Science.gov

Sample records for neuroscience held 12-13

  1. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  2. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (12th) Held at the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Bethesda, Maryland on 12-13-14 May 1981. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-14

    it would be appropriate here to share with you some observations. The first Center hosting *. (Sixth Symposium) was held at Fort McNair in 1963 for...pipe configuration, 0.795 ft dia., carbon-carbon, Shelldlyne - H/air. 11-110 TEJON ~S HOpI(Ns UNVERSI"Y APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY LAUREL MARVLANO 0.091

  3. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  4. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  5. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  6. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  7. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  8. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  9. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  10. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  11. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients.

  12. National Neuroscience: Ethics, Legal and Social Issues Conference (3rd) (NELSI-3) Held in Fairfax, Virginia on February 25, 2011. Ethical Issues in the Use of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology in National Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-15

    bioethics literature on national security issues is surprisingly spares, the implications of neuroscience for national security are of increasing...in part by reviewing recent reports from the U.S. National Academies. Prof. Jonathan H. Marks, MA, BCL (OXON.), Associate Professor of Bioethics ...Humanities and Law at the Pennsylvania State University, and Director of the Bioethics and Medical Humanities Program on the main campus at University

  13. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion generator...

  14. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion generator...

  15. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion generator...

  16. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion generator...

  17. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion generator...

  18. Interactionist Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Badre, David; Frank, Michael J; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-12-02

    We argue that bidirectional interaction between animal and human studies is essential for understanding the human brain. The revolution in meso-scale study of circuits in non-human species provides a historical opportunity. However, to fully realize its potential requires integration with human neuroscience. We describe three strategies for successful interactionist neuroscience.

  19. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  20. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  1. Network neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system. PMID:28230844

  2. Network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  3. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  4. Air Force Productivity Symposium Held 12-13 February 1980, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    CITY 8. STATE OR COUNTRY -94,w~m - Urbana Illinois 61801 9. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Dr. R. M. Dinnat IC. TITLE OF PROPOSAL BRAINWAVE EMISSION AS A...of emitting brainwaves (the brainwave task), wherein productivity can be readily and reliable measured, is proposed as a surrogate task for use in...of the brainwave task as a means of objectively and reliably assessing produc- tivity will allow new criteria development and applications generally

  5. Conference Proceedings on Smokeless Propellants Held in Florence, Italy on 12-13 September 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    order response of controlled burning rather than violent explosive pressure bursts or detonation under specified types of thermo-mechanical attack...e8dr ssed this relevant subject. The timely initiative of paper No I would suggest a specialist conference be planned on this specific subject. It...aluminium is not a refractory or inert and ZrC is not inert. Therefore, control of particle properties is not possible to correlate with theory or the

  6. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  7. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  8. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Management Investment Companies § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  9. European Neuroscience--Seventh Biennial FENS Forum.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Anthony J

    2010-09-01

    The European Neuroscience--Seventh Biennial FENS Forum, held in Amsterdam, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of neuroscience. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sodium channel inhibitors, ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, serotonin receptor modulators, and novel therapies for depression, pain and stroke. Investigational drugs discussed include ST-1936 (Sigma-Tau Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite SpA), LY-392098 (Eli Lilly & Co) and Lu-AA21004 (H Lundbeck A/S/Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd).

  10. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  11. Measurement of Differential Cross Sections of CARBON-12, 13(PROTON, PROTON)CARBON-12, 13 and CARBON-12, 13(PROTON, Neutron)nitrogen -12, 13 Reactions at Backward Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    We performed the following: Measurement of 200 MeV ^{12,13}C(p,p)^{12,13 }C differential cross sections for protons emitted between 160^circ and 180^circ; Measurement of 200 MeV ^{12,13}C(p,n)^{12,13 }N differential cross sections for neutrons emitted between 160^circ and 180^circ; Comparison with Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations and alteration of optical potential standard parameter set in DWIA calculations to better reproduce measured data at backward angles for the ^{12}C(p,p) reaction, and applying best parameter set found in ^{12}C(p,p) calculations to the DWIA calculations for ^{13}C(p,p) and ^{12}C(p,n) reactions; Measurement of charge-state population vs. target thickness for ^{13}C going through ^{12}C target; Development of a readout system for micro-strip silicon detectors. Our data shows that the standard DWIA calculations underestimate the cross sections for each of the four (p,N) reactions in the backward directions, and that a new potential needs to be introduced into DWIA theory in order to explain the refraction pattern in that angular region where DWIA failed to predict the existence of the refraction. We found that a greatly improved fit for the (p,p) reactions can be obtained by using a real central potential depth much shallower than standard and a real central potential diffuseness smaller than standard. It is seen that ^{13}C recoils charge state populations do not change when target thickness is reduced from a few hundred mug/cm^2 to a few mug/cm^2 and that calculations of Shima et al best fit the data. A readout system for micro-strip silicon detectors was developed, the system is low cost, low power, contains simple electronic circuitry and is easy to construct.

  12. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  13. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  14. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J

    2006-09-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience.

  15. The 9th annual computational and systems neuroscience (cosyne) meeting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 9th annual Computational and Systems Neuroscience meeting (Cosyne) was held 23–26 February in Salt Lake City, Utah. Cosyne meeting is the forum for exchange of experimental and theoretical/computational approaches to studying systems neuroscience. PMID:22464174

  16. Global Trends in Higher Education and Their Impact on the Region. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, June 12-13, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education presents conference proceedings of the annual Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held June 12-13, 2013, at Nazarbayev University. The theme of this year's Forum is "Global Trends in Higher Education and their Impact on the Region". Many internationally-recognized higher education…

  17. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  18. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  19. Neuroscience in recession?

    PubMed

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  20. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  1. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  2. Teaching neuroscience at a religious institution: pedagogical models for handling neuroscience and theology.

    PubMed

    Struthers, William M

    2003-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience makes it one of the most fascinating and complex subjects to address in the classroom. This can be compounded, however, by the addition of theology or a faith-related context at a religious institution (RI). The addition of theology and faith can enrich student appreciation and understanding of neuroscience and stimulate discussion in the classroom. This provides a practical way to make the course content relevant to students who may see neuroscience as antagonistic towards their faith. Over the past century questions of human experience and personhood that were long held to be under the authority of religion now can be addressed from findings in neuroscience. While there has been debate on a variety of topics which range from positions on origins to ethical questions about the nature of research (i.e. stem cells, cloning), it is important that teaching faculty at RIs be prepared to deal with the hard questions faced by students of faith. Recommendations for faculty are given including: self assessment of personal position on matters of faith and science, framing a number of models for the integration of neuroscience and theology, 'Worldviews', and mentoring students who are struggling with reconciling their faith with neuroscience. While this paper is designed for teachers at RIs, it may also aid teaching faculty at other institutions who may benefit from an awareness of this framework and aid in teaching students of faith in a secular setting.

  3. International Conference on Stiff Computation Held at Park City, Utah on April 12, 13 and 14, 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    become attached to linear solvers for sparse matrix systems which will be encountered increasingly in ODE/PDE applications. Such interactions will be...the current codes. For example, it would be useful to know whether a stiff code i. inefficient (or fails) because of an inaccurate Jacobi an matrix ...Corporation, we want to solve a differential-algebraic system of nilpotency three, but there is • no software or known algorithm which can solve such

  4. Proceedings of the DoD Automated Standardization Workshop Held in Arlington, Virginia on May 12-13, 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-13

    Briefing Material - AEDPS and MIDAS 1499. Brietfng Material - TD/CMS 1771). Brieling Material - AA Index 207Ii. Briefing Material - ECH and AFEIS 22512...Niit:imatod VI.igineering Documentation Preparation System ( AEDPS ) and MICOM Inte- grated I)oumet tation and Standardization System (MIDAS) Techicat Data...Documentation Preparation System ( AEDPS ) and MICOM Inte- grated Documentation and Standardization System (MIDAS). Presented by the Army Missiles Command

  5. Proceedings of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) Conference Held in Rosslyn, Virginia on 12-13 May 1987,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    states, spin forbidden, radiative transition, electronic structure, molecular geometry, rare gas fluorides, NF 5 . nitrogen pentafluoride, high oxidation ...state, rhombic structure, tetratomics, Si 2 C2, disilicon dicarbide, zintl, photoexcitation, metastable metals, atomic metals, metal dimers, matrix...Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation) "Experimental Studies of the Properties of Trihydrogen and Tetrahydrogen" Aron

  6. Results of the Joint DoD/OFPP Competition Workshop Held 12-13 May 1981, Washington, DC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    HilMer , R4A1D Corporation C>- 59 V) LLJ C), ui >-cl 0 LU CL LU x >w 000 -00 0 0 0 goc LLJ 1-- 0 W Ol U)LLJ u LL) u > LUL C:)* C3) Cl LLJ U. u = In LU...Director William Ferguson Federal Acquisition Institute Deputy Assistant Administrator for 726 Jackson Place, NW Acquisition Policy Washington, DC... Davis Highway Captain Donald Ledwig Arlington, VA 22202 HQ Naval Material Command Willie Price Room 568 Contracts and Grants Specialist Crystal Plaza #5

  7. Moving Base Gravity/Gradiometer Conference (13th) Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on 12-13 February 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    11 - Organization Name Johns Hopkins Jose Latimer Jonathan Howland Paul Zucker Mobil Oil Perry Parks NADC John De Matteo Marvin May NRL John Brozena...a 0 <J < Lo w Noc U > F- >~ 0 LaSo 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 c a LU LU a.L-a . Z I 0 - aj LU I-- 0U CLC~ 00 CC z (13: 0 / 0 ZUCi U- ccol Cl) 0 C CD) z z zD 0

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Gravity Gradiometer Conference (17th) Held in Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts on 12-13 October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-28

    rot public release; di stribution unlimited. EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION PROJECT 7600 GEOPHYSICS LABORATORY HANSCOM AFB, MA 01731-5000 "This technical...Sponsored By: lAvail and/or Dist Special Geophysics Laboratory Earth Sciences Division ABOUT THE GRAVITY GRADIOMETRY CONFERENCE... Earth Sciences Division of the Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, has always organized the Conference. With the exception of the first

  9. Electrothermal-Chemical Modeling Workshop, Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 12-13 May 1993. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Used with limited success by Wicks and Dukler (1960), Magiros and Dukler (1961), Wailis (1962), Steen and Wallis (1964), Cousins et al. (1965), Gill and...CORRELATIONS * Purely Empirical Approach - Wicks and Dukler (1960) - Minh and Huyghe (1965) - Paleev and Filipovich (1966) - Wallis (1968) * Semi...shearing off of the roll waves. "* Studies of droplet sizes have been performed by Hinze (1955), Hass (1964), Wicks and Dukler (1966), Cousins and

  10. Interoperability of Neuroscience Modeling Software

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert C.; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Gleeson, Padraig; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Cornelis, Hugo; Hines, Michael L.; Howell, Fredrick W.; Muller, Eilif; Stiles, Joel R.; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience increasingly uses computational models to assist in the exploration and interpretation of complex phenomena. As a result, considerable effort is invested in the development of software tools and technologies for numerical simulations and for the creation and publication of models. The diversity of related tools leads to the duplication of effort and hinders model reuse. Development practices and technologies that support interoperability between software systems therefore play an important role in making the modeling process more efficient and in ensuring that published models can be reliably and easily reused. Various forms of interoperability are possible including the development of portable model description standards, the adoption of common simulation languages or the use of standardized middleware. Each of these approaches finds applications within the broad range of current modeling activity. However more effort is required in many areas to enable new scientific questions to be addressed. Here we present the conclusions of the “Neuro-IT Interoperability of Simulators” workshop, held at the 11th computational neuroscience meeting in Edinburgh (July 19-20 2006; http://www.cnsorg.org). We assess the current state of interoperability of neural simulation software and explore the future directions that will enable the field to advance. PMID:17873374

  11. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Behaviorism and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R F

    1994-04-01

    The influence of the methods and theories of behaviorism on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of Watson's (1913) original call-to-arms. Behaviorist approaches to animal behavior, particularly in the study of processes of learning and memory, have had a profound and continual influence in the area of neuroscience concerned with animal studies of brain substrates of behavior. Similarly, contemporary behaviorists have not been opposed to the study of neurobiological substrates of behavior. On the other hand, classical behaviorist views of thinking, that is, as reflex chains, have been largely discounted by developments in neuroscience. Classical behaviorism is viewed by many as being most at odds with the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, particularly regarding "mind" and "consciousness." A modest attempt at reconciliation is offered.

  13. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  14. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  15. Telemedicine in neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Ravindra, Aditi

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that in most countries, there is a perennial shortage of specialists in neurosciences. Even the few available neurologists and neurosurgeons are clustered in the metros and urban areas. Those living in suburban and rural areas have limited or no access to neurological care. At the same time there has been an unprecedented growth in ICT (Information and Communication Technology). In this article, the authors review the increasing use of telemedicine in neurosciences.

  16. Robotics and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neurosciences in Bordeaux].

    PubMed

    Le Moal, Michel; Battin, Jacques; Bioulac, Bernard; Bourgeois, Marc Louis; Henry, Patrick; Vital, Claude; Vincent, Jean-Didier

    2008-04-01

    The Bordeaux Neuroscience Institute brings together all the disciplines that constitute the clinical and experimental neurosciences. Outside of the Paris region, the Institute represents the largest community of researchers working on the nervous system. The aim of this brief historical piece is to describe how neuroscientists in Bordeaux are the heirs to a long neuropsychiatric tradition established by pioneers of national and international renown. This tradition has been maintained, without interruption, through many generations. The careers and scientific work of these great neurologists and psychiatrists are briefly evoked, and particularly those of A. Pitres, E. Régis and E. Azam in the 19th century; and, in the 20th century, J. Abadie, H. Verger and R. Cruchet. The determining influence of P Delmas-Marsalet (1898-1977), Professor of Neuropsychiatry, on the development of modern neurosciences in Bordeaux is recalled through his work, his teachings, and his numerous students.

  18. Decision Neuroscience: Neuroeconomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the choices we make. Our decisions – from the mundane to the impossibly complex – continually shape the courses of our lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools of neuroscience to understand the mechanisms that underlie decision making, as part of the new discipline of decision neuroscience. A primary goal of this emerging field has been to identify the processes that underlie specific decision variables, including the value of rewards, the uncertainty associated with particular outcomes, and the consequences of social interactions. Recent work suggests potential neural substrates that integrate these variables, potentially reflecting a common neural currency for value, to facilitate value comparisons. Despite the successes of decision neuroscience research for elucidating brain mechanisms, significant challenges remain. These include building new conceptual frameworks for decision making, integrating research findings across disparate techniques and species, and extending results from neuroscience to shape economic theory. To overcome these challenges, future research will likely focus on interpersonal variability in decision making, with the eventual goal of creating biologically plausible models for individual choice. PMID:22754602

  19. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  20. Cognitive network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-08-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience.

