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Sample records for neuromuscular factors influencing

  1. Spatial factors and muscle spindle input influence the generation of neuromuscular responses to stimulation of the human foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Forth, Katharine E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2005-05-01

    Removal of the mechanical pressure gradient on the soles leads to physiological adaptations that ultimately result in neuromotor degradation during spaceflight. We propose that mechanical stimulation of the soles serves to partially restore the afference associated with bipedal loading and assists in attenuating the negative neuromotor consequences of spaceflight. A dynamic foot stimulus device was used to stimulate the soles in a variety of conditions with different stimulation locations, stimulation patterns and muscle spindle input. Surface electromyography revealed the lateral side of the sole elicited the greatest neuromuscular response in ankle musculature, followed by the medial side, then the heel. These responses were modified by preceding stimulation. Neuromuscular responses were also influenced by the level of muscle spindle input. These results provide important information that can be used to guide the development of a "passive" countermeasure that relies on sole stimulation and can supplement existing exercise protocols during spaceflight.

  2. The Onecut Transcription Factor HNF-6 Regulates in Motor Neurons the Formation of the Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Audouard, Emilie; Schakman, Olivier; René, Frédérique; Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Huber, Andrea B.; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Gailly, Philippe; Clotman, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The neuromuscular junctions are the specialized synapses whereby spinal motor neurons control the contraction of skeletal muscles. The formation of the neuromuscular junctions is controlled by a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms coordinately activated in motor nerve terminals and in their target myotubes. However, the transcriptional regulators that control in motor neurons the genetic programs involved in neuromuscular junction development remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the Onecut transcription factor HNF-6 regulates in motor neurons the formation of the neuromuscular junctions. Indeed, adult Hnf6 mutant mice exhibit hindlimb muscle weakness and abnormal locomotion. This results from defects of hindlimb neuromuscular junctions characterized by an abnormal morphology and defective localization of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin at the motor nerve terminals. These defects are consequences of altered and delayed formation of the neuromuscular junctions in newborn mutant animals. Furthermore, we show that the expression level of numerous regulators of neuromuscular junction formation, namely agrin, neuregulin-2 and TGF-ß receptor II, is downregulated in the spinal motor neurons of Hnf6 mutant newborn animals. Finally, altered formation of neuromuscular junction-like structures in a co-culture model of wildtype myotubes with mutant embryonic spinal cord slices is rescued by recombinant agrin and neuregulin, indicating that depletion in these factors contributes to defective neuromuscular junction development in the absence of HNF-6. Thus, HNF-6 controls in spinal motor neurons a genetic program that coordinates the formation of hindlimb neuromuscular junctions. PMID:23227180

  3. Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, L. A.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Zhang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscientists are often interested in grouping variables to facilitate understanding of a particular phenomenon. Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique that groups variables into conceptually meaningful clusters, but remains underutilized by neuroscience researchers presumably due to its complicated concepts and procedures. This paper illustrates an application of factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of whole-body muscle activation during treadmill walking. Ten male subjects walked on a treadmill (6.4 km/h) for 20 s during which surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from the left side sternocleidomastoid, neck extensors, erector spinae, and right side biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. Factor analysis revealed 65% of the variance of seven muscles sampled aligned with two orthogonal factors, labeled 'transition control' and 'loading'. These two factors describe coordinated patterns of muscular activity across body segments that would not be evident by evaluating individual muscle patterns. The results show that factor analysis can be effectively used to explore relationships among muscle patterns across all body segments to increase understanding of the complex coordination necessary for smooth and efficient locomotion. We encourage neuroscientists to consider using factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of neuromuscular activation that would be obscured using more traditional EMG analyses.

  4. Targeting of the ETS Factor Gabpα Disrupts Neuromuscular Junction Synaptic Function▿ §

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Debra A.; Noakes, Peter G.; Lavidis, Nick A.; Kola, Ismail; Hertzog, Paul J.; Ristevski, Sika

    2007-01-01

    The GA-binding protein (GABP) transcription factor has been shown in vitro to regulate the expression of the neuromuscular proteins utrophin, acetylcholine esterase, and acetylcholine receptor subunits δ and ɛ through the N-box promoter motif (5′-CCGGAA-3′), but its in vivo function remains unknown. A single point mutation within the N-box of the gene encoding the acetylcholine receptor ɛ subunit has been identified in several patients suffering from postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome, implicating the GA-binding protein in neuromuscular function and disease. Since conventional gene targeting results in an embryonic-lethal phenotype, we used conditional targeting to investigate the role of GABPα in neuromuscular junction and skeletal muscle development. The diaphragm and soleus muscles from mutant mice display alterations in morphology and distribution of acetylcholine receptor clusters at the neuromuscular junction and neurotransmission properties consistent with reduced receptor function. Furthermore, we confirmed decreased expression of the acetylcholine receptor ɛ subunit and increased expression of the γ subunit in skeletal muscle tissues. Therefore, the GABP transcription factor aids in the structural formation and function of neuromuscular junctions by regulating the expression of postsynaptic genes. PMID:17325042

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations.

  6. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-08-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury. PMID:26856339

  7. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  8. Neuromuscular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like ... and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis ...

  9. Installation of the hand influences acceleromyography measurement. A comparison with mechanomyography during neuromuscular recovery.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Ph E; Gourdin, M; Russell, K; Jamart, J

    2005-01-01

    Acceleromyography is commonly used to monitor perioperative neuromuscular blockade and to prevent residual neuromuscular blockade at the time of tracheal extubation. However, there are problems associated with this method, such as obtaining stable values, particularly beneath the surgical fields. We compared TOF ratios obtained on both hands simultaneously using on one side mechanomyography and on the other acceleromyography, installed in four different ways: the hand simply lying on a board, fingers fixed with tape, use of the hand adaptor or the TOF-tube. Further to maintaining free thumb movement, the TOF-tube improves feasibility of acceleromyography by reducing the measurement variability while retaining accuracy. PMID:16013661

  10. Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree of neuromuscular involvement. Diagnosis Incidence of Scoliosis Cerebral palsy (2 limbs involved) 25% Myelodysplasia (lower lumbar) 60% Spinal muscle atrophy 67% Friedreich ataxia 80% Cerebral palsy (4 limbs involved) 80% Duchenne muscular dystrophy 90% ...

  11. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J; Graakjaer, Jesper; Jacobsen, Søren V; Schrøder, Henrik D

    2014-06-05

    Spectrins and plakins are important communicators linking cytoskeletal components to each other and to cellular junctions. Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) belongs to the spectraplakin family and is involved in control of microtubule dynamics. Complete knock out of MACF1 in mice is associated with developmental retardation and embryonic lethality. Here we present a family with a novel neuromuscular condition. Genetic analyses show a heterozygous duplication resulting in reduced MACF1 gene product. The functional consequence is affected motility observed as periodic hypotonia, lax muscles and diminished motor skills, with heterogeneous presentation among the affected family members. To corroborate these findings we used RNA interference to knock down the VAB-10 locus containing the MACF1 homologue in C. elegans, and we could show that this also causes movement disturbances. These findings suggest that changes in the MACF1 gene is implicated in this neuromuscular condition, which is an important observation since MACF1 has not previously been associated with any human disease and thus presents a key to understanding the essential nature of this gene.

  12. Activity-sensitive signaling by muscle-derived insulin-like growth factors in the developing and regenerating neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Caroni, P

    1993-08-27

    In the nervous system, activity-sensitive retrograde signaling pathways couple the status of postsynaptic activation to elimination of collaterals during development and collateral sprouting in the adult. This article presents evidence supporting the hypothesis that in the neuromuscular system, skeletal muscle fiber derived insulin-like growth factors play a central role in such signaling. This evidence includes (1) timing and activity-sensitive expression of IGFs in skeletal muscle fibers, (2) identification of an IGF- and activity-sensitive retrograde signaling pathway from developing muscle to motoneurons in the spinal cord, (3) demonstration that IGFs in the muscle are both sufficient and necessary to induce interstitial cell proliferation and intramuscular nerve sprouting in adult muscle.

  13. How do treadmill speed and terrain visibility influence neuromuscular control of guinea fowl locomotion?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Joanne C.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Locomotor control mechanisms must flexibly adapt to both anticipated and unexpected terrain changes to maintain movement and avoid a fall. Recent studies revealed that ground birds alter movement in advance of overground obstacles, but not treadmill obstacles, suggesting context-dependent shifts in the use of anticipatory control. We hypothesized that differences between overground and treadmill obstacle negotiation relate to differences in visual sensory information, which influence the ability to execute anticipatory manoeuvres. We explored two possible explanations: (1) previous treadmill obstacles may have been visually imperceptible, as they were low contrast to the tread, and (2) treadmill obstacles are visible for a shorter time compared with runway obstacles, limiting time available for visuomotor adjustments. To investigate these factors, we measured electromyographic activity in eight hindlimb muscles of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, N=6) during treadmill locomotion at two speeds (0.7 and 1.3 m s−1) and three terrain conditions at each speed: (i) level, (ii) repeated 5 cm low-contrast obstacles (<10% contrast, black/black), and (iii) repeated 5 cm high-contrast obstacles (>90% contrast, black/white). We hypothesized that anticipatory changes in muscle activity would be higher for (1) high-contrast obstacles and (2) the slower treadmill speed, when obstacle viewing time is longer. We found that treadmill speed significantly influenced obstacle negotiation strategy, but obstacle contrast did not. At the slower speed, we observed earlier and larger anticipatory increases in muscle activity and shifts in kinematic timing. We discuss possible visuomotor explanations for the observed context-dependent use of anticipatory strategies. PMID:26254324

  14. How do treadmill speed and terrain visibility influence neuromuscular control of guinea fowl locomotion?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Joanne C; Rankin, Jeffery W; Daley, Monica A

    2015-10-01

    Locomotor control mechanisms must flexibly adapt to both anticipated and unexpected terrain changes to maintain movement and avoid a fall. Recent studies revealed that ground birds alter movement in advance of overground obstacles, but not treadmill obstacles, suggesting context-dependent shifts in the use of anticipatory control. We hypothesized that differences between overground and treadmill obstacle negotiation relate to differences in visual sensory information, which influence the ability to execute anticipatory manoeuvres. We explored two possible explanations: (1) previous treadmill obstacles may have been visually imperceptible, as they were low contrast to the tread, and (2) treadmill obstacles are visible for a shorter time compared with runway obstacles, limiting time available for visuomotor adjustments. To investigate these factors, we measured electromyographic activity in eight hindlimb muscles of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, N=6) during treadmill locomotion at two speeds (0.7 and 1.3 m s(-1)) and three terrain conditions at each speed: (i) level, (ii) repeated 5 cm low-contrast obstacles (<10% contrast, black/black), and (iii) repeated 5 cm high-contrast obstacles (>90% contrast, black/white). We hypothesized that anticipatory changes in muscle activity would be higher for (1) high-contrast obstacles and (2) the slower treadmill speed, when obstacle viewing time is longer. We found that treadmill speed significantly influenced obstacle negotiation strategy, but obstacle contrast did not. At the slower speed, we observed earlier and larger anticipatory increases in muscle activity and shifts in kinematic timing. We discuss possible visuomotor explanations for the observed context-dependent use of anticipatory strategies.

  15. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  16. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Borges, Paulo Alvim; Barbosa, Angelo Roberto; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros-Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. METHODS: Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used) during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels), sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic). RESULTS: Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs). The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103), surgery duration (r = 0.144) and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004) were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs. PMID:25518018

  17. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for post-operative complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy : a comparison with other neuromuscular conditions.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, A D; Mitchell, M J; Tsirikos, A I

    2014-07-01

    We report the incidence of and risk factors for complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and compare them with those of other neuromuscular conditions. We identified 110 (64 males, 46 females) consecutive patients with a neuromuscular disorder who underwent correction of the scoliosis at a mean age of 14 years (7 to 19) and had a minimum two-year follow-up. We recorded demographic and peri-operative data, including complications and re-operations. There were 60 patients with cerebral palsy (54.5%) and 26 with DMD (23.6%). The overall complication rate was 22% (24 patients), the most common of which were deep wound infection (9, 8.1%), gastrointestinal complications (5, 4.5%) and hepatotoxicity (4, 3.6%). The complication rate was higher in patients with DMD (10/26, 38.5%) than in those with other neuromuscular conditions (14/84, 16.7% (p = 0.019). All hepatotoxicity occurred in patients with DMD (p = 0.003), who also had an increased rate of deep wound infection (19% vs 5%) (p = 0.033). In the DMD group, no peri-operative factors were significantly associated with the rate of overall complications or deep wound infection. Increased intra-operative blood loss was associated with hepatotoxicity (p = 0.036). In our series, correction of a neuromuscular scoliosis had an acceptable rate of complications: patients with DMD had an increased overall rate compared with those with other neuromuscular conditions. These included deep wound infection and hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was unique to DMD patients, and we recommend peri-operative vigilance after correction of a scoliosis in this group.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Change the Outcome Part II: Targeted Neuromuscular Training Techniques to Reduce Identified ACL Injury Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior reports indicate that female athletes who demonstrate high knee abduction moments (KAMs) during landing are more responsive to neuromuscular training designed to reduce KAM. Identification of female athletes who demonstrate high KAM, which accurately identifies those at risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, may be ideal for targeted neuromuscular training. Specific neuromuscular training targeted to the underlying biomechanical components that increase KAM may provide the most efficient and effective training strategy to reduce noncontact ACL injury risk. The purpose of the current commentary is to provide an integrative approach to identify and target mechanistic underpinnings to increased ACL injury in female athletes. Specific neuromuscular training techniques will be presented that address individual algorithm components related to high knee load landing patterns. If these integrated techniques are employed on a widespread basis, prevention strategies for noncontact ACL injury among young female athletes may prove both more effective and efficient. PMID:22580980

  20. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: the lack of short-term in vitro effects of serum factors on neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Sanders, D B; Johns, T R; Phillips, L H; Smith, R E

    1988-10-01

    Serum was obtained from 7 patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LES), 3 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL), and 9 healthy control subjects. Serum samples were applied in vitro to the rat neuromuscular junction (for 1-3 h for control LES sera; 4 h for SCCL sera), following which the pre- and postjunctional physiological effects of serum factors were studied in the presence of 10 mM [Mg2+]o. All sera produced a marked reduction in the frequency of spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), while causing slight to moderate changes in MEPP amplitude. There were no consistent changes in the quantum content of the impulse-evoked end-plate potentials, though the serum from one LES patient significantly and reversibly inhibited the evoked quantal release. No significant effect was found when a human intercostal muscle was exposed to serum from another LES patient for 2 h. Therefore, when applied in vitro on a short-term basis, the putative LES autoantibodies do not consistently react with voltage-dependent calcium channels in the motor nerve terminal and thus fail to reproduce the physiologic abnormality of the syndrome. We suggest that the pathogenic IgG molecules may require more than 3h of incubation in order to gain access to, and inhibit the function of, the prejunctional Ca2+ channels.

  1. Neuromuscular Control and Coordination during Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2004-01-01

    The neuromuscular control aspect of cycling has been investigated through the effects of modifying posture and cadence. These studies show that changing posture has a more profound influence on neuromuscular coordination than does changing slope. Most of the changes with standing posture occur late in the downstroke: increased ankle and knee joint…

  2. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  3. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  4. Influence of Affective Stimuli on Leg Power Output and Associated Neuromuscular Parameters during Repeated High Intensity Cycling Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hamdi; Rouis, Majdi; Coudrat, Laure; Gélat, Thierry; Noakes, Timothy David; Driss, Tarak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emotional eliciting pictures on neuromuscular performance during repetitive supramaximal cycling exercises (RSE). In a randomized order, twelve male participants were asked to perform five 6-s cycle sprints (interspaced by 24 s of recovery) on a cycle ergometer in front of neutral, pleasant or unpleasant pictures. During each RSE, mean power output (MPO) and electromyographic activity [root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)] of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles were analyzed. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of MPO to RMS. Higher RMS (232.17 ± 1.17 vs. 201.90 ± 0.47 μV) and MF (68.56 ± 1.78 vs. 64.18 ± 2.17 Hz) were obtained in pleasant compared to unpleasant conditions (p < 0.05). This emotional effect persisted from the first to the last sprint. Higher MPO was obtained in pleasant than in unpleasant conditions (690.65 ± 38.23 vs. 656.73 ± 35.95 W, p < 0.05). However, this emotional effect on MPO was observed only for the two first sprints. NME decreased from the third sprint (p < 0.05), which indicated the occurrence of peripheral fatigue after the two first sprints. These results suggested that, compared with unpleasant pictures, pleasant ones increased the neuromuscular performance during RSE. Moreover, the disappearance of the beneficial effect of pleasant emotion on mechanical output from the third sprint appears to be due to peripheral fatigue. PMID:26305334

  5. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  6. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  7. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  8. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  9. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

  10. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  11. Factors Influencing Return to Work

    PubMed Central

    Brewerton, D. A.; Daniel, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with severe brachial plexus injuries were interviewed two or more years later to determine their success in returning to work and the factors that had led to good or bad resettlement. For most of them these were crucial issues potentially influencing the rest of their lives. When interviewed virtually all had regular jobs in open industry, but many had endured long delays and most were working entirely one-handed. Failure of communication was regrettably common. Too often advice by doctors had been lacking, and there was evidence that the services for vocational resettlement could be improved. PMID:5123911

  12. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and testosterone did not influence heterotopic ossification size after spinal cord injury: A case series.

    PubMed

    Moore, Pamela D; Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wade, Rodney C; Khalil, Refka E; Lavis, Timothy D; Khan, Rehan; Adler, Robert A

    2016-07-16

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are effective rehabilitation strategies to attenuate muscle atrophy and evoke hypertrophy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However both interventions might increase heterotopic ossification (HO) size in SCI patients. We present the results of two men with chronic traumatic motor complete SCI who also had pre-existing HO and participated in a study investigating the effects of TRT or TRT plus NMES resistance training (RT) on body composition. The 49-year-old male, Subject A, has unilateral HO in his right thigh. The 31-year-old male, Subject B, has bilateral HO in both thighs. Both participants wore transdermal testosterone patches (4-6 mg/d) daily for 16 wk. Subject A also underwent progressive NMES-RT twice weekly for 16 wk. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired prior to and post intervention. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the whole thigh and knee extensor skeletal muscles, femoral bone, and HO were measured. In Subject A (NMES-RT + TRT), the whole thigh skeletal muscle CSA increased by 10%, the knee extensor CSA increased by 17%, and the HO + femoral bone CSA did not change. In Subject B (TRT), the whole thigh skeletal muscle CSA increased by 13% in the right thigh and 6% in the left thigh. The knee extensor CSA increased by 7% in the right thigh and did not change in the left thigh. The femoral bone and HO CSAs in both thighs did not change. Both the TRT and NMES-RT + TRT protocols evoked muscle hypertrophy without stimulating the growth of pre-existing HO. PMID:27458592

  13. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and testosterone did not influence heterotopic ossification size after spinal cord injury: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pamela D; Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wade, Rodney C; Khalil, Refka E; Lavis, Timothy D; Khan, Rehan; Adler, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are effective rehabilitation strategies to attenuate muscle atrophy and evoke hypertrophy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However both interventions might increase heterotopic ossification (HO) size in SCI patients. We present the results of two men with chronic traumatic motor complete SCI who also had pre-existing HO and participated in a study investigating the effects of TRT or TRT plus NMES resistance training (RT) on body composition. The 49-year-old male, Subject A, has unilateral HO in his right thigh. The 31-year-old male, Subject B, has bilateral HO in both thighs. Both participants wore transdermal testosterone patches (4-6 mg/d) daily for 16 wk. Subject A also underwent progressive NMES-RT twice weekly for 16 wk. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired prior to and post intervention. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the whole thigh and knee extensor skeletal muscles, femoral bone, and HO were measured. In Subject A (NMES-RT + TRT), the whole thigh skeletal muscle CSA increased by 10%, the knee extensor CSA increased by 17%, and the HO + femoral bone CSA did not change. In Subject B (TRT), the whole thigh skeletal muscle CSA increased by 13% in the right thigh and 6% in the left thigh. The knee extensor CSA increased by 7% in the right thigh and did not change in the left thigh. The femoral bone and HO CSAs in both thighs did not change. Both the TRT and NMES-RT + TRT protocols evoked muscle hypertrophy without stimulating the growth of pre-existing HO. PMID:27458592

  14. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  15. The Fibular Nerve Injury Method: A Reliable Assay to Identify and Test Factors That Repair Neuromuscular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Dalkin, William; Taetzsch, Thomas; Valdez, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) undergoes deleterious structural and functional changes as a result of aging, injury and disease. Thus, it is imperative to understand the cellular and molecular changes involved in maintaining and repairing NMJs. For this purpose, we have developed a method to reliably and consistently examine regenerating NMJs in mice. This nerve injury method involves crushing the common fibular nerve as it passes over the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle tendon near the knee. Using 70 day old female mice, we demonstrate that motor axons begin to reinnervate previous postsynaptic targets within 7 days post-crush. They completely reoccupy their previous synaptic areas by 12 days. To determine the reliability of this injury method, we compared reinnervation rates between individual 70 day old female mice. We found that the number of reinnervated postsynaptic sites was similar between mice at 7, 9, and 12 days post-crush. To determine if this injury assay can also be used to compare molecular changes in muscles, we examined levels of the gamma-subunit of the muscle nicotinic receptor (gamma-AChR) and the muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). The gamma-AChR subunit and MuSK to are highly upregulated following denervation and return to normal levels following reinnervation of NMJs. We found a close relationship between transcript levels for these genes and innervation status of muscles. We believe that this method will accelerate our understanding of the cellular and molecular changes involved in repairing the NMJ and other synapses. PMID:27585036

  16. Neuromuscular complications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Grisold, W; Grisold, A; Löscher, W N

    2016-08-15

    Cancer is becoming a treatable and even often curable disease. The neuromuscular system can be affected by direct tumor invasion or metastasis, neuroendocrine, metabolic, dysimmune/inflammatory, infections and toxic as well as paraneoplastic conditions. Due to the nature of cancer treatment, which frequently is based on a DNA damaging mechanism, treatment related toxic side effects are frequent and the correct identification of the causative mechanism is necessary to initiate the proper treatment. The peripheral nervous system is conventionally divided into nerve roots, the proximal nerves and plexus, the peripheral nerves (mono- and polyneuropathies), the site of neuromuscular transmission and muscle. This review is based on the anatomic distribution of the peripheral nervous system, divided into cranial nerves (CN), motor neuron (MND), nerve roots, plexus, peripheral nerve, the neuromuscular junction and muscle. The various etiologies of neuromuscular complications - neoplastic, surgical and mechanic, toxic, metabolic, endocrine, and paraneoplastic/immune - are discussed separately for each part of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:27423586

  17. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  18. Neuromuscular Blockade and Reversal Agents: A Primer for Postanesthesia Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesci, Barbara R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive review of neuromuscular blocking agents, reversal agents used in anesthesia, and factors affecting reversal. It is aimed at nurses who provide care to patients recovering from anesthesia. It discusses the neuromuscular transmission system, depolarizing muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing blocking agents, and criteria for…

  19. Recent achievements in restorative neurology: Progressive neuromuscular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrijevic, M.R.; Kakulas, B.A.; Vrbova, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 27 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Computed Tomography of Muscles in Neuromuscular Disease; Mapping the Genes for Muscular Dystrophy; Trophic Factors and Motor Neuron Development; Size of Motor Units and Firing Rate in Muscular Dystrophy; Restorative Possibilities in Relation to the Pathology of Progressive Neuromuscular Disease; and An Approach to the Pathogenesis of some Congenital Myopathies.

