased progressively in the 2.0% Na group but not in the 0.2% Na group. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that inclusion bodies in the AVP cells had significantly increased in the 2.0% Na compared with the 0.2% Na group. These data demonstrated that activation of AVP neurons could accelerate the aggregate formation as well as the progression of the polyuria in the FNDI model mice.

  15. Arginine vasopressin neuronal loss results from autophagy-associated cell death in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, D; Arima, H; Morishita, Y; Wenjun, L; Azuma, Y; Ito, Y; Suga, H; Goto, M; Banno, R; Sugimura, Y; Shiota, A; Asai, N; Takahashi, M; Oiso, Y

    2014-03-27

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) characterized by progressive polyuria is mostly caused by mutations in the gene encoding neurophysin II (NPII), which is the carrier protein of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Although accumulation of mutant NPII in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could be toxic for AVP neurons, the precise mechanisms of cell death of AVP neurons, reported in autopsy studies, remain unclear. Here, we subjected FNDI model mice to intermittent water deprivation (WD) in order to promote the phenotypes. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that, while aggregates are confined to a certain compartment of the ER in the AVP neurons of FNDI mice with water access ad libitum, they were scattered throughout the dilated ER lumen in the FNDI mice subjected to WD for 4 weeks. It is also demonstrated that phagophores, the autophagosome precursors, emerged in the vicinity of aggregates and engulfed the ER containing scattered aggregates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that expression of p62, an adapter protein between ubiquitin and autophagosome, was elicited on autophagosomal membranes in the AVP neurons, suggesting selective autophagy induction at this time point. Treatment of hypothalamic explants of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) transgenic mice with an ER stressor thapsigargin increased the number of GFP-LC3 puncta, suggesting that ER stress could induce autophagosome formation in the hypothalamus of wild-type mice as well. The cytoplasm of AVP neurons in FNDI mice was occupied with vacuoles in the mice subjected to WD for 12 weeks, when 30-40% of AVP neurons are lost. Our data thus demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the AVP neurons subjected to ER stress in FNDI mice. Although autophagy should primarily be protective for neurons, it is suggested that the organelles including ER were lost over time through autophagy, leading to autophagy

  16. New autosomal recessive mutations in aquaporin-2 causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus through deficient targeting display normal expression in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leduc-Nadeau, Alexandre; Lussier, Yoann; Arthus, Marie-Françoise; Lonergan, Michèle; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Devuyst, Olivier; Bissonnette, Pierre; Bichet, Daniel G

    2010-06-15

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2), located at the luminal side of the collecting duct principal cells, is a water channel responsible for the final concentration of urine. Lack of function, often occurring through mistargeting of mutated proteins, induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a condition characterized by large urinary volumes. In the present study, two new mutations (K228E and V24A) identified in NDI-affected individuals from distinct families along with the already reported R187C were analysed in comparison to the wild-type protein (AQP2-wt) using Xenopus laevis oocytes and a mouse collecting duct cell-line (mIMCD-3). Initial data in oocytes showed that all mutations were adequately expressed at reduced levels when compared to AQP2-wt. K228E and V24A were found to be properly targeted at the plasma membrane and exhibited adequate functionality similar to AQP2-wt, as opposed to R187C which was retained in internal stores and was thus inactive. In coexpression studies using oocytes, R187C impeded the functionality of all other AQP2 variants while combinations with K228E, V24A and AQP2-wt only showed additive functionalities. When expressed in mIMCD-3 cells, forskolin treatment efficiently promoted the targeting of AQP2-wt at the plasma membrane (>90%) while K228E only weakly responded to the same treatment (approximately 20%) and both V24A and R187C remained completely insensitive to the treatment. We concluded that both V24A and K228E are intrinsically functional water channels that lack a proper response to vasopressin, which leads to NDI as found in both compound mutations studied (K228E + R187C and V24A + R187C). The discrepancies in plasma membrane targeting response found in both expression systems stress the need to evaluate such data using mammalian cell systems.

  17. Central diabetes insipidus in children and young adults: etiological diagnosis and long-term outcome of idiopathic cases.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Calcagno, Annalisa; Calandra, Erika; Fratangeli, Nadia; Vannati, Marianna; Rossi, Andrea; Bagnasco, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2014-04-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is considered idiopathic in 20% to 50% of affected subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a systematic diagnostic workup could achieve better etiologic diagnosis in children and adolescents presenting with polyuria and polydipsia. This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary referral center. Patients underwent clinical and endocrine evaluations every 6 months and neuroimaging every 6 months for 2 years and yearly for 3 years. Endocrine function and neuroimaging were also reassessed after adult height achievement. A total of 85 consecutive patients with CDI were enrolled at a median age of 7.5 years; those with idiopathic CDI were stratified based on pituitary stalk thickness. To establish the etiology of CDI, we determined the time lag between its onset and the specific diagnosis, the long-term impact on pituitary function, and the overall long-term outcomes. Of the subjects, 24 (28.2%) received an etiologic diagnosis at presentation and 11 (13%) within 2.5 years (n = 7 germinomas and n = 4 Langerhans cell histiocytosis), 7 (8.2%) were lost to follow-up, and 43 (50.6%) were considered to have idiopathic disease and were followed until the median age of 17.3 years. Neuroimaging identified 40 of 43 patients with self-limited inflammatory/autoimmune pituitary stalk thickness within the first 6 months, the severity of which was significantly correlated to pituitary dysfunction. The probability of >10-year-survival without an anterior pituitary defect was related to the severity of pituitary stalk thickness, and 53% showed permanent anterior pituitary defects. Three patients developed Langerhans cell histiocytosis and 1 developed Hodgkin lymphoma after a median of 9 and 13 years, respectively. A diagnostic etiology was achieved in 96% of patients with CDI. Risk stratification based on the degree of pituitary stalk thickness is of prognostic value for long-term outcomes including permanent pituitary