  1. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  3. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  4. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  5. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  6. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  7. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  8. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  9. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  10. Financial anatomy of neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, E Ray; Vitticore, Philip; De Roulet, Jason; Thompson, Joel P; Carrasco, Melisa; Johnston, S Claiborne; Holloway, Robert G; Moses, Hamilton

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the level of funding for neuroscience research from federal and industry sources and to examine the therapeutic advances in the neurosciences over the past decade. We examined financing for neuroscience research over the past decade from the following principal sponsors of biomedical research: the National Institutes of Health, the pharmaceutical industry, large biotechnology firms, and large medical device firms. We also examined US Food and Drug Administration approvals for new molecular entities and medical devices for indications within the neurosciences. Neuroscience was defined to include funding and approvals for neurological and psychiatric conditions. Total (nominal) industry and government funding for neuroscience research increased from $4.8 billion in 1995 to $14.1 billion in 2005 and doubled after adjusting for inflation. In 2005, the pharmaceutical industry and the largest biotechnology and medical device firms accounted for 58% of total funding. The US Food and Drug Administration approved 40 new molecular entities for indications within the neurosciences from 1995 to 2005, with the annual number of approvals remaining relatively stagnant during this period. From 1995 to 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration also approved 1,679 medical devices in the neurosciences for use. Financing for neuroscience research has increased significantly over the past decade, but new approvals for drugs in the neurosciences have not kept pace with the rapid increase in funding. This lag may represent a natural delay in realizing the return in the investment in scientific research or a decline in the productivity of neuroscience research.

  11. [Origins and first steps of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    I recall the background, the environment, the people and the events that led to the birth of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience (SENC) and remember how and why the multidisciplinary Neurobiology teachers at the Medical School of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid decided to organize the First Meeting of Spanish Neurobiologists in 1979. Our principal aim was to promote Neuroscience research in Spain. For this was necessary: to know each other, support each other and organize and set up a modern and solid framework for training young researchers in Neuroscience. After reporting the results and circumstances of the first two Meetings, in 1980 and 1981, I discuss the impact of the Sixth European Neuroscience Congress held in Torremolinos in 1982 on Neuroscience in our country. The 1983 Meeting of the Spanish Neurobiologists decided to create the Spanish Society for Neuroscience. The effort of the heterogeneous Management Commission, the preparation of the Bylaws, the selection of the first members and the birth of the Society in 1985 are outlined. I continue in describing the components and work of the three first Boards of Directors and events of the corresponding Congresses until the consolidation of SENC in national and international scientific fields. My talk runs through the development of our Society, its growth in membership and quality and our hopes for the future.

  12. Neuroscience and education.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-03-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional, emotional and mnemonic functions is also making progress, particularly since the advent of the cognitive neurosciences, which focus specifically on understanding higher level processes of cognition via imaging technology. Neuroimaging has enabled scientists to study the human brain at work in vivo, deepening our understanding of the very complex processes underpinning speech and language, thinking and reasoning, reading and mathematics. It seems timely, therefore, to consider how we might implement our increased understanding of brain development and brain function to explore educational questions.

  13. Neuroscience and Global Learning.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience.

  14. Neuroscience and Global Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  15. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Lawler, Nathan G; Nikolic, Sonja B; Peters, James M; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Sharman, James E

    2012-09-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P < 10(-3)), a leukotoxin that has powerful physiological effects and is known to inhibit the neutrophil respiratory burst. Intralipid infusion caused increased plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression.

  16. Loss of Gα12/13 exacerbates apical area dependence of actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shicong; Mason, Frank M.; Martin, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    During development, coordinated cell shape changes alter tissue shape. In the Drosophila ventral furrow and other epithelia, apical constriction of hundreds of epithelial cells folds the tissue. Genes in the Gα12/13 pathway coordinate collective apical constriction, but the mechanism of coordination is poorly understood. Coupling live-cell imaging with a computational approach to identify contractile events, we discovered that differences in constriction behavior are biased by initial cell shape. Disrupting Gα12/13 exacerbates this relationship. Larger apical area is associated with delayed initiation of contractile pulses, lower apical E-cadherin and F-actin levels, and aberrantly mobile Rho-kinase structures. Our results suggest that loss of Gα12/13 disrupts apical actin cortex organization and pulse initiation in a size-dependent manner. We propose that Gα12/13 robustly organizes the apical cortex despite variation in apical area to ensure the timely initiation of contractile pulses in a tissue with heterogeneity in starting cell shape. PMID:27489340

  17. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Lawler, Nathan G.; Nikolic, Sonja B.; Peters, James M.; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W.; Sharman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P < 10−3), a leukotoxin that has powerful physiological effects and is known to inhibit the neutrophil respiratory burst. Intralipid infusion caused increased plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression. PMID:22715155

  18. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  19. Immunogold cytochemistry in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Ottersen, Ole Petter

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of the central nervous system calls for immunocytochemical procedures that allow target proteins to be localized with high precision and with opportunities for quantitation. Immunogold procedures stand out as particularly powerful in this regard. Although these procedures have found wide application in the neuroscience community, they present limitations and pitfalls that must be taken into account. At the same time, these procedures offer potentials that remain to be fully realized.

  20. Wikipedia neuroscience stub editing in an introductory undergraduate neuroscience course.

    PubMed

    Burdo, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Society for Neuroscience initiative to help improve the neuroscience related content in Wikipedia, I implemented Wikipedia article construction and revision in my Introduction to Neuroscience course at Boston College as a writing intensive and neuroscience related outreach activity. My students worked in small groups to revise neuroscience "stubs" of their choice, many of which had little or no useful content. The exercise resulted in the successful development of well-written Wikipedia neuroscience articles, and was received well by my students, receiving positive marks in our course evaluations. Much of the student guidance and assessment was done by student peer groups as well as other Wikipedia editors outside of our course, reducing the instructor involvement to below that of a typical term paper.

  1. Approaches to neuroscience data integration

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ernest; Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Marenco, Luis; Holford, Matthew E.; Morse, Thomas M.; Mutalik, Pradeep; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of neuroscience databases increases, the need for neuroscience data integration grows. This paper reviews and compares several approaches, including the Neuroscience Database Gateway (NDG), Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and Entrez Neuron, which enable neuroscience database annotation and integration. These approaches cover a range of activities spanning from registry, discovery and integration of a wide variety of neuroscience data sources. They also provide different user interfaces for browsing, querying and displaying query results. In Entrez Neuron, for example, four different facets or tree views (neuron, neuronal property, gene and drug) are used to hierarchically organize concepts that can be used for querying a collection of ontologies. The facets are also used to define the structure of the query results. PMID:19505888

  2. WNT Stimulation Dissociates a Frizzled 4 Inactive-State Complex with Gα12/13

    PubMed Central

    Arthofer, Elisa; Hot, Belma; Petersen, Julian; Strakova, Katerina; Jäger, Stefan; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Frizzleds (FZDs) are unconventional G protein–coupled receptors that belong to the class Frizzled. They are bound and activated by the Wingless/Int-1 lipoglycoprotein (WNT) family of secreted lipoglycoproteins. To date, mechanisms of signal initiation and FZD–G protein coupling remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that FZD6 assembles with Gαi1/Gαq (but not with Gαs, Gαo and Ga12/13), and that these inactive-state complexes are dissociated by WNTs and regulated by the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (DVL). Here, we investigated the inactive-state assembly of heterotrimeric G proteins with FZD4, a receptor important in retinal vascular development and frequently mutated in Norrie disease or familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Live-cell imaging experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching show that human FZD4 assembles—in a DVL-independent manner—with Gα12/13 but not representatives of other heterotrimeric G protein subfamilies, such as Gαi1, Gαo, Gαs, and Gαq. The FZD4–G protein complex dissociates upon stimulation with WNT-3A, WNT-5A, WNT-7A, and WNT-10B. In addition, WNT-induced dynamic mass redistribution changes in untransfected and, even more so, in FZD4 green fluorescent protein–transfected cells depend on Gα12/13. Furthermore, expression of FZD4 and Gα12 or Gα13 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells induces WNT-dependent membrane recruitment of p115-RHOGEF (RHO guanine nucleotide exchange factor, molecular weight 115 kDa), a direct target of Gα12/13 signaling, underlining the functionality of an FZD4-Gα12/13-RHO signaling axis. In summary, Gα12/13-mediated WNT/FZD4 signaling through p115-RHOGEF offers an intriguing and previously unappreciated mechanistic link of FZD4 signaling to cytoskeletal rearrangements and RHO signaling with implications for the regulation of angiogenesis during embryonic and tumor development. PMID:27458145

  3. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  4. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  5. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  6. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR

    2009-01-01

    As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19284614

  7. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  8. Service Learning in Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Kristina S.; Kennedy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources. PMID:23493330

  9. Nature Neuroscience Review

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Ian; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Shao, Ningyi; Mitchell, Amanda; Sun, HaoSheng; Akbarian, Schahram; Allis, C. David; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rapid advances in epigenomics research have extensively characterized critical roles for chromatin regulatory events during normal periods of eukaryotic cell development and plasticity, as well as part of aberrant processes implicated in human disease. Application of such approaches to studies of the central nervous system (CNS), however, is more recent. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of currently available tools to analyze neuroepigenomics data, as well as a discussion of pending challenges specific to the field of neuroscience. Integration of numerous unbiased genome-wide and proteomic approaches will be necessary to fully understand the neuroepigenome and the extraordinarily complex nature of the human brain. This will be critical to the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies aimed at alleviating the vast array of heterogeneous and genetically distinct disorders of the CNS. PMID:25349914

  10. Technical advances power neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  11. Flood of September 12-13, 1982 in Gibson, Carroll, and Madison Counties, western Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Clarence H.; Gamble, Charles R.; Bingham, Roy H.

    1986-01-01

    Intense rainfall on September 12-13, 1982, caused severe local flooding along many streams in Gibson County in western Tennessee. The rainfall resulted from remnants of Hurricane Chris combining with a cool front moving across the western half of the State. A maximum 1-hr rainfall intensity of 3.3 in was recorded at Humboldt. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-yr flood on many small streams. The floods caused three deaths and about 15.3 million dollars damage to crops, roads and bridges, businesses, and residential areas. Long-time residents of Gibson County reported that stream stages have not been as high since at least 1922. (USGS)

  12. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, Leland D.; Carswell, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The storm of September 12-13, 1977, produced as much as 16 inches of rainfall in the Kansas City, Missouri-Kansas area, left 25 persons dead, many homeless, and over 50 million dollars in damages. Flood hydrographs taken from U.S. Geological Survey gaging-stations reflected two storms occurring within 24 hours. Measured precipitation indicated each storm event to be near a 100-year, 24-hour rainfall frequency. Peak discharges determined at selected locations in areas of greater rainfall depths exceeded those of the 100-year floods. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  14. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  15. 34 CFR 12.13 - When is use of the transferred surplus Federal real property by entities other than the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is use of the transferred surplus Federal real property by entities other than the transferee or lessee permissible? 12.13 Section 12.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS FEDERAL REAL...

  16. Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Rice, Margaret E

    2017-02-15

    The 16th International Conference on Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience (MMiN) was held in Gothenburg, Sweden in late spring 2016. This conference originated as a methods meeting focused on in vivo voltammetric techniques and microdialysis. Over time, however, the scope has evolved to include a number of other methods for neurochemical detection that range from single-cell fluorescence in vitro and in vivo in animal models to whole-brain imaging in humans. Overall, MMiN provides a unique forum for introducing new developments in neurochemical detection, as well as for reporting exciting neurobiological insights provided by established and novel methods. This Viewpoint includes a brief history of the meeting, factors that have contributed its evolution, and some highlights of MMiN 2016.

  17. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  18. "Writing in neuroscience": a course designed for neuroscience undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroscience students may learn to write in a generic fashion through university writing courses, they receive little training in writing in their field. Here I describe a course that was created at the request of a Neuroscience Department with the intent to teach neuroscience students how to write well in their discipline. I explain the purpose for creating the "Writing in Neuroscience" course and offer a brief overview of the course curriculum, including pertinent pedagogical outcomes for such a course. I describe in depth the major assignment for the course, the literature review, and provide examples of paper titles that students wrote to fulfill the assignment. I briefly describe other relevant course assignments. I evaluate the course and include an overview of who should teach such a course, what support might be helpful, and what can be learned from formative assessment of the course. Using these insights can help others determine whether such a course is a good fit for them.

  19. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  20. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C

    2004-04-01

    Concepts of motivation are vital to progress in behavioral neuroscience. Motivational concepts help us to understand what limbic brain systems are chiefly evolved to do, i.e., to mediate psychological processes that guide real behavior. This article evaluates some major motivation concepts that have historic importance or have influenced the interpretation of behavioral neuroscience research. These concepts include homeostasis, setpoints and settling points, intervening variables, hydraulic drives, drive reduction, appetitive and consummatory behavior, opponent processes, hedonic reactions, incentive motivation, drive centers, dedicated drive neurons (and drive neuropeptides and receptors), neural hierarchies, and new concepts from affective neuroscience such as allostasis, cognitive incentives, and reward 'liking' versus 'wanting'. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fragrance material review on E- and Z-oxacyclohexadec-12(+13)-en-2-one.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2011-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of E- and Z-oxacyclohexadec-12(+13)-en-2-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. E- and Z-oxacyclohexadec-12(+13)-en-2-one is a member of macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives. The fragrance ingredient described herein is one of 12 structurally diverse C14, C15, and C16 compounds that include (7) saturated mono-and (2) saturated di-ester lactones and (3) unsaturated lactones. For the latter, the double bond is not adjacent to (in conjugation with) the ester group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; mucous membrane (eye) irritation; skin sensitization; toxicokinetics; repeated dose; reproductive toxicity; and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2011) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives in fragrances. Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Hanifin, J.H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2011. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of macrocylic lactones and lactide derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  3. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  4. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  5. Population neuroscience: why and how.

    PubMed

    Paus, Tomás

    2010-06-01

    Population neuroscience endeavours to identify environmental and genetic factors that shape the function and structure of the human brain; it uses tools and knowledge of genetics, epidemiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Here, I focus on the application of population neuroscience in studies of brain development. By describing in some detail four existing large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of typically developing children and adolescents, I provide an overview of their design, including population sampling and recruitment, assessments of environmental and genetic "exposures," and measurements of brain and behavior "outcomes." I then discuss challenges faced by investigators carrying out such MR-based studies, including quality assurance, quality control and intersite coordination, and provide a brief overview of the achievements made so far. I conclude by outlining future directions vis-à-vis population neuroscience, such as design strategies that can be used to evaluate the presence of absence of causality in associations discovered by observational studies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The unsolved problems of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in neuroscience are nearly solved. For others, solutions are decades away. The current pace of advances in methods forces us to take stock, to ask where we are going, and what we should research next. PMID:25703689

  7. Using Sound to Modify Fish Behavior at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities: A Workshop December 12-13, 1995. Phase II: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1997-06-01

    A workshop on ``Use of Sound for Fish Protection at Power-Production and Water-Control Facilities`` was held in Portland, Oregon on December 12--13, 1995. This workshop convened a 22-member panel of international experts from universities, industry, and government to share knowledge, questions, and ideas about using sound for fish guidance. Discussions involved in a broad range of indigenous migratory and resident fish species and fish-protection issues in river systems, with particular focus on the Columbia River Basin. Because the use of sound behavioral barriers for fish is very much in its infancy, the workshop was designed to address the many questions being asked by fishery managers and researchers about the feasibility and potential benefits of using sound to augment physical barriers for fish protection in the Columbia River system.