  20. Electrodiagnosis of disorders of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Howard, James F

    2013-02-01

    This article reviews the use of electrodiagnostic testing in disorders of neuromuscular transmission and discusses the differences between various presynaptic and postsynaptic disorders. Attention is paid to quality control issues that influence the sensitivity of repetitive nerve stimulation and single fiber electromyography. Electrodiagnostic testing, when used as an extension of the clinician's history and physical examination, will provide appropriate direction in establishing the diagnosis.

  1. Factors Influencing College Curriculum Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl L.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…

  2. Influence of duty cycle on the time course of muscle fatigue and the onset of neuromuscular compensation during exhaustive dynamic isolated limb exercise.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Christopher W; Bundle, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the influence of altered muscle duty cycle on the performance decrements and neuromuscular responses occurring during constant-load, fatiguing bouts of knee extension exercise. We experimentally altered the durations of the muscularly inactive portion of the limb movement cycle and hypothesized that greater relative durations of inactivity within the same movement task would 1) reduce the rates and extent of muscle performance loss and 2) increase the forces necessary to trigger muscle fatigue. In each condition (duty cycle = 0.6 and 0.3), male subjects [age = 25.9 ± 2.0 yr (SE); mass = 85.4 ± 2.6 kg], completed 9-11 exhaustive bouts of two-legged knee extension exercise, at force outputs that elicited failure between 4 and 290 s. The novel duty cycle manipulation produced two primary results; first, we observed twofold differences in both the extent of muscle performance lost (DC0.6 = 761 ± 35 N vs. DC0.3 = 366 ± 49 N) and the time course of performance loss. For example, exhaustive trials at the midpoint of these force ranges differed in duration by more than 30 s (t0.6 = 36 ± 2.6 vs. t0.3 = 67 ± 4.3 s). Second, both the minimum forces necessary to exceed the peak aerobic capacity and initiate a reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and the forces necessary to elicit compensatory increases in electromyogram activity were 300% greater in the lower vs. higher duty cycle condition. These results indicate that the fatigue-induced compensatory behavior to recruit additional motor units is triggered by a reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP resynthesis and is independent of the absolute level or fraction of the maximum force produced by the muscle.

  3. Influence of duty cycle on the time course of muscle fatigue and the onset of neuromuscular compensation during exhaustive dynamic isolated limb exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of altered muscle duty cycle on the performance decrements and neuromuscular responses occurring during constant-load, fatiguing bouts of knee extension exercise. We experimentally altered the durations of the muscularly inactive portion of the limb movement cycle and hypothesized that greater relative durations of inactivity within the same movement task would 1) reduce the rates and extent of muscle performance loss and 2) increase the forces necessary to trigger muscle fatigue. In each condition (duty cycle = 0.6 and 0.3), male subjects [age = 25.9 ± 2.0 yr (SE); mass = 85.4 ± 2.6 kg], completed 9–11 exhaustive bouts of two-legged knee extension exercise, at force outputs that elicited failure between 4 and 290 s. The novel duty cycle manipulation produced two primary results; first, we observed twofold differences in both the extent of muscle performance lost (DC0.6 = 761 ± 35 N vs. DC0.3 = 366 ± 49 N) and the time course of performance loss. For example, exhaustive trials at the midpoint of these force ranges differed in duration by more than 30 s (t0.6 = 36 ± 2.6 vs. t0.3 = 67 ± 4.3 s). Second, both the minimum forces necessary to exceed the peak aerobic capacity and initiate a reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and the forces necessary to elicit compensatory increases in electromyogram activity were 300% greater in the lower vs. higher duty cycle condition. These results indicate that the fatigue-induced compensatory behavior to recruit additional motor units is triggered by a reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP resynthesis and is independent of the absolute level or fraction of the maximum force produced by the muscle. PMID:25876654

  4. Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J

    2012-08-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests.

  5. Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J

    2012-08-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests. PMID:22938876

  6. Scoliosis and the impact in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Oscar Henry

    2015-01-01

    Scoliosis can alter respiratory mechanics by changing the orientation of the muscles and joints of the respiratory system and in severe forms can put a patient at risk of severe respiratory morbidity or respiratory failure. However, perhaps the most important factor in determining the pulmonary morbidity in scoliosis is the balance between the "load" or altered respiratory mechanics and the "pump" or the respiratory muscle strength. Therefore, scoliosis in patients with neuromuscular disease will both lead to increased "load" and a weakened "pump", an exceptionally unfortunate combination. While progressive neuromuscular disease by its nature does not respond favorably to attempts to improve respiratory muscle strength, the natural approach of early proactive management of the "load" and in the case of scoliosis a variety of different strategies have been tried with variable short term and long term results. Figuring this out requires both an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of a particular neuromuscular condition and the available options for and timing of surgical intervention.

  7. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  8. The influence of the muscle fiber pennation angle and innervation zone on the identification of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Hendrix, C Russell; Zuniga, Jorge M; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) responses and the estimated physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC(FT)) values recorded from electrode arrangements placed: (1) parallel to the muscle fiber pennation angle (MFPA), (2) parallel to the long axis of the femur, and (3) over the innervation zone (IZ) during incremental cycle ergometry. Thirteen college-aged males and females (mean age ± SD=22.4 ± 3.4 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. A linear electrode array was utilized to determine the MFPA and location of the IZ of the vastus lateralis (VL). For determination of the PWC(FT) values, EMG signals were recorded from three bipolar electrode arrangements at different locations over the VL. The results of a one-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated there were no significant (p<0.05) mean differences in PWC(FT) values among the electrode arrangements (parallel to the MFPA=190 ± 36 W; parallel to the long axis of the femur=194 ± 40 W; and over the IZ=199 ± 51 W) or the EMG amplitude and MPF values at the common power outputs. There were also significant correlations (r=0.75-0.91) among the three electrode arrangements for PWC(FT) values. These findings suggested that the PWC(FT), like absolute EMG amplitude and MPF, is robust to the influence of electrode placement over the IZ as well as the orientation with respect to the MFPA during cycle ergometry.

  9. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neuromuscular Diseases • ©2011 MDA cell nucleus cell chromosomes DNA Genes are made of DNA, which is stored on chromo- somes in each ... particular protein. The effects of a mutation in DNA in a person depend on many fac- tors, ...

  10. Biotherapies of neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Briand, J-F; Roy, M-O; Mourlane, F; André, C; Loux, N; Rougeau, C; Toursel, T; Braun, S

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the most recent data on biotherapeutic approaches, using DNA, RNA, recombinant proteins, or cells as therapeutic tools or targets for the treatment of neuromuscular diseases. Many of these novel technologies have now reached the clinical stage and have or are about to move to the market. Others, like genome editing are still in an early stage but hold great promise.

  11. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  12. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  13. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  14. Central enhancement of evoked electromyographic monitoring of neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C

    1991-05-01

    Central neural influences on neuromuscular transmission may explain the frequent failure of evoked electromyographic (EEMG) responses to return to control values during offset of neuromuscular block. This study, performed in conscious subjects, did not demonstrate any change in EEMG response of either the first dorsal interosseous muscle during onset of ulnar nerve block or the flexor hallucis brevis during onset of subarachnoid block. It is concluded that central enhancement of EEMG response via a neural mechanism does not explain the observed failure of EEMG monitoring of neuromuscular block.

  15. Central enhancement of evoked electromyographic monitoring of neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C

    1991-05-01

    Central neural influences on neuromuscular transmission may explain the frequent failure of evoked electromyographic (EEMG) responses to return to control values during offset of neuromuscular block. This study, performed in conscious subjects, did not demonstrate any change in EEMG response of either the first dorsal interosseous muscle during onset of ulnar nerve block or the flexor hallucis brevis during onset of subarachnoid block. It is concluded that central enhancement of EEMG response via a neural mechanism does not explain the observed failure of EEMG monitoring of neuromuscular block. PMID:1851627

  16. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  17. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  18. Parent Involvement: Influencing Factors and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Delores C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the involvement of Mexican American parents in their children's elementary schools. Interviews with teachers, parents, and administrators and observations of parent activities indicated that parent involvement was influenced by factors like language, parent cliques, parent education, school staff attitudes, cultural factors, and…

  19. Computational Models for Neuromuscular Function

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Hoffmann, Heiko; Kurse, Manish U.; Kutch, Jason J.; Theodorou, Evangelos A.

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of the neuromuscular system hold the potential to allow us to reach a deeper understanding of neuromuscular function and clinical rehabilitation by complementing experimentation. By serving as a means to distill and explore specific hypotheses, computational models emerge from prior experimental data and motivate future experimental work. Here we review computational tools used to understand neuromuscular function including musculoskeletal modeling, machine learning, control theory, and statistical model analysis. We conclude that these tools, when used in combination, have the potential to further our understanding of neuromuscular function by serving as a rigorous means to test scientific hypotheses in ways that complement and leverage experimental data. PMID:21687779

  20. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  1. Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M L

    1995-10-01

    Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  2. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  3. The role of proprioception and neuromuscular stability in carpal instabilities.

    PubMed

    Hagert, E; Lluch, A; Rein, S

    2016-01-01

    Carpal stability has traditionally been defined as dependent on the articular congruity of joint surfaces, the static stability maintained by intact ligaments, and the dynamic stability caused by muscle contractions resulting in a compression of joint surfaces. In the past decade, a fourth factor in carpal stability has been proposed, involving the neuromuscular and proprioceptive control of joints. The proprioception of the wrist originates from afferent signals elicited by sensory end organs (mechanoreceptors) in ligaments and joint capsules that elicit spinal reflexes for immediate joint stability, as well as higher order neuromuscular influx to the cerebellum and sensorimotor cortices for planning and executing joint control. The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the role of proprioception and neuromuscular control in carpal instabilities by delineating the sensory innervation and the neuromuscular control of the carpus, as well as descriptions of clinical applications of proprioception in carpal instabilities. PMID:26115684

  4. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  5. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  6. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  7. Factors Influencing School Connectedness: Chinese Adolescents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie A. Y.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.; Shea, Peter M. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness…

  8. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  9. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  10. Factors influencing the inhibition of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Hau, Jean-Christophe; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Pover, Alain De; Erdmann, Dirk; Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase field is a very active research area in the pharmaceutical industry and many activities are ongoing to identify inhibitors of these proteins. The design of new chemical entities with improved pharmacological properties requires a deeper understanding of the factors that modulate inhibitor-kinase interactions. In this report, we studied the effect of two of these factors--the magnesium ion cofactor and the protein substrate--on inhibitors of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our results show that the concentration of magnesium ion influences the potency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitors, suggesting an explanation for the observation that such compounds retain their nanomolar potency in cells despite the presence of millimolar levels of ATP. We also showed that the peptidic substrate affects the potency of these inhibitors in a different manner, suggesting that the influence of this substrate on compound potency should be taken into consideration during drug discovery.

  11. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-05-01

    Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside.

  13. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  14. Time scale dependence of the center of pressure entropy: What characteristics of the neuromuscular postural control system influence stabilographic entropic half-life?

    PubMed

    Federolf, Peter; Zandiyeh, Payam; von Tscharner, Vinzenz

    2015-12-01

    The center of pressure (COP) movement in studies of postural control reveals a highly regular structure (low entropy) over short time periods and a highly irregular structure over large time scales (high entropy). Entropic half-life (EnHL) is a novel measure that quantifies the time over which short-term temporal correlations in a time series deteriorate to an uncorrelated, random structure. The current study suggested and tested three hypotheses about how characteristics of the neuromuscular postural control system may affect stabilometric EnHL: (H1) control system activity hypothesis: EnHL decreases with increased frequency of control system interventions adjusting COP motion; (H2) abundance of states hypothesis: EnHL decreases with increased number of mechanically equivalent states available to the postural system; and (H3) neurologic process hierarchy hypothesis: EnHL increases if postural control functions shift from the spinal level to the motor cortex. Thirty healthy participants performed quiet stance tests for 90 s in 18 different conditions: stance (bipedal, one-legged, and tandem); footwear (bare foot, regular sports shoe, and rocker sole shoes); and simultaneous cognitive task (two-back working memory task, no challenge). A four-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant changes in EnHL for the different stance positions and for different movement directions (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior). These changes support H1 and H2. Significant differences were also found between rocker sole shoes and normal or barefoot standing, which supports H3. This study contributes to the understanding of how and why EnHL is a useful measure to monitor neuromuscular control of balance.

  15. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Tonali, P.; Gambi, D.

    1973-01-01

    The neuromuscular depolarizing block induced by intra-arterially injected ACh was studied to determine the variability in the same subject and in different subjects without disorders at the motor end-plate. Amplitude of action potentials of the opponens pollicis muscle evoked by intermittent repetitive supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist were recorded for one hour from the beginning of ACh injection. The features of prompt and late depression stages after the injection were analysed statistically. Re-testing of the same subjects after a while shows that, in spite of all efforts to maintain the same experimental conditions, variations do occur in late depression. Time course and duration are particularly affected, while the degree of depression is altered but slightly. The presence of such variations limits this test to evaluation of the influence of other factors only within their already established statistical limits. Images PMID:4350703

  16. Neuromuscular complications of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J B; Layzer, R B; Levin, S R; Scheider, V; Campbell, M J; Sumner, A J

    1975-07-01

    Seventeen consecutive acromegalic patients were evaluated for evidence of neuromuscular dysfunction and followed for 1 year after hypophysectomy. Before treatment, four patients had both a myopathy and the carpal tunnel syndrome, five had myopathy alone, four had carpal tunnel syndrome alone, and four had neither. The myopathy was caracterized by mild, strictly promixal weakness and flabbiness of muscles; electromyography revealed typical myopathic abnormalities, but serum enzymes and muscle biopsy usually were normal. The presence of myopathy or the carpal tunnel syndrrome could not be correlated with the magnitude of growth hormone elevation or any secondary endocrine derangement, but myopathy was associated with a longer duration of acromegaly. Carpal tunnel symptoms usually improved in the first 6 weeks after hypophysectomy, while myopathy improved more slowly and sometimes was detectable 1 year later.

  17. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  18. Factors influencing public participation in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Othman, Areej; Shahrouri, Manal; Mustafa, Ebtihal

    2014-04-01

    A diversity of public participation in biobanking is a highlight for the success of biobanks. It was previously reported that only two-thirds of Jordanians expressed interest in biobanking. To promote public involvement in a biobank, it is imperative to determine the aspects that influence the decision-making to participate. On the basis of a national survey involving 3196 respondents, the influence of 13 biobanking factors was assessed, including returning research results, privacy, freedom of choice, uncertainties about research, monetary and health considerations, and personal belief. Perception toward each factor was also correlated with willingness to participate in a biobank. A considerable number of respondents indicated returning research results as influential in their decision to become biobank donors. Interestingly, whereas the positive perception of availability of general results (39%) correlated with willingness to donate for biobanking, the negative view of unavailability of individualized results (47%) did not correlate with unwillingness. Religious permission of sample donation for research had the strongest positive influence (61%) and the highest correlation to participate among positively perceived factors. Unspecified research was highly indicated as a negative factor (45%), but did not correlate with unwillingness to become a biobank donor, whereas allowed withdrawal had a positive effect (31%) and correlation to contribute to biobanking. The negative perception of accessing medical information (9.5%) and re-contact (8.5%) had the strongest correlation with unwillingness to donate to a biobank. These results may provide an insight into how to formulate strategies to promote public participation in biomedical research and biobanking. PMID:23921537

  19. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  20. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety.

  1. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  2. Factors influencing participation in breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Lynne; Glackin, Marie; Hughes, Caroline; Rogers, Katherine Mary Ann

    Despite the efficacy of mammography and the widespread promotion of screening programmes, a significant number of eligible women still do not attend for regular breast screening. An integrative review methodology was considered the most appropriate means to critically analyse the available literature pertaining to factors which influence participation in breast cancer screening. From the extensive literature search, 12 selected core research papers met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the literature review. Four themes emerged from the literature which impact on participation in mammography screening: psychological and practical issues, ethnicity issues, influence of socioeconomic status and issues related to screening programmes. The recent Independent Review Panel on Breast Cancer Screening endorsed the importance of access to information which clearly communicates the harms and benefits of breast screening to enable women to make informed decisions about their health. The recommendations from the panel and others have been included in this review. PMID:24067312

  3. [Influence of limk1 Gene Polymorphism on Learning Acquisition and Memory Formation with pCREB Distribution and Aggregate Formation in Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaya, A N; Nikitina, E A; Medvedeva, A V; Gerasimenko, M S; Chernikova, D A; Savateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that the polymorphic structure of the limk1 gene in drosophila leads to changes in LIMK1 content and to defects in courtship behavior, sound production, and learning/memory. The results of the present study of three wild-type strains and mutant agn(ts3) with altered limk1 structure demonstrate that long-term memory is normal in Canton-S and Oregon-R but is impaired in Berlin and drastically suppressed in agn(ts3). This temperature-sensitive mutant carries the S-element from the Tc1/mariner family insertion near the dlimk1 3'-UTR and, compared to Canton-S, has a reverse pCREB distribution in adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the second dorsal imago nerve before and after learning. Moreover, only agn(ts3) demonstrates amyloid-like aggregate formation in NMJ. This suggests that this impedes pCREb transport and thereby impairs the formation of short- and long-term memory.

  4. [Influence of limk1 Gene Polymorphism on Learning Acquisition and Memory Formation with pCREB Distribution and Aggregate Formation in Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaya, A N; Nikitina, E A; Medvedeva, A V; Gerasimenko, M S; Chernikova, D A; Savateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that the polymorphic structure of the limk1 gene in drosophila leads to changes in LIMK1 content and to defects in courtship behavior, sound production, and learning/memory. The results of the present study of three wild-type strains and mutant agn(ts3) with altered limk1 structure demonstrate that long-term memory is normal in Canton-S and Oregon-R but is impaired in Berlin and drastically suppressed in agn(ts3). This temperature-sensitive mutant carries the S-element from the Tc1/mariner family insertion near the dlimk1 3'-UTR and, compared to Canton-S, has a reverse pCREB distribution in adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the second dorsal imago nerve before and after learning. Moreover, only agn(ts3) demonstrates amyloid-like aggregate formation in NMJ. This suggests that this impedes pCREb transport and thereby impairs the formation of short- and long-term memory. PMID:26310031

  5. Neuromuscular Development and Regulation of Myosin Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, Sue

    1997-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine whether the absence of gravity during embryogenesis influences the postnatal development of the neuromuscular system. Further, we examined the effects of reduced gravity on hindlimb muscles of the pregnant rats. Microgravity may have short and long-term effects on the development of muscle fiber type differentiation and force producing capabilities. Microgravity will reduce muscle fiber size and cause a shift in myosin heavy chain expression from slow to fast in hindlimb muscles of the adult pregnant rats.

  6. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  7. Neuromuscular disease classification system.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns. PMID:23804164

  8. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  9. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  10. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  11. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  12. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. PMID:27155332

  13. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain.

  14. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices.