  18. Primary treatment regimen and diabetes insipidus as predictors of health outcomes in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kevin C J; Kołtowska-Häggström, Maria; Cook, David M; Fox, Janet L; Jönsson, Peter J; Geffner, Mitchell E; Abs, Roger

    2014-04-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are often associated with significant morbidity due to their location and treatment effects. Little is known of the effects of primary treatment regimen and diabetes insipidus (DI), a clinical surrogate of hypothalamic obesity, on health outcomes in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (COCP). The objective of the study was to examine health outcomes of adults with COCP based on primary treatment regimens and the presence of DI. This study included a retrospective KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) data analysis of 180 adults with COCP according to the primary treatment regimen [one surgery (1Surg) vs complex treatment regimen (CTrR) of more than 1Surg and/or radiotherapy] and the presence of DI. The majority of COCP patients underwent transcranial surgery (77%) without receiving radiotherapy (84%). Compared with the 1Surg group, more CTrR patients developed visual field defects and ophthalmoplegia (all P < .01). Compared with patients without DI, those with DI had higher rates of anterior pituitary hormone deficits, body mass index, and fat mass (all P < .01). By contrast, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipid panel, and quality of life were comparable among 1Surg vs CTrR patients, and patients with vs without DI. Regardless of primary treatment received, the presence of DI in either group was associated with higher rates of anterior pituitary hormone deficits and obesity. CTrR and DI predicted health outcomes differently. CTrR predisposed to the development of visual dysfunction, whereas DI was associated with higher rates of anterior pituitary dysfunction and weight gain. Higher body mass index and fat mass in patients with DI further implicate the role of hypothalamic damage as an important causal factor of obesity in these patients.

  19. Altered agonist sensitivity of a mutant v2 receptor suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, László Sándor; Balla, András; Patócs, Attila; Tóth, Miklós; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László

    2014-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in kidney can lead to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). We studied a previously described, but uncharacterized, mutation of the V2R (N321K missense mutation) of a patient with NDI. The properties of the mutant receptor were evaluated. We constructed a highly sensitive Epac-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensor to perform real-time cAMP measurements after agonist stimulation of transiently transfected HEK293 cells with V2Rs. β-Arrestin binding of the activated receptors was examined with luciferase-tagged β-arrestin and mVenus-tagged V2Rs using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique. Cell surface expression levels of hemagglutinin-tagged receptors were determined with flow cytometry using anti-hemagglutinin-Alexa 488 antibodies. Cellular localization examinations were implemented with fluorescent tagged receptors visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of various vasopressin analogs on the type 1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) was tested on mouse arteries by wire myography. The N321K mutant V2R showed normal cell surface expression, but the potency of arginine vasopressin for cAMP generation was low, whereas the clinically used desmopressin was not efficient. The β-arrestin binding and internalization properties of the mutant receptor were also different than those for the wild type. The function of the mutant receptor can be rescued with administration of the V2R agonist Val(4)-desmopressin, which had no detectable side effects on V1R in the effective cAMP generating concentrations. Based on these findings we propose a therapeutic strategy for patients with NDI carrying the N321K mutation, as our in vivo experiments suggest that Val(4)-desmopressin could rescue the function of the N321K-V2R without significant side effects on the V1R.

  20. AVP-NPII gene mutations and clinical characteristics of the patients with autosomal dominant familial central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Turkkahraman, Doga; Saglar, Emel; Karaduman, Tugce; Mergen, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    Familial central diabetes insipidus (DI), usually an autosomal dominant disorder, is caused by mutations in arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene that leads to aberrant preprohormone processing and gradual destruction of AVP-secreting cells. To determine clinical and molecular characteristics of patients with familial central DI from two different Turkish families. The diagnosis of central DI was established by 24-h urine collection, water deprivation test, and desmopressin challenge. To confirm the diagnosis of familial central DI, the entire coding region of AVP-NPII gene was amplified and sequenced. A total of eight affected patients and three unaffected healthy relatives from two families were studied. Genetic analysis revealed a previously reported heterozygous mutation (p.C98X) in family A, and a heterozygous novel mutation (p.G45C) in family B, both detected in exon 2 of AVP-NPII gene. When we compared the clinical characteristics of the two families, it was noticed that as the age of onset of symptoms in family A ranges between 4 and 7 years, it was <1 year in family B. Additionally, pituitary bright spot was present in the affected siblings, but absent in their affected parents. Familial central DI is a progressive disease, and age of onset of symptoms can differ depending on the mutation. Bright spot on pituitary MRI might be present at onset, but become invisible over time. Genetic testing and appropriate counseling should be given in familial cases of central DI to ensure adequate treatment, and to avoid chronic water deprivation that might result in growth retardation in childhood.