  8. Dyscalculia: neuroscience and education

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Liane

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of numerical cognition. Most studies on developmental dyscalculia are based upon adult calculation models which may not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding and investigating developing calculation systems. Furthermore, the applicability of neuroscience research to pedagogy has, so far, been limited. Purpose After providing an overview of current conceptualisations of numerical cognition and developmental dyscalculia, the present paper (1) reviews recent research findings that are suggestive of a neurofunctional link between fingers (finger gnosis, finger-based counting and calculation) and number processing, and (2) takes the latter findings as an example to discuss how neuroscience findings may impact on educational understanding and classroom interventions. Sources of evidence Finger-based number representations and finger-based calculation have deep roots in human ontology and phylogeny. Recently, accumulating empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis of a neurofunctional link between fingers and numbers has emerged from both behavioural and brain imaging studies. Main argument Preliminary but converging research supports the notion that finger gnosis and finger use seem to be related to calculation proficiency in elementary school children. Finger-based counting and calculation may facilitate the establishment of mental number representations (possibly by fostering the mapping from concrete non-symbolic to abstract symbolic number magnitudes), which in turn seem to be the foundations for successful arithmetic achievement. Conclusions Based on the findings illustrated here, it is plausible to

  9. Dyscalculia: neuroscience and education.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane

    2008-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of numerical cognition. Most studies on developmental dyscalculia are based upon adult calculation models which may not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding and investigating developing calculation systems. Furthermore, the applicability of neuroscience research to pedagogy has, so far, been limited. PURPOSE: After providing an overview of current conceptualisations of numerical cognition and developmental dyscalculia, the present paper (1) reviews recent research findings that are suggestive of a neurofunctional link between fingers (finger gnosis, finger-based counting and calculation) and number processing, and (2) takes the latter findings as an example to discuss how neuroscience findings may impact on educational understanding and classroom interventions. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: Finger-based number representations and finger-based calculation have deep roots in human ontology and phylogeny. Recently, accumulating empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis of a neurofunctional link between fingers and numbers has emerged from both behavioural and brain imaging studies. MAIN ARGUMENT: Preliminary but converging research supports the notion that finger gnosis and finger use seem to be related to calculation proficiency in elementary school children. Finger-based counting and calculation may facilitate the establishment of mental number representations (possibly by fostering the mapping from concrete non-symbolic to abstract symbolic number magnitudes), which in turn seem to be the foundations for successful arithmetic achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings illustrated here, it is plausible

  10. Nanotechnology In Neurosciences: An Approach.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Rosa Helena; Magdy Sánchez, M; Dominguez, Maria Andrea; Barreto, George E; Lancheros, Daniel; Reynolds, Jorge

    2017-08-15

    The use of nanotechnology in neurosciences has been evolving since new treatments, diagnoses and biomolecule monitoring are needed to find safer treatments for central nervous system diseases (CNDs). Nanotechnology employs devices that interact with biological systems allowing molecular interactions with a high degree of specificity. This review considers concepts associated with nanotechnology and leading areas of neurosciences with nanotechnology research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    PubMed

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  12. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back ∼30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials. PMID:18926873

  13. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S; Stucky, Galen D; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back approximately 30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials.

  15. Neuroscience of meditation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-11-16

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  16. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.; Carswell, W.J.; Chin, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    The storms of Sept. 12-13, 1977, delivered as much as 16 in. of rain, with average rainfall exceeding 10 in. in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Twenty-five lives were lost, many were left homeless, and damages exceeded $80 million. Data obtained by the National Weather Service and the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that two record-setting rainstorms occurred within 24 hours. The first storm, in the early morning, thoroughly soaked the local drainage basins. The second storm, centered along the Brush and Round Grove Creek basins, resulted in a devastating flash flood. Peak discharges were determined during and after this major flood at gaging stations and selected miscellaneous locations. Streamflows and flood volumes in many locations far exceeded estimated values for the 100-year flood. (USGS)

  17. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and vicinity, August 12-13, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, L.D.; Alexander, T.W.; Waite, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    On August 12-13, 1982, a nearly stationary weather front in the vicinity of Kansas City, MO, produced intense thunderstorms. Excessive rainfall (12.6 inches in Raytown, MO) caused flash flooding during the nighttime and early daylight hours. Four deaths and damages unofficially estimated in excess of $30 million, occurred in the three-county area of Jackson, Cass, and Clay counties. Peak discharges were determined at 12 current or discontinued streamflow-gaging stations and 17 miscellaneous sites. Flood peaks and volumes at many locations exceeded estimated 100-year recurrence-interval floods and equaled or exceeded the 1977 floods in some drainage basins. Significant flooding occurred in the Blue, East Fork Little Blue, and Little Blue River basins and in the Rock, Wilkerson, Sni-A-Bar, Shoal, and Big Creek drainage basins. (USGS)

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  19. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  20. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered.

  1. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  2. Degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmany, Santi; Furuta, Masakazu; Matsuura, Hiroto; Okuda, Shuichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2014-12-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs) are highly toxic compounds that cause skin irritation, inflammation, and tumor promotion upon contact with humans or animals. These compounds are naturally present in Jatropha curcas L. To promote the use of J. curcas seed oil in bio-diesel production industries and reduce environmental concerns, it is necessary to find methods of degrading PEs. In this study, the degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA), as a representative PE, in aqueous solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L by 60Co-γ-irradiation was investigated. The results demonstrate that PDA was effectively degraded by this treatment and the degradation efficiency increased with the absorbed dose within the range of 0.5-3 kGy. Complete degradation of PDA was achieved at a dose of 3 kGy. In the presence of radical scavengers (i.e., methanol, tert-butanol, 2-propanol), reactive species from water radiolysis were scavenged, and significant inhibition of PDA degradation was observed at absorbed doses less than 1 kGy. In the presence of nitrous oxide, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) was promoted during gamma irradiation and PDA degradation was drastically enhanced.

  3. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. From baconian to popperian neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work.

  5. Theory and simulation in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Wulfram; Sprekeler, Henning; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-10-05

    Modeling work in neuroscience can be classified using two different criteria. The first one is the complexity of the model, ranging from simplified conceptual models that are amenable to mathematical analysis to detailed models that require simulations in order to understand their properties. The second criterion is that of direction of workflow, which can be from microscopic to macroscopic scales (bottom-up) or from behavioral target functions to properties of components (top-down). We review the interaction of theory and simulation using examples of top-down and bottom-up studies and point to some current developments in the fields of computational and theoretical neuroscience.

  6. The cognitive neuroscience of ageing.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl

    2012-06-20

    The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive ageing. Although there is a growing consensus that the ageing brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional MRI, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field is also hampered by the complexity of the ageing process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this Review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of ageing are discussed.

  7. From baconian to popperian neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work. PMID:22330680

  8. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-02-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  9. Preface: psychophysiology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    The intersection of psychophysiology and cognitive neuroscience has proved to be fertile ground for advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior. The eight original empirical articles in this special issue contribute a variety of new evidence for how various bodily processes interrelate with brain processes, especially in the service of emotions and feelings. The findings are rich in their own right, and they also underscore the value of psychophysiological approaches in the investigation of brain-behavior relationships. This type of work is helping to shape a new field of "affective neuroscience."

  10. CSP- 5th Champalimaud Neuroscience Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-20

    already identified by the US Naval or Marine Corp Science & Technology, Neuroscience through their Warfighter Performance strategy focus area...Mohamed Edfawy Center for Neuroscience and Cell presentation) - Travel Biology Portugal award Delegate (poster Ida Barlow Universi ty College

  11. Proceedings of the Workshop on 3-D Optical Memories (1st) Held in Snowbird, Utah on 12-13 March 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    a larger aperture that would be provided by t? p )1itoft I It photorefrac-_:-. iin on large - substrates one could greatly circumvent some of the...supercomputing. In tuh,7 approach, a transparent magnetic material is deposited on special transparent substrates that are stacked together. 2-D planar waveguides...are also fabricated on the other side of each transparent substrate . Information is stored via electrical inputs b creating magnetic bubbles (domains

  12. Competitive Acquisitions in the New Strategic Environment. Proceedings of the Advance Planning Briefing for Industry Held in Eatontown, New Jersey on 12-13 May 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    to the software development process. BRIEFER: John H. Sintic, Director, CECOM SED, AMSEL-RD-SE-D, AV 992- 8208 ACTION OFFICER: Eugene J. Boyle Chief...capability to deal with frequency collisions by assigning priorities to each of the four channels of the FH MUX. The FH MUX will also reduce the command post...RD-SE-D (908) 532- 8208 MR. EDWARD T. BAIR PEO, Intelligence and Electronic Warfare SFAE-IEW-BM Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703 (908) 532-0181 MR. JOHN

  13. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  14. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  15. Dopamine stimulates [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding in cultured striatal cells.

    PubMed

    McMillian, M K; He, X P; Hong, J S; Pennypacker, K R

    1992-04-01

    The effect of dopamine (DA) on the binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PdBu) in cultured rat striatal cells was examined. DA maximally increased specific [3H]PdBu binding by 70 +/- 10%, an increase comparable to that observed with norepinephrine (NE). This finding suggests that DA activates protein kinase C in cultured striatal cells, because increases in [3H]PdBu binding reflect translocation of protein kinase C. Half-maximal stimulation was observed with 10(-6) M DA. The peak response was observed at 2-3 min after addition of 10(-4) M DA, but [3H]PdBu binding was still increased above basal at 30 min. DA was not acting via an adrenergic receptor. Prazosin (10(-6) M) blocked the response to NE, suggesting mediation by an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor, but had little effect on the response to DA. Conversely, the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (10(-6) M) blocked the response to DA, but only partially inhibited the response to NE. Morphine (10(-6) M) inhibited the response to DA by 46 +/- 14%, but did not affect significantly the response to NE. The DA effect on [3H]PdBu binding is apparently independent of the increase in cyclic AMP seen on D1 receptor activation. Forskolin, apomorphine, and the D1 agonist SKF-38393 all increased cyclic AMP in striatal cells, but were less effective than DA in stimulating [3H]PdBu binding. The D2 agonist quinpirole was ineffective in stimulating either cyclic AMP or [3H]PdBu binding.

  16. Flood of July 12-13, 2004, Burlington and Camden Counties, South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Protz, Amy R.; Reed, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Intense rainfall inundated south-central New Jersey on July 12-13, 2004, causing major flooding with heavy property, road, and bridge damage in Burlington and Camden Counties. Forty-five dams were topped or damaged, or failed completely. The affected areas were in the Rancocas Creek, Cooper River, and Pennsauken Creek Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stream elevations and flows at 56 selected sites within the affected area. With rainfall totals averaging more than 6 inches throughout the three basins, peak-of-record flood elevations and streamflows occurred at all but one USGS stream gage, where the previous record was tied. Flood-frequency recurrence-intervals ranged from 30 to greater than 100 years and maximum streamflow per square mile ranged from 13.9 to 263 cubic feet per second per square mile (ft3/s/mi2). Peak streamflow at USGS stream gages surrounding the affected basins are associated with considerably lower recurrence intervals and demonstrate the limited extent of the flood. A high tide of about 1 foot above monthly mean high tide did not contribute to high-water conditions. Low ground-water levels prior to the rainfall helped to mitigate flooding in the affected basins. Compared with historical floods in the Rancocas Creek Basin during 1938-40, the July 2004 flood had greater streamflow, but lower stream elevations. Property damage from the event was estimated at $50 million. Governor James E. McGreevy declared a State of Emergency in Burlington and Camden Counties on July 13, 2004. After assessment of the damage by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), President George W. Bush declared Burlington and Camden Counties disaster areas on July 16, 2004.

  17. Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12-13, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, W. W.; Strow, L. L.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Huang, H. L.; Thompson, A. M.; McNamara, D. P.; Ryan, W. F.

    1997-05-01

    Tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) column densities were retrieved from 491 nadir infrared spectra obtained by the University of Wisconsin's High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) during a cross-country flight of a NASA ER-2 on September 12-13, 1993 (UT). A classical, Fourier-based signal-processing technique was utilized to retrieve the CO column density from the 2135-2200 cm-1 portion of the CO 1-0 vibration-rotation band. Error analysis indicates column CO retrieval uncertainties of approximately ±10%. Retrieved CO column densities over the western United States from this flight, ˜1.2×1018 cm-2, agree well with previous ground-based CO column measurements over the western United States at the same season. Derived CO sensitivity functions for these measurements possess a broad peak centered in the 500-600 mbar region, thus implying the retrieved tropospheric CO mixing ratios are indicative of the mean free troposphere (mft). Across the United States, three spatial groupings of CO were observed: west, mft CO ˜76 parts per billion by volume (ppbv); midwest, mft CO ˜56 ppbv; and east, mft CO ˜71 ppbv. Weather map and back trajectory analyses indicate different source regions for the air parcels in each of these regions. The low CO amounts over the midwest most likely result from the mixing of rapidly subsiding air naturally low in CO with a low-altitude inflow of similarly clean subtropical air off the Gulf of Mexico. These results demonstrate the utility of satellite infrared spectrometer observations to globally map tropospheric CO abundances and further reveal the impact of synoptic scale atmospheric circulations on CO abundances.

  18. Numerical simulations of the 12-13 August 2002 flooding event in eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zängl, G.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, high-resolution numerical simulations of the 12-13 August 2002 flooding event in eastern Germany are presented. The simulations are performed with the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model MM5 in a four-domain configuration with a finest horizontal resolution of 1 km. Sensitivity experiments are performed with coarser resolutions (3 and 9 km), with different cloud microphysical parametrizations and with a different date of initialization. Moreover, tests with 1 km resolution but the smoothed topography of the 9 km runs are conducted in order to isolate the contribution of the model topography to the differences between the 1 km runs and the 9 km runs. The results show that the high-resolution runs reproduce the observed structure of the precipitation field very well. In particular, the location of the rainfall maximum is correct to within 15 km. The quantitative agreement between model results and observations is fairly good in regions with light to moderate rain, but large amounts of precipitation tend to be underpredicted. For observed 36-hour rainfall accumulations exceeding 200 mm, the negative bias typically ranges between 15 and 30% with fairly little dependence on the microphysical parametrization. In the coarser-resolved runs, the bias at high precipitation amounts becomes even more pronounced, and it is found that this behaviour is not only due to the fact that a coarser resolution is associated with a smoother topography. This indicates a systematic deficiency in the microphysical parametrizations, limiting their ability to simulate heavy precipitation.

  19. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  20. Neuroscience, Education and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboccó de los Heros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We…

  1. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  2. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    This paper presents a brief overview of the array of neuroscience research as it applies to play and child development. The paper discusses research showing the importance of play for brain growth and child development, and recommends that families, schools and other social and corporate institutions rearrange their attitudes and priorities about…

  3. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  5. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  6. Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

    This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

  7. Text-mining and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ambert, Kyle H; Cohen, Aaron M

    2012-01-01

    The wealth and diversity of neuroscience research are inherent characteristics of the discipline that can give rise to some complications. As the field continues to expand, we generate a great deal of data about all aspects, and from multiple perspectives, of the brain, its chemistry, biology, and how these affect behavior. The vast majority of research scientists cannot afford to spend their time combing the literature to find every article related to their research, nor do they wish to spend time adjusting their neuroanatomical vocabulary to communicate with other subdomains in the neurosciences. As such, there has been a recent increase in the amount of informatics research devoted to developing digital resources for neuroscience research. Neuroinformatics is concerned with the development of computational tools to further our understanding of the brain and to make sense of the vast amount of information that neuroscientists generate (French & Pavlidis, 2007). Many of these tools are related to the use of textual data. Here, we review some of the recent developments for better using the vast amount of textual information generated in neuroscience research and publication and suggest several use cases that will demonstrate how bench neuroscientists can take advantage of the resources that are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  9. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  10. Psychological constructionism and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, Lisa A; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-06-01

    Lindquist et al. argue that emotional categories do not map onto distinct regions within the brain, but rather, arise from basic psychological processes, including conceptualization, executive attention, and core affect. Here, we use examples from cultural neuroscience to argue that psychological constructionism, not locationism, captures the essential role of emotion in the social and cultural brain.