  15. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices. PMID:19538600

  16. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  17. Factors that can influence mentorship relationships.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Beverly

    2009-07-01

    Mentorship is an integral part of the qualified nurse role that supports learning and development. The quality of the relationship between mentor and mentee can affect learning, particularly any disparity in their expectations. A fictitious scenario is used in this article to highlight the effect of different perceptions of the mentorship relationship, with a particular focus on the nursing student and qualified nurse. Factors that can have a negative influence on mentoring include poor communication, differing expectations between mentor and mentee, lack of trust and lack of appreciation of everyday life circumstances that affects each person. The use of learning contracts, formulation of ground rules, use of information in student handbooks and discussion of the expectations of the mentor and mentee can help prevent or counteract problems in the relationship. PMID:19623801

  18. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  19. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  20. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Meyrick C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of “being there” in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users’ attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds. PMID:24199058

  1. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  2. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  3. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  4. Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Mahmoud I.; Ali, Mostafa A. Sayed; Hassan, Ayman K.M.; Elfaham, Tahani H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembolic episodes. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to determine independent risk factors that can keep patients outside target INR range. Patients who were newly initiated warfarin on hospital admission were given low initiation dose (2.8 mg ± 0.9). They were more likely to have INR values below 1.5 during hospital stay, 13 (27.7%) patients compared with 9 (12.3%) previously treated patients, respectively (p = .034). We found that the best predictors of achieving below target INR range relative to within target INR range were; shorter hospital stay periods (OR, 0.82 for every day increase [95% CI, 0.72–0.94]), being a male patient (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.05–7.69]), concurrent infection (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07–0.59]) and new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission (OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 1.28–10.9]). Gender, new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission, shorter hospital stay periods and concurrent infection can have a significant effect on discharge INRs. Initiation of warfarin without giving loading doses increases the risk of having INRs below 1.5 during hospital stay and increases the likelihood of a patient to be discharged with INR below target range. Following warfarin dosing nomograms and careful monitoring of the effect of various factors on warfarin response should be greatly considered. PMID:26702259

  5. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Reynald C.; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm2), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

  6. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  7. Factors Driving Biofuel Crops' Influence on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.

    2010-12-01

    grass parameters in CLM in order to identify a smaller set of parameters that exerts the most control on climatically relevant terms such as energy and carbon fluxes. By revealing those parameters that are most and least influential in terms of climate forcing, systematic sensitivity analysis helps to prioritize the search for observational data, constrains the process of tuning parameters to limited data, and leads the way to characterizing the uncertainty in biofuel crops’ influence on climate. Furthermore, due to similarities across managed ecosystems, these results offer general insight into those plant physiological properties and management factors that must be well-characterized in order to model changes in energy and carbon fluxes resulting from human land use.

  8. DYNAMIC NEUROMUSCULAR STABILIZATION & SPORTS REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic neuromuscular (core) stability is necessary for optimal athletic performance and is not achieved purely by adequate strength of abdominals, spinal extensors, gluteals or any other musculature; rather, core stabilization is accomplished through precise coordination of these muscles and intra‐abdominal pressure regulation by the central nervous system. Understanding developmental kinesiology provides a framework to appreciate the regional interdependence and the inter‐linking of the skeleton, joints, musculature during movement and the importance of training both the dynamic and stabilizing function of muscles in the kinetic chain. The Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) approach provides functional tools to assess and activate the intrinsic spinal stabilizers in order to optimize the movement system for both pre‐habilitation and rehabilitation of athletic injuries and performance. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439921

  9. Neuromuscular fatigue in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Millet, Grégoire P

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the physiologic and neural mechanisms that cause neuromuscular fatigue in racquet sports: table tennis, tennis, squash, and badminton. In these intermittent and dual activities, performance may be limited as a match progresses because of a reduced central activation, linked to changes in neurotransmitter concentration or in response to afferent sensory feedback. Alternatively, modulation of spinal loop properties may occur because of changes in metabolic or mechanical properties within the muscle. Finally, increased fatigue manifested by mistimed strokes, lower speed, and altered on-court movements may be caused by ionic disturbances and impairments in excitation-contraction coupling properties. These alterations in neuromuscular function contribute to decrease in racquet sports performance observed under fatigue.

  10. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained.

  11. Neuromuscular fatigue in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Millet, Grégoire P

    2009-02-01

    This article describes the physiologic and neural mechanisms that cause neuromuscular fatigue in racquet sports: table tennis, tennis, squash, and badminton. In these intermittent and dual activities, performance may be limited as a match progresses because of a reduced central activation, linked to changes in neurotransmitter concentration or in response to afferent sensory feedback. Alternatively, modulation of spinal loop properties may occur because of changes in metabolic or mechanical properties within the muscle. Finally, increased fatigue manifested by mistimed strokes, lower speed, and altered on-court movements may be caused by ionic disturbances and impairments in excitation-contraction coupling properties. These alterations in neuromuscular function contribute to decrease in racquet sports performance observed under fatigue.

  12. Neuromuscular Disease Models and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert W; Cox, Gregory A; Seburn, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases can affect the survival of peripheral neurons, their axons extending to peripheral targets, their synaptic connections onto those targets, or the targets themselves. Examples include motor neuron diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, peripheral neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, myasthenias, and muscular dystrophies. Characterizing these phenotypes in mouse models requires an integrated approach, examining both the nerve and muscle histologically, anatomically, and functionally by electrophysiology. Defects observed at these levels can be related back to onset, severity, and progression, as assessed by "Quality of life measures" including tests of gross motor performance such as gait or grip strength. This chapter describes methods for assessing neuromuscular disease models in mice, and how interpretation of these tests can be complicated by the inter-relatedness of the phenotypes. PMID:27150099

  13. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. PMID:24890888

  14. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  15. Factors influencing triage decisions in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Margaret; Herrman, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Endacott, Ruth

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors influencing the timing of an assessment after contact with a triage program in a community-based area mental health service in Australia. Triage decisions apparently were influenced by several groups of factors: patient characteristics; the source and mode of the contact with triage; and to a large extent by mental health service factors including the training, supervision and support of triage workers and the perceived availability of an assessment. While demand factors such as patient characteristics influenced the triage decision, supply factors also played an important role.

  16. Load-dependent regulation of neuromuscular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohira, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Fuminori; Stevens, James L.; Wang, Xiao D.; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Roles of gravitational loading, sarcomere length, and/or tension development on the electromyogram (EMG) of soleus and afferent neurogram recorded at the L5 segmental level of spinal cord were investigated during parabolic flight of a jet airplane or hindlimb suspension in conscious rats. Both EMG and neurogram levels were increased when the gravity levels were elevated from 1-G to 2-G during the parabolic flight. They were decreased when the hindlimbs were unloaded by exposure to actual microgravity or by suspension. These phenomena were related to passive shortening of muscle fibers and/or sarcomeres. Unloading-related decrease in sarcomere length was greater at the central rather than the proximal and distal regions of fibers. These activities and tension development were not detected when the mean sarcomere length was less than 2.03 micrometers. It is suggested that load-dependent regulation of neuromuscular system is related to the tension development which is influenced by sarcomere length.

  17. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  18. Neuromuscular ultrasound in common entrapment neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O

    2013-11-01

    Neuromuscular ultrasound involves the use of high-resolution ultrasound to image the peripheral nervous system of patients with suspected neuromuscular diseases. It complements electrodiagnostic studies well by providing anatomic information regarding nerves, muscles, vessels, tendons, ligaments, bones, and other structures that cannot be obtained with nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Neuromuscular ultrasound has been studied extensively over the past 10 years and has been used most often in the assessment of entrapment neuropathies. This review focuses on the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in 4 of the most common entrapment neuropathies: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and wrist, and fibular neuropathy at the knee.

  19. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  20. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  1. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  2. Factors influencing host susceptibility to meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, F P; Blackwell, C C; Weir, D M

    1985-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions influencing the development of the protective humoral immune response to Neisseria meningitidis are briefly reviewed. Possible consequences of the observed decreased titres of bactericidal activity specific for meningococcal serogroups A, B and C among patients with gonorrhoea are discussed with reference to: the epidemiology of the two diseases, the protective role of "natural" antibodies to the Neisseria species and the carriage rate of serogroupable strains of N. meningitidis among patients with gonorrhoea and a control population.

  3. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  4. The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2013-06-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are amongst the most common and problematic injuries in a wide range of sports that involve high speed running. The comparatively high rate of hamstring injury recurrence is arguably the most concerning aspect of these injuries. A number of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are proposed to predispose athletes to hamstring strains. Potentially, the persistence of risk factors and the development of maladaptations following injury may explain injury recurrence. Here, the role of neuromuscular inhibition following injury is discussed as a potential mechanism for several maladaptations associated with hamstring re-injury. These maladaptations include eccentric hamstring weakness, selective hamstring atrophy and shifts in the knee flexor torque-joint angle relationship. Current evidence indicates that athletes return to competition after hamstring injury having developed maladaptations that predispose them to further injury. When rehabilitating athletes to return to competition following hamstring strain injury, the role of neuromuscular inhibition in re-injury should be considered.

  5. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  6. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  7. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  8. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  9. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, R S; Collins, M T

    1992-01-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis does not produce any detectable mycobactin, an iron-binding compound that is synthesized by most Mycobacterium spp. and necessary for the growth of all mycobacteria. This study examined the influence of various culture conditions on mycobactin dependence in M. paratuberculosis. Using a radiometric growth assay, we found the minimal concentration of mycobactin J necessary for growth of M. paratuberculosis to be 0.006 microM, whereas 1.2 microM (1 microgram/ml) was required for optimal growth. In media without mycobactin at iron concentrations less than or equal to 100 microM, growth of M. paratuberculosis occurred at pH 5.0, but not pH 6.8. Iron concentrations greater than 100 microM did not significantly increase growth at pH 5.0, but at pH 6.8 the growth rate increased with increasing amounts of iron reaching a rate equal to control cultures containing mycobactin. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis appeared to lose mycobactin dependence when subcultured; however, this was subsequently shown to be a result of mycobactin carried over from primary medium. Removal of this contaminating cell-wall-associated mycobactin reestablished mycobactin dependence. We conclude that mycobactin dependence must be carefully determined because it is a key test used in identification of M. paratuberculosis and may be easily influenced by media pH, iron concentration, and mycobactin carryover from primary media. PMID:1582168

  10. Influence of hereditary factors in psychogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of a research project, a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of nonidentical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins, n = 100 test persons) was examined between 1963 and 1969 and recently, 20 years later, followed up. The index twins were drawn from among the patients making use of the services of an outpatient clinic; they had been diagnosed as having psychoneurotic, character-neurotic of psychosomatic disorders. The question again looked into was that of nature versus nurture: identical twins displayed significantly higher similarity with regard to both severity of their neuroses and manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did nonidentical twins. The hereditary factor proved to be of greater import for the continuing childhood neuroses than for the subsiding childhood neuroses. Yet a certain hereditary factor effect was observed for the neuroses which first manifest themselves in adulthood. Our findings indicate that the hereditary factor is not more pronounced in childhood than in adulthood; it is equally effective in adults. PMID:7480573

  11. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  12. Factors influencing the algebra ``reversal error''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Elaine; Kanim, Stephen E.

    2005-11-01

    Given a written problem statement about a proportional relationship between two quantities, many students will place the constant of proportionality on the wrong side of the equals sign. Introductory physics is one of the first courses in which students encounter multiple-step problems that require algebraic (rather than numeric) solutions, and this "reversal error" is relatively common in student solutions to these types of problems. We describe an investigation into three possible influences on students who make this reversal error: variable symbol choice, sentence structure, and context familiarity. Our results, from a calculus-based physics course and an intermediate algebra course, show that sentence structure is the most significant of these three possibilities. However, sentence structure alone does not provide a complete explanation for the reversal error.

  13. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  15. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  16. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  17. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837

  18. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  19. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  20. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  1. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  2. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  3. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debarun; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria. PMID:22259220

  4. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  5. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  6. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  7. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  8. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  9. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  10. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  11. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  12. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Methods Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Results Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). Conclusions This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further. PMID:19897506

  13. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  14. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  15. Neuromuscular Highlights-AAN 2005.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Zahid; Saperstein, David; Jackson, Carolyn; Newman, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Summary of Neuromuscular Presentations at the 57 Annual AAN 2005 meeting in Miami Florida on topics of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Diabetic Neuropathy, Charco Marie Tooth disease (CMT), Comparison of injected steroids versus Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, Rituximab in Anti-MAG associated polyneuropathy, Cannabis based medicine (CBM) in the treatment of neuropathic pain, utility of skin biopsy with intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in sensory complaints, comparing sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) and skin biopsy in diagnosing small fiber sensory neuropathy, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) clinical and electrophysiologic predictors, affect of limb warming in mild ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities, Tamoxifen affect in ALS, open label study of 3,4 DAP, Pyridostigmine and Ephedrine in fast channel syndrome, Mexilitine as an antimyotonia treatment in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), frontal lobe impairment evaluation in DM1 and DM2 patients and phenotype-genotype correlation in patients with dysferlinopathy. PMID:19078809

  16. Novel drug development for neuromuscular blockade

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Amit; Kaye, Alan D; Wyche, Melville Q; Salinas, Orlando J; Mancuso, Kenneth; Urman, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological advances in anesthesia in recent decades have resulted in safer practice and better outcomes. These advances include improvement in anesthesia drugs with regard to efficacy and safety profiles. Although neuromuscular blockers were first introduced over a half century ago, few new neuromuscular blockers and reversal agents have come to market and even fewer have remained as common clinically employed medications. In recent years, newer agents have been studied and are presented in this review. With regard to nondepolarizer neuromuscular blocker agents, the enantiomers Gantacurium and CW002, which are olefinic isoquinolinium diester fumarates, have shown potential for clinical application. Advantages include ultra rapid reversal of neuromuscular blockade via cysteine adduction and minimal systemic hemodynamic effects with administration. PMID:27625489

  17. School Intervention for the Neuromuscularly Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Colin D.; Porter, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Difficulties encountered in school by 35 neuromuscularly handicapped children, (5 to 18 years old) were assessed, and methods of alleviating problems were developed. (SEW) Journal Availability: The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  18. Novel drug development for neuromuscular blockade

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Amit; Kaye, Alan D; Wyche, Melville Q; Salinas, Orlando J; Mancuso, Kenneth; Urman, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological advances in anesthesia in recent decades have resulted in safer practice and better outcomes. These advances include improvement in anesthesia drugs with regard to efficacy and safety profiles. Although neuromuscular blockers were first introduced over a half century ago, few new neuromuscular blockers and reversal agents have come to market and even fewer have remained as common clinically employed medications. In recent years, newer agents have been studied and are presented in this review. With regard to nondepolarizer neuromuscular blocker agents, the enantiomers Gantacurium and CW002, which are olefinic isoquinolinium diester fumarates, have shown potential for clinical application. Advantages include ultra rapid reversal of neuromuscular blockade via cysteine adduction and minimal systemic hemodynamic effects with administration.

  19. Novel drug development for neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Amit; Kaye, Alan D; Wyche, Melville Q; Salinas, Orlando J; Mancuso, Kenneth; Urman, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological advances in anesthesia in recent decades have resulted in safer practice and better outcomes. These advances include improvement in anesthesia drugs with regard to efficacy and safety profiles. Although neuromuscular blockers were first introduced over a half century ago, few new neuromuscular blockers and reversal agents have come to market and even fewer have remained as common clinically employed medications. In recent years, newer agents have been studied and are presented in this review. With regard to nondepolarizer neuromuscular blocker agents, the enantiomers Gantacurium and CW002, which are olefinic isoquinolinium diester fumarates, have shown potential for clinical application. Advantages include ultra rapid reversal of neuromuscular blockade via cysteine adduction and minimal systemic hemodynamic effects with administration. PMID:27625489

  20. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  1. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  2. Neuromuscular interactions around the knee in children, adults and elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Mademli, Lida; Patikas, Dimitrios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Although injury and neuromuscular activation patterns may be common for all individuals, there are certain factors which differentiate neuromuscular activity responses between children, adults and elderly. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence on age differences in neural activation and muscle balances around the knee when performing single joint movements. Particularly, current evidence indicates that there are some interesting similarities in the neuromuscular mechanisms by which children or the elderly differ compared with adults. Both children and elderly display a lower absolute muscle strength capacity than adults which cannot fully be explained by differences in muscle mass. Quadriceps activation failure is a common symptom of all knee injuries, irrespective of age but it is likely that its effect is more evident in children or adults. While one might expect that antagonist co-activation would differ between age categories, it appears that this is not the case. Although hamstring: quadriceps ratio levels are altered after knee injury, it is not clear whether this is an age specific response. Finally, evidence suggests that both children and the elderly display less stiffness of the quadriceps muscle-tendon unit than adults which affects their knee joint function. PMID:25232523

  3. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  4. Sugammadex: A Review of Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-07-01

    Sugammadex (Bridion(®)) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin that reverses the effect of the steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium and vecuronium. Intravenous sugammadex resulted in rapid, predictable recovery from moderate and deep neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing surgery who received rocuronium or vecuronium. Recovery from moderate neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 2 mg/kg than with neostigmine, and recovery from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 4 mg/kg than with neostigmine or spontaneous recovery. In addition, recovery from neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster when sugammadex 16 mg/kg was administered 3 min after rocuronium than when patients spontaneously recovered from succinylcholine. Sugammadex also demonstrated efficacy in various special patient populations, including patients with pulmonary disease, cardiac disease, hepatic dysfunction or myasthenia gravis and morbidly obese patients. Intravenous sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, sugammadex is an important option for the rapid reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. PMID:27324403

  5. Neuromuscular blockade in the elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Luis A; Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Pandit, Jaideep J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a desirable or even essential component of general anesthesia for major surgical operations. As the population continues to age, and more operations are conducted in the elderly, due consideration must be given to neuromuscular blockade in these patients to avoid possible complications. This review considers the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of neuromuscular blockade that may be altered in the elderly. Compartment distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs may vary due to age-related changes in physiology, altering the duration of action with a need for reduced dosage (eg, aminosteroids). Other drugs (atracurium, cisatracurium) have more reliable duration of action and should perhaps be considered for use in the elderly. The range of interpatient variability that neuromuscular blocking drugs may exhibit is then considered and drugs with a narrower range, such as cisatracurium, may produce more predictable, and inherently safer, outcomes. Ultimately, appropriate neuromuscular monitoring should be used to guide the administration of muscle relaxants so that the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade postoperatively can be minimized. The reliability of various monitoring is considered. This paper concludes with a review of the various reversal agents, namely, anticholinesterase drugs and sugammadex, and the alterations in dosing of these that should be considered for the elderly patient. PMID:27382330

  6. Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Huston, L J; Wojtys, E M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify possible predisposing neuromuscular factors for knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes by investigating anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, muscle reaction time, and muscle recruitment order in response to anterior tibial translation. We recruited four subject groups: elite female (N = 40) and male (N = 60) athletes and sex-matched nonathletic controls (N = 40). All participants underwent a subjective evaluation of knee function, arthrometer measurement of anterior tibial translation, isokinetic dynamometer strength and endurance tests at 60 and 240 deg/sec, and anterior tibial translation stress tests. Dynamic stress testing of muscles demonstrated less anterior tibial translation in the knees of the athletes (both men and women) compared with the nonathletic controls. Female athletes and controls demonstrated more anterior tibial laxity than their male counterparts and significantly less muscle strength and endurance. Compared with the male athletes, the female athletes took significantly longer to generate maximum hamstring muscle torque during isokinetic testing. Although no significant differences were found in either spinal or cortical muscle reaction times, the muscle recruitment order in some female athletes was markedly different. The female athletes appeared to rely more on their quadriceps muscles in response to anterior tibial translation; the three other test groups relied more on their hamstring muscles for initial knee stabilization.

  7. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  8. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Andrew G.L.; Wood, Matthew J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large number of in vitro and in vivo studies have validated the applicability of this approach and an increasing number of preliminary clinical trials have either been completed or are under way. Several different oligonucleotide chemistries can be used for this purpose and various strategies are being developed to facilitate increased delivery efficiency and prolonged therapeutic effect. As these novel therapeutic compounds start to enter the clinical arena, attention must also be drawn to the question of how best to facilitate the clinical development of such personalised genetic therapies and how best to implement their provision. PMID:23631896

  9. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  10. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  11. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  12. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  13. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  14. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  15. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  16. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  17. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  18. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  19. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  20. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  1. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  2. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  3. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  4. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  5. Factors that Influence Elementary Teachers Use of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the ways elementary teachers use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that influence their use of computers. The population consisted of recent graduates from the elementary teacher preparation program at a mid-Atlantic university. Data were gathered using a survey…

  6. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  7. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  8. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  9. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  10. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  11. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  12. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  13. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  14. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  15. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  16. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  17. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  18. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  19. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  20. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  1. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  2. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  3. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  4. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  5. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  6. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  7. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  8. Heterogeneity of neuromuscular junctions in striated muscle of human esophagus demonstrated by triple staining for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, alpha-bungarotoxin, and acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Kallmünzer, Bernd; Sörensen, Björn; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Wörl, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    During studies on enteric co-innervation in the human esophagus, we found that not all acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive motor endplates stained for alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), respectively. Therefore, we probed for differences in neuromuscular junctions in human esophagus by using triple staining for VAChT, alpha-BT, and AChE followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. To exclude that the results were caused by processing artifacts, we additionally examined the influence of a number of factors including post-mortem changes and the type and duration of fixation on the staining results. Four types of neuromuscular junction could be distinguished in human esophagus: type I with VAChT-positive and type II with VAChT-negative nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-positive and AChE-positive endplate area, type III with VAChT-positive nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-negative but AChE-positive endplate area, and type IV with VAChT-negative nerve terminals on a alpha-BT-negative but AChE-positive endplate area. On average, 32% of evaluated AChE-positive motor endplates were type I, 6% type II, 24% type III, and 38% type IV. Based on these results, we suggest that, in human esophagus, (1) the most reliable method for staining motor endplates is presently AChE histochemistry, (2) alpha-BT-sensitive and alpha-BT-resistant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors exist in neuromuscular junctions, and (3) different types of VAChT or transport mechanisms for acetylcholine probably exist in neuromuscular junctions.