  1. Transient Diabetes Insipidus After Discontinuation of Vasopressin in Neurological Intensive Care Unit Patients: Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arginine vasopressin neuronal loss results from autophagy-associated cell death in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, D; Arima, H; Morishita, Y; Wenjun, L; Azuma, Y; Ito, Y; Suga, H; Goto, M; Banno, R; Sugimura, Y; Shiota, A; Asai, N; Takahashi, M; Oiso, Y

    2014-01-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) characterized by progressive polyuria is mostly caused by mutations in the gene encoding neurophysin II (NPII), which is the carrier protein of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Although accumulation of mutant NPII in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could be toxic for AVP neurons, the precise mechanisms of cell death of AVP neurons, reported in autopsy studies, remain unclear. Here, we subjected FNDI model mice to intermittent water deprivation (WD) in order to promote the phenotypes. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that, while aggregates are confined to a certain compartment of the ER in the AVP neurons of FNDI mice with water access ad libitum, they were scattered throughout the dilated ER lumen in the FNDI mice subjected to WD for 4 weeks. It is also demonstrated that phagophores, the autophagosome precursors, emerged in the vicinity of aggregates and engulfed the ER containing scattered aggregates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that expression of p62, an adapter protein between ubiquitin and autophagosome, was elicited on autophagosomal membranes in the AVP neurons, suggesting selective autophagy induction at this time point. Treatment of hypothalamic explants of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) transgenic mice with an ER stressor thapsigargin increased the number of GFP-LC3 puncta, suggesting that ER stress could induce autophagosome formation in the hypothalamus of wild-type mice as well. The cytoplasm of AVP neurons in FNDI mice was occupied with vacuoles in the mice subjected to WD for 12 weeks, when 30–40% of AVP neurons are lost. Our data thus demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the AVP neurons subjected to ER stress in FNDI mice. Although autophagy should primarily be protective for neurons, it is suggested that the organelles including ER were lost over time through autophagy, leading to autophagy

  3. Excretion of Water and Electrolytes During the Osmotic Diuresis of Dogs with Experimental Diabetes Insipidus,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), *BODY FLUIDS, ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), EXCRETION, PITUITARY HORMONES , OSMOSIS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, MEMBRANES(BIOLOGY...BLOOD PLASMA, DIABETES, WATER, SECRETION, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, URINE, CELLS(BIOLOGY), KIDNEY FUNCTION TESTS, BIOLOGICAL ABSORPTION.

  4. Secondary nocturnal enuresis related to central diabetes insipidus as an early manifestation of intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumors in a series of male youngsters.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Apostolos; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Kotanidou, Eleni P; Maggana, Ioanna; Mouzaki, Konstantina; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2015-02-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common symptom in children. It is usually attributed to benign causes and diagnostic evaluation is not carried out. We report three male young patients initially presenting with short stature and nocturnal enuresis, related to diabetes insipidus, caused by intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumors. In all three cases, water deprivation tests confirmed diabetes insipidus. Extensive endocrinological investigation also showed further hormone deficiencies. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed the presence of a central nervous system lesion and histology confirmed the final diagnosis. Surgery, radiation with or without chemotherapy was conducted and the patients were treated with hormone replacement therapies. The patients after a long follow-up were free of disease. We present these cases to alert clinicians to bear in mind that the presence of an intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumor should at least be considered in a child presenting with bed wetting, especially if additional symptoms and signs, including late onset puberty and growth delay or morning hypernatremia, may coexist.

  5. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: an X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern with a vasopressin type 2 receptor gene that is structurally normal.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, E; Bale, A E; Carson, E; Boson, W L; Nordenskjöld, M; Ritzén, M; Ferreira, P C; Jammal, A; De Marco, L

    1994-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disorder, most commonly transmitted in an X chromosome-linked recessive manner and characterized by the lack of renal response to the action of antidiuretic hormone [Arg8]vasopressin. The vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) has been suggested to be the gene that causes the disease, and its role in disease pathogenesis is supported by mutations within this gene in affected individuals. Using the PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing, we examined the V2R gene in four unrelated kindreds. In addition, linkage analysis with chromosome Xq28 markers was done in one large Brazilian kindred with an apparent unusual X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern. In one family, a mutation in codon 280, causing a Tyr-->Cys substitution in the sixth transmembrane domain of the receptor, was found. In the other three additional families with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the V2R-coding region was normal in sequence. In one large Brazilian kindred displaying an unusual X chromosome-linked dominant mode of inheritance, the disease-related gene was localized to the same region of the X chromosome as the V2R, but no mutations were found, thus raising the possibility that this disease is caused by a gene other than V2R. Images PMID:8078903

  6. Acute presentation of gestational diabetes insipidus with pre-eclampsia complicated by cerebral vasoconstriction: a case report and review of the published work.

    PubMed

    Mor, Amir; Fuchs, Yael; Zafra, Kathleen; Haberman, Shoshana; Tal, Reshef

    2015-08-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) is a rare, self-limited complication of pregnancy. As it is related to excess placental vasopressinase enzyme activity, which is metabolized in the liver, GDI is more common in pregnancies complicated by conditions associated with liver dysfunction. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman at 38 weeks' gestation who presented with pre-eclampsia with severe features, including impaired liver function and renal insufficiency. Following cesarean section she was diagnosed with GDI, which was further complicated by cerebral vasoconstriction as demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography. This case raises the possibility that cerebral vasoconstriction may be related to the cause of GDI. A high index of suspicion of GDI should be maintained in patients who present with typical signs and symptoms, especially in the setting of pregnancy complications associated with liver dysfunction.