  11. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  12. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  13. Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

    This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

  14. Neuroscience Doctorates in the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoun, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Surveys Dissertation Abstracts'', lists of neuroscientists, and grants awarded by the National Institutes of Mental Health for the 1960's, and identifies the 75 institutions, most graduating Ph.D's in the neurosciences. The relatively greater increase in these degrees than for all bioscience doctorates should be considered in planning doctoral…

  15. The complex business of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Richard

    2002-11-01

    It's a clinical line that usually takes a back seat to higher-profile services like cardiology, oncology and orthopedics. But hospitals are starting to pay more attention to neuroscience for a number of reasons, including its tertiary nature and the high volume of imaging studies involved. More importantly, it usually generates a profit.

  16. The Future of Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.; Goswami, Usha; Geake, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the emerging field of educational neuroscience and the broader movement called Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology with cognitive science, development, and education so that education can be grounded more solidly in research on learning and teaching. To avoid misdirection, the growing worldwide movement needs to avoid…

  17. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  18. The Future of Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.; Goswami, Usha; Geake, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the emerging field of educational neuroscience and the broader movement called Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology with cognitive science, development, and education so that education can be grounded more solidly in research on learning and teaching. To avoid misdirection, the growing worldwide movement needs to avoid…

  19. Dyslexia, Learning, and Pedagogical Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Angela J; Nicolson, Roderick I

    2007-01-01

    The explosion in neuroscientific knowledge has profound implications for education, and we advocate the establishment of the new discipline of "pedagogical neuroscience" designed to combine psychological, medical, and educational perspectives. We propose that specific learning disabilities provide the crucible in which the discipline may be…

  20. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  1. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  2. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10283 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts. 721.10283 Section 721.10283 Protection of...-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts (PMN P-10-486; CAS No....

  4. Brains rule! fun = learning = neuroscience literacy.

    PubMed

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M; Mu, Keli; Phelps, Cynthia L; Houtz, Lynne E; Royeen, Charlotte B

    2002-10-01

    Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions is a project designed to improve neuroscience literacy among children and the general public by applying a model where neuroscience professionals transfer knowledge and enthusiasm about neuroscience through fun, engaging hands-on activities. This educational model draws strength from many national and local partnerships of neuroscience professionals to coordinate expositions across the country in a variety of local communities. Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions uses a flexible science fair-like format to engage children in the process of science and teach about neuroscience concepts, facts, and professions. Neuroscience literacy is important to everyday life and helps individuals better understand themselves, make informed decisions about health and drug use, participate knowledgeably in governmental and social issues, and better understand scientific advancements. In this study, children's ratings of Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions activities were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of the responses revealed that overall the children perceived the learning activities as fun and interesting and believed that they learned something about the brain and nervous system after engaging in the activities. The Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions education model can be an effective tool in improving neuroscience literacy for both children and adults.

  5. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  6. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain?

  7. Integrated neuroscience program: an alternative approach to teaching neurosciences to chiropractic students.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; La Rose, James; Zhang, Niu

    2009-01-01

    Most chiropractic colleges do not offer independent neuroscience courses because of an already crowded curriculum. The Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida has developed and implemented an integrated neuroscience program that incorporates neurosciences into different courses. The goals of the program have been to bring neurosciences to students, excite students about the interrelationship of neuroscience and chiropractic, improve students' understanding of neuroscience, and help the students understand the mechanisms underpinning the chiropractic practice. This study provides a descriptive analysis on how the integrated neuroscience program is taught via students' attitudes toward neuroscience and the comparison of students' perceptions of neuroscience content knowledge at different points in the program. A questionnaire consisting of 58 questions regarding the neuroscience courses was conducted among 339 students. The questionnaire was developed by faculty members who were involved in teaching neuroscience and administered in the classroom by faculty members who were not involved in the study. Student perceptions of their neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, and knowledge application increased considerably through the quarters, especially among the 2nd-year students. The integrated neuroscience program achieved several of its goals, including an increase in students' confidence, positive attitude, ability to learn, and perception of neuroscience content knowledge. The authors believe that such gains can expand student ability to interpret clinical cases and inspire students to become excited about chiropractic research. The survey provides valuable information for teaching faculty to make the course content more relevant to chiropractic students.

  8. Evolution and the neurosciences down-under.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century three Australians made notable contributions to founding the neurosciences: Alfred Walter Campbell (1868-1937) conducted the first extensive histological studies of the human brain; Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937) studied the monotreme brain and established the basis for understanding the mammalian brain; and Stanley David Porteus (1883-1972) extended his studies of intellectual disability to encompass the relation between brain size and intelligence. The work of each was decisively influenced by important members of the Edinburgh medical school or by Edinburgh medical graduates: William Turner (1832-1916) and William Rutherford (1839-1899) Professors of Anatomy and Physiology respectively at Edinburgh; James Thomas Wilson (1861-1945) Professor of Anatomy at the University of Sydney; and Richard James Arthur Berry (1867-1962) Professor of Anatomy at the University of Melbourne. An important aspect of the influence on the Australians was a materialist view of brain function but the work of all was most important for a theory even more central held by the Scots who had influenced them: Darwin's theory of evolution. The importance of the work of Campbell and especially that of Smith for Darwinism is contrasted with Darwin's own indifference to the peculiarities of the Australian fauna he observed when he visited Australia during HMS Beagle's voyage of discovery in 1836.

  9. Molecular Biology Masterclasses--Developing Practical Skills and Building Links with Higher Education in Years 12/13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Paul; Cooper, Phillippa; Skidmore, Nick

    2008-01-01

    A one day practical course in molecular biology skills suitable for year 12/13 students is described. Colleagues from partner schools and colleges were trained by university staff in basic techniques and then collaborated in the design of a course suitable for their own students. Participants carried out a transformation of "E.coli"…

  10. Molecular Biology Masterclasses--Developing Practical Skills and Building Links with Higher Education in Years 12/13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Paul; Cooper, Phillippa; Skidmore, Nick

    2008-01-01

    A one day practical course in molecular biology skills suitable for year 12/13 students is described. Colleagues from partner schools and colleges were trained by university staff in basic techniques and then collaborated in the design of a course suitable for their own students. Participants carried out a transformation of "E.coli"…

  11. The Collapse of the Lava Dome at Soufriere Hills Volcano, 12-13 July 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, R.; Edmonds, M.; Strutt, M.; Ottermeiler, L.

    2003-12-01

    destructive and its deposit reached over 1 m thick in places. Animals were killed 4 km northwards of the Tar River Valley and a GPS receiver and remote camera at White's Yard were destroyed (the last data recorded at 23:35 12 July). An explosion occurred shortly after 01:00 13 July and thereafter the seismic signal decreased in amplitude over the next three hours, reaching background levels by 06:00 13 July. At 09:12 13 July a vulcanian explosion occurred, with a vertical eruption column 12 km high. This event deposited highly vesiculated pumice up to 6.5 cm in dimension in inhabited areas and up to 30 cm on the southwestern flanks of the volcano. Two more vulcanian explosions took place thereafter, the first at 01:10 14 July and the second at 01:15 15 July. On 16 July 2003 at 09:10 a strong SO2 degassing event took place, reaching 70 kg/s before decaying exponentially throughout the rest of the day. A new dome began to grow in the scar 22-25 July, but then stagnated. On 1 August 2003 a sustained water degassing and ash venting event took place throughout the day, from 06:00 to 17:00, sending a thick plume of steam and ash to the west of the volcano. Seismicity decreased dramatically after 1 August and up to 3 September, there was no eruptive activity at Soufriere Hills Volcano.

  12. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential.

  13. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques.

  14. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind.

  15. Neuroscience thinks big (and collaboratively).

    PubMed

    Kandel, Eric R; Markram, Henry; Matthews, Paul M; Yuste, Rafael; Koch, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Despite cash-strapped times for research, several ambitious collaborative neuroscience projects have attracted large amounts of funding and media attention. In Europe, the Human Brain Project aims to develop a large-scale computer simulation of the brain, whereas in the United States, the Brain Activity Map is working towards establishing a functional connectome of the entire brain, and the Allen Institute for Brain Science has embarked upon a 10-year project to understand the mouse visual cortex (the MindScope project). US President Barack Obama's announcement of the BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative) in April 2013 highlights the political commitment to neuroscience and is expected to further foster interdisciplinary collaborations, accelerate the development of new technologies and thus fuel much needed medical advances. In this Viewpoint article, five prominent neuroscientists explain the aims of the projects and how they are addressing some of the questions (and criticisms) that have arisen.

  16. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  17. Nanotechnology for in vitro neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Daniel R.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-11-01

    Neurons in vitro are different from any other cell types in their sensitivity and complexity. Growing, differentiating, transfecting, and recording from single neurons and neuronal networks all present particular challenges. Some of the difficulties arise from the small scale of cellular structures, and have already seen substantial advances due to nanotechnology, particularly highly fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. Other issues have less obvious solutions, but the complex and often surprising way that novel nanomaterials react with cells have suggested some revolutionary approaches. We review some of the ways nanomaterials and nanostructures can contribute to in vitro neuroscience, with a particular focus on emphasizing techniques that are widely accessible to many laboratories and on providing references to protocols and methods. The issues of nanotoxicology of greatest interest to cultured neurons are discussed. Finally, we present some future trends and challenges in nano-neuroscience.

  18. Prevalence of dental caries in 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years age group of school children of Kathmandu valley.

    PubMed

    Subedi, B; Shakya, P; Kc, U; Jnawali, M; Paudyal, B D; Acharya, A; Koirala, S; Singh, A

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratified cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and filled teeth index and decayed, missed and filled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition) were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years) from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be significant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically significant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level.

  19. The neuroscience of psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H

    2014-11-01

    The series of articles in this issue of Behavior Research and Therapy presages a new field of translational research that could be called "the neuroscience of psychological treatments". After a brief retrospective on the origins and promise of this focus of study several cautions are adumbrated. As in any new field of scientific endeavor, close collaboration among stakeholders with interest in this field and the integration of a healthy scientific skepticism will best ensure the continued development of ever more powerful psychological treatments.

  20. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  1. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable.

  2. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) was conceived in the summer of 2007 at a meeting of editors and publishers of neuroscience journals. One of the working groups addressed whether it was possible to construct a system for permitting authors whose manuscript received supportive reviews at one journal but was not accepted to send a revised manuscript together with its first round of reviews to a new journal for the second round. This would speed up the review process and reduce the work for reviewers and editors. The working group not only designed a framework for transferring reviews among journals, but also implemented it as the NPRC. By the fall of 2007, more than a dozen major journals had signed onto the NPRC, sufficient to launch the experiment in January, 2008. We invite authors who have not yet used the NPRC to try this method for appropriate manuscripts. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19149887

  4. Historiography, affect, and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Larry S

    2017-05-01

    Recent historiography has put to rest debates over whether to address the neurosciences. The question is how? In this article, I stage a dialogue between neurohistory and the history of the emotions. My primary goal is to survey these two clusters and clarify their conceptual commitments. Both center on the role of affect in embodied subjectivity; but their accounts widely diverge. Whereas neurohistorians tend to treat affects as automatic bodily processes, historians of the emotions generally emphasize that affects are meaningful and volitional activities. This divergence entails contrasting understandings of selfhood, embodiment, and historical change. More importantly, I argue, it reflects a broader realm of disputes within the neurosciences. The divisions among methodologies and commitments testify to the importance of historians' selection of evidence as well as the critical perspectives they can bring to scientific debates. The neurosciences do not offer readymade theories. Secondarily, I take stock of the shared limitations of neurohistory and the history of the emotions. Both conceptualize the biological bases of affection as a universal ground for historical inquiry. By reexamining this transhistorical approach to neuroscientific evidence, I suggest that historiography might widen the horizon of interdisciplinary scholarship beyond the present options. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Shuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  6. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  7. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  8. Clinicopathologic characteristics and gene expression analyses of non-KRAS 12/13, RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, V K; Lucas, F A San; Overman, M J; Eng, C; Morelli, M P; Jiang, Z-Q; Luthra, R; Meric-Bernstam, F; Maru, D; Scheet, P; Kopetz, S; Vilar, E

    2014-10-01

    KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 are present in ∼40% of all colorectal cancers (CRC). Activating mutations in codons 61 and 146 of KRAS and in codons 12, 13, and 61 of NRAS also occur but are less frequent. The clinicopathologic features and gene expression profiles of this latter subpopulation of RAS-mutant colorectal tumors have not yet been clearly defined but in general are treated similarly to those with KRAS 12 or 13 mutations. Records of patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center between December 2000 and August 2012 were reviewed for RAS (KRAS or NRAS) and BRAF mutation status, clinical characteristics, and survival outcomes. To study further with an independent cohort, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed to define a gene expression signature for patients whose tumors feature these atypical RAS mutations and explore differences with KRAS 12/13-mutated colorectal tumors. Among the 484 patients reviewed, KRAS 12/13, KRAS 61/146, NRAS, and BRAF mutations were detected in 47.7%, 3.0%, 4.1%, and 7.4%, respectively, of patients who were tested for each of these aberrations. Lung metastases were more common in both the KRAS 12/13-mutated and atypical RAS-mutated cohorts relative to patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumors. Gene expression analyses revealed similar patterns regardless of the site of RAS mutation, and in silico functional algorithms predicted that KRAS and NRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61, and 146 alter the protein function and drive tumorgenesis. Clinicopathologic characteristics, survival outcomes, functional impact, and gene expression profiling were similar between patients with KRAS 12/13 and those with NRAS or KRAS 61/146-mutated mCRC. These clinical and bioinformatic findings support the notion that colorectal tumors driven by these RAS mutations are phenotypically similar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights

  9. Teaching undergraduate neuroscience with brain teaser experiments.

    PubMed

    Goldreich, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuroscience knowledge is of fundamental importance to the occupational therapist and other health care professionals, but neuroscience courses are often viewed in schools of health sciences as among the most arduous of the curriculum. To enhance student learning, the author has developed a series of in-class activities, "brainteasers," that are integrated into each subject module of a semester-long undergraduate neuroscience course. In the brain teaser activities, students experience intriguing sensory and motor phenomena, then use inductive reasoning to generate plausible hypotheses concerning the underlying neural mechanisms. Students profit doubly from these activities, learning neuroscience while practicing critical thinking.