  9. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  10. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  11. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  12. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    PubMed

    Ebben, Remco H A; Vloet, Lilian C M; de Groot, Joke Mintjes; van Achterberg, Theo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses' self-reported adherence to the EDNP was 38%, 55% of the nurses and 44% of the physicians were aware of the protocol. Interference with professional autonomy, insufficient organizational support and the EDNP's applicability were indicated as barriers for adherence. The main influencing factor seems awareness. Other factors related to the individual, the organization and to protocol characteristics. Solely disseminating the EDNP is not enough to get the protocol used in clinical practice. PMID:21552130

  13. Cross-species cloning: influence of cytoplasmic factors on development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2014-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the crosstalk between naive nucleus and maternal factors deposited in the egg cytoplasm before zygotic genome activation is crucial for early development. This crosstalk may also exert some influence on later development. It is interesting to clarify the relative roles of the zygotic genome and the cytoplasmic factors in development. Cross-species nuclear transfer (NT) between two distantly related species provides a unique system to study the relative role and crosstalk between egg cytoplasm and zygotic nucleus in development. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress of cross-species NT, with emphasis on the cross-species NT in fish and the influence of cytoplasmic factors on development. Finally, we conclude that the developmental process and its evolution should be interpreted in a systemic way, rather than in a way that solely focuses on the role of the nuclear genome.

  14. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  15. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  16. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  17. Corrective Neuromuscular Approach to the Treatment of Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, Robert; Dolski, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the evaluation and treatment process for inappropriate functional patterns of neuromuscular activity within the scope of an iliotibial band friction syndrome protocol. Background: Runners with iliotibial band friction syndrome are frequently fitted with orthotic devices to restrict excessive midfoot or rearfoot, or both, motions during the stance phase. These devices may fail to yield favorable results when underlying neuromuscular factors are associated with functional iliotibial band tightening. Differential Diagnosis: Distal biceps femoris tendinitis, popliteal tendinitis, lateral meniscus lesion. Treatment: The athlete's physical examination revealed several patterns of inappropriate neuromuscular activity attributed partly to the prolonged daily wear of beach-type sandals. Modifications of casual footwear and a temporary reduction in training volume were recommended initially to prevent exacerbation of the athlete's condition. Stretching, massage, and soft tissue mobilization were administered in accordance with the athlete's specific needs. The protocol included progressions of nonweightbearing and weightbearing therapeutic exercises. Neuromuscular electric stimulation was incorporated into the protocol to re-educate the role of the first ray within the stance phase of the athlete's walking gait. Uniqueness: Upon stationary examination, this athlete presented with normal lumbar and lower extremity postures. Gait analysis, however, revealed inappropriate dorsiflexion of the great toe during ambulation. Further, the athlete's performances on a series of tests to assess neuromuscular function were substandard. This athlete's response to previous treatment and unique physical findings required a corrective neuromuscular approach that deviates from iliotibial band friction syndrome protocols advocating the use of orthotics. Conclusions: While the role of any single treatment in the athlete's recovery remains unknown, it seems that a

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  20. Flightless Flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a long and rich history as an important model organism for biologists. In particular, study of the fruit fly has been essential to much of our fundamental understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In recent years, studies using fruit flies have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Fly models of spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and other inherited neuromuscular diseases recapitulate many of the key pathologic features of the human disease. The ability to perform genetic screens holds promise for uncovering the molecular mechanisms of disease, and indeed, for identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent progress in developing fly models of neuromuscular diseases and will emphasize the contribution that Drosophila has made to our understanding of these diseases. PMID:20329357

  1. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  2. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  3. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  4. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  5. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  6. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  7. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  8. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  9. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  10. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient.

  11. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  12. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  13. Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

  14. Genetic Factors Influence Serological Measures of Common Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Leach, Charles T.; Kraig, Ellen; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Yolken, Robert; Göring, Harald H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Antibodies against infectious pathogens provide information on past or present exposure to infectious agents. While host genetic factors are known to affect the immune response, the influence of genetic factors on antibody levels to common infectious agents is largely unknown. Here we test whether antibody levels for 13 common infections are significantly heritable. Methods IgG antibodies to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), hepatitis A virus, influenza A and B, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and −2, human herpesvirus-6, and varicella zoster virus were determined for 1,227 Mexican Americans. Both quantitative and dichotomous (seropositive/seronegative) traits were analyzed. Influences of genetic and shared environmental factors were estimated using variance components pedigree analysis, and sharing of underlying genetic factors among traits was investigated using bivariate analyses. Results Serological phenotypes were significantly heritable for most pathogens (h2 = 0.17–0.39), except for Ad36 and HSV-2. Shared environment was significant for several pathogens (c2 = 0.10–0.32). The underlying genetic etiology appears to be largely different for most pathogens. Conclusions Our results demonstrate, for the first time for many of these pathogens, that individual genetic differences of the human host contribute substantially to antibody levels to many common infectious agents, providing impetus for the identification of underlying genetic variants, which may be of clinical importance. PMID:21996708

  15. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'.

  16. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  17. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression. PMID:24575656

  18. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Chinedum Peace; Morse, Gene D.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity. PMID:27777797

  19. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence.

    PubMed

    Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel; Testa, Silvia; Bina, Manuela; Calandri, Emanuela

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14-16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends' models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. PMID:25448830

  20. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  1. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college. PMID:686027

  2. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  3. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  4. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  5. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  6. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  7. Neuromuscular disorders and sleep in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muna; Selim, Bernardo; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; St Louis, Erik K

    2015-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent presenting manifestation of neuromuscular disorders and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. If not recognized and addressed early in the clinical course, SDB can lead to clinical deterioration with respiratory failure. The pathophysiologic basis of SDB in neuromuscular disorders, clinical features encountered in specific neuromuscular diseases, and diagnostic and management strategies for SDB in neuromuscular patients in the critical care setting are reviewed. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been a crucial advance in critical care management, improving sleep quality and often preventing or delaying mechanical ventilation and improving survival in neuromuscular patients.

  8. Neuromuscular Disorders and Sleep in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Muna; Selim, Bernardo; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent presenting manifestation of neuromuscular disorders and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. If not promptly recognized and addressed early in the clinical course, SDB can lead to clinical deterioration with respiratory failure. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic basis of SDB in neuromuscular disorders, clinical features encountered in specific neuromuscular diseases, and diagnostic and management strategies for SDB in neuromuscular patients in the critical care setting. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPV) has been a crucial advance in critical care management, improving sleep quality and often preventing or delaying mechanical ventilation and improving survival in neuromuscular patients. PMID:26118919

  9. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  10. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  11. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  12. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  13. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  14. [Factors influencing psychotherapeutic treatment outcome of various syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Zepf, Siegfried

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated specific and unspecific factors influencing the psychotherapeutic treatment of various syndromes using a questionnaire which systematically replicated the Consumer Reports Study performed in the USA in 1994. The authors were particularly concerned with the degree to which certain psychotherapeutic methods - psychoanalysis, depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy - produced differing results following treatment of syndromes. Using cluster-analysis, two groups of syndromes could be distinguished: Patients with depressive symptoms, stress-related disorders and/or relationship problems (depression-group) and patients with anxiety disorders and/or eating-related disorders (anxiety-group). With the help of cart-analysis (Classification and Regression Trees) it was possible to identify factors influencing the improvement of symptoms. The method of treatment had not a specific effect on the improvement of symptoms. In both groups the most important predictor was the length of treatment. Furthermore in the depression group the sex of the patients and a possible restriction of the treatment by the health insurance companies influenced the treatment results and in the anxiety group the frequency of treatment and the age of the patients. PMID:15551189

  15. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  16. Influencing factors of transient elastography in detecting liver stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Rong; Yin, Hong; Yang, Wenjuan; Li, Jianzhi; Zhang, Meifang; Zhao, Min; Shao, Jiang; Wang, Aiguang

    2016-01-01

    Liver stiffness, which correlates well with liver fibrosis stage, can be measured noninvasively by transient elastography, also known as Fibroscan. The present study aimed to determine the independent factors influencing Fibroscan detection by multiple regression analysis. A total of 181 patients who required liver biopsy were enrolled. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was detected by Fibroscan on the day of liver biopsy, while clinical information and routine biochemical examination results were also collected. Correlation was analyzed by Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the independent influencing factors. The results demonstrated that platelet (PLT) levels, serum albumin (ALB), prothrombin activity (PTA) and body mass index (BMI) were independent predictors of liver stiffness. The contribution of these four predictors to the regression equation was in the following descending order: PLT (negative correlation) > ALB (negative correlation) > PTA (negative correlation) > BMI (positive correlation). In conclusion, the parameters of PLT, ALB, PTA and BMI are independent predicting factors affecting Fibroscan detection. Therefore, the diagnosis and evaluation of liver fibrosis should comprehensively consider the results of Fibroscan, and clinical and laboratory examinations.

  17. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  18. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  19. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  20. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-02-16

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.

  1. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Rebecca L; Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians' interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients' conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to define

  2. Training community health workers: factors that influence mammography use.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Garzon, Laurel; Lombard, John; Karlowicz, Karen

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence mammography use among volunteer community health workers (CHWs). Data trends indicate lower mammography rates among minority and low-income women. Although CHW interventions have been shown to promote mammography use among this population, training strategies and the use of a comprehensive needs assessment are lacking. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected via a mailed survey. The dependent variable was mammography use within the past 2 years. The independent variables were categorized according to the factors in the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Predisposing factors included susceptibility, barriers, benefits, health motivation, self-efficacy, education, and age. Enabling factors included income, health insurance, and regular source of care. Reinforcing factors included physician recommendation to get a mammogram, social norms, and family history of breast cancer. Self-reported data from a mailed survey were obtained from a convenience sample of urban CHWS (N = 109) ages 40-73 with a mean age of 55 (SD = 9.43). The sample included 90% African American and 8% White women. Logistic regression results showed barriers to be predictive of mammography use among CHWs controlling for age, self-efficacy, health motivation, and social norms. The findings suggest CHW training focus on how to identify and address barriers to increase the likelihood of mammography use among CHWs. Future research is needed to identify cultural differences in barriers for minority CHWs.

  3. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  4. Presynaptic elements involved in the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in the neuromuscular junction were observed in rats preceding loss of muscle mass. In view of the possibility that these alterations involve changes in the secretion of myotrophic agents by presynaptic motor neurons, an investigation was undertaken to characterize a neuronall factor which is thought to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of cholinergic synapses. This factor, which is secreted into the incubation medium by NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells, induces the aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on primary cultures of rat hindlimb myotubes. Previous attempts to purify this factor failed. Extensive washing of the NG108-15 cells with hepes-buffered salt solution followed by short (4 hour) collection times resulted in the collection of incubation medium containing maximal aggregation activity with as little as 5 ug secreted protein per ml of fresh medium. A three-fold increase in specific activity was obtained after anion exchange chromatography.

  5. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  6. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: [1] Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, [2] Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, [3] ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and [4] ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors. PMID:21658224

  7. Effect of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture combined with pancuronium on neuromuscular transmission in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation; a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção Braga, Angelica de Fátima; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques; da Silva Braga, Franklin Sarmento; Potério, Gloria Maria Braga; Santos, Filipe Nadir Caparica; Junqueira, Fernando Eduardo Féres

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Local anaesthetics are drugs that are widely used in clinical practice. However, the effects of these drugs on the neuromuscular junction and their influence on the blockade produced by non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. Methods: Rats were distributed into three groups (n = 5) according to the drug studied namely, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture (5 μg/mL); pancuronium (2 μg/mL); 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture + pancuronium. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) Effects of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on membrane potential (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs); (2) amplitude of diaphragmatic response before and 60 min after the addition of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture; the degree of neuromuscular block with pancuronium and pancuronium combined with a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. Results: A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture did not alter the amplitude of muscle response (MP) but decreased the frequency and amplitude of MEPP. The block produced by pancuronium was potentiated by a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. Conclusion: A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture used alone did not affect neuromuscular transmission, but potentiated the neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. No action was shown on the muscle fibre, and alterations on MEPPs demonstrated a presynaptic action. PMID:26755834

  8. Factors influencing outcome of pregnancy in heavy-drinking women.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Q H; Chua, A; Milman, D; Solish, G

    1982-01-01

    18 pregnant women identified as heavy drinkers by the criteria of Cahalan et al., gave birth to 6 normal infants, 5 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 7 with partial FAS. Average daily alcohol consumption of mothers of normal infants was less than that of mothers of FAS and partial FAS infants. Lower socioeconomic class, higher parity and increased use of tobacco and other drugs were non-alcohol-related maternal factors which appeared to influence the outcome of pregnancy in heavy-drinking women.

  9. Manual flying skills under the influence of performance shaping factors.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Schubert, Ekkehart; Onnasch, Linda; Hüttig, Gerhard; Bubb, Heiner; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots' manual flying skills. In today's line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results. PMID:22316719

  10. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  11. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  12. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  13. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  14. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  15. Influencing factors of hydrogen bonding intensity in beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi; Gu, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding was prone to be formed by many components in beer. Different sorts of flavor substances can affect the Chemical Shift due to their different concentrations in beer. Several key factors including 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 6 ions, 9 acids, 7 polyphenols, and 2 gravity indexes (OG and RG) were determined in this research. They could be used to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bonding intensity and the flavor components in bottled larger beers through the Correlation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that ethanol content was the primary influencing factor, and its correlation coefficient was 0.629 for Correlation Analysis. Some factors had a positive correlation with hydrogen bonding intensity, including the content of original gravity, ethanol, isobutanol, Cl(-), K(+), pyruvic acid, lactic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and Catechin in beer. A mathematic model of hydrogen bonding Chemical Shift and the content of ethanol, pyruvic acid, K(+), and gallic acid was obtained through the Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis , with the adjusted R(2) being 0.779 (P = 0.001). Ethanol content was proved to be the most important factor which could impact on hydrogen bonding association in beer by Principal Component Analysis. And then, a multiple non-linearity model could be obtained as follows: [Formula: see text]. The average error was 1.23 % in the validated experiment. PMID:26396290

  16. Factors influencing inclusion of patients with malignancies in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tournoux, Caroline; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chevret, Sylvie; Levy, Vincent

    2006-01-15

    Participation in clinical trials remains low and is a central issue in oncology. The authors identified, through a systematic review, 75 papers published up to August 2004 that report barriers to recruitment of patients in clinical trials. These barriers range from patient preference and concern about information/consent to clinical problems with protocols. Strategies to overcome barriers on the part of patients and clinicians are needed and should be carefully evaluated. Thirty-three (44%) papers reported factors related to patients as influencing the inclusion of patients, 28 (37%) reported clinician's related factors, and 37 (49%) other factors from either specific groups of patients (30 papers, 40%) and/or other scopes (13 papers, 17%). No differences in prevalence were found between papers dedicated to hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Factors related to clinicians as influential were more frequently reported before 1995 (70%) than thereafter (25%; P = 0.0009). Reporting specific groups of patients as influential was more frequent in North American articles (50%) than in others (14%, P = 0.008). Patients' barriers included mostly patient preference (12 papers), concern about information and/or consent (11 papers), worry about uncertainty (7 papers), and/or relationship with medical team (7 papers). Concerning clinicians, incompatibility of protocol with normal practice (nine papers), problems in complying with the protocol (eight papers), and/or consent procedure (eight papers) were the most reported factors. The remaining factors mostly relied on specific groups of patients (30 papers), notably age of patients (18 papers) and/or minority population (11 papers, all from the USA). Strategies to overcome these barriers are needed and should be carefully evaluated. PMID:16397866

  17. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  18. Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea.

  19. A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

    PubMed

    Kubsch, Sylvia M; Sternard, Marsha J; Hovarter, Rebecca; Matzke, Vicki

    2004-02-01

    Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy. PMID:14744505

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic factors influencing bile sequestrant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Luner, P E; Amidon, G L

    1992-05-01

    In vitro bile salt binding equilibria and kinetic studies were performed with cholestyramine to determine how these factors influence bile sequestrant efficacy in vivo. Chloride ion at physiologic concentrations caused more than a twofold reduction in glycocholate (GCH) binding, compared to binding in the absence of salt, over a range of GCH concentrations and was also observed to displace bound GCH. In addition, chloride ion displaced from cholestyramine as a result of bile salt binding was measured using a chloride selective electrode, and the results show that bile salt binding is due to ion exchange. Comparison of the results of the equilibrium binding experiments to human data shows that the effect of anion binding competition alone cannot account for the lack of efficacy of cholestyramine. Consideration of other effects, such as additional binding competition or poor availability for binding, based on data from the literature, shows that adequate bile salt binding potential exists and that these interferences are not major factors influencing resin efficacy. In kinetic studies, both binding uptake of GCH and displacement of GCH from cholestyramine by chloride ion were relatively rapid, indicating that cholestyramine should equilibrate rapidly with bile salts in the GI tract. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the low efficacy of cholestyramine is a result mainly of its relatively poor ability to prevent bile salt reabsorption in the ileum.

  1. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  2. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  3. A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

    PubMed

    Kubsch, Sylvia M; Sternard, Marsha J; Hovarter, Rebecca; Matzke, Vicki

    2004-02-01

    Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy.

  4. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  5. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  6. Some factors that influence semen characteristics in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Theau-Clément, M; Bolet, G; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study, based on a five-year-long experiment, was to analyse some of the factors that influence rabbit sperm production. A total of 174 bucks between 23 and 44 weeks of age from five successive groups were used for semen collection one day per week, two times, at a 15 min interval (ejaculates of rank 1 and 2), over a period of 21 weeks. Immediately after collection, pH, mass motility, volume and concentration were measured using classical methods, and a set of motility parameters were recorded by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. Between groups, the number of motile sperm per ejaculate, considered as a synthetic criterion combining both qualitative and quantitative aspects of semen characteristics, varied from simple to double (from 150 to 326×10(6)), reflecting the strong influence of uncontrolled environmental factors. Adult (37-43 weeks old) expressed a higher number of motile sperm/ejaculate than younger bucks (300 vs. 205×10(6)). In autumn the number of motile sperm/ejaculate was higher than in summer (287 vs. 188×10(6)). Sperm production was higher on average for the first ejaculate compared to the second one (270 vs. 167×10(6)). For several semen characteristics, the effect of the collector was significant but without any repercussion on sperm production. Bucks born to nulliparous or primiparous does had higher performances. This study highlights the high variability of rabbit semen characteristics and the multitude of factors involved, either controlled or uncontrolled. PMID:25862381

  7. Influencing factors for dietary behaviors of patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Kazuko; Kawata, Chieko; Shikata, Kenichi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the dietary behavior of patients with diabetic nephropathy. One hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the outpatients of Okayama University Hospital in Okayama, Japan. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire including 206 items among 18 categories as follows: background factors, coping behavior (coping scale), degree of uncertainty in illness (uncertainty scale), and dietary behavior. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. We found that those patients with microalbuminuria alone tended to recognize more mild about their kidney status than those with macroalbuminuria and chronic renal failure. We also found that common factors influencing the dietary behavior of diabetic patients with and without nephropathy are as follows: 1. coping with the problem (beta = 0.342, p < 0.01); 2. anxiety about prognosis (beta = -0.344, p < 0.01); 3. sex (beta = -0.234, p < 0.05); 4. uncertainty regarding treatment (beta = 0.377, p < 0.01); 5. negative coping (beta = -0.354, p< 0.01); and 6. employment status (beta = 0.367, p < 0.01). Coping and uncertainty in illness had a significant relation to positive support and lack of support. To maintain appropriate dietary behavior in diabetic patients, medical staff need to determine what the social supports are important for the patient, and also to ensure good communication among healthcare personnel as well as positive support for patients and families.

  8. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  9. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  10. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation.

  11. Factors that Influence Weekday Sleep Duration in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Sabrina; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare nocturnal sleep duration in children from 8 European countries and identify its determinants. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools participating in the IDEFICS study. Participants: 8,542 children aged 2 to 9 years from 8 European countries with complete information on nocturnal sleep duration. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed by means of a computer based parental 24-h recall. Data on personal, social, environmental, and behavioral factors were collected by means of standardized parental questionnaire. Physical activity was surveyed with accelerometers. Results: Nocturnal sleep duration in the participating countries ranged from 9.5 h (SD 0.8) in Estonia to 11.2 h (SD 0.7) in Belgium and differed significantly between countries (P < 0.001) in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses, with children from northern countries sleeping the longest. Sleep duration decreased by about 6 min with each year of age over all countries. No effect of season, daylight duration, overweight, parental education level, or lifestyle factors could be seen. Conclusion: Sleep duration differs significantly between countries. Our findings allow for the conclusion that regional affiliation, including culture and environmental characteristics, seems to overlay individual determinants of sleep duration. Citation: Hense S; Barba G; Pohlabeln H; De Henauw S; Marild S; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Hadjigeorgiou C; Veidebaum T; Ahrens W. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. SLEEP 2011;34(5):633-639. PMID:21532957

  12. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  13. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods.

  14. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  15. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations.