  7. Renal compensatory adaptation for water handling in a patient with adipsic diabetes insipidus after clipping of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery
.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Kaneko, Shuzo; Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2017-04-04

    A 38-year-old Japanese man who had undergone clipping surgery for a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery 2 days prior, suddenly developed refractory hypernatremia (serum sodium (Na) 156 - 162 mmol/L). Symptoms included low plasma vasopressin, fluctuating urine osmolality (120 - 710 mOsm/kg) and lack of thirst, all suggesting adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI). Hypernatremia was corrected by scheduled water intake with desmopressin administration. During 1-year follow-up after the surgery, his serum Na level normalized despite the suspension of desmopressin, but neither thirst nor osmolality-dependent vasopressin release recovered. Meanwhile, his urine osmolality shifted to a constant high level. The present case suggests that renal compensatory adaptation, apparently independent of the circulating vasopressin level, plays a major role in water handling in longitudinal ADI.
.

  8. Novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene in a Danish male with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by ER retention and subsequent lysosomal degradation of the mutant receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nejsum, Lene N.; Christensen, Tomas M.; Robben, Joris H.; Milligan, Graeme; Deen, Peter M. T.; Bichet, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene can cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) characterized by the production of large amounts of urine and an inability to concentrate urine in response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. We have identified a novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene (L170P) located in the fourth transmembrane domain in a Danish NDI male. Analysis of the mutant receptor in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell culture revealed that AVPR2-L170P was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the expression was dramatically downregulated compared to wild-type AVPR2. Inhibition of the lysosome resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of AVPR2-L170P, indicating that AVPR2-L170P is downregulated via the lysosome. Inhibition of the proteasome resulted in plasma membrane localization of AVPR2-L170P, although the overall levels of AVPR2-L170P were unchanged. PMID:21629670

  9. Unmasking of Partial Diabetes Insipidus during Stress but Not Maintenance Dosing of Glucocorticoids in an Infant with Septo-Optic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background. It is well acknowledged that glucocorticoid (GC) replacement can unmask diabetes insipidus (DI) in subjects with hypopituitarism. Objective. To increase the awareness and monitoring for transient and symptomatic DI in children with partial hypopituitarism during periods in which increased GC needs are required. Methods/Case. A 2-month-old female infant with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD; on thyroid and maintenance GC replacement therapy at 8 mg/m2/day) developed transient DI during 2 separate episodes of stress (one hypothermia, one febrile) when stress dosing of GC (25 mg/m2/day) was instituted. Conclusion. Children not diagnosed with DI during initial evaluation for hypopituitarism may benefit from rescreening of serum sodium levels during acute periods of stress that demand "stress" GC dosing. This will permit treatment and/or increased vigilance for ensuing permanent DI. PMID:21603211

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a variant in the AVP gene.

    PubMed

    Toustrup, Lise Bols; Zhou, Yan; Kvistgaard, Helene; Gregersen, Niels; Rittig, Søren; Aagaard, Lars; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Luo, Yonglun; Christensen, Jane H

    2017-03-01

    Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is caused by variants in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a 42-year-old man carrying an adFNDI causing variant in exon 1 of the AVP gene using lentivirus-mediated nuclear reprogramming. The iPSCs carried the expected variant in the AVP gene. Furthermore, the iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers; displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had a normal karyotype consistent with the original fibroblasts. This iPSC line is useful in future studies focusing on the pathogenesis of adFNDI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A missense mutation in the arginine-vasopressin neurophysin-II gene causes autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dan; Dong, FengQin; Lu, WeiQin; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, XunLiang; Li, ChengJiang; Liu, YanNing

    2013-06-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, an autosomal dominant disorder, is mostly caused by mutations in the genes that encode AVP or its intracellular binding protein, neurophysin-II. The mutations lead to aberrant preprohormone processing and progressive destruction of AVP-secreting cells, which gradually manifests a progressive polyuria and polydipsia during early childhood, and a disorder of water homeostasis. We characterized the clinical and biochemical features, and sequenced the AVP neurophysin-II(AVP-NPII) gene of the affected individuals with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus(ADNDI)to determine whether this disease was genetically determined. We obtained the histories of eight affected and four unaffected family individuals. The diagnosis of ADNDI was established using a water deprivation test and exogenous AVP administration. For molecular analysis, genomic DNA was extracted and the AVP-NPII gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The eight affected individuals showed different spectra of age of onsets (7-15 years) and urine volumes (132-253 ml/kg/24 h). All affected individuals responded to vasopressin administration, with a resolution of symptoms and an increase in urine osmolality by more than 50%. The characteristic hyperintense signal in the posterior pituitary on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was absent in six family members and present in one. Sequencing analysis revealed a missense heterozygous mutation 1516G > T (Gly17Val) in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene among the ADNDI individuals. We identified a missense mutation in the AVP-NPII gene and the same mutation showed different spectra of age of onsets and urine volumes in a new Chinese family with ADNDI. The mutation may provide a molecular basis for understanding the characteristics of NPII and add to our knowledge of the pathogenesis of ADNDI, which would allow the presymptomatic diagnosis of asymptomatic subjects. © 2012 John Wiley

  12. Overlap of Post-obstructive Diuresis and Unmasked Diabetes Insipidus in a Case of IgG4-related Retroperitoneal Fibrosis and Tuberoinfundibular Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sasaki Yatabe, Midori; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Yatabe, Junichi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    The clinical picture of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is diverse because various organs can be affected. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with acute renal failure and tuberoinfundibular hypophysitis due to IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy lowered the serum IgG4 level and ameliorated renal dysfunction, bilateral hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. However, polyuria from post-obstructive diuresis and unmasked central diabetes insipidus ensued. The patient's polyuria continued despite the administration of a therapeutic dose of glucocorticoid; the patient's pituitary swelling and anterior pituitary dysfunction were partially ameliorated. The pituitary swelling recurred seven months later. In patients with IgG4-RD, the manifestation of polyuria after steroid therapy should prompt suspicion of post-obstructive diuresis and the unmasking of central diabetes insipidus.