  10. Full-Genomic Analysis of a Human Norovirus Recombinant GII.12/13 Novel Strain Isolated from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-ha; Cho, Han-Gil; Kang, Lae-Hyung; Lee, Sung-Geun; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II are frequently recognized as the main causes of acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks of non-bacterial foodborne diseases. Furthermore, variants and recombinant strains of this virus are continuously emerging worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify NoV strains and to investigate and characterize rare genotypes. Stool samples (n = 500) were collected from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in Korea between December 2004 and November 2007. For analysis of the samples, rapid genotype screening was performed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Full sequencing, using a newly designed set of 12 primers, revealed GII-12/13 strain. The partial sequence of GII-12/13 strain was compared with published NoV (GII-1 - 14) sequences targeting RdRp and capsid regions using phylogenetic analysis with the SimPlot program, which could evaluate recombination breakpoints. SimPlot analysis was also performed with the strain GII-12/Gifu-96/JPN (AB045603) for the RdRp region and with GII-13/G5175B-83/AUS(DQ379714) for the capsid region. NoV was detected in 19 of the 500 stool samples (3.8%). Genogroup GII-4 was found most frequently (n = 9, 1.8%), followed by GII-3 (n = 4, 0.8%), GII-6 (n = 3, 0.6%), GI-6 (n = 2, 0.4%), and GII-12/13 (n = 1, 0.2%). Importantly, we identified a novel NoV recombinant strain, C9-439 (KF289337), indicating potential risks, which suggested that, recombination occurred in the region between open reading frames 1 and 2 of the GII-12/13 strain and that breakpoints occurred in the polymerase region. PMID:24391985

  11. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary characteristics of 12-13-year-old schoolchildren with and without dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yuan Hang; Lin, Huan Cai

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate unstimulated and stimulated salivary characteristics of 12-13-year-old schoolchildren with and without dental erosion. The subjects were sixty schoolchildren from 12-13 years old (30 boys and 30 girls) with dental erosion and sixty age- and sex-matched controls. Unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva were collected. Flow rate, pH level, buffering capacity, bicarbonate, buffer base, calcium, phosphorus and urea concentrations of whole saliva were measured. All data were analysed using SPSS 13.0. The flow rate, pH, bicarbonate, buffer base, calcium, phosphorus, and urea of unstimulated and stimulated saliva did not differ significantly between the dental erosion group and the control group (P>0.05). The stimulated salivary buffering capacity did not vary between the two groups (Fisher's exact test, P>0.05). The salivary characteristics are similar amongst 12-13-year-old schoolchildren with and without dental erosion in Southern China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary and abstracts from Sudden Aspen Decline (SAD) Meeting; Fort Collins, Colorado, February 12-13, 2008

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the aspen research and management community has witnessed increasing accounts of unexplained aspen die-offs across the Rocky Mountain region. In response, two meetings were held to address the issue; this paper summarizes the most recent gathering, a symposium held in Fort Collins at the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, on February...

  13. [Educational Quality Indicators: Taking Stock.] Proceedings of the Conference (Los Angeles, California, October 12-13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRESST Evaluation Comment, 1989

    1989-01-01

    An overview of an international conference held on the campus of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) to take stock of the development and use of educational quality indicator systems at the local, state, national, and international levels is provided. Major implications and findings of the education summit held at the University of…

  14. Behavioral neuroscience and the media.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, Sandra; DiChristina, Mariette; Raeburn, Paul; Lambert, Kelly

    2012-12-05

    To provide assurance that accurate summaries of behavioral neuroscience findings are presented in mainstream news sources, it is important for scientists to cooperate with science journalists and, on occasion, write informative articles for lay audiences or contribute scientific knowledge in other relevant venues. Accordingly, three influential science journalists were invited to a special Presidential Symposium at the 2011 IBNS annual meeting to discuss (1) the importance of public dissemination of scientific knowledge, (2) insightful recommendations for effective science writing for mainstream audiences and (3) the potential impact of science blogs on the communication of science information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The social neuroscience of reputation.

    PubMed

    Izuma, Keise

    2012-04-01

    Human behavior is strongly influenced by the presence of others. Obtaining a good reputation or avoiding a bad one is a powerful incentive for a plethora of human actions. Theoretical considerations suggest that reputation may be a key mediator of aspects of altruistic behavior that are uniquely human. Despite its considerable influence on human social behavior and the growing interest in social neuroscience, investigations of the neural basis of reputation-based decision-making are still in their infancy. Here, I argue that reputation is an important aspect of human social cognition and present some of the candidate neural mechanisms.

  16. Neurosciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electrodiagnosis in Clinical Neurology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 1. Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 1. Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  17. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Xanomeline.

    PubMed

    Bender, Aaron M; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-31

    Xanomeline (1) is an orthosteric muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, often referred to as M1/M4-preferring that received widespread attention for its clinical efficacy in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Despite the compound's promising initial clinical results, dose-limiting side effects limited further clinical development. While xanomeline, and related orthosteric muscarinic agonists, have yet to receive approval from the FDA for the treatment of these CNS disorders, interest in the compound's unique M1/M4-preferring mechanism of action is ongoing in the field of chemical neuroscience. Specifically, the promising cognitive and behavioral effects of xanomeline in both schizophrenia and AD have spurred a renewed interest in the development of safer muscarinic ligands with improved subtype selectivity for either M1 or M4. This Review will address xanomeline's overall importance in the field of neuroscience, with a specific focus on its chemical structure and synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK), and adverse effects.

  18. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  19. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  20. Exploring Neuroscience: A Guide for Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Neuroscience becomes more relevant for disciplines pertaining to children's development and education with each passing year. Thus, there is an urgent need for scholars and practitioners in these disciplines to educate themselves about the structure, function, and development of the brain, and to explore the neuroscience literature connected with…

  1. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  2. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  3. Cognitive Neuroscience Discoveries and Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes seven movement-related areas of cognitive neuroscience research that will play key roles in shifting the current behavioral orientation of teaching and learning to an orientation that also incorporates cognitive neuroscience discoveries. These areas of brain research include: (1) mirroring system; (2) plastic…

  4. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  5. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  6. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  7. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  8. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  9. Psychiatry as a Clinical Neuroscience Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Thomas R.; Quirion, Remi

    2006-01-01

    One of the fundamental insights emerging from contemporary neuroscience is that mental illnesses are brain disorders. In contrast to classic neurological illnesses that involve discrete brain lesions, mental disorders need to be addressed as disorders of distributed brain systems with symptoms forged by developmental and social experiences. While genomics will be important for revealing risk, and cellular neuroscience should provide targets for novel treatments for these disorders, it is most likely that the tools of systems neuroscience will yield the biomarkers needed to revolutionize psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. This essay considers the discoveries that will be necessary over the next two decades to translate the promise of modern neuroscience into strategies for prevention and cures of mental disorders. To deliver on this spectacular new potential, clinical neuroscience must be integrated into the discipline of psychiatry, thereby transforming current psychiatric training, tools, and practices. PMID:16264165

  10. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y; Hariri, Ahmad R; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed.

  11. The second joint Kemali-IBRO Mediterranean school of neuroscience is the first for invertebrate neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A; Chabaud, M A

    2011-12-01

    This meeting was held at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy, from 6th-13th July 2011. It was sponsored through a collaboration between IBRO (the International Brain Research Organisation) and the Kemali Foundation. Notably, it is the first IBRO sponsored School specifically in invertebrate neuroscience. The meeting was attended by early career researchers from countries around the Mediterranean basin and highlighted the research opportunities that this field can offer to neuroscientists at the start of their careers. Students participating in the School were introduced to a range of important invertebrate model systems. The utility of these models in addressing fundamental neurobiological problems, especially those relating to human neurological disorders, was extensively discussed. In this review, two of the participating students provide a summary of this meeting with a view to encouraging support for further activity in this arena in the future. One of the aims of the Kemali foundation is to foster enduring collaborations between scientists in the Mediterranean region. Given the enthusiastic networking both during and after the meeting, there is much promise that this goal will be realised.

  12. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Bon Secour Bay quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Bon Secour Bay map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shore of Bon Secour Bay, generally from Weeks Bay southward to Gasque, Alabama. Most homes along the northern shore of Bon Secour Bay were severely damaged by floodwater and tidal waves. Damage to homes along the southern shore was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  13. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979 along the Gulf Coast, Lillian quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the Perdido River and Perdido Bay in the vicinity of the Alabama-Florida State line. Most of the damage in this area was due to minor flooding and high winds. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  14. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Perdido Bay quadrangle, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the southern shore of Perdido Bay, Ono Island in Old River, and Perdido Key exposed to the Gulf of Mexico. The most severe damage occurred along Perdido Key in Alabama and Florida where many homes were demolished and the highway was washed out in several places. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  15. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Hurricane quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers in Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Alabama. Most of the inundated areas shown are marshlands or flood plains of small tributary streams. Storm-tides frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  16. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Chickasaw quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the western side of the Mobile River from about one mile north of Satsuma, Alabama, to Chickasaw, Alabama. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. Extensive wind damage occurred along the Mobile River in addition to minor flood damage to some houses and industrial complexes. (USGS)

  17. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Mobile quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the western side of the Mobile River and Mobile Bay from Pritchard, Alabama, to the Forest Park section of Mobile, Alabama. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. Most of the waterfront improvements in Mobile Bay were either destroyed or heavily damaged. (USGS)

  18. Peak discharge on Bull Creek and tributaries, Scurry and Borden Counties, Texas, flood of April 12, 13, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniels, L.L.

    1954-01-01

    This report contains a description of the rainfall pattern producing the flood of April 12, 13, 1954, in the Bull Creek watershed, the results of indirect determinations of peak discharges and estimates of flows at several points in that watershed, and a comparison of the peak stage at the discontinued gaging station on Bull Creek near Ira, Tex., with other floods on record. Field work consisted of transit-stadia surveys at five locations to develop high-water profiles and cross-sections, performed within two weeks after flood occurred.

  19. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Coden-Bellefontaine quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along coastal areas of Mobile Bay between Bellefontaine and Point Judith, Alabama, are shown on a topographic map. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. Most of the waterfront improvements in Mobile Bay were either destroyed or heavily damaged. The town of Bayou La Batre, Alabama, was extensively flooded. (USGS)

  20. The neuroscience of remote memory

    PubMed Central

    Squire, Larry R; Bayley, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the organization and neurobiology of remote memory, and the pace of work in this area has accelerated. Yet the recent literature does not suggest that a consensus is developing, and there is disagreement about both facts and their interpretation. This article undertakes a comprehensive review of the three kinds of evidence that have been most prominent in recent discussion: studies of retrograde amnesia in memory-impaired patients who have well-characterized lesions, neuroimaging of healthy volunteers, and work with experimental animals including lesion studies, imaging and mouse genetics. The available evidence tells a coherent story and leads to some straightforward conclusions about the neuroscience of remote memory. PMID:17336513

  1. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  2. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  3. Coordination Dynamics in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, Steven L.; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers and clinicians in cognitive neuroscience hold to a modular view of cognitive function in which the cerebral cortex operates by the activation of areas with circumscribed elementary cognitive functions. Yet an ongoing paradigm shift to a dynamic network perspective is underway. This new viewpoint treats cortical function as arising from the coordination dynamics within and between cortical regions. Cortical coordination dynamics arises due to the unidirectional influences imposed on a cortical area by inputs from other areas that project to it, combined with the projection reciprocity that characterizes cortical connectivity and gives rise to reentrant processing. As a result, cortical dynamics exhibits both segregative and integrative tendencies and gives rise to both cooperative and competitive relations within and between cortical areas that are hypothesized to underlie the emergence of cognition in brains. PMID:27695395

  4. Neuroeconomics: a view from neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Montague, P Read

    2007-01-01

    All choices are economic decisions, and this is true because mobile organisms run on batteries. For them the clock is always ticking and their battery draining so every moment represents a choice of how to invest a bit of energy. From this perspective, all choices - those made and those not made - engender costs and yield variable future returns. There is no more fundamental stricture for an organism than to behave so as to recharge their batteries; consequently, each moment of existence is attended by the need to value that moment and its near-term future quickly and accurately. The central issue of neuroeconomics is valuation - the way the brain values literally everything from internal mental states to experienced time (the neuroscience part), and why it should do so one way and not another (the normative economics part). All these valuations have now begun to be probed in experiments by pairing quantitative behavioral and computational modeling with neuroimaging or neurophysiological experiments.

  5. Neuroscience and accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Palmblad, Magnus; Buchholz, Bruce A; Hillegonds, Darren J; Vogel, John S

    2005-02-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had a great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as 3H, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 41Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, allowing safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 microg kg(-1)). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the time-scale of decades. We review here how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  6. NeuroScience and Service.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pawan

    2016-11-02

    The brain has often been described, quite accurately, as one of the most complex objects in the natural world. Understanding its workings, to say nothing about intervening in them, is among the hardest problems in science. While this makes the challenge all the more enticing, in the short term, it acts to limit the impact that neuroscience can have on real-world problems. A comprehensive understanding of fundamental principles of brain function, and their translation into treatments for brain disorders, may be decades away. Even as we pursue these long-term goals, what are the prospects for our field to engage with some of the pressing challenges the world currently faces? An initiative that I have had the opportunity of being involved with, Project Prakash, illustrates one way forward. The operational model that it has adopted enables an immediate merging of basic research and societal service. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E

    2017-07-24

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events. Here, we develop a more particularistic and mechanistic evolutionary neuroscience approach to cumulative culture, taking into account experimental, developmental, comparative, and archaeological evidence. This approach reconciles currently competing accounts of the origins of human culture and develops the concept of a uniquely human technological niche rooted in a shared primate heritage of visuomotor coordination and dexterous manipulation.

  8. Generalist genes and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Lee M; Kennedy, Joanna Kj; Plomin, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Multivariate genetic research suggests that a single set of genes affects most cognitive abilities and disabilities. This finding already has far-reaching implications for cognitive neuroscience, and will become even more revealing when this - presumably large - set of generalist genes is identified. Similar to other complex disorders and dimensions, molecular genetic research on cognitive abilities and disabilities is adopting genome-wide association strategies. These strategies involve very large samples to detect DNA associations of small effect size using microarrays that simultaneously assess hundreds of thousands of DNA markers. When this set of generalist genes is identified, it can be used to provide solid footholds in the climb towards a systems-level understanding of how genetically driven brain processes work together to affect diverse cognitive abilities and disabilities.

  9. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events. Here, we develop a more particularistic and mechanistic evolutionary neuroscience approach to cumulative culture, taking into account experimental, developmental, comparative, and archaeological evidence. This approach reconciles currently competing accounts of the origins of human culture and develops the concept of a uniquely human technological niche rooted in a shared primate heritage of visuomotor coordination and dexterous manipulation. PMID:28739892

  10. Epigenetic advances in clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ted; Poplawski, Shane

    2014-09-01

    Epigenetics, broadly defined as the regulation of gene expression without alteration of the genome, has become a field of tremendous interest in neuroscience, neurology, and psychiatry. This research has rapidly changed the way researchers think about brain function. Exciting epigenetic discoveries have been found in addiction, early life stress, neurodegeneration, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression. As researchers more precisely define the epigenetic landscape that regulates disease progression in each of these cases, therapeutics can be designed to specifically target the molecules that mediate these epigenetic processes. Further, epigenetics may lead, to the identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and for the monitoring of treatment. Epigenetic profiling is likely to become a routine tool for the diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric disorders in the near future.

  11. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p < .001). Recent graduates rated effectiveness of clinical

  12. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Janet M; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2015-01-01

    Bruer (1997) advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: the neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of plasticity, have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to affect how students think about their own learning. We present a case study of how the core concepts of neuroscience can be brought to in-service teachers – the BrainU workshops. We then discuss how neuroscience can be meaningfully integrated into pre-service teacher preparation, focusing on institutional and cultural barriers. PMID:26139861

  13. Challenges and opportunities in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species are so characterized because they form organizations that extend beyond the individual. The goal of social neuroscience is to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie these social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and neural structures and processes. Such an endeavor is challenging because it necessitates the integration of multiple levels. Mapping across systems and levels (from genome to social groups and cultures) requires interdisciplinary expertise, comparative studies, innovative methods, and integrative conceptual analysis. Examples of how social neuroscience is contributing to our understanding of the functions of the brain and nervous system are described, and societal implications of social neuroscience are considered. PMID:21251011

  14. The Neuroscience Information Framework: A Data and Knowledge Environment for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Huda; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Bowden, Douglas M.; Bug, William; Donohue, Duncan E.; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Halavi, Maryam; Kennedy, David N.; Marenco, Luis; Martone, Maryann E.; Miller, Perry L.; Müller, Hans-Michael; Robert, Adrian; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Van Essen, David C.; Williams, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    With support from the Institutes and Centers forming the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, we have designed and implemented a new initiative for integrating access to and use of Web-based neuroscience resources: the Neuroscience Information Framework. The Framework arises from the expressed need of the neuroscience community for neuroinformatic tools and resources to aid scientific inquiry, builds upon prior development of neuroinformatics by the Human Brain Project and others, and directly derives from the Society for Neuroscience’s Neuroscience Database Gateway. Partnered with the Society, its Neuroinformatics Committee, and volunteer consultant-collaborators, our multi-site consortium has developed: (1) a comprehensive, dynamic, inventory of Web-accessible neuroscience resources, (2) an extended and integrated terminology describing resources and contents, and (3) a framework accepting and aiding concept-based queries. Evolving instantiations of the Framework may be viewed at http://nif.nih.gov, http://neurogateway.org, and other sites as they come on line. PMID:18946742

  15. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method.