  16. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703

  17. Factors That Influence Line Managers' Perceptions of Hospital Performance Data

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Liane Soberman

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design and test a model of the factors that influence frontline and midlevel managers' perceptions of usefulness of comparative reports of hospital performance. Study Setting A total of 344 frontline and midlevel managers with responsibility for stroke and medical cardiac patients in 89 acute care hospitals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Study Design Fifty-nine percent of managers responded to a mail survey regarding managers' familiarity with a comparative report of hospital performance, ratings of the report's data quality, relevance and complexity, improvement culture of the organization, and perceptions of usefulness of the report. Extraction Methods Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the dimensionality of performance data characteristics and improvement culture. Antecedents of perceived usefulness and the role of improvement culture as a moderator were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. Principal Findings Both data characteristics variables including data quality, relevance, and report complexity, as well as organizational factors including dissemination intensity and improvement culture, explain significant amounts of variance in perceptions of usefulness of comparative reports of hospital performance. The total R2 for the full hierarchical regression model=.691. Improvement culture moderates the relationship between data relevance and perceived usefulness. Conclusions Organizations and those who fund and design performance reports need to recognize that both report characteristics and organizational context play an important role in determining line managers' response to and ability to use these types of data. PMID:12650391

  18. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  19. Neuromuscular blockers—a means of palliation?

    PubMed Central

    Hawryluck, L

    2002-01-01

    As we die, our respiratory pattern is altered and we seem to gasp and struggle for each breath. Such gasping is commonly seen as a clear sign of dyspnoea and suffering by families and loved ones, however, it is unclear whether it is perceived at all by the dying person. Narcotics and sedatives do not seem to affect these gasping respirations. In this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics, we are asked to consider whether the last gasp of a dying patient could be or, perhaps, even should be avoided by administering neuromuscular blockers to palliate dying patients. For many reasons, such as our current failure to alleviate pain and distress, stories of inadequate analgesia and sedation in critically ill paralysed patients and the inability to know the intent—whether to palliate or to euthanise—it would seem that administering neuromuscular blockers should not be ethically permissible. PMID:12042402

  20. Neuromuscular choristoma of the internal auditory meatus.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Georgios; Röösli, Christof; Huber, Alex; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Choristomas of the internal auditory meatus are exceedingly rare tumors. In most cases, neuromuscular choristomas have initially been misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannomas (VS). No known characteristics in the clinical presentation or in imaging exist distinguishing these tumors from VS, which are the most common tumors at this location [Smith et al.: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:327-329]. We present a case of a neuromuscular choristoma of the 8th cranial nerve that was operated because of growth demonstrated on two MRI scans 3 months apart. We were convinced that this young patient would require treatment sometime in the future, and we believed that an operation at that time had higher chances to preserve the anatomical structures. Histomorphological examination of the tumor revealed a nodular lesion with fascicular and nodular assembled smooth muscle cells, connective tissue and nerve fibers.

  1. Targeting RNA to treat neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Muntoni, Francesco; Wood, Matthew J A

    2011-08-01

    The development of effective therapies for neuromuscular disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is hampered by considerable challenges: skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body, and many neuromuscular disorders are multisystemic conditions. However, despite these barriers there has recently been substantial progress in the search for novel treatments. In particular, the use of antisense oligonucleotides, which are designed to target RNA and modulate pre-mRNA splicing to restore functional protein isoforms or directly inhibit the toxic effects of pathogenic RNAs, offers great promise and these approaches are now being tested in the clinic. Here, we review recent advances in the development of such antisense oligonucleotides and other promising novel approaches, including the induction of readthrough nonsense mutations.

  2. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

  3. Neuromuscular monitoring: old issues, new controversies.

    PubMed

    Kopman, Aaron F

    2009-03-01

    "Expert" editorial opinion suggests that objective or quantitative neuromuscular monitors should be used whenever nondepolarizing blocking agents are administered. It is clear that this advice has by and large fallen on deaf ears. A sizeable number of clinicians here (North America) and abroad (Europe) fail to use even conventional peripheral nerve stimulators routinely. This chapter will explore potential reasons for and consequences of this disconnect between academia and "the real world." Along the way, we will examine such questions as how do we define and measure adequate recovery from nondepolarizing block. What are the limitations of clinical tests of recovery such as the "head-lift test?" What is the incidence of undetected postoperative residual curarization (PORC)? Does neuromuscular monitoring reduce the frequency of PORC? How will the availability of sugammadex alter the above discussion? PMID:19272534

  4. Diurnal hypercapnia in patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2010-03-01

    Subjects with progressive neuromuscular diseases undergo a typical sequence of respiratory compromise, leading from normal unassisted gas exchange to nocturnal hypoventilation with normal daytime gas exchange, and eventually to respiratory failure requiring continuous ventilatory support. Several different abnormalities in respiratory pump function have been described to explain the development of respiratory failure in subjects with neuromuscular weakness. Early in the progression of respiratory failure, the use of nocturnal assisted ventilation can reverse both night- and day-time hypercapnia. Eventually, however, diurnal hypercapnia will persist despite correction of nocturnal hypoventilation. The likely beneficial effects of mechanical ventilatory support include resting fatigue-prone respiratory muscles and resetting of the central chemoreceptors to PaCO(2). Recent experience shows that select patients who require daytime ventilation can be supported with non-invasive ventilation continuously to correct gas exchange abnormalities while avoiding detrimental aspects of tracheostomy placement.

  5. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  6. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  7. Neuromuscular rehabilitation and electrodiagnosis. 4. Specialized neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Agre, J C; Sliwa, J A

    2000-03-01

    This self-directed learning module briefly highlights the differential diagnosis for acute weakness in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. It is part of the chapter on neuromuscular rehabilitation and electrodiagnosis in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article includes a discussion on the role of exercise in the treatment of patients with the late effects of poliomyelitis or with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

  8. Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, K C

    1999-01-01

    While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? Frog species use three non-exclusive mechanisms to protract their tongues during feeding: (i) mechanical pulling, in which the tongue shortens as its muscles contract during protraction; (ii) inertial elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under inertial and muscular loading; and (iii) hydrostatic elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under constraints imposed by the constant volume of a muscular hydrostat. Major differences among these functional types include (i) the amount and orientation of collagen fibres associated with the tongue muscles and the mechanical properties that this connective tissue confers to the tongue as a whole; and (ii) the transfer of intertia from the opening jaws to the tongue, which probably involves a catch mechanism that increases the acceleration achieved during mouth opening. The mechanisms of tongue protraction differ in the types of neural mechanisms that are used to control tongue movements, particularly in the relative importance of feed-forward versus feedback control, in requirements for precise interjoint coordination, in the size and number of motor units, and in the afferent pathways that are involved in coordinating tongue and jaw movements. Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species. PMID:10382226

  9. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autonomic neuropathy, progressive polyradiculopathy due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, myopathy and other rarer disorders. PMID:19771594

  10. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  11. Familial Influences on Conduct Disorder Reflect 2 Genetic Factors and 1 Shared Environmental Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. Objective To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Design Population-based twin registry. Setting Virginia. Participants Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. Results The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environ mental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single non-shared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. Conclusions From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators. PMID:23117573

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF NEUROMUSCULAR MECHANISMS IN CHITON.

    PubMed

    Crozier, W J

    1920-07-20

    1. The degree of curvature of the body and of the girdle of a Chiton is determined by the activity of antagonistic muscle groups. At a certain, early stage in the strychninization of a Chiton the reciprocal inhibition involved in the natural use of these muscle groups is reversed, such that extensor muscles, rather than, as normally, flexor muscles, contract as the result of stimulation. This condition involves a reversal, under strychnine, of the normally positive stereotropism of the foot, and of the usual response of the mollusk to an increased illumination of its ventral surface. Strychnine reversal of this character is not a matter of the relative strength of the opposed muscle groups, for the flexor muscles are the more powerful and are the ones always shortened in tetanic contraction. 2. Nicotine, in contrast to strychnine, primarily induces contraction of flexor muscles. Its effects, moreover, are in a degree selective, being notably exerted on "cerebral" nervous structures. Curare is devoid of characteristic action on the neuromuscular responses of Chiton. 3. The chemical organization of the neuromuscular organs of Chiton, as far as revealed by these tests, corresponds to a more simple condition than is inferred for gastropods. In particular, the behavior with respect to curare resembles more that of the neuromuscular apparatus of flatworms.

  13. Factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ip, S W; Ko, H S; Applegate, K E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees. We distributed a 27-question written survey to all radiology registrars in Queensland. The questions investigated whether radiology was their first specialty choice, career satisfaction, ideal working conditions and attitudes regarding having children during the time of training. Forty-four of 51 surveys were returned (86% participation rate, 73% men, P = 0.048055) with 100% reporting a high job satisfaction; 28% of male registrars compared to 8% of female registrars did extra work outside of training to earn extra money (P = 0.000003), and 17% of female registrars took a leave of absence during their training, while no male registrar did (P = 0.087923). Only one female trainee worked part-time (P = 0.272727). In addition, 58% of female registrars planned a pregnancy (P = 0.731789) before completion of training; 83% of women versus 75% of men had no children (P = 0.329263). Only 5% of trainees agreed that it was easy to arrange part-time training, only 14% stated that it was easy to negotiate flexible work schedules and 7% agreed that it was easy to return to work after a period of absence. 'Time spent with immediate family' was rated the most important lifestyle factor, followed by 'work hours' and 'on-call duty'. The least important factors were 'being away from extended family', 'availability of part-time work' and whether 'work was in a rural location'. Overall job satisfaction is high among radiology trainees. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors, particularly those related to work time, are becoming more important for career decisions. This should be taken into account when designing and structuring radiology training to ensure that it is considered an attractive career choice. PMID:20518870

  14. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  15. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  16. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  17. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research.

  18. Factors Influencing Black Churches' Readiness to Address HIV.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka Williams; Ogg, Siri A; Williams, Andrea L; Becton-Odum, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to understand factors that influence church readiness to engage in HIV prevention and treatment activities. A convenience sample of twenty-six Black faith leaders participated in four focus groups. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged. First, the pastor's blessing and authority as the church's decision-maker determines readiness to engage in HIV prevention. Second, the church's purview of sexual health as part of a holistic ministry facilitates faith leader's readiness. Lastly, securing financial and human resources makes it feasible for faith leaders to implement activities. Findings suggest HIV-related stigma alone does not explain readiness to address HIV. Participants also discussed activities their churches are equipped to handle, including HIV testing events and health fairs.

  19. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  20. Factors influencing the declining trend of vasectomy in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Nian, Cui; Xiaozhang, Liu; Xiaofang, Pan; Qing, Yang; Minxiang, Li

    2010-07-01

    Vasectomy was once the most common birth control method in both Sichuan Province, China and the world. However, since the 1990s the prevalence of vasectomy in Sichuan, has declined significantly compared to female sterilization in Sichuan and national prevalence of male/female sterilization during the same period. To explore possible reasons for this decline, 27 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in four strata of Sichuan. Procedures for qualitative data analysis were used. The findings reveal the decline in vasectomy in Sichuan Province is influenced by multiple factors, including shifts in demographics, changes in family planning working approach and people's perceptions of reproduction, lack of information and misunderstandings about vasectomy, the stereotype of male dominance, bias and preference of program and provider, and the impact of a market economy. Several implications arise from the study for future program development.

  1. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  2. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  3. Factors influencing alternative splice site utilization in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X Y; Manley, J L

    1987-01-01

    To study factors that influence the choice of alternative pre-mRNA splicing pathways, we introduced plasmids expressing either wild-type or mutated simian virus 40 (SV40) early regions into tissue culture cells and then measured the quantities of small-t and large-T RNAs produced. One important element controlling splice site selection was found to be the size of the intron removed in the production of small-t mRNA; expansion of this intron (from 66 to 77 or more nucleotides) resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of small-t mRNA produced relative to large-T mRNA. This suggests that in the normal course of SV40 early pre-mRNA processing, large-T splicing is at a competitive advantage relative to small-t splicing because of the small size of the latter intron. Several additional features of the pre-mRNA that can influence splice site selection were also identified by analyzing the effects of mutations containing splice site duplications. These include the strengths of competing 5' splice sites and the relative positions of splice sites in the pre-mRNA. Finally, we showed that the ratio of small-t to large-T mRNA was 10 to 15-fold greater in human 293 cells than in HeLa cells or other mammalian cell types. These results suggest the existence of cell-specific trans-acting factors that can dramatically alter the pattern of splice site selection in a pre-mRNA. Images PMID:3029566

  4. Information booklets about cancer: factors influencing patient satisfaction and utilization.

    PubMed

    Butow, P; Brindle, E; McConnell, D; Boakes, R; Tattersall, M

    1998-02-01

    Providing patients with adequate information is an important component of care. This exploratory study investigated factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. The research was conducted in two stages. In stage 1, five commonly used cancer information booklets were reviewed by 36 Australian patients who were either receiving chemotherapy or had just completed treatment. Data were collected on patient satisfaction with, preference for and utilization of information booklets. In addition data were collected on variables identified in the literature as potentially influencing patient satisfaction, including patient characteristics, presentation and readability of booklets, and the timing of provision. A high level of satisfaction was found for all five information booklets, although a clear preference for one particular booklet emerged. The most notable feature of this booklet was its readability level (grade 8); in contrast the other booklets were written at levels equivalent to grades 11-12. Stage 2 focused on the side effects of patient information preference style on their satisfaction and recall of information presented in two booklets in the course of their treatment. No differences were found between patients who seek information and those who avoid it. The findings of this study suggest that patients' information needs may be better met if information booklets are written in plain English, and presented to patients prior to treatment. Future studies incorporating a larger sample of patients and greater selection and variety of information booklets are required to further determine if patient characteristics and features of booklet presentation influence patient satisfaction and preference. PMID:9732653

  5. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  6. Factors influencing dietary protein sources in the PREMIER trial population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Miwa, Saki; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Yanfang; Levy, Erma; Lastor, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Previous research suggests that protein intake, particularly plant protein, may benefit blood pressure control. However, very little has been published regarding protein sources in diets of US adults and factors influencing these choices. The purpose of this report is to describe specific sources of animal and plant proteins in diets of PREMIER clinical trial participants at baseline and how the PREMIER intervention, along with participant demographics, affected protein sources. Adult participants (n=809) who completed the 18-month PREMIER lifestyle intervention trial and had at least one diet recall at each of three study visits were included. Participants were recruited from four clinical centers in the Eastern, Southern, and Northeastern regions of United States. The PREMIER trial, conducted from 1999 to 2002, compared the impact on blood pressure of two structured behavioral interventions focusing on the traditional lifestyle modifications for blood pressure control with or without the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Protein sources were assessed by two unannounced 24-hour recalls at each of three study visits. Differences in protein sources were mainly related to participant demographics, with relatively moderate impact of the intervention. The top four protein sources for all the study participants were poultry, dairy, refined grains and beef, each contributing approximately 10% to 17% in descending order to the total protein intake at baseline. Animal and plant protein each comprised approximately 66% and 34%, respectively, to the total daily protein intake at baseline, and such overall contribution pattern remained relatively constant over time. However, sex, race, age, and body weight status all influenced contribution patterns from different food groups significantly. These influences significantly impact choice and are essential elements to consider when designing intervention programs to alter protein contributions from animal

  7. Factors influencing success of dietitians employed in business and industry.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, L J; Shanklin, C W; Johnson, J T

    1991-10-01

    Career opportunities in business and industry have been identified as one area of growth for the dietetics profession. The purposes of this study were to identify the skills, attributes, and knowledge areas dietitians need to succeed in business and industry; ascertain methods used to acquire these; assess factors that influenced career change; and determine the degree of perceived adequacy of academic preparation by practitioners employed in business and industry. A questionnaire, developed on the basis of a Delphi study involving 21 dietitians employed in business and industry, was administered to a national sample of 387 members of the Dietitians in Business and Industry (DIBI) dietetic practice group who were employed in business and industry. The overall response rate was 299 (77%); respondents were from 39 states. Skills, attributes, and knowledge areas were identified for specific employment classifications in business and industry. Self-motivation and work experience in business were identified as the most important methods for acquiring skills for this area of practice. Challenge of a new position and diversity of job responsibilities had the most influence on career change of respondents. Undergraduate and graduate education were rated somewhat inadequate and adequate, respectively, by the majority of respondents. The findings indicate that positions in business and industry require specific skills, attributes, and knowledge that may not necessarily be attained through traditional approaches. Self-assessment and appropriate self-development activities are essential for success.

  8. Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Per; Eriksson, Sune; Tareke, Eden; Karlsson, Patrik; Ehrenberg, Lar; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Our finding that acrylamide is formed during heating of food initiated a range of studies on the formation of acrylamide. The present paper summarizes our follow-up studies on the characterization of parameters that influence the formation and degradation of acrylamide in heated foods. The system designed and used for studies of the influence of added factors was primarily homogenized potato heated in an oven. The net content of acrylamide after heating was examined with regard to the following parameters: heating temperature, duration of heating, pH and concentrations of various components. Higher temperature (200 degrees C) combined with prolonged heating led to reduced levels of acrylamide, due to elimination/degradation processes. At certain concentrations, the presence of asparagine or monosaccharides (in particular fructose, glucose and glyceraldehyde) was found to increase the net content of acrylamide. Addition of other free amino acids or a protein-rich food component strongly reduced the acrylamide content, probably by promoting competing reactions and/or covalently binding of formed acrylamide. The pH-dependence of acrylamide formation exhibited a maximum around pH 8; lower pH enhanced elimination and decelerated formation of acrylamide. In contrast, the effects of additions of antioxidants or peroxides on acrylamide content were not significant. The acrylamide content of heated foods is the net result of complex reactions leading to both the formation and elimination/degradation of this molecule.

  9. Factors influencing teacher decisions on school, classroom, and curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Robert K.; Banfield, Helen

    This article describes a study designed to explore sources of influence on the judgments made by science teachers on school characteristics, classroom features, and properties of a science curriculum. The study had its theoretical basis in the concept that members of a social organization operate under certain functional paradigms, which govern their approach to events within the organization, and particularly to the implementation of innovations. Empirically, the study formed part of the Canadian contribution to the Second International Science Study, and was based on a survey of some 2000 Canadian teachers. The survey used an adaptation of policy capturing methodology, in which teachers were presented with variations in a hypothetical scenario designed to simulate a decision-making situation. Results suggest that teachers' judgments center around a number of factors, the primary ones being concern for student ability and interest, teaching methods, and school spirit and morale. On the other hand, variations in the scientific basis of a curriculum appear to exert little influence. The results are interpreted as indicators of the major elements of teacher functional paradigms.

  10. Neuromuscular Disease in the Neurointensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Veronica; James, Michael L Luke

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular diseases are syndromic disorders that affect nerve, muscle, and/or neuromuscular junction. Knowledge about the management of these diseases is required for anesthesiologists, because these may frequently be encountered in the intensive care unit, operating room, and other settings. The challenges and advances in management for some of the neuromuscular diseases most commonly encountered in the operating room and neurointensive care unit are reviewed. PMID:27521200

  11. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  12. Genetic and epigenetic factors influencing chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, L J; Duffy, S; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a serious public health problem because of its associated morbidity, premature mortality, and attendant healthcare costs. The rising number of persons with CKD is linked with the aging population structure and an increased prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. There is an inherited risk associated with developing CKD, as evidenced by familial clustering and differing prevalence rates across ethnic groups. Previous studies to determine the inherited risk factors for CKD rarely identified genetic variants that were robustly replicated. However, improvements in genotyping technologies and analytic methods are now helping to identify promising genetic loci aided by international collaboration and multiconsortia efforts. More recently, epigenetic modifications have been proposed to play a role in both the inherited susceptibility to CKD and, importantly, to explain how the environment dynamically interacts with the genome to alter an individual's disease risk. Genome-wide, epigenome-wide, and whole transcriptome studies have been performed, and optimal approaches for integrative analysis are being developed. This review summarizes recent research and the current status of genetic and epigenetic risk factors influencing CKD using population-based information.

  13. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  14. Toilet training age and influencing factors: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Hüseyin; Çakmak, Özgür; Akarken, İlker; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Ün, Sıtkı; Uzelli, Derya; Helvacı, Mehmet; Aksu, Nejat; Yavaşcan, Önder; Mutlubaş Özsan, Fatma; Cun, Selma; Koç, Feyza; Özkarakaş, Özlem; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    To determine toilet training age and the factors influencing this in our country, 1500 children who had completed toilet training were evaluated in a multicenter study. The mean age of toilet training was 22.32 ± 6.57 months. The duration it took to complete toilet training was 6.60 ± 2.20 months on the average. In univariant analysis, toilet training age increased as the parental education level, specifically that of the mother, increased. The training age of children whose mothers had over 12 years of education differed significantly from that of children of mothers with less education. There was no significant difference in toilet training age with regard to the education level of the father, or the employment status of the mother. We also found significant differences with respect to family income level, toilet type and training method. In multivariant analysis, family income >5000 TL and use of a potty chair were determined to be factors affecting toilet training age. In conclusion, toilet training age in Turkey, a developing country, was found to be lower than that in developed countries.

  15. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis.

  16. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  17. The hazard of sharp force injuries: Factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Stine; Normann, Stig-André; Morild, Inge; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying from sharp force injury is difficult to ascertain. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed in Norway regarding mortality due to sharp force injury or factors that impact survival. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate and assess mortality in subjects with sharp force injury. This retrospective study comprises data on 136 subjects (34 female, 102 male) with suspected severe sharp force injury (self-inflicted or inflicted by others) admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The majority of subjects were intoxicated, and the injury was most often inflicted by a knife. The incidence of sharp force injury in Western Norway is similar to the incidence in other European countries. Almost half of the subjects with self-inflicted injury died. In cases with injury inflicted by another individual, one in five died. Mortality rates were higher in those with penetrating chest injuries than those with penetrating abdominal injuries and higher in cases with cardiac injury compared to pleural or lung injury. Sharp force injury can be fatal, but the overall mortality rate in this study was 29%. Factors influencing mortality rate were the number of injuries, the topographic regions of the body injured, the anatomical organs/structures inflicted, and emergency measures performed.