  13. Overlap of Post-obstructive Diuresis and Unmasked Diabetes Insipidus in a Case of IgG4-related Retroperitoneal Fibrosis and Tuberoinfundibular Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki Yatabe, Midori; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Yatabe, Junichi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The clinical picture of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is diverse because various organs can be affected. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with acute renal failure and tuberoinfundibular hypophysitis due to IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy lowered the serum IgG4 level and ameliorated renal dysfunction, bilateral hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. However, polyuria from post-obstructive diuresis and unmasked central diabetes insipidus ensued. The patient's polyuria continued despite the administration of a therapeutic dose of glucocorticoid; the patient's pituitary swelling and anterior pituitary dysfunction were partially ameliorated. The pituitary swelling recurred seven months later. In patients with IgG4-RD, the manifestation of polyuria after steroid therapy should prompt suspicion of post-obstructive diuresis and the unmasking of central diabetes insipidus. PMID:28049999

  14. Diabetes insipidus - central

    MedlinePlus

    ... given either as a nasal spray, tablets, or injections. This controls urine output and fluid balance and prevents dehydration . In mild cases, drinking more water may be all that is needed. If the ...

  15. Congenital central diabetes insipidus and optic atrophy in a Wolfram newborn: is there a role for WFS1 gene in neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Ghirardello, Stefano; Dusi, Elisa; Castiglione, Bianca; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio

    2014-09-26

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and deafness (D). The phenotype of the disease has been associated with several mutations in the WFS1 gene, a nuclear gene localized on chromosome 4. Since the discovery of the association between WFS1 gene and Wolfram syndrome, more than 150 mutations have been identified in WS patients. We previously described the first case of perinatal onset of Wolfram syndrome newborn carrying a segmental uniparental heterodysomy affecting the short arm of chromosome 4 responsible for a significant reduction in wolframin expression. Here we review and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that we believe responsible for the perinatal onset of Wolfram syndrome as these data strongly suggest a role for WFS1 gene in foetal and neonatal neurodevelopment. We described a male patient of 30 weeks' gestation with intrauterine growth restriction and poly-hydramnios. During the first days of life, the patient showed a 19% weight loss associated with polyuria and hypernatremia. The presence of persistent hypernatremia (serum sodium 150 mEq/L), high plasma osmolarity (322 mOsm/L) and low urine osmolarity (190 mOsm/l) with a Uosm/Posm ratio < 1 were consistent with CDI. The diagnosis of CDI was confirmed by the desmopressin test and the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 34 weeks of age, that showed the lack of posterior pituitary hyperintense signal. In addition, a bilateral asymmetrical optic nerve hypoplasia associated with right orbital bone hypoplasia was observed, suggesting the diagnosis of WF. During the five years follow-up the patient did not developed glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus. By the end of the second year of life, primary non-autoimmune central hypothyroidism and mild neurodevelopment retardation were diagnosed. The analysis of our case, in the light of the most recent literature

  16. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  17. [Neurogenic senile vertebral spondylopathy].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, A

    1993-01-01

    Neurogenic spinal arthropathy is quite frequent a finding in elderly patients. Peripheral neuropathy underlies this complication. As a matter of fact, impaired proprioception and sensitivity, which are often associated with lesions of the motor nerves, prevent the joint or bone segment submitted to repeated traumas from perceiving alarm sensations, especially pain. Thus, bone lesions follow, which present as bone erosions, fractures, and even more severe bone destruction. At first, tabetic neuropathy was held responsible for this condition. Then, neurogenic arthropathy was observed in diabetes, syringomyelia, and sometimes trauma. However, in the elderly patient, other conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy, which accounts for the high incidence of this disorder. The radiologic findings of the lumbar spine of 23 of 4,922 patients examined in our department 1989 to 1991 were suggestive of neurogenic spinal arthropathy. Clinical, laboratory and electromyographic findings confirmed the presence of neuropathy. Besides the neurogenic lesions described in 7 diabetic patients, these lesions are reported for the first time in 4 cases of multiple myeloma, in a case of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, in 2 cases of vincristine-treated lymphoma, and finally in an alcohol abuser. Analgesic abuse was observed in 2 patients. In the extant cases, the pathogenesis of neuropathy remained unknown, even though "elderly neuropathy" is known to exist and to be underlain by vascular or degenerative conditions.