  16. Neuroscience and learning: implications for teaching practice.

    PubMed

    Guy, Richard; Byrne, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although neuroscience studies have provided us with an increasingly detailed picture of the basis for learning and memory, very little of this information has been applied within the area of teaching practice. We suggest that a better understanding of neuroscience may offer significant advantages for educators. In this context, we have considered recent studies in the neuroscience of learning and memory, with particular emphasis on working and semantic memory, and also suggest that neuroscience research into self-referential networks may improve our understanding of the learning process. Finally, we propose that advances in understanding the neural basis for metacognition may encourage the development of new perspectives that may help us to motivate students to learn about their own learning processes.

  17. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Developmental Psychology and the Neurosciences: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Linda S.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have created exciting possibilities for interdisciplinary collaboration. The benefits of and barriers to collaboration with developmental psychology are discussed in this introduction to a special section of Child Development. (BN)

  19. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Toward a second-person neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Schilbach, Leonhard; Timmermans, Bert; Reddy, Vasudevi; Costall, Alan; Bente, Gary; Schlicht, Tobias; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-08-01

    In spite of the remarkable progress made in the burgeoning field of social neuroscience, the neural mechanisms that underlie social encounters are only beginning to be studied and could - paradoxically - be seen as representing the "dark matter" of social neuroscience. Recent conceptual and empirical developments consistently indicate the need for investigations that allow the study of real-time social encounters in a truly interactive manner. This suggestion is based on the premise that social cognition is fundamentally different when we are in interaction with others rather than merely observing them. In this article, we outline the theoretical conception of a second-person approach to other minds and review evidence from neuroimaging, psychophysiological studies, and related fields to argue for the development of a second-person neuroscience, which will help neuroscience to really "go social"; this may also be relevant for our understanding of psychiatric disorders construed as disorders of social cognition.

  1. The impact of neuroscience on philosophy.

    PubMed

    Churchland, Patricia Smith

    2008-11-06

    In the last two decades, neuroscience has profoundly transformed how we understand learning, decision making, self, and social attachment. Consequently, traditional philosophical questions about mind and morality have been steered in new directions.

  2. Culture in social neuroscience: a review.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight an emerging field: the neuroscience of culture. This new field links cross-cultural psychology with cognitive neuroscience across fundamental domains of cognitive and social psychology. We present a summary of studies on emotion, perspective-taking, memory, object perception, attention, language, and the self, showing cultural differences in behavior as well as in neural activation. Although it is still nascent, the broad impact of merging the study of culture with cognitive neuroscience holds mutual distributed benefits for multiple related fields. Thus, cultural neuroscience may be uniquely poised to provide insights and breakthroughs for longstanding questions and problems in the study of behavior and thought, and its capacity for integration across multiple levels of analysis is especially high. These findings attest to the plasticity of the brain and its adaptation to cultural contexts.

  3. Neuroscience Applications in Marital and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tootle, A. Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the importance of a basic understanding of neuroscience in marital, couple, and family therapy training and practice. Examines the biological and physiological processes underlying emotions, memory, and neurochemistry, and emphasizes their impact on behavior. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

  4. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients.

  5. Teaching Undergraduate Neuroscience in the Digital Age

    PubMed Central

    Korey, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is enhancing and challenging traditional approaches to teaching undergraduate neuroscience. In addition to the new FUN-supported development of a Society for Neuroscience Portal for higher education, there is a wealth of available teaching resources currently housed on the web. This article discusses the current state of digital libraries and introduces a series of exemplary web-based classroom resources. PMID:23493189

  6. Research possibilities for organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    In this article, we identify research possibilities for organizational cognitive neuroscience that emerge from the papers in this special issue. We emphasize the intriguing finding that the papers share a common theme-the use of cognitive neuroscience to investigate the role of emotions in organizational behavior; this suggests a research agenda in its own right. We conclude the article by stressing that there is much yet to discover about how the mind works, especially in organizational settings.

  7. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Grand Bay quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along coastal areas of Mississippi Sound from about one mile east of the Alabama-Mississippi State line westward to the Jackson County Airport in Mississippi. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Tide elevations in this region were about equal to those produced by Hurricane Betsy in September 1965. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama, a few miles southeast of Grand Bay. (USGS)

  8. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979 along the Gulf Coast, Magnolia Springs quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Magnolia Springs topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along Weeks Bay and the northern shore of Bon Secour Bay, along the Fish River to Marlow and along the Magnolia River to Magnolia Springs, Alabama. Many homes and buildings that were constructed at or near the ground level were damaged by floodwater and tidal waves. Many fishing piers along the shores of Mobile Bay and Weeks Bay were damaged. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  9. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, West Pensacola quadrangle, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the West Pensacola topographic map are floodmarks elevations left by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the eastern shore of Perdido Bay in the vicinity of West Pensacola, Florida. Most of the damage in this area was due to minor flooding and high winds. Still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in the sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  10. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Hollingers Island-Theodore quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the western shore of Mobile Bay from the southern part of Mobile, Alabama, to the South Fork of Deer River including the inland areas along Deer River and Dog River. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. Many homes and buildings were severly damaged by flooding, tidal waves, and high winds. Most fishing piers, sea walls, or other waterfront improvements were destroyed or heavily damaged. (USGS)

  11. Occurrence of free and conjugated 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes and zearalenone in banana fruits infected with Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D K; Ghosal, S

    1986-01-01

    Three recognized 12,13-epoxytrichothecene mycotoxins, trichothecolone, diacetoxyscirpenol, and T-2 toxin, and a hyperestrogenic factor, zearalenone, together with the fatty acid esters of trichothecolone, scirpenetriol, T-2 tetraol, and zearalenone, were isolated from the flask culture extractives of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon (IMI 225232) as well as from the fruit of banana (Musa sapientum L.) infected with the same fungus in the field and in storage. The total concentrations of these toxins in the naturally infected fruits were quite high (0.8 to 1.0 mg/g of fruit). F. moniliforme infections of banana fruits, being of wide occurrence in the world, could cause serious health problems in humans when the infected fruits are ingested for a prolonged period of time.

  12. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Daphne-Point Clear quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay generally from Daphne, Alabama, southward through Fairhope and Point Clear to Mullet Point, Alabama. Buildings and sewalls were damaged by flooding and tidal waves in the vicinity of Fairhope, Alabama. Most fishing piers along the shore were either destroyed or severely damaged. From Fairhope southward, many homes and other buildings, including the Grand Hotel complex at Great Point Clear, were severely damaged. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  13. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Bridgehead quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the Mobile Causeway (U.S. Highway 90) from the Tensaw River to Spanish Fort, Alabama, and the eastern shore of Mobile Bay in the vicinity of Spanish Fort. Most buildings and business establishments along Mobile Causeway were completely destroyed, and the remaining buildings were severly damaged by flooding. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  14. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Shores quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Shores topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, Oyster Bay, and the Bon Secour River, in Alabama. Most beachfront homes in the Gulf Shores area and most homes fronting on Little Lagoon in western Gulf Shores were either destroyed or heavily damaged. All beachfront motels were severly damaged. Damage to homes and other buildings in the Oyster Bay-Bon Secour area was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  15. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast Orange Beach quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Orange Beach topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Wolf Bay, Perdido Bay, and Bayou St. John and adjacent areas in the vicinity of Orange Beach, Ala., and along the beaches exposed to the Gulf of Mexico, from Romar Beach, Ala., eastward to Perdido Key, in Florida. Damage from wind and tidal waves was widespread. The greatest damage occurred along Perdido Key in Alabama and Florida where many homes were destroyed and the highway was washed out in several places. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  16. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yee, R; David, J; Khadka, R

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  17. Associations between overweight, peer problems, and mental health in 12-13-year-old Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Oellingrath, Inger Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and mental health problems represent two major challenges related to child and adolescent health. More knowledge of a possible relationship between the two problems and the influence of peer problems on the mental health of overweight children is needed. It has previously been hypothesized that peer problems may be an underlying factor in the association between overweight and mental health problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between overweight, peer problems, and indications of mental health problems in a sample of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Children aged 12-13 years were recruited from the seventh grade of primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Parents gave information about mental health and peer problems by completing the extended version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Height and weight were objectively measured. Complete data were obtained for 744 children. Fisher's exact probability test and multiple logistic regressions were used. Most children had normal good mental health. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that overweight children were more likely to have indications of psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR: 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.2) and peer problems (adjusted OR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2) than normal-weight children, when adjusted for relevant background variables. When adjusted for peer problems, the association between overweight and indications of any psychiatric disorder was no longer significant. The results support the hypothesis that peer problems may be an important underlying factor for mental health problems in overweight children.

  18. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  20. Decreasing Neuroscience Anxiety in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: An Analysis Using Data from a Modified Science Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety. PMID:23626491

  1. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    PubMed

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  2. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  3. An evaluation of post-registration neuroscience focused education and neuroscience nurses' perceived educational needs.

    PubMed

    Braine, Mary E; Cook, Neal

    2015-11-01

    People with complex neurological conditions require co-ordinated care provided by nurses educated in meeting service needs, understanding the pathophysiological processes of disease and the preparation to care for those with complex needs. However, evidence suggests that neuroscience specific education provision is largely unregulated and set outside of a cohesive professional development context. Furthermore, it largely seems to only address the induction phase into working within neurosciences. To evaluate the nature of post-registration neuroscience focused education across Europe and neuroscience nurses' perceived educational needs. Post qualifying nurses working in the field of neurosciences were invited to complete a self-reported 29-item on-line questionnaire that contained closed and open-ended questions exploring professional background, clinical and educational experience, educational opportunities available to them and their perspectives on their educational needs. 154 participants from fourteen countries across Europe completed the survey. 75% (n=110) of respondents had undertaken neuroscience focused education with the most accessible education opportunities found to be conferences 77% (n=96) and study days 69% (n=86). Overall, 52.6% of courses were multidisciplinary in nature, and 47.4% were exclusively nursing. Most identified that their courses were funded by their employer (57%, n=63) or partly funded by their employer. Results illustrate a significant variance across Europe, highlighting the need for more effective communication between neuroscience nurses across Europe. Implications for future education provision, recruitment/retention, and funding are discussed, resulting in recommendations for the future of neuroscience nursing. This study, the largest of its kind to survey neuroscience nurses, illustrates the absence of a cohesive career development pathway for neuroscience nurses in Europe. Nurses need quality assured specialist education to

  4. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'.

  5. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  6. Strategies for Fostering Synergy between Neuroscience Programs and Chemistry Departments

    PubMed Central

    Ulness, Darin J.; Mach, Julie R.

    2011-01-01

    The successful model of the Neuroscience Program at Concordia College is used as a source of illustrative examples in a presentation of strategies to foster synergy between neuroscience programs and chemistry departments. Chemistry is an increasing voice in the dialog of modern neuroscience. To be well-prepared to engage in this dialog, students must have strong chemistry training and be comfortable applying it to situations in neuroscience. The strategies presented here are designed to stimulate thought and discussion in the undergraduate neuroscience education community. Hopefully this will lead to greater interaction between chemistry and neuroscience at the undergraduate level in other institutions. PMID:23626488

  7. Three requirements for justifying an educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hruby, George G

    2012-03-01

    Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to generate both empirical research and theoretical syntheses of noteworthy promise. Nonetheless, thoughtful and critical scholars in education have expressed concern about both the intellectual coherence and ethical dangers of this new area. It is still an open question whether educational neuroscience is for some time yet to remain only a formative study area for adventurous scholars or is already a fully fledged field of educational scholarship. In this paper, I suggest that to be a worthy field of educational research, educational neuroscience will need to address three issues: intellectual coherence, mutually informing and respected scholarly expertise, and an ethical commitment to the moral implications and obligations shared within educational research generally. I shall set forth some examples of lapses in this regard, focusing primarily on work on reading development, as that is my area of expertise, and make recommendations for due diligence. Arguments. First, intellectual coherence requires both precision in definition of technical terms (so that diverse scholars and professionals may communicate findings and insights consistently across fields), and precision in the logical warrants by which educational implications are drawn from empirical data from the neurosciences. Both needs are facilitated by careful attention to categorical boundary and avoidance of category error. Second, educational neuroscientists require focused and broad expertise in both the neurosciences and educational scholarship on teaching and learning in classrooms (and/or ancillary fields). If history is our guide, neuroscience implications for practice will

  8. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  9. Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elizabeth; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Jack, Jordynn; Moody, James; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point to directions for future research that will advance its integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected from five major journals over a 30-month period, including every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological processes. From this, we generate network maps that illustrate the relationships among psychological and anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that guide inferences about network structure. Three terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex--dominate the network structure with their high frequency in the literature and the density of their connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function), or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g., subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of research and by identifying directions that may be most productive for future research.

  10. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods-cultural neuroscience (CN)-is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings.

  11. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  12. Heterogeneity of (TH)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding in primary mouse keratinocytes at different stages of maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.A.; Jeng, A.Y.; Yuspa, S.H.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1985-11-01

    Mouse keratinocytes respond heterogeneously to phorbol esters with distinct subpopulations stimulated to proliferate or induced to differentiate. The maturation state of the epidermal cell at the time of exposure may determine its response. The binding of phorbol esters to primary mouse keratinocytes was studied under culture conditions selecting for proliferating cells or differentiating cells. (20-TH)-12-Deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate ((TH)-DPB) bound to both types of cells at one class of binding sites. The dissociation constant (Kd) for (TH)DPB in the proliferative cells was 69 nM and the binding at saturation (Bmax) was 1.3 pmol/mg of protein. The corresponding values in the differentiative cells were 96 nM and 1.5 pmol/mg of protein, respectively. In contrast to the results obtained with (TH)DPB, (20-TH)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ((TH)PDBU) bound to both cell types in a heterogeneous fashion. The site for (TH)DPB binding seemed to correspond to the higher affinity (TH)PDBU binding site. The major difference in the cells grown in the medium containing 1.2 mM CaCl2 was an increase in the Bmax of the lower affinity binding site with the other three parameters remaining similar. The state of epidermal differentiation thus appears to modulate the amount of the lower affinity binding sites for phorbol esters.

  13. Oral health status and oral hygiene habits among children aged 12-13 years in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Phyo, Aung Zaw Zaw; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Narksawat, Kulaya

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study among children aged 12-13 years in Yongon, Myanmar to assess the oral health status and oral hygiene habits. The studied 220 students were from two high schools, one urban and the other rural. We conducted an oral health examination following WHO criteria and used a self-administrated questionnaire. The prevalence rate of dental caries among the study population was 53.2%. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.7 +/- 2.1 teeth per person (decayed, 1.5 +/- 1.9); missing 0.0 +/- 0.2; filled, 0.1 +/- 0.4). Multivariate analysis revealed significant risk factors for dental caries were: the geographical location of the school (adjusted OR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.01-4.94), occupational status of the father (adjusted OR=2.83; 95% CI: 1.05-7.62) and the child's attitude about dental caries (adjusted OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.18-4.67). Knowledge and oral hygiene habits were not associated with dental caries. The results of this study suggest the need to change from restoration orientated dentistry to dental public health care services, to reduce of the high level of dental caries in this age group.