  18. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways. PMID:17687992

  19. Factors influencing the antibody response to vaccination against rabies.

    PubMed

    Jakel, V; König, M; Cussler, K; Hanschmann, K; Thiel, H-J

    2008-01-01

    Preventive vaccination against rabies virus is a highly effective method for preventing rabies in humans and animals. For travel purposes, vaccination of domestic carnivores is obligatory. In addition, some countries require testing for neutralizing antibodies against rabies. The minimal threshold level accepted by WHO/OIE is 0.5 IU/ml. Despite proper vaccination some animals do not reach the threshold. The objective of this study was to identify specific risk factors in dogs and cats for post-vaccination rabies antibody titres below 0.5 IU/ml by FAVN test. Rabies vaccination protocols and recommendations were reviewed with regard to travel regulations. Comprehensive data was collected on animals tested for rabies antibodies via a questionnaire sent to veterinarians who submitted sera for rabies titration. The questionnaire included data on species, age, sex, breed, vaccine used, date of last vaccination and blood sampling, vaccination history and further medical treatments at time of vaccination. Data on around 1,200 animals was analysed. Most animals older than one year had already received more than one rabies vaccination. The influence of breed and sex on antibody titre seems to be insignificant. Young dogs have a high risk of results below 0.5 IU/ml after their first vaccination. This risk can be minimised by the application of a second vaccination and blood sampling according to the manufacturer's recommendations. An important factor for the test outcome might be the virus strain used in the vaccine.

  20. Factors influencing prognosis in adults with acute myelogenous leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, D.; Beard, M. E.; Bateman, C. J.; Sewell, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the thymidine labelling index (TLI) of bone marrow blast cells in 58 untreated patients with acute myelogenous leukemia showed no correlation with remission rate but there was a strong correlation between labelling index and remission length in the 21 patients who achieved remission. The median remission length of the patients was 33 weeks. Of the 12 patients with initial labelling indices greater than 10%, only 2 had remissions longer than 33 weeks whereas 8 of the 9 patients with labelling indices less than 10% had remissions longer than 33 weeks. No correlation could be found between the degree of cytological differentiation and remission induction, remission length or survival. No correlation was found between the TLI and the degree of cytological differentiation. Age and initial platelet count were confirmed to be important factors influencing complete remission rate, but these factors did not correlate with remission length. Sixteen patients had their pretreatment sera assayed for mouse marrow colony stimulating activity and inhibitor levels but there was no correlation with subsequent response to treatment, although the number of patients examined was clearly too small for any definite conclusions to be drawn. PMID:1082343

  1. Impaired glucose tolerance: influence by environmental and hereditary factors.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Wibell, L

    1991-01-01

    The influence on impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by obesity, physical leisure time activity (PLTA), family histories of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other characteristics were evaluated in a health survey of 807 middle-aged females and males, with the rate of IGT 8.4% (WHO-criteria). Independent (adjusted for covariates) odds ratios concerning IGT were estimated. The ratios were 5.3 with the presence of obesity and 2.2. (ns) with low compared to high PLTA. In a subgroup of summarized environmental factors (obesity and low PLTA versus no obesity and high PLTA, n = 339), the independent odds ratio for IGT was 9.6 with obesity and low PLTA. With one 1st degree DM relative the odds ratio for IGT was 3.1. The ratio was increased both with the presence of relatives with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with the presence of relatives with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetic mothers yielded a higher ratio for IGT than diabetic fathers. In conclusion, the independent relative risk for IGT in this Swedish middle-aged urban sample was about two times higher with environmental factors (obesity only/obesity with low PLTA) than with one 1st degree DM relative.

  2. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways.

  3. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  4. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:24330167

  5. Understanding the factors influencing safe and unsafe motorcycle rider intentions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, Deborah J; Watson, Barry C; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Schonfeld, Cynthia C; Wishart, Darren E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing popularity of motorcycles in Australia is a significant concern as motorcycle riders represent 15% of all road fatalities and an even greater proportion of serious injuries. This study assessed the psychosocial factors influencing motorcycle riders' intentions to perform both safe and risky riding behaviours. Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), motorcycle riders (n=229) from Queensland, Australia were surveyed to assess their riding attitudes, subjective norm (general and specific), perceived behavioural control (PBC), group norm, self-identity, sensation seeking, and aggression, as well as their intentions, in relation to three safe (e.g., handle my motorcycle skilfully) and three risky (e.g., bend road rules to get through traffic) riding behaviours. Although there was variability in the predictors of intention across the behaviours, results revealed that safer rider intentions were most consistently predicted by PBC, while riskier intentions were predicted by attitudes and sensation seeking. The TPB was able to explain a greater proportion of the variance for intentions to perform risky behaviours. Overall, this study has provided insight into the complexity of factors contributing to rider intentions and suggests that different practical strategies need to be adopted to facilitate safer and reduce risky rider decisions. PMID:23036390

  6. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  7. Factors influencing adolescents engagement in risky Internet behavior.

    PubMed

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Khoo, Angeline; Ang, Peng Hwa

    2005-12-01

    The present study used data from the SAFT (Safety, Awareness, Facts and Tools) Singapore survey, a national survey of 1,124 youths aged 12-17, to explore the issue of risk on the Internet. We investigated factors that influence adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior, in particular, meeting face-to-face someone they first encountered online. The adolescents ranged from ages 12 to 17, with a mean of 14.32 (SD = 1.37); 49.6% of the adolescents were girls. The study utilized a 93-item survey that was part of the SAFT Project. Results indicated that 16% of adolescent Internet users in Singapore have had a face-to-face meeting with someone first encountered online. The following factors were found to be predictors of adolescents engagement in such face-to-face meetings: age, frequency of Internet use, frequency of chatting and gaming behavior, parental rules, type of personal information given out, amount of inappropriate messages received, whether inappropriate websites have been visited, and type of internet advice heard. Implications of the results are discussed.

  8. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  9. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  10. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  11. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  12. Influences of environmental factors on leaf morphology of Chinese jujubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  13. Factors influencing wood mobilization 1 in Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  14. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  15. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  16. Diverticular Disease of the Colon: Neuromuscular Function Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bernardini, Nunzia; Dore, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a frequent finding in daily clinical practice. However, its pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. This condition is likely the result of several concomitant factors occurring together to cause anatomic and functional abnormalities, leading as a result to the outpouching of the colonic mucosa. A pivotal role seems to be played by an abnormal colonic neuromuscular function, as shown repeatedly in these patients, and by an altered visceral perception. There is recent evidence that these abnormalities might be related to the derangement of the enteric innervation, to an abnormal distribution of mucosal neuropeptides, and to low-grade mucosal inflammation. The latter might be responsible for the development of visceral hypersensitivity, often causing abdominal pain in a subset of these patients. PMID:27622368

  17. A Phenomenological Study: The Influence of Noncognitive Factors on Academically Unprepared College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Danny Moire

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the influence of noncognitive factors in four areas: early educational factors, personal factors, affective factors, and noncognitive skill factors to understand the phenomenon of college students' academic underpreparedness. Findings related to textual categories indicated personal factors such as a…

  18. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  19. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  20. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Neuromuscular performance and bone structural characteristics in young healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Heinonen, A; Komi, P V; Linnamo, V

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass and strength have been shown to be important factors in bone strength. Low muscular force predisposes to falling especially among elderly. Regular exercise helps to prevent falls and resulting bone fractures. Better understanding of muscle function and its importance on bone properties may thus add information to fracture prevention. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone strength and muscular force production. Twenty-young men [24 (2) years] and 20 [24 (3) years] women served as subjects. Bone compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (50 Imax) were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at tibial mid-shaft and at distal tibia. Ankle plantarflexor muscle volume (MV) was estimated from muscle thickness measured with ultrasonography. Neuromuscular performance was evaluated from the measurements of maximal ground reaction force (GRF) in bilateral jumping and of eccentric maximal voluntary ankle plantarflexor torque (MVC). Specific tension (ST) of the plantarflexors was calculated by dividing the MVC with the muscle volume. Activation level (AL) was measured with superimposed twitch method. Distal tibia BSI(d) and tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax correlated positively with GRF, MVC and MV in men (r = 0.45-0.67, P < 0.05). Tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax and neuromuscular performance variables were correlated in women (r = 0.46-0.59, P < 0.05), whereas no correlation was seen in distal tibia. In the regression analysis, MV and ST could explain 64% of the variance in tibial mid-shaft bone strength and 41% of the variation in distal tibia bone strength. The study emphasizes that tibial strength is related to maximal neuromuscular performance. In addition, tibial mid-shaft seems to be more dependent on the neuromuscular performance, than distal tibia. In young adults, the association between bone adaptation and neuromuscular performance seems to be moderate and also site and loading specific.

  2. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  3. Accumulation of mercury in edible macrofungi: influence of some factors.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J; Salgado, M J; García, M A; Melgar, M J

    2000-02-01

    The levels of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems are generally very low, but the strong accumulation in some species of macrofungi is an exception from this rule. Mercury contents of 41 samples of edible mushrooms fruiting bodies representing eight species (six wild and two cultivated) were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique (ASV) using a gold disc as the working electrode. Wild fungi were collected in unpolluted and polluted areas in the Province of Lugo (NW Spain). Influence of some factors (ecology, species, traffic pollution, and morphological portion) and the importance of mushrooms as a dietary source of mercury have been studied. Wild saprophytic species showed higher levels (ppm DW) than mycorrhizals species, with the exception of Boletus pinicola. There were significant differences according to the species analyzed (p < 0.001), the highest average content of mercury was found in Boletus pinicola (7.37 ppm DW), and the range was 0.35-33.07 ppm DW for hymenophore and 0.18-20.30 ppm DW for the rest of the fruit body. The cultivated species accumulated lower than wild species because the mean life is shorter. The traffic pollution factor did not show significant differences, so mushrooms are not realiable bioindicators of traffic pollution by mercury. Hymenophore was always the morphological portion that contained the highest mercury levels (p < 0.05), and the mean ratio of hymenophore/rest of the fruit body was 2.13. The mercury concentrations were compared to literature data and levels set by legislation, and the contribution of mushrooms to the weekly intake of mercury per person was evaluated. The possible health risk for people is pointed out. PMID:10629276

  4. Factors influencing university students' explicit and implicit sexual double standards.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John K; Milhausen, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative research has resulted in inconsistent evidence for the existence of a sexual double standard, leading Crawford and Popp ( 2003 ) to issue a call for methodological innovation. The implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ) is a measure that may provide a means to examine the double standard without the contamination of the demand characteristics and social desirability biases that plague self-report research (Marks & Fraley, 2005 ). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing explicit and implicit double standards, and to examine the relationship between these explicit and implicit double standards, and levels of socially desirable responding. One hundred and three university students completed a sexual double standard IAT, an explicit measure of the double standard, and measures of socially desirable responding. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that levels of socially desirable responding were not related to implicit or explicit double standards. Men endorsed a stronger explicit traditional double standard than women, whereas for implicit sexual standards, men demonstrated a relatively gender-neutral evaluation and women demonstrated a strong reverse double standard. These results suggest the existence of a complex double standard, and indicate that more research of sexual attitudes should include implicit measures.

  5. Oncologist Factors That Influence Referrals to Subspecialty Palliative Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Rabow, Michael W.; Smith, Cardinale B.; White, Douglas B.; Chu, Edward; Tiver, Greer A.; Einhorn, Sara; Arnold, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research and professional guidelines support expanded use of outpatient subspecialty palliative care in oncology, but provider referral practices vary widely. We sought to explore oncologist factors that influence referrals to outpatient palliative care. Methods: Multisite, qualitative interview study at three academic cancer centers in the United States with well-established palliative care clinics. Seventy-four medical oncologists participated in semistructured interviews between February and October 2012. The interview guide asked about experiences and decision making regarding outpatient palliative care use. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative methods to inductively develop and refine themes related to palliative care referral decisions. Results: We identified three main oncologist barriers to subspecialty palliative care referrals at sites with comprehensive palliative care clinics: persistent conceptions of palliative care as an alternative philosophy of care incompatible with cancer therapy, a predominant belief that providing palliative care is an integral part of the oncologist's role, and a lack of knowledge about locally available services. Participants described their views of subspecialty palliative care as evolving in response to increasing availability of services and positive referral experiences, but emphasized that views of palliative care as valuable in addition to standard oncology care were not universally shared by oncologists. Conclusions: Improving provision of palliative care in oncology will likely require efforts beyond increasing service availability. Raising awareness of ways in which subspecialty palliative care complements standard oncology care and developing ways for oncologists and palliative care physicians to collaborate and integrate their respective skills may help. PMID:24301842

  6. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption.

  7. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  8. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  9. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed. PMID:23064481

  10. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  11. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  12. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; D.Stormo, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (Direct Information, PSICOV and adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs forhomeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods is comparable but better than MI. Implication of these methods in specificity prediction framework is discussed. The methods are implemented as an R package and available along with the alignments at stormo.wustl.edu/SpecPred. PMID:26753103

  13. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanish, L. F.; Bagshaw, E. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Fountain, A. G.; Tranter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze-thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition.

  14. Self-reported factors influencing exercise adherence in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity-controlled, graded dance exercise and selected components of behavior modification on exercise adherence in overweight middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, aged 35 to 58, participated in a 16 1/2 week dance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 20) that received intensity-controlled, graded exercise and individual and group reinforcement, or to a control group (n = 18) that exercised at a moderate intensity typical of commercial fitness classes and received no special reinforcement. Before exercise training began and at the completion of 16 1/2 weeks, a structured, open-ended interview was conducted. Ninety-four percent of the women in both groups adhered to the program, an exceptionally high adherence rate for this population. Eight participant-identified factors seemed to have influenced exercise adherence: group homogeneity, carpooling and social networks, pleasurable feelings associated with increased energy and fitness, leader with a health-related background, time limitation of exercise program, commitment to an established goal, desire to change body image, and desire to change health status and improve physical health.

  15. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  16. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  17. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  18. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh; Kaur, Amandeep; Shukla, Anuj

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2nd to 4th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients. PMID:22346188

  19. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  20. IPPB-assisted coughing in neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Dohna-Schwake, Christian; Ragette, Regine; Teschler, Helmut; Voit, Thomas; Mellies, Uwe

    2006-06-01

    In neuromuscular disorders, reduced peak cough flows (PCFs) are considered to increase the risk of respiratory complications such as pneumonia or chronic atelectasis. Different methods were described to improve PCF. However, these studies were primarily carried out in adults, and there is limited information regarding the use and efficacy of these methods in children with respiratory muscle weakness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyperinsufflation with an intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) device is effective in cough augmentation in pediatric patients. Spirometry (forced inspiratory vital capacity, FIVC; forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FEV1), respiratory muscle pressures (peak inspiratory pressure, PIP; peak expiratory pressure, PEP), and PCF were measured in 29 schoolchildren with various neuromuscular disorders. IPPB-assisted hyperinsufflation was taught individually to increase lung volumes (maximum insufflation capacity, MIC) above FIVC. The impact of hyperinsufflation on peak cough flow was documented. In 28/29 patients, IPPB-assisted hyperinsufflation enhanced FIVC from 0.68 +/- 0.40 l to an MIC of 1.05 +/- 0.47 l (P < 0.001). Unassisted PCF was 119.0 +/- 57.7 l/min, and increased to 194.5 +/- 74.9 l/min (P < 0.001) in 27/29 patients. This effect was similar in young patients (ages 6-10 years) and older patients (aged >10 years). Augmentation of lung volumes from FIVC to MIC correlated with an increase of PCF (R = 0.42, P < 0.05). IPPB-assisted hyperinsufflation improves PCF in pediatric neuromuscular disorders. The results suggest that this technique can be used to improve clearance of airway secretions and therefore reduce respiratory morbidity in children with NMD.

  1. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  2. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  3. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  4. 21 CFR 882.5810 - External functional neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External functional neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5810 Section 882.5810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External functional neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An external functional...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5810 - External functional neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External functional neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5810 Section 882.5810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External functional neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An external functional...

  6. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  7. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  8. 21 CFR 1404.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  9. 22 CFR 1006.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What factors may influence the debarring... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring...

  10. 22 CFR 208.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What factors may influence the debarring... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  12. Systemic inflammatory response and neuromuscular involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Allen, Kezia; Oei, Felicia; Leoni, Emanuela; Kuhle, Jens; Tree, Timothy; Fratta, Pietro; Sharma, Nikhil; Sidle, Katie; Howard, Robin; Orrell, Richard; Fish, Mark; Greensmith, Linda; Pearce, Neil; Gallo, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the combined blood expression of neuromuscular and inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of disease progression and prognosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Logistic regression adjusted for markers of the systemic inflammatory state and principal component analysis were carried out on plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK), ferritin, and 11 cytokines measured in 95 patients with ALS and 88 healthy controls. Levels of circulating biomarkers were used to study survival by Cox regression analysis and correlated with disease progression and neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels available from a previous study. Cytokines expression was also tested in blood samples longitudinally collected for up to 4 years from 59 patients with ALS. Results: Significantly higher levels of CK, ferritin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α, and interleukin (IL)–1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 and lower levels of interferon (IFN)–γ were found in plasma samples from patients with ALS compared to controls. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were the most highly regulated markers when all explanatory variables were jointly analyzed. High ferritin and IL-2 levels were predictors of poor survival. IL-5 levels were positively correlated with CK, as was TNF-α with NfL. IL-6 was strongly associated with CRP levels and was the only marker showing increasing expression towards end-stage disease in the longitudinal analysis. Conclusions: Neuromuscular pathology in ALS involves the systemic regulation of inflammatory markers mostly active on T-cell immune responses. Disease stratification based on the prognostic value of circulating inflammatory markers could improve clinical trials design in ALS. PMID:27308305

  13. HIV-related neuromuscular diseases: nemaline myopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and bibrachial amyotrophic diplegia.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    2011-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes diverse disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Rarely, polymyositis and myoglobinuria are seen. Two other neuromuscular syndromes in people with HIV antibodies are nemaline myopathy and bibrachial amyotrophic diplegia, a form of motor neuron disease. The associations between these diseases and the possibility that HIV infection could be a risk factor for either amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) itself or other motor neuron diseases are investigated. PMID:21842590

  14. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  15. Can neuromuscular fatigue explain running strategies and performance in ultra-marathons?: the flush model.

    PubMed

    Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-06-01

    While the industrialized world adopts a largely sedentary lifestyle, ultra-marathon running races have become increasingly popular in the last few years in many countries. The ability to run long distances is also considered to have played a role in human evolution. This makes the issue of ultra-long distance physiology important. In the ability to run multiples of 10 km (up to 1000 km in one stage), fatigue resistance is critical. Fatigue is generally defined as strength loss (i.e. a decrease in maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), which is known to be dependent on the type of exercise. Critical task variables include the intensity and duration of the activity, both of which are very specific to ultra-endurance sports. They also include the muscle groups involved and the type of muscle contraction, two variables that depend on the sport under consideration. The first part of this article focuses on the central and peripheral causes of the alterations to neuromuscular function that occur in ultra-marathon running. Neuromuscular function evaluation requires measurements of MVCs and maximal electrical/magnetic stimulations; these provide an insight into the factors in the CNS and the muscles implicated in fatigue. However, such measurements do not necessarily predict how muscle function may influence ultra-endurance running and whether this has an effect on speed regulation during a real competition (i.e. when pacing strategies are involved). In other words, the nature of the relationship between fatigue as measured using maximal contractions/stimulation and submaximal performance limitation/regulation is questionable. To investigate this issue, we are suggesting a holistic model in the second part of this article. This model can be applied to all endurance activities, but is specifically adapted to ultra-endurance running: the flush model. This model has the following four components: (i) the ball-cock (or buoy), which can be compared with the rate of perceived

  16. Which factors influence psychiatric diagnosing in substance abuse treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of diagnosing and treating co-occurring psychiatric disorders among substance abusers in treatment has received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent co-occurring psychiatric disorders are diagnosed in a clinical population of substance abusers, and which factors (including the use of MINI-Plus) that influence the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Methods Patients (N = 275) who received inpatient substance use treatment in five different units in Northern Norway participated in the study. The patients’ clinicians gave information on diagnoses given during the stay in the units, and whether a systematic diagnostic tool was used for the diagnosing (MINI-Plus). Predictors of independent co-occurring psychiatric disorders were examined utilizing hierarchical regression analysis. Results One third of the patients were given an independent psychiatric diagnosis. Less than half of the patients were assessed using a diagnostic tool. The main predictor of diagnosing of independent psychiatric disorders was the use of the diagnostic tool MINI-Plus. Younger patients and patients that used less alcohol, were given independent psychiatric diagnoses more frequently. Conclusions The number of co-occurring independent psychiatric diagnoses was lower compared to other studies using standardized diagnostic tools. The low number of patients assessed by such a tool, and the strong relationship between the use of such a tool and the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, suggest that the implementation of standardized diagnostic tools should be addressed in the units. Generally, patients suffering from substance use disorders should be systematically screened for other psychiatric disorders, in order to improve their treatment and health. PMID:23742628

  17. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  18. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed. PMID:26544151

  19. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output. PMID:25859198

  20. Factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of numerical competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-04-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression analyses, revealed that undergraduates exhibiting greater confidence in their mathematical and numeracy skills, as evidenced by their higher self-evaluation scores and their higher scores on the confidence sub-scale contributing to the measurement of attitude, possess more cohesive, rather than fragmented, conceptions of mathematics, and display more positive attitudes towards mathematics/numeracy. They also exhibit lower levels of mathematics anxiety. Students exhibiting greater confidence also tended to be those who were relatively young (i.e. 18-29 years), whose degree programmes provided them with opportunities to practise and further develop their numeracy skills, and who possessed higher pre-university mathematics qualifications. The multiple regression analysis revealed two positive predictors (overall attitude towards mathematics/numeracy and possession of a higher pre-university mathematics qualification) and five negative predictors (mathematics anxiety, lack of opportunity to practise/develop numeracy skills, being a more mature student, being enrolled in Health and Social Care compared with Science and Technology, and possessing no formal mathematics/numeracy qualification compared with a General Certificate of Secondary Education or equivalent qualification) accounted for approximately 64% of the variation in students' perceptions of their numerical competence. Although the results initially suggested that male students were significantly more confident than females, one compounding variable was almost certainly the students' highest pre-university mathematics or numeracy qualification, since a higher

  1. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian’an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55–2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22–1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12–2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21–1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04–1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48–2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01–1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64–1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41–4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  2. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  3. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.