  18. Chronic treatment with taurine ameliorates diabetes-induced dysfunction of nitric oxide-mediated neurogenic and endothelium-dependent corpus cavernosum relaxation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dalaklioglu, Selvinaz; Kuscu, Nilay; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Bayram, Zeliha; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Ozdem, Sadi Satilmis

    2014-08-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of chronic taurine treatment on corpus cavernosum dysfunction in diabetic rats and to investigate possible underlying mechanisms. Thirty male rats were randomized to three groups of 10 each, including control, diabetic, and taurine-treated diabetic. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ, single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kg body weight). Taurine was administered orally for 12 weeks (1% w/v in drinking water) from the day on which STZ was injected. At the end of the 12th week, strips of corpus cavernosum were suspended in an organ bath system for functional studies. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent and neurogenic corpus cavernosum relaxation were evaluated by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1-100 μm) and electrical field stimulation (EFS, 30 V, 5 ms, 2-32 Hz), respectively. The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) (Ser-1177), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) , Rho A, and Rho kinase in corpus cavernosum were semi-quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemistry. Induction of diabetes resulted in significant inhibition of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent and neurogenic corpus cavernosum relaxation. Furthermore, eNOS, p-eNOS, and nNOS expressions decreased significantly in diabetic rats compared to controls, while gp91(phox) , RhoA and Rho kinase expressions increased significantly. The diminished relaxation response to ACh and EFS as well as diabetes-related changes in expressions of these proteins in corpus cavernosum of diabetic rats was significantly improved by taurine. Taurine treatment improves NO-mediated relaxations of corpus cavernosum in diabetic rats probably by inhibiting NADPH oxidase/Rho kinase pathways.

  19. Neurogenic cough.

    PubMed

    Altman, Kenneth W; Noordzij, J Pieter; Rosen, Clark A; Cohen, Seth; Sulica, Lucian

    2015-07-01

    We review contemporary concepts of the pathophysiology of neurogenic cough, and its evaluation and treatment based on scientific publications addressing neurogenic cough. Neurogenic cough is thought to be the result of sensory neuropathy, most commonly idiopathic. Because it is principally a sensory phenomenon, clinical evaluation is challenging, the diagnosis most often being made by exclusion. Identification of motor paresis, either by laryngoscopy or laryngeal electromyography, may suggest the presence of sensory neuropathy. The utility of amitriptyline and gabapentin has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, and retrospective series and case reports have suggested efficacy of pregabalin, baclofen, and botulinum toxin. Sensory neuropathy appears to be an important cause of chronic refractory cough, and appears amenable to treatment with a variety of pharmacologic agents.

  20. Potential of nonpeptide (ant)agonists to rescue vasopressin V2 receptor mutants for the treatment of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Los, E L; Deen, P M T; Robben, J H

    2010-05-01

    According to the body's need, water is reabsorbed from the pro-urine that is formed by ultrafiltration in the kidney. This process is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP), which binds to its type 2 receptor (V2R) in the kidney. Mutations in the gene encoding the V2R often lead to the X-linked inheritable form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which patients are unable to concentrate their urine despite the presence of AVP. Many of these mutations are missense mutations that do not interfere with the intrinsic functionality of V2R, but cause its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), making it unavailable for AVP binding. Because the current treatments for NDI relieve its symptoms to some extent, but do not cure the disorder, cell-permeable antagonists (pharmacological chaperones) have been successfully used to stabilise the mutant receptors and restore their plasma membrane localisation. Recently, cell-permeable agonists also were shown to rescue ER-retained V2R mutants, leading to increased cAMP levels and translocation of aquaporin-2 to the apical membrane. This makes V2R-specific cell-permeable agonists very promising therapeutics for NDI as a result of misfolded V2R receptors.

  1. Novel treatment for lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus rat model using the Sendai-virus vector carrying aquaporin 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hidetaka; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Kondo, Taka-Aki; Okajima, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Chizuko; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Arima, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Akai, Masaro; Sato, Aiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Oiso, Yutaka

    2008-11-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a chronic disorder involving polyuria and polydipsia that results from unresponsiveness of the renal collecting ducts to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Either of the genetic defects in vasopressin V2 receptor or the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) cause the disease, which interfere the water reabsorption at the epithelium of the collecting duct. An unconscious state including a perioperative situation can be life threatening because of the difficulty to regulate their water balance. The Sendai virus (SeV) vector system deleting fusion protein (F) gene (SeV/DeltaF) is considered most suitable because of the short replication cycle and nontransmissible character. An animal model for NDI with reduced AQP2 by lithium chloride was used to develop the therapy. When the SeV/DeltaF vector carrying a human AQP2 gene (AQP2-SeV/DeltaF) was administered retrogradely via ureter to renal pelvis, AQP2 was expressed in the renal collecting duct to reduce urine output and water intake by up to 40%. In combination with the retorograde administration to pelvis, this system could be the cornerstone for the applicable therapies on not only NDI patients but also other diseases associate with the medullary collecting duct.

  2. Delayed recovery of adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) caused by elective clipping of anterior communicating artery and left middle cerebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeffrey; Ndoro, Samuel; Okafo, Uchenna; Garrahy, Aoife; Agha, Amar; Rawluk, Danny

    2016-12-16

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is an extremely rare complication following microsurgical clipping of anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoA) and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. It poses a significant challenge to manage due to an absent thirst response and the co-existence of cognitive impairment in our patient. Recovery from adipsic DI has hitherto been reported only once. A 52-year-old man with previous history of clipping of left posterior communicating artery aneurysm 20 years prior underwent microsurgical clipping of ACoA and left MCA aneurysms without any intraoperative complications. Shortly after surgery, he developed clear features of ADI with adipsic severe hypernatraemia and hypotonic polyuria, which was associated with cognitive impairment that was confirmed with biochemical investigations and cognitive assessments. He was treated with DDAVP along with a strict intake of oral fluids at scheduled times to maintain eunatremia. Repeat assessment at six months showed recovery of thirst and a normal water deprivation test. Management of ADI with cognitive impairment is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recovery from ADI is very rare, and this is only the second report of recovery in this particular clinical setting.