  14. Genotypes at chromosome 22q12-13 are associated with HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status in Italians.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Yasuyoshi; Clerici, Mario; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Trabattoni, Daria; Caputo, Sergio Lo; Mazzotta, Francesco; Fujisawa, Hironori; Niwa, Atsuko; Ishihara, Chiaki; Takei, Yumiko A; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2005-07-01

    Despite multiple and repeated exposures to HIV-1, some individuals possess no detectable HIV genome and show T-cell memory responses to the viral antigens. HIV-1-reactive mucosal IgA detected in such uninfected individuals suggests their possible immune resistance against HIV. We tested if the above HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status was associated with genetic markers other than a homozygous deletion of the CCR5 gene. Based on our mapping in chromosome 15 of a gene controlling the production of neutralizing antibodies in a mouse retrovirus infection, we genotyped 42 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected Italians at polymorphic loci in the syntenic segment of human chromosome 22, and compared them with 49 HIV-1-infected and 47 uninfected healthy control individuals by a closed testing procedure. A significant association was found between chromosome 22q12-13 genotypes and a putative dominant locus conferring anti-HIV-1 immune responses in the exposed but uninfected individuals. Distributions of linkage disequilibrium across chromosome 22 also differed between the exposed but uninfected and two other phenotypic groups. The data indicated the presence of a new genetic factor associated with the HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status.

  15. The role of diffusion MRI in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Yaniv; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2017-07-11

    Diffusion-weighted imaging has pushed the boundaries of neuroscience by allowing us to examine the white matter microstructure of the living human brain. By doing so, it has provided answers to fundamental neuroscientific questions, launching a new field of research that had been largely inaccessible. We briefly summarize key questions that have historically been raised in neuroscience concerning the brain's white matter. We then expand on the benefits of diffusion-weighted imaging and its contribution to the fields of brain anatomy, functional models and plasticity. In doing so, this review highlights the invaluable contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging in neuroscience, presents its limitations and proposes new challenges for future generations who may wish to exploit this powerful technology to gain novel insights. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Conceptual challenges and directions for social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-03-25

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the "social brain," and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  18. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  19. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism.

  20. Cultural neuroscience: a once and future discipline.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2009-01-01

    The study of culture and biology has long stood stratified within the social and natural sciences, a gap that physicist C.P. Snow (1959) famously called "the two cultures." Cultural neuroscience is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that examines the bidirectional influence of culture and genes to brain and behavior across multiple timescales. Integrating theory and methods from cultural psychology, brain sciences, and population genetics, cultural neuroscience is the study of how cultural values, practices and beliefs shape brain function and how the human brain gives rise to cultural capacities and their transmission across macro- (e.g., phylogeny, lifespan) and micro timescales (e.g., situation). The current article presents the aims and methods of cultural neuroscience, highlights recent empirical findings in the field, and discusses the potential implications of this field for bridging the social and natural sciences as well as informing interethnic ideology and population health concerns, more broadly construed.

  1. Clinical management departments for the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R; Ramos, M; Soto, J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience-related clinical management departments (UGC in Spanish) represent a means of organising hospitals to deliver patient-centred care as well as specific clinical and administrative management models. The authors review the different UGC models in Spain and their implementation processes as well as any functional problems. We pay special attention to departments treating neurological patients. Neuroscience-related specialties may offer a good framework for the units that they contain. This may be due to the inherent variability and costs associated with neurological patients, the vital level of coordination that must be present between units providing care, and probably to the dynamic nature of the neurosciences as well. Difficulties associated with implementing and gaining acceptance for the new model have limited such UGCs until now. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  3. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  4. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  5. Social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression’s defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response to treatment and prevention programs. Neuroendocrine, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have identified core neurobiological aspects of early-onset mood disorders. These areas are reviewed using a developmental social neuroscience perspective for integrating disparate observations. The paper introduces a dynamic adaptive systems framework, and it discusses hedonic capacity, stress sensitivity, ruminative self-focus, and attentional impairments as fundamental components of mood disorders. PMID:17624647

  6. Biomechanics and neuroscience: a failure to communicate.

    PubMed

    Enoka, Roger M

    2004-01-01

    This commentary is the third in a series commemorating the 50th anniversary of the American College of Sports Medicine. The charge to the commentators was to provide insight on the origins and directions in the fields of physical activity and disease prevention (Haskell), applied exercise physiology (Wilmore), biomechanics and neuroscience (Enoka), and the physiology of exercise (Holloszy). In contrast to the innovation and vitality that characterizes the activities of the College in most of these fields, the inclusion of biomechanics and neuroscience as essential elements in realizing the mission of the College has been much less impressive. What we have here, as the saying goes, is a failure to communicate.

  7. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  8. Virtual reality in behavioral neuroscience and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Michael J; Warren, William H

    2002-11-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has finally come of age for serious applications in the behavioral neurosciences. After capturing the public imagination a decade ago, enthusiasm for VR flagged due to hardware limitations, an absent commercial market and manufacturers who dropped the mass-market products that normally drive technological development. Recently, however, improvements in computer speed, quality of head-mounted displays and wide-area tracking systems have made VR attractive for both research and real-world applications in neuroscience, cognitive science and psychology. New and exciting applications for VR have emerged in research, training, rehabilitation, teleoperation, virtual archeology and tele-immersion.

  9. Motor cognition and neuroscience in sport psychology.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Paul S; Wright, David J

    2017-08-01

    Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we highlight and discuss the contributions to sport psychology that have been made in recent years by applying these techniques, with a focus on the development of expertise, motor cognition, motor imagery and action observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NorthEast Under/graduate Research Organization for Neuroscience (NEURON): Our Third New York City Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Goyette, Sharon Ramos; Edinger, Kassandra L.; Luine, Vicki; Young, Jason; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The NorthEast Under/graduate Research Organization for Neuroscience (N.E.U.R.O.N.) promotes preparation, education, and undergraduate research in Neuroscience. The N.E.U.R.O.N. Conference was initially held at undergraduate institutions primarily in New England. Then, for the previous two years, to broaden its impact and increase diversity, the meeting moved to Hunter College, CUNY, New York. This year represents the first year in which two N.E.U.R.O.N. meetings were held, one in Boston and one in New York City. The following is a report of the New York City meeting which was held at Hunter College on April 28, 2007. Eminent Neuroscientist, Dr. Carol Sue Carter, of the University of Illinois at Chicago, delivered the keynote address. The meeting also included the second bestowal of the Suzannah Bliss Tieman Research Awards for outstanding poster presentations and a workshop aimed at increasing minority participation in Neuroscience research. These highlights and future plans for N.E.U.R.O.N. are discussed. PMID:23495318

  11. Tools of the trade: theory and method in mindfulness neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness neuroscience is an emerging research field that investigates the underlying mechanisms of different mindfulness practices, different stages and different states of practice as well as different effects of practice over the lifespan. Mindfulness neuroscience research integrates theory and methods from eastern contemplative traditions, western psychology and neuroscience, and from neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. We here review several key theoretical and methodological challenges in the empirical study of mindfulness neuroscience and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges.

  12. 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate activates cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons independently of TRPV4

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R; Kerby, A; Aubdool, AA; Power, AR; Grover, S; Gentry, C; Grant, AD

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The Ca2+-permeable cation channel TRPV4 is activated by mechanical disturbance of the cell membrane and is implicated in mechanical hyperalgesia. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is increased during inflammation and causes mechanical hyperalgesia. 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD) has been described as a selective TRPV4 agonist. We investigated NGF-induced hyperalgesia in TRPV4 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (–/–) mice, and the increases in [Ca2+]i produced by 4αPDD in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons following exposure to NGF. Experimental Approach Withdrawal thresholds to heat, von Frey hairs and pressure were measured in mice before and after systemic administration of NGF. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration were measured by ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 in cultured DRG and trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons during perfusion of TRPV4 agonists. Key Results Administration of NGF caused a significant sensitization to heat and von Frey stimuli in TRPV4 +/+ and –/– mice, but only TRPV4 +/+ mice showed sensitization to noxious pressure. 4αPDD stimulated a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in neurons from +/+ and –/– mice, with the proportion of responding neurons and magnitude of increase unaffected by the genotype. In contrast, the selective TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A failed to stimulate an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in cultured neurons. Responses to 4αPDD were unaffected by pretreatment with NGF. Conclusions and Implications TRPV4 contributes to mechanosensation in vivo, but there is little evidence for functional TRPV4 in cultured DRG and TG neurons. We conclude that 4αPDD activates these neurons independently of TRPV4, so it is not appropriate to refer to 4αPDD as a selective TRPV4 agonist. PMID:22928864

  13. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  14. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  15. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Wiertelak, Eric P.; Ramirez, Julio J.

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21st century. PMID:23493318

  16. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  17. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-04-16

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters-either driven by a human or by a computer-allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature.

  18. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  19. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  20. Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keestra, Machiel; Cowley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these…

  1. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  2. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in…

  3. Neuroscience. An antibiotic to treat Alzheimer's?

    PubMed

    Helmuth, L

    2000-11-17

    An antibiotic once used to treat traveler's diarrhea might battle Alzheimer's disease as well, researchers announced here last week at the Society for Neuroscience's annual meeting. The drug dissolves Alzheimer's-like plaques in mouse brains, apparently by trapping the copper and zinc that stud these deposits. A clinical trial to test whether the drug helps people with Alzheimer's is already under way.

  4. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in…

  5. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  6. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  7. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives.

  8. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  9. Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of aphasias-acquired language disorders-caused by stroke and other neurological conditions has benefitted from insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology. Hebbian mechanisms suggest that massed practice and exploitation of residual neurological capacities can aid neurorehabilitation of patients with poststroke aphasia, and progress in basic neuroscience research indicates that the language system of the human brain is functionally interwoven with perceptual and motor systems. Intensive speech and language therapies, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy, that activate both the linguistic and concordant motor circuits utilize the knowledge gained from these advances in neuroscience research and can lead to surprisingly rapid improvements in language performance, even in patients with chronic aphasia. Drug-based therapies alone and in conjunction with behavioral language therapies also increase language performance in patients with aphasia. Furthermore, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation techniques that target neuronal activity within perilesional areas might help patients with aphasia to regain lost language functions. Intensive language-action therapies that lead to rapid improvements in language skills might provide a new opportunity for investigating fast plastic neuronal changes in the areas of the brain associated with language processing. Here, we review progress in basic neuroscience research and its translational impact on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke.

  10. Alzheimer's disease drug development: translational neuroscience strategies.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.

  11. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Thomas D.; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters—either driven by a human or by a computer—allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature. PMID:28420150

  12. Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keestra, Machiel; Cowley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these…

  13. A roadmap to applying optogenetics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Fois, Consuelo; Prouvot, Pierre-Hugues; Stroh, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetics allows for the specific manipulation of the activity of genetically defined cell populations in the CNS. Yet, it requires effective gene delivery, light stimulation, and readout strategies. Here, we provide a roadmap aimed at guiding the experimenter in the process of establishing an optogenetic approach tailored to a given research hypothesis in the field of neuroscience.

  14. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  15. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Origins, Issues, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Snyder, Kelly A.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary explains how the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) holds the promise of a much wider interdisciplinary integration across sciences concerned with development: psychology, molecular genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary developmental biology. First we present a brief history of DCN, including the key theoretical…

  16. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Origins, Issues, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Snyder, Kelly A.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary explains how the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) holds the promise of a much wider interdisciplinary integration across sciences concerned with development: psychology, molecular genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary developmental biology. First we present a brief history of DCN, including the key theoretical…

  17. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  18. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  19. Explaining the alluring influence of neuroscience information on scientific reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rebecca E; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking dispositions, and prior beliefs about a claim. We found that neuroscience information, even though irrelevant, made people believe they had a better understanding of the mechanism underlying a behavioral phenomenon. Neuroscience information had a smaller effect on ratings of article quality and scientist quality. Our study suggests that neuroscience information may provide an illusion of explanatory depth.

  20. Sex differences in molecular neuroscience: from fruit flies to humans.

    PubMed

    Jazin, Elena; Cahill, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A plethora of discoveries relating to sex influences on brain function is rapidly moving this field into the spotlight for most areas of neuroscience. The domain of molecular or genetic neuroscience is no exception. The goal of this article is to highlight key developments concerning sex-based dimorphisms in molecular neuroscience, describe control mechanisms regulating these differences, address the implications of these dimorphisms for normal and abnormal brain function and discuss what these advances mean for future work in the field. The overriding conclusion is that, as for neuroscience in general, molecular neuroscience has to take into account potential sex influences that might modify signalling pathways.

  1. Attitudes Toward Neuroscience Education Among Psychiatry Residents and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Lawrence K.; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. Methods This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Results Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94 %) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91 %). Nearly all (94 %) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. Conclusions This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education. PMID:24493359

  2. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  3. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  4. Neuroscience and the soul: competing explanations for the human experience.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S; Hepler, Justin

    2013-04-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul. While some scientists use neuroscience to bolster a material account of consciousness, others point to unexplained neural phenomena to defend dualism and a spiritual perspective on the mind. In two experiments we examine how exposure to neuroscience research impacts belief in the soul. We find that belief in soul decreases when neuroscience provides strong mechanistic explanations for mind. But when explanatory gaps in neuroscience research are emphasized, belief in soul is enhanced, suggesting that physical and metaphysical explanations may be used reflexively as alternative theories for mind. Implications for the future of belief in soul and neuroscience research are discussed.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect, thermal conductivity, and magnetostriction of epoxy-bonded La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Murayama, D.; Takeshita, M.; Ura, Y.; Abe, S.; Numazawa, T.; Takata, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kuriiwa, T.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic materials with large magnetocaloric effect are significantly important for magnetic refrigeration. La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 compounds are one of the promising magnetocaloric materials that have a first order magnetic phase transition. Transition temperature of hydrogenated La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 increased up to room temperature region while keeping metamagnetic transition properties. From view point of practical usage, bonded composite are very attractive and their properties are important. We made epoxy bonded La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 hydrides. Magnetocaloric effect was studied by measuring specific heat, magnetization, and temperature change in adiabatic demagnetization. The composite had about 20% smaller entropy change from the hydrogenated La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 powder in 2 T. Thermal conductivity of the composite was several times smaller than La(Fe,Si)13. The small thermal conductivity was explained due to the small thermal conductivity of epoxy. Thermal conductivity was observed to be insensitive to magnetic field in 2 T. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of the composite material were measured. The composite expanded about 0.25% when it entered into ferromagnetic phase. Magnetostriction of the composite in ferromagnetic phase was about 0.2% in 5 T and much larger than that in paramagnetic phase. The composite didn’t break after about 100 times magnetic field changes in adiabatic demagnetization experiment even though it has magnetostriction.

  6. Spheres of Influence: What Shapes Young People's Aspirations at Age 12/13 and What Are the Implications for Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Wong, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Young people's aspirations remain an enduring focus of education policy interest and concern. Drawing on data from an ongoing five-year study of young people's science and career aspirations (age 10-14), this paper asks what do young people aspire to at age 12/13, and what influences these aspirations? It outlines the main aspirations and sources…

  7. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  8. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  9. 40 CFR 721.10283 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10283 Poly , .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly ,...