  4. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  5. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

  6. Neuromuscular Dysfunction in Experimental Sepsis and Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Çankayalı, İlkin; Boyacılar, Özden; Demirağ, Kubilay; Uyar, Mehmet; Moral, Ali Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electrophysiological studies show that critical illness polyneuromyopathy appears in the early stage of sepsis before the manifestation of clinical findings. The metabolic response observed during sepsis causes glutamine to become a relative essential amino acid. Aims: We aimed to assess the changes in neuromuscular transmission in the early stage of sepsis after glutamine supplementation. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups. Rats in both groups were given normal feeding for one week. In the study group, 1 g/kg/day glutamine was added to normal feeding by feeding tube for one week. Cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) surgery was performed at the end of one week. Before and 24 hours after CLP, compound muscle action potentials were recorded from the gastrocnemius muscle. Results: Latency measurements before and 24 hours after CLP were 0.68±0.05 ms and 0.80±0.09 ms in the control group and 0.69±0.07 ms and 0.73±0.07 ms in the study group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Since enteral glutamine prevented compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) latency prolongation in the early phase of sepsis, it was concluded that enteral glutamine replacement might be promising in the prevention of neuromuscular dysfunction in sepsis; however, further studies are required. PMID:27308070

  7. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kley, Rudolf A.; Fischer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. PMID:20422195

  8. Neuromuscular disruption with ultrashort electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Andrei; Kolb, Juergen F.; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Dayton, Thomas; Comeaux, James; Ashmore, John; Beason, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Experimental studies on single cells have shown that application of pulsed voltages, with submicrosecond pulse duration and an electric field on the order of 10 kV/cm, causes sudden alterations in the intracellular free calcium concentration, followed by immobilization of the cell. In order to examine electrical stimulation and incapacitation with such ultrashort pulses, experiments on anesthetized rats have been performed. The effect of single, 450 nanosecond monopolar pulses have been compared with that of single pulses with multi-microsecond duration (TASER pulses). Two conditions were explored: 1. the ability to elicit a muscle twitch, and, 2. the ability to suppress voluntary movement by using nanosecond pulses. The second condition is relevant for neuromuscular incapacitation. The preliminary results indicate that for stimulation microsecond pulses are advantageous over nanosecond pulses, whereas for incapacitation, the opposite seems to apply. The stimulation effects seem to scale with electrical charge, whereas the disruption effects don't follow a simple scaling law. The increase in intensity (time of incapacitation) for a given pulse duration, is increasing with electrical energy, but is more efficient for nanosecond than for microsecond pulses. This indicates different cellular mechanisms for incapacitation, most likely subcellular processes, which have been shown to become increasingly important when the pulse duration is shortened into the nanosecond range. If further studies can confirm these initial results, consequences of reduced pulse duration are a reduction in weight and volume of the pulse delivery system, and likely, because of the lower required energy for neuromuscular incapacitation, reduced safety risks.

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  10. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  11. Surgical advances in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Rousset, Marie; Le Gledic, Benoit; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are a group of diseases affecting the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Children with neuromuscular disorders frequently develop progressive spinal deformities with cardio-respiratory compromise in the most severe cases. The incidence of neuromuscular scoliosis is variable, inversely correlated with ambulatory abilities and with a reported risk ranging from 80% to 100% in non-ambulatory patients. As surgical and peri-operative techniques have improved, more severely affected children with complex neuromuscular deformities and considerable co-morbidities are now believed to be candidates for extensive surgery for spinal deformity. This article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of how neuromuscular spinal deformities can affect normal spine balance and how these deformities can be treated with segmental instrumentation and sub-laminar devices. Older concepts have been integrated with newer scientific data to provide the reader with a basis for better understanding of how treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis has evolved over the past few decades. Recent advances, as well as challenges that remain to be overcome, in the surgical treatment of neuromuscular curves with sub-laminar devices and in the management of post-operative infections are outlined. PMID:24829875

  12. Novel pharmacological approaches for the antagonism of neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Pic, Lisa C

    2005-02-01

    Gamma cyclodextrin and purified plasma cholinesterase are 2 novel pharmacological agents being investigated as to their suitability for antagonism of neuromuscular blockade. Both of these agents are devoid of cholinergic stimulation and the accompanying side effects because their action is independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Gamma cyclodextrin antagonizes the steroidal neuromuscular blocker rocuronium via the chemical encapsulation of the molecule forming a "host-guest" complex through van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions in the plasma. Encapsulation decreases plasma drug concentrations, shifting the neuromuscular blocking drug molecules from the neuromuscular junction back to the plasma compartment resulting in a rapid recovery of the neuromuscular function. Org 25969, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, will antagonize profound neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in approximately 2 minutes. A commercial preparation of purified human plasma cholinesterase has been shown to be effective in reversing succinylcholine or mivacurium-induced block. Administration of exogenous plasma cholinesterase also has been shown to be effective in antagonizing mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block, cocaine toxicity, and organophosphate poisoning.

  13. THE ROLE OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR MEDICINE SPECIALIST AND PHYSIATRY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M.; Fowler, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The neuromuscular medicine, and physiatry specialists are key health care providers who work cooperatively with a multidisciplinary team to provide coordinated care for persons with Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). The director or coordinator of the team must be aware of the potential issues specific to NMDs and be able to access the interventions that are the foundations for proper care in NMD. These include health maintenance and proper monitoring of disease progression and complications to provide anticipatory, preventive care and optimum management. Ultimate goals include maximizing health and functional capacities, performing medical monitoring and surveillance to inhibit and prevent complications, and promoting access and full integration into the community in order to optimize quality of life. PMID:22938874

  14. Factors That Influence the Size of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Toumi, Ralf; Czaja, Arnaud; Van Kan, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) size is an important feature setting the extent of coastal flooding, the size of storm surge and area threatened by landfall. The importance of TC size is demonstrated comparing Hurricanes Sandy in 2012 and Bret in 1999. As a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale category-3 hurricane, the radius of gale-force wind of Hurricane Sandy exceeded 800 km prior to landfall, and the storm caused catastrophic storm surge into the New Jersey and New York coastlines, and damage up to an estimated total of 50 billion. Hurricane Bret, on the other hand, was a more intense category-4 hurricane with a radius of gale-force wind of only 140 km. Although Bret's intensity is considerable, damage was reported to be relatively light, totalling an estimated 60 million. The difference impacts are mainly caused by the difference in size. Despite the fact that a wide range of observed TC sizes has been recognised, the underlying factors that control both individual storm size and the climatological size variation remain mysterious. Here an idealized full-physics numerical cyclone model and a modified hurricane steady-state model (λ model) for TC wind profile are used to investigate the influence of environmental temperature and initial vortex properties on TC size. In the simulation we find that a sea surface temperature increase, a temperature decrease in the upper troposphere, a large or strong initial vortex can lead to the extension of TC size. The numerical model simulations show a Gaussian distribution with width, λ, of the moist entropy in the boundary layer. The width, λ, has good linear relationship with the size changes caused by different factors. With regards to TC size and intensity, we find that, unlike the intensity prediction based on the maximum potential intensity theory, it seems that there is no upper limit for TC size providing there is sufficient latent heat flux. The increase of TC size at the steady stage also causes a slight drop in intensity. In

  15. Role of extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors in the development of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neha; Martin, Paul T

    2011-11-01

    The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) remains the best-studied model for understanding the mechanisms involved in synaptogenesis, due to its relatively large size, its simplicity of patterning, and its unparalleled experimental accessibility. During neuromuscular development, each skeletal myofiber secretes and deposits around its extracellular surface an assemblage of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that ultimately form a basal lamina. This is also the case at the NMJ, where the motor nerve contributes additional factors. Before most of the current molecular components were known, it was clear that the synaptic ECM of adult skeletal muscles was unique in composition and contained factors sufficient to induce the differentiation of both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Biochemical, genetic, and microscopy studies have confirmed that agrin, laminin (221, 421, and 521), collagen IV (α3-α6), collagen XIII, perlecan, and the ColQ-bound form of acetylcholinesterase are all synaptic ECM proteins with important roles in neuromuscular development. The roles of their many potential receptors and/or binding proteins have been more difficult to assess at the genetic level due to the complexity of membrane interactions with these large proteins, but roles for MuSK-LRP4 in agrin signaling and for integrins, dystroglycan, and voltage-gated calcium channels in laminin-dependent phenotypes have been identified. Synaptic ECM proteins and their receptors are involved in almost all aspects of synaptic development, including synaptic initiation, topography, ultrastructure, maturation, stability, and transmission. PMID:21766463

  16. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  17. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society.

  18. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  19. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian; Cardinale, Marco; Weatherby, Robert P; Lowe, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight two emerging concepts for the elite athlete using the resistance-training model: (i) the short-term effects of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the neuromuscular system; and (ii) the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones. Exogenous evidence confirms that T and C can regulate long-term changes in muscle growth and performance, especially with resistance training. This evidence also confirms that changes in T or C concentrations can moderate or support neuromuscular performance through various short-term mechanisms (e.g. second messengers, lipid/protein pathways, neuronal activity, behaviour, cognition, motor-system function, muscle properties and energy metabolism). The possibility of dual T and C effects on the neuromuscular system offers a new paradigm for understanding resistance-training performance and adaptations. Endogenous evidence supports the short-term T and C effects on human performance. Several factors (e.g. workout design, nutrition, genetics, training status and type) can acutely modify T and/or C concentrations and thereby potentially influence resistance-training performance and the adaptive outcomes. This novel short-term pathway appears to be more prominent in athletes (vs non-athletes), possibly due to the training of the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. However, the exact contribution of these endogenous hormones to the training process is still unclear. Research also confirms a dose-response training role for basal changes in endogenous T and C, again, especially for elite athletes. Although full proof within the physiological range is lacking, this athlete model reconciles a proposed permissive role for endogenous hormones in untrained individuals. It is also clear that the steroid receptors (cell bound) mediate target tissue effects by adapting to exercise and training, but the response patterns of the membrane-bound receptors remain highly speculative. This information

  20. Neuromuscular ultrasound findings in polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sarah L; Cartwright, Michael S; Panea, Oana R; Vann, Ryan C; Magruder, John L; Walker, Francis O

    2014-12-01

    Disulfiram toxicity can cause multiple neurologic problems, including a reversible distal sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Although electrodiagnosis and biopsy results have been described in the diagnosis and management of patients with disulfiram associated polyneuropathy, neuromuscular ultrasound findings have not been reported. The authors present a case of electrodiagnostically confirmed axonal polyneuropathy with relative sural sparing secondary to disulfiram and describe the neuromuscular ultrasound findings in this individual. Ultrasound demonstrated distal enlargement with slight side-to-side asymmetry and normal proximal cross-sectional area in the lower extremity nerves. Neuromuscular ultrasound is another diagnostic modality that may be used to assist in the diagnosis of patients with polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

  1. Wnt Signaling in Neuromuscular Junction Development

    PubMed Central

    Koles, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Wnt proteins are best known for their profound roles in cell patterning, because they are required for the embryonic development of all animal species studied to date. Besides regulating cell fate, Wnt proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their roles in nervous system development and function. New studies indicate that multiple positive and negative Wnt signaling pathways take place simultaneously during the formation of vertebrate and invertebrate neuromuscular junctions. Although some Wnts are essential for the formation of NMJs, others appear to play a more modulatory role as part of multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the most recent findings regarding the function of Wnts at the NMJ from both vertebrate and invertebrate model systems. PMID:22510459

  2. Neuromuscular junction in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sung; Liu, Su; McDonald, John; Thakor, Nitish; Yang, In Hong

    2013-01-01

    Malfunctions at the site of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of post-injuries or diseases are major barriers to recovery of function. The ability to efficiently derive motor neurons (MN) from embryonic stem cells has indicated promise toward the development of new therapies in increasing functional outcomes post injury. Recent advances in micro-technologies have provided advanced culture platforms allowing compartmentalization of sub-cellular components of neurons. In this study, we combined these advances in science and technology to develop a compartmentalized in vitro NMJ model. The developed NMJ system is between mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived MNs and c2c12 myotubes cultured in a compartmentalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device. While some functional in vitro NMJ systems have been reported, this system would further contribute to research in NMJ-related diseases by providing a system to study the site of action of NMJ aimed at improving promoting better functional recovery. PMID:24110317

  3. Increased quantal release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction following scald injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Hatton, P A; Little, R A; Pennington, R A; Wareham, A C

    1999-12-01

    Following severe burns, patients frequently develop a profound resistance to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for this, including upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We investigated the effects of a 30% body surface area (BSA) scald on neuromuscular transmission in slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats. Rats were sacrificed 72 h after the injury, a time at which sepsis is unlikely and body weight gain and core temperature have returned to normal. Further groups of rats were sham operated and either pair fed to the scalded rats or freely fed to assess the influence of food restriction. When compared with muscle from pair-fed control rats, scald resulted in an almost 50% increase in miniature endplate potential (mEPP) frequency in both SOL and EDL. However, scald did not increase mean mEPP amplitude in SOL, although it did cause a 10% increase in EDL. Scald injury did produce a significant increase in the size of the evoked endplate potential in SOL (33%) and EDL (37%). These data indicate that a significant increase in the quantal content of evoked transmitter released in SOL (38%) and EDL (30%) occurred by 72 h after scald. Such an increase may contribute to the resistance to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers documented in patients following thermal injury.

  4. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - factors influencing outcome and disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Dittmar, Yves; Settmacher, Utz; Rauchfuß, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation can be a curative treatment in selected patients. However, there are several factors that influence disease-free survival after transplantation. This review addresses the pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that influence the risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:26576092

  5. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  6. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  7. Alteration of Influencing Factors of E-Learning Continued Intention for Different Degrees of Online Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the variation of influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention for different degrees of participation and to examine moderating effects of degrees of participation on influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention. Participants included 670 learners from an adult professional…

  8. 29 CFR 98.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your present responsibility. In making a debarment decision, the debarring official may consider the... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What factors may influence the debarring official's decision... (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility. In making a debarment decision, the debarring official may consider the following factors: (a... influence the debarring official's decision? 105-68.860 Section 105-68.860 Public Contracts and Property...) Debarment § 105-68.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists...

  10. Overcoming Misconceptions via Analogical Reasoning: Factors Influencing Understanding in a Teaching Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.; Clement, John

    In most research that investigates factors influencing the success of analogies in instruction, an underlying assumption is that students have little or no knowledge of the target situation. It is interesting to ask what factors influence the success of analogies when students believe they understand the target situation. If this understanding is…

  11. Factors Influencing Nontraditional Vocational Education Enrollments: A Literature Review. Research and Development Series No. 150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Louise; And Others

    The literature on factors influencing nontraditional enrollment choices may be approached in this order: background information on the labor force and vocational education, factors influencing nontraditional enrollments, and strategies for increasing nontraditional enrollments. Despite an increase of women in nontraditional occupations, research…

  12. 21 CFR 1404.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? 1404.880 Section 1404.880 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.880 What factors may influence...

  13. Neuromuscular Impairment Following Backpack Load Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Sam D.; Fallowfield, Joanne L.; Bilzon, James L.J.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h −1 during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24146709

  14. Visual and tactile assessment of neuromuscular fade.

    PubMed

    Brull, S J; Silverman, D G

    1993-08-01

    The accuracy of visual and tactile assessment of the neuromuscular fade in response to train-of-four (TOF) and double-burst stimulation (DBS) were compared to assess their relative utility in the clinical setting. For each of 74 data sets with a mechanographic TOF ratio less than 0.70, an observer (blinded to the presence or degree of fade) performed visual and tactile assessments of fade in response to TOF, DBS3,3, and DBS3,2 stimuli at low current (20 and 30 mA) and high current (50 and 60 mA). For the range of mechanographic TOF ratios between 0.41 and 0.70, visual assessment failed to identify TOF, DBS3,3, and DBS3,2 fade in 46%, 18%, and 14% of cases at high current and in 23%, 5%, and 0% of cases at low current, respectively. Tactile assessments failed to identify fade in 55%, 23%, and 14% of cases at high current and in 23%, 14%, and 14% of cases at low current. Overall, the ability to detect fade was comparable for visual and tactile assessments regardless of the method of neurostimulation (P = NS with paired t-test). However, the degree of overestimation of the fade ratio (i.e., quantitative assessment) tended to be less when using tactile means; the difference achieved significance for TOF at low current and DBS3,3 at both low and high currents. We conclude that the differences between the visual and tactile means of assessment are relatively small compared to the differences among the TOF and DBS patterns of neurostimulation. Both subjective techniques are often inadequate in settings in which assurance of full recovery of neuromuscular function is critical.

  15. Explosive neuromuscular performance of males versus females.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Ricci; Minshull, Claire; Buckthorpe, Matthew W; Folland, Jonathan P

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in explosive muscular force production, as measured by electromechanical delay (EMD) and rate of force development (RFD), and to examine the physiological mechanisms responsible for any differences. The neuromuscular performance of untrained males (n = 20) and females (n = 20) was assessed during a series of isometric knee extension contractions; explosive and maximal voluntary efforts, as well as supramaximal evoked twitches and octets (eight pulses at 300 Hz). Evoked and voluntary EMD were determined from twitch and explosive contractions. The RFD was recorded over consecutive 50 ms time windows from force onset during evoked and explosive contractions, and normalized to maximal strength. Neuromuscular activity during explosive voluntary contractions was measured with EMG of the superficial knee extensors normalized to maximal M-wave. Muscle size (thickness) and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness were assessed using ultrasonic images of the vastus lateralis at rest and during ramped contractions. Males and females had similar evoked and voluntary EMD. Males were 33% stronger (P < 0.001) and their absolute RFD was 26-56% greater (all time points P < 0.05) compared with females. Muscle size (P < 0.001) and absolute MTU stiffness were also greater for males (P < 0.05). However, normalized RFD was similar for both sexes during the first 150 ms of the explosive voluntary contractions (P > 0.05). This was consistent with the similar normalized twitch and octet RFD, MTU stiffness and agonist EMG (all P > 0.05). When differences in maximal strength were accounted for, the evoked capacity of the knee extensors for explosive force production and the ability to utilize that capacity during explosive voluntary contractions was similar for males and females.