  3. A case of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsies and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ken; Sainouchi, Makoto; Goto, Masahiro; Murase, Nagako; Ohtani, Ryo; Nakamura, Michikazu

    2016-05-31

    A 61-year-old woman developed hearing difficulties and became thirsty after experiencing cold symptoms. A neurological examination revealed a loss of odor sensation, facial palsy, dysphasia, and dysarthria. Vocal cord palsy was observed during pharyngoscopy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a thickened pituitary stalk and swelling of the pituitary gland, but no high signal intensity regions were seen in the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI demonstrated a thickened dura mater over the anterior cranial fossa. A biopsy specimen of the thickened dura mater showed fibrosis, granulomatous inflammation, and necrotic foci. Blood tests detected myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). The patient's urine osmolarity was low even though she exhibited hypernatremia. We diagnosed her with hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with MPO-ANCA and diabetes insipidus. The patient received two courses of 5-day high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (1.0 g/day), and was subsequently administered oral prednisolone, which gradually relieved her symptoms. However, the patient's symptoms recurred despite the high-dose prednisolone treatment. It was difficult to control the patient's symptoms in this case with oral prednisolone monotherapy, but combined treatment with cyclosporine resulted in sustained remission. It is considered that patients with MPO-ANCA-positive hypertrophic pachymeningitis require combination therapy with prednisolone and immunosuppressive agents at an early stage.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in vasopressin neurons of familial diabetes insipidus model mice: aggregate formation and mRNA poly(A) tail shortening.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masayuki; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, which binds to newly synthesized secretory and transmembrane proteins to facilitate protein folding. BiP mRNA is expressed in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of wild-type mice even in basal conditions, and the expression levels increase in response to dehydration. These data suggest that AVP neurons are subjected to ER stress. Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is caused by mutations in the gene locus of AVP. The mutant proteins could accumulate in the ER and possibly increase ER stress in the AVP neurons. We bred mice possessing a mutation causing FNDI, which manifested progressive polyuria, as do the patients with FNDI. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that aggregates accumulated in the ER of AVP neurons in FNDI mice. Despite polyuria, which could potentially induce dehydration, AVP mRNA expression was decreased in the supraoptic nucleus, and the AVP mRNA poly(A) tail length was shortened in FNDI mice compared with wild-type mice. Incubation of hypothalamic explants of wild-type mice with ER stressors caused shortening of the poly(A) tail length of AVP mRNA, accompanied by decreases in the expression. These data revealed a mechanism by which ER stress decreases poly(A) tail length of AVP mRNA, and this reduces the load of unfolded proteins that form the aggregates in ER of the AVP neurons in FNDI mice.

  5. Sialadenosis of the major salivary glands in a patient with central diabetes insipidus--implications of aquaporin water channels in the pathomechanism of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandic, R; Teymoortash, A; Kann, P H; Werner, J A

    2005-04-01

    Sialadenosis, also referred to as sialosis, is a disease of unknown aetiology. It regularly manifests itself as a massive swelling in both parotid regions involving the major salivary glands, preferably the parotid glands and is characterized by lack of any detectable, underlying pathologies. In this case report we describe a 24-year-old white female patient with diabetes insipidus who developed sialadenosis of the major salivary glands during a period of enhanced water requirement, which the patient tried to compensate for by more frequent nasal ADH application. Since ADH acts on aquaporins (AQPs) in the kidney, we were interested if AQP expression in the patients salivary glands was affected. Surprisingly, compared to normal control tissues we observed an extensively high signal for AQP5, which is the dominant AQP found in salivary acinar cells. Interestingly, previous studies on AQP5 knock out mice found AQP5 to be required for cell volume regulation. We therefore suggest that aquaporin water channels and antidiuretic hormone together with a disturbance in the body's water household are potential key-factors in the pathophysiological events leading to the development of the disease entity called sialadenosis.

  6. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko ); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A selective EP4 PGE2 receptor agonist alleviates disease in a new mouse model of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian Hua; Chou, Chung-Lin; Li, Bo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Eisner, Christoph; Schnermann, Jürgen; Anderson, Stasia A.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Knepper, Mark A.; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI) is a severe kidney disease caused by inactivating mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene that result in the loss of renal urine-concentrating ability. At present, no specific pharmacological therapy has been developed for XNDI, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models. To develop what we believe to be the first viable animal model of XNDI, we generated mice in which the V2R gene could be conditionally deleted during adulthood by administration of 4-OH-tamoxifen. Radioligand-binding studies confirmed the lack of V2R-binding sites in kidneys following 4-OH-tamoxifen treatment, and further analysis indicated that upon V2R deletion, adult mice displayed all characteristic symptoms of XNDI, including polyuria, polydipsia, and resistance to the antidiuretic actions of vasopressin. Gene expression analysis suggested that activation of renal EP4 PGE2 receptors might compensate for the lack of renal V2R activity in XNDI mice. Strikingly, both acute and chronic treatment of the mutant mice with a selective EP4 receptor agonist greatly reduced all major manifestations of XNDI, including changes in renal morphology. These physiological improvements were most likely due to a direct action on EP4 receptors expressed on collecting duct cells. These findings illustrate the usefulness of the newly generated V2R mutant mice for elucidating and testing new strategies for the potential treatment of humans with XNDI. PMID:19729836