  16. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine physiological and neuromuscular responses during motocross riding at individual maximal speed together with the riding-induced changes in maximal isometric force production. Seven A-level (group A) and 5 hobby-class (group H) motocross-riders performed a 30-minute riding test on a motocross track and maximal muscle strength and oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests in a laboratory. During the riding the mean (+/-SD) VO2 reduced in group A from 86 +/- 10% to 69 +/- 6% of the maximum (P < 0.001), whereas in group H the corresponding reduction was from 94 +/- 25% to 82 +/- 20% (P < 0.05). This relative VO2 during the riding correlated with riding speed (r = 0.70, P < 0.01). Heart rate (HR) was maintained at the level of 97 +/- 7% of its maximum in group A and at 98 +/- 3% in group H. Mean muscle activation of the lower body during riding varied between 24% and 38% of its maximum in group A and between 40% and 45% in group H. In conclusion, motocross is a sport that causes great physical stress and demands on both skill and physical capacity of the rider. Physical stress occurs as the result of handling of the bike when receiving continuous impacts in the situation requiring both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Our data suggest that both maximal capacity and strain during the ride should be measured to analyze the true physiological and neuromuscular demands of motocross ride. For the practice, this study strongly suggests to train not only aerobic and anaerobic capacity but also to use strength and power training for successful motocross riding. PMID:18296976

  17. Mechanism of Neuromuscular Dysfunction in Krabbe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Maravilla, Erick; Marshall, Michael; Tamayo, Tammy; D'auria, Ludovic; Monge, John; Jeffries, James; Sural-Fehr, Tuba; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Li, Guannan; Garcia, Kelly; van Breemen, Richard; Vite, Charles; Garcia, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The atrophy of skeletal muscles in patients with Krabbe disease is a major debilitating manifestation that worsens their quality of life and limits the clinical efficacy of current therapies. The pathogenic mechanism triggering muscle wasting is unknown. This study examined structural, functional, and metabolic changes conducive to muscle degeneration in Krabbe disease using the murine (twitcher mouse) and canine [globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) dog] models. Muscle degeneration, denervation, neuromuscular [neuromuscular junction (NMJ)] abnormalities, and axonal death were investigated using the reporter transgenic twitcher–Thy1.1–yellow fluorescent protein mouse. We found that mutant muscles had significant numbers of smaller-sized muscle fibers, without signs of regeneration. Muscle growth was slow and weak in twitcher mice, with decreased maximum force. The NMJ had significant levels of activated caspase-3 but limited denervation. Mutant NMJ showed reduced surface areas and lower volumes of presynaptic terminals, with depressed nerve control, increased miniature endplate potential (MEPP) amplitude, decreased MEPP frequency, and increased rise and decay rate constants. Twitcher and GLD dog muscles had significant capacity to store psychosine, the neurotoxin that accumulates in Krabbe disease. Mechanistically, muscle defects involved the inactivation of the Akt pathway and activation of the proteasome pathway. Our work indicates that muscular dysfunction in Krabbe disease is compounded by a pathogenic mechanism involving at least the failure of NMJ function, activation of proteosome degradation, and a reduction of the Akt pathway. Akt, which is key for muscle function, may constitute a novel target to complement in therapies for Krabbe disease. PMID:25632136

  18. Neuromuscular Evaluation of Trunk-Training Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Klaus; Denner, Achim

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neuromuscular activation profiles of trunk muscles in commonly used gymnastic strength exercises with a polymyographic set-up and to describe the training effects of each exercise. Design and Setting: Subjects performed 9 repetitions of each of 12 gymnastic exercises. Variations of 5 trunk flexions, 5 extensions, and 2 lateral-flexion movements were performed under standardized test conditions. Subjects: Ten healthy subjects (men and women) who were familiar with the exercises participated in the study. Measurements: We recorded surface electromyograms (EMGs) from the rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, middle trapezius, erector spinae at T12 and L3, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. Recording of each repetition cycle was triggered by a flexible electronic goniometer attached to the trunk. The raw EMG signals were rectified, smoothed, amplitude normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and averaged for the last 8 repetitions. Results: Pure spine-flexion exercises, such as a curl-up, produced sufficient and isolated activation (greater than 50% MVC) of the abdominal muscles. When flexion of the spine was combined with hip flexion (sit-up), the peak activation was increased. Lateral-flexion tasks targeted primarily the external oblique muscle, which demonstrated high activity in side-lying flexion tasks. Back- and hip-extension exercises, such as bridging and diagonal hip and shoulder extension, produced only moderate mean activities (less than 35% MVC) in the trunk-extensor muscles. Trunk-extension exercises with combined hip extension increased the EMG activity to 50% MVC but only at the end of the extension. Conclusions: Individual responses to each exercise varied markedly, which complicated the classification of exercise effects. However, within the limitations of the study, we found that the chosen abdominal exercises provided an effective training stimulus for the trunk

  19. Shaping an Identity: Factors Influencing the Achievement of Newly Married, Gifted Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing professional achievement of three newly married, gifted women recently graduated from college. Major findings include that participants attributed a significant part of their identities to their status as high achievers. Identify was also influenced by foundational influences, personality characteristics,…

  20. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  1. Factors that Influence Policy Decisions in Literacy: Perspectives of Key Policy Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of key policy informants on the factors that they believed influence policy decisions in literacy education. Participants were selected because they had significantly influenced, or had attempted to influence, policy decisions in literacy at either the national or state level.…

  2. Factors Influencing Satisfaction for Family Practice Residency Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Lawrence E.; D'Amico, Frank

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 383 faculty in family medical-residency programs explored perceptions of 60 professional, scheduling, compensation, and regional factors as they related to overall job satisfaction and career plans, and 59 factors related to the initial decision to enter academic family medicine. Results indicate high levels of satisfaction, feeling…

  3. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  4. Factors that Influence the Identity Development of Punjabi American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Satinder Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to understand the factors that contribute to the identity development of Punjabi American women in college. The identified factors are useful for enhancing the educational and psychological development of Punjabi American women in college. A qualitative phenomenological design was implemented to collect data from…

  5. Why Teachers Leave: Factors that Influence Retention and Resignation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersaint, Gladis; Lewis, Jennifer; Potter, Robert; Meisels, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior is used to examine continuing teachers' plans to remain or resign and the likelihood of resigned teachers to return to teaching in the next 3 years. Specifically, this study examined factors that encourage or hinder resigned teachers from returning to teaching, the importance of such factors, and the importance…

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model i...

  7. Management factors influencing fertility in synchronized and natural breeding programs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms involved in pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle are complex. This review has focused on some of the factors that affect pregnancy rates in both natural service and AI and synchronized and non-synchronized breeding programs. One of the best methods to look at factors influen...

  8. Factors that Influence Community College Faculty Participation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Quinn, Lisa Rosanne

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors motivated community college faculty to participate in distance education. It examined the following factors from the perspective of faculty and division chairs: (1) preference toward synchronous and asynchronous course delivery; (2) rewards for distance education faculty; (3) rewards for…

  9. Influence of human factors on performance of Chinese speech recognition systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Jiang, Q; Yu, T

    1996-08-01

    Human factors affecting the performance of the speaker dependent isolated Chinese speech recognition system (SRS) were studied. The results showed that the training mode and dialect factors had significant influence upon recognition accuracy; speaker's psychological factor, cooperativeness and educational background had certain influence, while factors such as sex, age, and profession of the speaker had less influence on recognition performance. With the results taken into consideration, ways for improving performance of the speech recognition systems were explored from the point of view of man-machine integration.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic predisposing factors can influence clinical severity in nephropathia epidemica.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Groeneveld, Paul H P; Colson, Paul; Huizinga, Tom W J; Van Ranst, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Severe human infection with Hantavirus is characterized by high fever, cold chills, thrombocytopenia, arterial hypotension, acute renal failure, and/or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pulmonary involvement, but the clinical course varies greatly between individuals. We investigated whether genetically determined differences in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production can influence the severity of Hantavirus disease. We studied a TNF-alpha single-nucleotide promoter polymorphism (SNP) at position -238 (a guanine [G]-to-adenine [A] transition) and ex vivo TNF-alpha production in a recall study of 36 Belgian patients who had a serologically proven form of Puumala virus-induced Hantavirus infection with the kidney as main target organ. In our study, the highest creatinine levels were found in patients with the lowest ex vivo TNF-alpha production. Creatinine levels correlated inversely with TNF-alpha production (R = -0.35, p < 0.05). The number of thrombocytes was significantly lower in patients with the GA-238 genotype (low TNF-alpha producers) compared with patients with the GG-238 genotype. In our study, genetically determined low production of TNF-alpha was associated with some parameters indicating a more severe clinical course of Puumala Hantavirus infection in humans, possibly by impaired activation of TNF-alpha-dependent antiviral mechanisms, which could in turn result in decreased clearance of Hantavirus. PMID:16987073

  11. Biosocial factors influencing women to become prostitutes in India.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, M; Bandyopadhyay, S; Duttagupta, C

    1994-01-01

    Based on materials collected during a study of risk factors associated with cervix cancer among prostitutes in Domjur, Howrah, West Bengal, this report explores various biosocial factors which may lead women to prostitution. When family and marital ties fail or disintegrate for various reasons, the life situations which a woman encounters may themselves generate a "process" of anchorlessness. The failure of family support along with the lack of ability to provide for themselves due to poverty and illiteracy were key factors why the women in this study had adopted prostitution.

  12. [Influence of school environmental factors and learning on pupils' health].

    PubMed

    Shpangenberg, St; Boeva, B

    2003-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research conducted at 10 schools of different education types (general educational school, specialized gymnasiums, language schools, colleges, lyceums) that are situated in Sofia. A relationship between the factors that characterize school and the training environment, and the health status of pupils was established by using currently available statistical methods. The findings show that the discrepancy between the school and training environment and the sanitary requirements and standards affect both the general and school age-specific morbidity rates in pupils. Knowing the factors, which characterize school in accordance with the claimed educational goals, and schooling factors enables one to arrange all schools.

  13. Teaching Visually Impaired Adults with a Neuromuscular Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan

    1983-01-01

    The effects of four neuromuscular disorders (stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Lou Gehrig's disease) on concommitant visual impairments are considered. Rehabilitation approaches and equipment that help clients cope with the condition are described. (CL)

  14. Anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia: neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    A French team investigated hypersensitivity reactions that occurred during locoregional or general anaesthesia over an 8-year period. They estimated that the incidence of anaphylactic reactions was about 1 per 10 000 anaesthetic procedures. Among the 1816 reports of anaphylactic reactions, the most commonly implicated drugs were neuromuscular blocking agents (1067 cases), latex (361 cases), and antibiotics (236 cases). Some anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents occurred in patients who had never previously been anaesthetised, suggesting cross-reactivity with other, poorly known, substances. Most reactions in children were due to latex, followed by neuromuscular blocking agents and antibiotics. In practice, exposure to latex devices should be minimised, or simply avoided when possible. A history of sensitization to substances sharing allergenic sites with neuromuscular blocking agents should be investigated, and measures should be taken to protect patients.

  15. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  16. 21 CFR 882.5860 - Implanted neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP for a.... Any other implanted neuromuscular stimulator shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP...

  17. The potential of disease management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc; Tremblay, Carmen; Côté, Charlotte; Leclerc, Nadine; Mathieu, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular hereditary disorders require long-term multidisciplinary rehabilitation management. Although the need for coordinated healthcare management has long been recognized, most neuromuscular disorders are still lacking clinical guidelines about their long-term management and structured evaluation plan with associated services. One of the most prevalent adult-onset neuromuscular disorders, myotonic dystrophy type 1, generally presents several comorbidities and a variable clinical picture, making management a constant challenge. This article presents a healthcare follow-up plan and proposes a nursing case management within a disease management program as an innovative and promising approach. This disease management program and model consists of eight components including population identification processes, evidence-based practice guidelines, collaborative practice, patient self-management education, and process outcomes evaluation (Disease Management Association of America, 2004). It is believed to have the potential to significantly improve healthcare management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders and will prove useful to nurses delivering and organizing services for this population.

  18. Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    TORNADO • FLASH FLOOD • EARTHQUAKE • WINTER STORM • HURRICANE • FIRE • HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL Preparing for Emergencies A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases F or the millions of Americans with limited ...

  19. Muscle ultrasound quantifies segmental neuromuscular outcome in pediatric myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Renate J; Hoving, Eelco W; Maurits, Natalia M; Brouwer, Oebele F; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    In pediatric spina bifida aperta (SBA), non-invasive assessment of neuromuscular integrity by muscle ultrasound density (MUD) could provide important information about the clinical condition. We therefore aimed to determine the association between pediatric SBA MUD and segmental neurologic function. We included 23 children (age range: 1-18 y) with SBA with L4-5 lesions, and we associated SBA MUD with control values and segmental neuromuscular function. Results revealed that MUD outcomes in the lower extremities: (i) are independent of age, (ii) exceed control values, (iii) differ intra-individually (i.e., between the left and right sides in the same individual) in association with segmental neuromuscular function. We concluded that SBA leg MUD can quantify the segmental neuromuscular condition throughout childhood.

  20. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kelly S.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the impact of diversity in higher education, it is important to consider the critical role that diversity plays in the educational process. This requires a broader understanding of the influence diversity can have on the curricular, co-curricular, and interpersonal experience of a developing college student (Denson & Chang,…

  1. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction and Perceived Learning in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Elena; Clara, Marc; Linder-Vanberschot, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Online education, with its genuine characteristics, has changed the way students experience learning processes. This fact led research to study the aspects of online learning settings that influence the way students experience their learning, and several aspects were identified from this effort. However, usually each study focuses on only one or a…

  2. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  3. Information Systems: An Exploration of the Factors Influencing Effective Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Examines expectations about a computerized student management-information system (SMIS) and how these perceptions influence effective use. Investigates relationships between design, use and effects in developing a model for understanding strategies for effective implementation and use. Focuses on a public school district in Texas. (AEF)

  4. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  5. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  6. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  7. LDL-receptor-related protein 4 is crucial for formation of the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Weatherbee, Scott D; Anderson, Kathryn V; Niswander, Lee A

    2006-12-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is a member of a family of structurally related, single-pass transmembrane proteins that carry out a variety of functions in development and physiology, including signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lrp4 is expressed in multiple tissues in the mouse, and is important for the proper development and morphogenesis of limbs, ectodermal organs, lungs and kidneys. We show that Lrp4 is also expressed in the post-synaptic endplate region of muscles and is required to form neuromuscular synapses. Lrp4-mutant mice die at birth with defects in both presynaptic and postsynaptic differentiation, including aberrant motor axon growth and branching, a lack of acetylcholine receptor and postsynaptic protein clustering, and a failure to express postsynaptic genes selectively by myofiber synaptic nuclei. Our data show that Lrp4 is required during the earliest events in postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation and suggest that it acts in the early, nerveindependent steps of NMJ assembly. The identification of Lrp4 as a crucial factor for NMJ formation may have implications for human neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia syndromes. PMID:17119023

  8. Neuromuscular blockade: what was, is and will be.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Tom; Cammu, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) produce neuromuscular blockade by competing with acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, whereas depolarizing NMBAs open receptor channels in a manner similar to that of acetylcholine. Problems with NMBAs include malignant hyperthermia caused by succinylcholine, anaphylaxis with the highest incidence for succinylcholine and rocuronium, and residual neuromuscular blockade. To reverse these blocks, anticholinesterases can act indirectly by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction; sugammadex is the only selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) in clinical use. At all levels of blockade, recovery after sugammadex is faster than after neostigmine. Sugammadex potentially also has some other advantages over neostigmine that are related to neostigmine's increase in the amount of acetylcholine and the necessity of co-administering anticholinergics. However, hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred in some patients and healthy volunteers after sugammadex and remain an issue for the FDA. In the near future, we may see the emergence of new SRBAs and of easier-to-use technologies that can routinely monitor neuromuscular transmissions in daily practice. The nature of the effect of sugammadex on freeing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located outside the neuromuscular junction from NMBAs is unknown. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the full removal of the competing antagonists (by SRBAs) at the neuromuscular junction impacts the efficiency of acetylcholine transmission. In a recent pilot study in healthy volunteers, we demonstrated increased electromyographic diaphragm activity after sugammadex, compared to neostigmine. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of NMBAs and their reversal agents in the central control of breathing, respiratory muscle activity, and respiratory outcomes. PMID:25622380

  9. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain walking speed in older men and women?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Reid, Kieran F; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M; Ring, Sarah A; Wu, Samuel S; Fielding, Roger A

    2014-07-01

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that the capability to produce rapid neuromuscular activation during maximal effort leg muscle contractions will be shown to be an independent predictor of mobility function in older men and women after accounting for muscle size and adiposity, body composition and age. Twenty six older men and eighteen older women (aged 70-85years) participated in this study. Mobility function was assessed by the 400-m walk test. Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed by surface electromyography ("rate of EMG rise"). Thigh muscle cross sectional area and adiposity were assessed by computed tomography. In males, univariate regression analysis revealed strong associations between walking speed and a number of predictors including age (p<0.01), muscle area (p<0.01), intermuscular adipose tissue area (p<0.01), and rate of EMG rise (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple regression analysis with all variables accounted for 72% of the variability in walking speed (p<.0001), with age and rate of EMG rise as the dominant variables in the model. In females, univariate analysis showed a significant association only between walking speed and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounted for only 44% of the variability in walking speed, and was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The present findings indicate that the capability to rapidly activate the quadriceps muscle group is an important factor accounting for inter-individual variability of walking speed among older men, but not among older women. This research is important for informing the design of assessments and interventions that seek to detect and prevent impairments that contribute to age-related mobility

  10. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  11. How does the pathophysiological context influence delivery of bone growth factors?☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Suárez-González, Darilis; Khalil, Andrew S.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    “Orthobiologics” represents an important category of therapeutics for the regeneration of bone defects caused by injuries or diseases, and bone growth factors are a particularly rapidly growing sub-category. Clinical application of bone growth factors has accelerated in the last two decades with the introduction of BMPs into clinical bone repair. Optimal use of growth factor-mediated treatments heavily relies on controlled delivery, which can substantially influence the local growth factor dose, release kinetics, and biological activity. The characteristics of the surrounding environment, or “context”, during delivery can dictate growth factor loading efficiency, release and biological activity. This review discusses the influence of the surrounding environment on therapeutic delivery of bone growth factors. We specifically focus on pathophysiological components, including soluble components and cells, and how they can actively influence the therapeutic delivery and perhaps efficacy of bone growth factors. PMID:25453269

  12. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps.

  13. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps. PMID:3925937

  14. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  15. Influence of formulation factors on the preparation of zein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Podaralla, Satheesh; Perumal, Omathanu

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of various formulation parameters on the preparation of zein nanoparticles. 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (DHC) was used as a model hydrophobic compound. The influence of pH of the aqueous phase, buffer type, ionic strength, surfactant, and zein concentration on particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles were studied. Smaller nanoparticles were formed when the pH was close to the isoelectric point of zein. DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles prepared using citrate buffer (pH 7.4) was better than phosphate buffer in preventing particle aggregation during lyophilization. The ionic strength did not have a significant influence on the particle size of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles. A combination of Pluronic F68 and lecithin in 2:1 ratio stabilized the zein nanoparticles. An increase in zein concentration led to increase in particle size of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles. The use of optimal conditions produced DHC-loaded nanoparticles of 256 ± 30 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 78 ± 7%. Overall, the study demonstrated the optimal conditions to prepare zein nanoparticles for drug encapsulation.

  16. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organisations in recent years, particularly in nursing, because of potential labour shortages, their effect on patient care, and the associated costs. Work satisfaction is a major factor in nurse retention and the delivery of high quality care, but rapid changes in healthcare services have placed more demands on nurses and this has increased the need for organisations to consider ways to sustain and improve nurses' job satisfaction. To achieve this, they need to understand the factors that affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This article reports the results of a literature review that was aimed at examining and reaching a deeper understanding of the factors related to nurses' job satisfaction.

  17. Factors that influence effective evidence-based medicine instruction.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior. PMID:24180650

  18. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organisations in recent years, particularly in nursing, because of potential labour shortages, their effect on patient care, and the associated costs. Work satisfaction is a major factor in nurse retention and the delivery of high quality care, but rapid changes in healthcare services have placed more demands on nurses and this has increased the need for organisations to consider ways to sustain and improve nurses' job satisfaction. To achieve this, they need to understand the factors that affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This article reports the results of a literature review that was aimed at examining and reaching a deeper understanding of the factors related to nurses' job satisfaction. PMID:25921909

  19. Factors influencing medical information seeking among African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Sellergren, Sarah A; Manfredi, Clara; Williams, Maryann

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to explore factors that may affect medical information seeking, treatment engagement, and emotional adjustment among African American cancer patients. Focus group findings suggest that an array of cultural and socioeconomic factors plays important roles in the behavior of African American cancer patients. Participants described a number of important barriers and facilitators of medical information seeking and treatment participation. Factors linked to the health care-related behaviors and adjustment of African American cancer patients included limited knowledge and misinformation about cancer, mistrust of the medical community, concerns about privacy, lack of insurance, religious beliefs, and emotional issues such as fear and stigma associated with seeking emotional support. Recommendations are made that may assist mental and physical health providers in improving patient information and mental and physical health outcomes of African American cancer patients.

  20. Computer Self-Efficacy and Factors Influencing E-Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Tien-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of system and instructor factors on e-learning effectiveness under the interactions of computer self-efficacy. In this study, the factors of the e-learning system are functionality, interaction, and response. The factors of the e-learning instructor are attitude, technical skills,…

  1. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  2. 29 CFR 1471.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official's... CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.860 What factors... factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to debar you and the length...

  3. 29 CFR 1471.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official's... CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.860 What factors... factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to debar you and the length...

  4. 41 CFR 105-68.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What factors may...) Debarment § 105-68.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  5. Factors influencing to earthquake caused economical losses on urban territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.

    2005-12-01

    Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of

  6. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  7. Understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction with ambulance services.

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, Svetlana; Tan, P J; Dunn, S P; Bizjak-Mikic, M

    2016-01-01

    The quality of ambulance services has an immense impact on patients' future well-being and quality of life. Patient satisfaction is one of the key metrics for evaluating the quality of this service. Yet, the patient satisfaction measurement may be limited in its ability to accurately reflect this service quality, and even reflect factors beyond the patient experiences. We analyze 10 years of survey data to reveal a number of factors that systematically bias ambulance satisfaction ratings. Taking into account these biases provides more robust comparison of ambulance performance over time or across different jurisdictions. PMID:27295008

  8. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  9. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  10. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries.

  11. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  12. Factors Influencing Grant Writing of K-12 Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turpin, Tammye; Cage, Bob N.

    A study examined whether number of years of teaching, number of grant proposals written, and level of funding received were distinguished among K-12 teachers in relationship to factors perceived as motivating grant writing; obstacles encountered in grant writing; and needed support for continued grant writing. Questionnaires were mailed to 121…

  13. Organisational and Task Factors Influencing Teachers' Professional Development at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Van der Heijden, Béatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers' professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has become a permanent issue on the agenda of schools…

  14. Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived…

  15. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gerry R.

    This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…

  16. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  17. Factors Influencing College Persistence for First-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sheilynda; Lim, Doo Hun; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Using Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of institutional departure, this study examined demographic variables, family characteristics, precollege and college academic performance factors, and extent to which mandatory placement in remedial courses predict persistence at a public research institution. This study also examined the relationship…

  18. Personal Factors that Influence Deaf College Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertini, John A.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the "Noel-Levitz College Student…

  19. Assessing Factors Influencing Student Academic Success in Law School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detwiler, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on student academic success of law students is limited to mostly single institution studies, and as such, a nationwide, multi-institutional empirical study of the factors that predict student academic success is greatly needed by higher education scholars, law school admission officers, faculty, and administrators. This dissertation…

  20. Strategies and Factors Influencing Public School District Referendums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffacher, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are in need of a successful plan of action for school district referendums. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceived effectiveness between factors and strategies surrounding referendums and the passage of those measures meant to improve school funding and facilities. The findings from Johnson and…