  8. [A case of possible immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) with retroperitoneal fibrosis and central diabetes insipidus due to infundibulohypophysitis].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jun; Arai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Shigeto; Sakagami, Yoshio; Araki, Kota; Kakiuchi, Seiji; Nomura, Tetsuhiko; Kuwamura, Keiichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of possible immunoglobulin G4-related disease(IgG4-RD)that resulted in complications such as retroperitoneal fibrosis and infundibulohypophysitis. The patient was a 72-year-old male who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a thickened pituitary stalk and contrast enhancement with gadolinium. T1-weighted imaging revealed that the posterior pituitary high-signal zone had disappeared. Central diabetes insipidus was diagnosed on the basis of results of the hypertonic saline test. In addition, pressure due to retroperitoneal fibrosis resulted in hydronephrosis and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Because it was determined that the patient could have IgG4-RD, he was administered prednisolone, following which a decrease in the size of the pituitary stalk and retroperitoneal fibrosis was observed. IgG4-RD is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into various organs, including the central nervous system. Recently, IgG4-RD research teams organized by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare established guidelines for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD. According to these guidelines, this case would fall under the category of "possible IgG4-RD." This case suggested that when infundibulohypophysitis is detected by neuroradiology, further investigation into the possibility of IgG4-RD should be recommended.

  9. Analysis of 43 cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)-induced central diabetes insipidus registered in the JLSG-96 and JLSG-02 studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shioda, Yoko; Adachi, Souichi; Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Kazuko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Morimoto, Akira

    2011-12-01

    To determine the ability of recent systemic chemotherapy protocols to reduce the incidence of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), 43 CDI cases that belonged to a cohort of 348 pediatric patients with multi-focal LCH who were treated with the JLSG-96/-02 protocols were analyzed. The overall incidence of CDI was 12.4%, but in 24 cases CDI was already present at the time LCH was diagnosed. Thus, CDI developed during or after systemic chemotherapy over a follow-up period of 5.0 (0.2-14.7) years in only 19 patients (5.9%), with 7.4% at 5-year cumulative risk by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In two cases, complete resolution of CDI was noted. Anterior pituitary hormone deficiency was detected in 13 cases, while CDI-associated neurodegenerative disease was observed in six cases. The JLSG-96/-02 protocol appears to effectively reduce the occurrence of CDI. However, novel therapeutic measures are required to reverse pre-existing CDI and to prevent CDI-associated neurological complications.

  10. A selective EP4 PGE2 receptor agonist alleviates disease in a new mouse model of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hua; Chou, Chung-Lin; Li, Bo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Eisner, Christoph; Schnermann, Jürgen; Anderson, Stasia A; Deng, Chu-Xia; Knepper, Mark A; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI) is a severe kidney disease caused by inactivating mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene that result in the loss of renal urine-concentrating ability. At present,no specific pharmacological therapy has been developed for XNDI, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models. To develop what we believe to be the first viable animal model of XNDI, we generated mice in which the V2R gene could be conditionally deleted during adulthood by administration of 4-OH-tamoxifen.Radioligand-binding studies confirmed the lack of V2R-binding sites in kidneys following 4-OH-tamoxifen treatment, and further analysis indicated that upon V2R deletion, adult mice displayed all characteristic symptoms of XNDI, including polyuria, polydipsia, and resistance to the antidiuretic actions of vasopressin. Gene expression analysis suggested that activation of renal EP4 PGE2 receptors might compensate for the lack of renal V2R activity in XNDI mice. Strikingly, both acute and chronic treatment of the mutant mice with a selective EP4 receptor agonist greatly reduced all major manifestations of XNDI, including changes in renal morphology.These physiological improvements were most likely due to a direct action on EP4 receptors expressed on collecting duct cells. These findings illustrate the usefulness of the newly generated V2R mutant mice for elucidating and testing new strategies for the potential treatment of humans with XNDI.

  11. V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) mutations in partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus highlight protean agonism of V2R antagonists.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Makita, Noriko; Manaka, Katsunori; Hisano, Masataka; Akioka, Yuko; Miura, Kenichiro; Takubo, Noriyuki; Iida, Atsuko; Ueda, Norishi; Hashimoto, Makiko; Fujita, Toshiro; Igarashi, Takashi; Sekine, Takashi; Iiri, Taroh

    2012-01-13

    Inactivating mutations of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) cause cross-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), resulting in renal resistance to the antidiuretic hormone AVP. In two families showing partial NDI, characterized by an apparently normal response to diagnostic tests and an increase in the basal ADH levels suggesting AVP resistance, we have identified two V2R mutations, Ser-333del and Y128S. Both mutant V2Rs, when expressed in COS-7 cells, show partial defects in vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and intracellular localization. The inhibition of internalization does not rescue their localization. In contrast, the non-peptide V2R antagonists OPC41061 and OPC31260 partially rescue the membrane localization and basal function of these V2R mutants, whereas they inhibit the basal activity of the wild-type V2R. These results indicate that a partial loss of function of Ser-333del and Y128S mutant V2Rs results from defective membrane trafficking. These findings further indicate that V2R antagonists can act as protean agonists, serving as pharmacological chaperones for inactivating V2R mutants and also as inverse agonists of wild-type receptors. We speculate that this protean agonism could underlie the possible dual beneficial effects of the V2R antagonist: improvement of hyponatremia with heart failure or polycystic kidney disease and potential rescue of NDI.