  10. [Neuroscience in Japan: its charm and challenge for future generations].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN), founded in 1960, gained the momentum after the 12th World Congress of Neurology (WCN) held in Kyoto (1981) and currently enjoys an indisputable reputation as a major contributor to neuroscience. Despite this achievement, we often find it difficult to debate with an English-speaking opponent. Our traditional teaching emphasizes silence rather than eloquence as the virtue with the dictum not to dwell upon your knowledge base (learn 10, speak 1). This practice would make it difficult for us to compete against those trained to elaborate even on limited information (learn 1, speak 10). To counter our timidity, we must develop self-confidence, learn to express our views fully and abandon the impractical spirit of perfection in favor of candor. From my vantage point working with the World Federation of Neurology (WFN), science talks "broken" English at an international conference such as WCN. Thus, it suffices that we speak clearly, if not fluently, to effectively participate in global affairs. Last but not least, we must seek the sovereignty of neurology world wide as advocated by WFN. I hope members of the JSN will have a continued success in their pursuit of international recognition, which they so justifiably deserve.

  11. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis.

  12. Neuroscience, moral reasoning, and the law.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S

    2009-01-01

    Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered.

  13. Unformed minds: juveniles, neuroscience, and the law.

    PubMed

    Harman, Oren

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the question of adolescent culpability has been brought before the Supreme Court of the United States for reconsideration. Neuroscience, adolescent advocates claim, is teaching us that young people cannot be found fully responsible for their actions. The reason: their brains are not fully formed. Here I consider the history of the use of scientific evidence in the courtroom, a number of adolescent murder cases, and the data now emerging from neuroscience, and argue that when it comes to brains, judges, just like the rest of us, are unnecessarily impressed. Ultimately, how we determine culpability should rest on normative and ethical considerations rather than on scientific ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroscience Needs Behavior: Correcting a Reductionist Bias.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, John W; Ghazanfar, Asif A; Gomez-Marin, Alex; MacIver, Malcolm A; Poeppel, David

    2017-02-08

    There are ever more compelling tools available for neuroscience research, ranging from selective genetic targeting to optogenetic circuit control to mapping whole connectomes. These approaches are coupled with a deep-seated, often tacit, belief in the reductionist program for understanding the link between the brain and behavior. The aim of this program is causal explanation through neural manipulations that allow testing of necessity and sufficiency claims. We argue, however, that another equally important approach seeks an alternative form of understanding through careful theoretical and experimental decomposition of behavior. Specifically, the detailed analysis of tasks and of the behavior they elicit is best suited for discovering component processes and their underlying algorithms. In most cases, we argue that study of the neural implementation of behavior is best investigated after such behavioral work. Thus, we advocate a more pluralistic notion of neuroscience when it comes to the brain-behavior relationship: behavioral work provides understanding, whereas neural interventions test causality.

  15. [Principles and applications of optogenetics in neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Dugué, Guillaume P; Tricoire, Ludovic

    2015-03-01

    Numerous achievements in biology have resulted from the evolution of biophotonics, a general term describing the use of light in the study of living systems. Over the last fifteen years, biophotonics has progressively blended with molecular genetics to give rise to optogenetics, a set of techniques enabling the functional study of genetically-defined cellular populations, compartments or processes with optical methods. In neuroscience, optogenetics allows real-time monitoring and control of the activity of specific neuronal populations in a wide range of animal models. This technical breakthrough provides a new level of sophistication in experimental approaches in the field of fundamental neuroscience, significantly enhancing our ability to understand the complexity of neuronal circuits. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Regulation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neuroimaging research on self-regulatory failure, the findings of which support a balance model of self-regulation whereby self-regulatory failure occurs whenever the balance is tipped in favor of subcortical areas, either due to particularly strong impulses, or when prefrontal function itself is impaired. Such a model is consistent with recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of addictive behavior, emotion regulation, and decision making. PMID:21273114

  17. The importance of behavioural bioassays in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard E; Bolivar, Sarah

    2017-05-26

    The behavioural bioassay is fundamental to research in behavioural neuroscience. A described by Tinbergen, behaviour is measured to answer questions about development, mechanisms, adaptation and evolution. Chemical assays, bioassays, and behavioural bioassays have been developed for detecting and quantifying substances such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and toxins and for measuring behaviour. This paper begins with an overview of these methods and then focuses on how behavioural bioassays are developed. Ethograms and qualitative descriptions of behaviour units are discussed. Sampling and recording rules are then considered, along with quantitative descriptions of the behaviours being observed. The paper concludes with examples of behavioural bioassays used for detecting various internal and external stimuli, along with considerations such as the complexity of the stimuli and the problem of measuring "psychological" states such as anxiety, from behaviour. Suggestions are made for improving the validity and reliability of behavioural bioassays in neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroscience of child and adolescent health development.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Sung, Connie

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in technology and neuroscience have increased our understanding of human neurodevelopment. In particular, research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to a biopsychosocial perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces and environments shape neurobiology. This article summarizes selected results from recent investigations of neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics, which demonstrate complex interaction between genes, epigenetic processes, and environmental experience that confers neural growth into adulthood. Counseling psychologists working with children and adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work so that they can provide developmentally appropriate counseling services. Social cognitive theory and resilience theory are introduced to illustrate how counseling psychologists can incorporate neuroscience research findings in a counseling context and hypotheses are proposed for future counseling psychology research.

  19. The ethics of surgically invasive neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of distinctions and definitions is necessary before determining which types of surgically invasive neuroscience research should be permitted and how the experimental protocols can properly be undertaken. A failure to clarify the ethical distinctions in invasive neuroscience research hinders attempts at ethical analysis and guidance. At least four main distinctions need to be addressed: "invasiveness" as an important moral characteristic; special brain-mind-related risks; research participant selection; and ideologic interpretation of human function. Harm and not invasiveness is the metric by which to measure the ethical permissibility of research. Because of a class of harms to minds and selves, special attention should be paid to value considerations. These considerations need to be addressed by researchers, funders, and review boards to create proper safeguards from conception of research through final application of results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing Barriers to Ethics in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Tairyan, Kate; Federico, Carole A.; Tabet, Aline; Glover, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (n = 605) in North America whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests. PMID:20953291

  1. Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Guo-Qiang; Bolshakov, Vadim; Bu, Guojun; Cahill, Catherine M; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Collingridge, Graham L; Cooper, Robin L; Coorssen, Jens R; El-Husseini, Alaa; Galhardo, Vasco; Gan, Wen-Biao; Gu, Jianguo; Inoue, Kazuhide; Isaac, John; Iwata, Koichi; Jia, Zhengping; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Kawamata, Mikito; Kida, Satoshi; Klann, Eric; Kohno, Tatsuro; Li, Min; Li, Xiao-Jiang; MacDonald, John F; Nader, Karim; Nguyen, Peter V; Oh, Uhtaek; Ren, Ke; Roder, John C; Salter, Michael W; Song, Weihong; Sugita, Shuzo; Tang, Shao-Jun; Tao, Yuanxiang; Wang, Yu Tian; Woo, Newton; Woodin, Melanie A; Yan, Zhen; Yoshimura, Megumu; Xu, Ming; Xu, Zao C; Zhang, Xia; Zhen, Mei; Zhuo, Min

    2006-01-01

    Understanding basic neuronal mechanisms hold the hope for future treatment of brain disease. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain was held in beautiful downtown Toronto, Canada on August 21–23, 2006. Unlike other traditional conferences, this new meeting focused on three major aims: (1) to promote new and cutting edge research in neuroscience; (2) to encourage international information exchange and scientific collaborations; and (3) to provide a platform for active scientists to discuss new findings. Up to 64 investigators presented their recent discoveries, from basic synaptic mechanisms to genes related to human brain disease. This meeting was in part sponsored by Molecular Pain, together with University of Toronto (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology as well as Center for the Study of Pain). Our goal for this meeting is to promote future active scientific collaborations and improve human health through fundamental basic neuroscience researches. The second international meeting on Neurons and Brain Disease will be held in Toronto (August 29–31, 2007). PMID:17196111

  2. Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior.

    PubMed

    Bi, Guo-Qiang; Bolshakov, Vadim; Bu, Guojun; Cahill, Catherine M; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Collingridge, Graham L; Cooper, Robin L; Coorssen, Jens R; El-Husseini, Alaa; Galhardo, Vasco; Gan, Wen-Biao; Gu, Jianguo; Inoue, Kazuhide; Isaac, John; Iwata, Koichi; Jia, Zhengping; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Kawamata, Mikito; Kida, Satoshi; Klann, Eric; Kohno, Tatsuro; Li, Min; Li, Xiao-Jiang; MacDonald, John F; Nader, Karim; Nguyen, Peter V; Oh, Uhtaek; Ren, Ke; Roder, John C; Salter, Michael W; Song, Weihong; Sugita, Shuzo; Tang, Shao-Jun; Tao, Yuanxiang; Wang, Yu Tian; Woo, Newton; Woodin, Melanie A; Yan, Zhen; Yoshimura, Megumu; Xu, Ming; Xu, Zao C; Zhang, Xia; Zhen, Mei; Zhuo, Min

    2006-12-30

    Understanding basic neuronal mechanisms hold the hope for future treatment of brain disease. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain was held in beautiful downtown Toronto, Canada on August 21-23, 2006. Unlike other traditional conferences, this new meeting focused on three major aims: (1) to promote new and cutting edge research in neuroscience; (2) to encourage international information exchange and scientific collaborations; and (3) to provide a platform for active scientists to discuss new findings. Up to 64 investigators presented their recent discoveries, from basic synaptic mechanisms to genes related to human brain disease. This meeting was in part sponsored by Molecular Pain, together with University of Toronto (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology as well as Center for the Study of Pain). Our goal for this meeting is to promote future active scientific collaborations and improve human health through fundamental basic neuroscience researches. The second international meeting on Neurons and Brain Disease will be held in Toronto (August 29-31, 2007).

  3. Classics in chemical neuroscience: diazepam (valium).

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Nicholas E; Barrow, James C

    2014-04-16

    Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues.

  4. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Diazepam (Valium)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues. PMID:24552479

  5. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  6. Empathy in medicine: Neuroscience, education and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eve; Krasner, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Empathy is a multifaceted skill and asset for health care providers. This paper uses current neuroscience literature of empathy to generate nuanced theory of how empathy can be blocked by personal stress and aversion among health care professionals. Current training approaches for educating sustainable empathy are reviewed in depth. The final part of the paper provides suggestions on how to spread empathy education farther and wider across medical education.

  7. Optogenetics and the future of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Edward S

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, optogenetics has become widespread in neuroscience for the study of how specific cell types contribute to brain functions and brain disorder states. The full impact of optogenetics will emerge only when other toolsets mature, including neural connectivity and cell phenotyping tools and neural recording and imaging tools. The latter tools are rapidly improving, in part because optogenetics has helped galvanize broad interest in neurotechnology development.

  8. Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torimitsu, Keiichi

    Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the possible devices for this purpose. Combination of the electrode with receptor protein is investigated.

  9. Undergraduate Neuroscience Faculty: Results from a Survey of Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Members

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was presented to members of the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) to get a better idea of how neuroscience research and education is being delivered at the undergraduate level. A total of 155 individuals completed the survey, with 118 coming from faculty at traditional PUIs (primarily undergraduate institutions) and 37 from faculty at doctoral-granting institutions. The survey covered a number of different areas; including types of neuroscience programs, number of neuroscience faculty at the institution, average course loads, average number of research students, and external support for research. Results from this survey indicate that the structure of neuroscience programs vary among institutions. Course loads for faculty at PUIs averaged four to six courses per year and the total number of undergraduate students supervised in research per faculty member averaged five (± 2.8) students per year. Faculty show high success with external funding, both at PUIs and research universities. Faculty ranked FUN programs devoted to supporting both students and faculty development highly. The results of this survey provide data that can be used to determine future directions and priorities for FUN. PMID:23493671

  10. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management.

  11. Cognitive Neuroscience and Single-Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sable, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Early neuroimaging research on language-related function is useful for teaching cognitive neuroscience. In these studies, researchers used relatively simple experimental designs in an attempt to break down complex cognitive processes. In addition, the hypotheses tested in these studies were based on models derived from non-imaging observations, such as lesion studies. Thus, students at all levels may find the research accessible in its simplicity and engaging in its attempt to test existing theories in novel ways. Raichle (1996) describes a series of such studies that used what were, at the time, novel applications of relatively young imaging methods to measure brain activity related to single-word processing. In a short, readable article, he places the studies in their historical context (i.e., models of language function based largely on case studies of patients with brain lesions) and describes the methods and designs used in the research. He summarizes the results and the main takeaways from the research and its practical implications for research and medicine in the future. This paper touches on many important features of cognitive neuroscience, as well as psychology and neuroscience more broadly. It can serve as a springboard into discussion of many topics in many course contexts.

  12. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations.

  13. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  14. What The Cognitive Neurosciences Mean To Me

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of research that combines measurement of brain activity (mostly by means of neuroimaging) with a simultaneous performance of cognitive tasks by human subjects. These investigations have been successful in the task of connecting the sciences of the brain (Neurosciences) and the sciences of the mind (Cognitive Sciences). Advances on this kind of research provide a map of localization of cognitive functions in the human brain. Do these results help us to understand how mind relates to the brain? In my view, the results obtained by the Cognitive Neurosciences lead to new investigations in the domain of Molecular Neurobiology, aimed at discovering biophysical mechanisms that generate the activity measured by neuroimaging instruments. In this context, I argue that the understanding of how ionic/molecular processes support cognition and consciousness cannot be made by means of the standard reductionist explanations. Knowledge of ionic/molecular mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of the human mind as long as we assume an alternative form of explanation, based on psycho-physical similarities, together with an ontological view of mentality and spirituality as embedded in physical nature (and not outside nature, as frequently assumed in western culture). PMID:22058629

  15. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Bucci, David J; Luikart, Bryan W; Mahler, Stephen V

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool in behavioral neuroscience research, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS). As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions about behavior and cognition becomes clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, "tips of the trade" become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also for those who are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C

    2012-06-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum's groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of 'lost' functions helped shape modern understanding of how motivation circuits operate within the brain. His redefinition of the minimum requirement for identifying motivation raised the conceptual bar for thinking about the topic among behavioral neuroscientists. His meticulous analyses of patterned stages induced by brain manipulations, life development and clinical disorders added new dimensions to our appreciation of how brain systems work. His steadfast highlighting of integrative functions and behavioral complexity helped provide a healthy functionalist counterbalance to reductionist trends in science of the late 20th century. In short, Philip Teitelbaum can be seen to have made remarkable contributions to several domains of psychology and neuroscience, including affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The occupational risk in IRCCS of Neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Talini, D; Guidi, M; Serretti, N; Ottenga, F; Cristaudo, A; Monaco, S; Paladino, G

    2002-01-01

    The results of meta-analysis carried out on all documents for the valuation of the risk, recorded by IRCCS of Neuroscience, has led to identify a risk matrix for the medical personnel of the Scientific Institute of Neuroscience. Such analysis allowed to tackle the day to day risk faced by hospital staff. As a general rule the IRCCS of Neurosciences distinguishes themselves as structures of mainly neurologic typology and as structures of more typical psychiatric interest. In the first case the analogy with the traditional Hospital structures are more noticeable, in the second case instead the kind of patients and the particular relations between the health worker and the patient himself may represent an important differentiation factor. This is, above all, evident on the biological risk; for it's determinism has an important rule the interpersonal relationship between the health worker and the patient. Concerning other risk factors such as the chemical and the allergic one, it is noticeable a closed analogy with the actual Hospital reality. On work organization level, manual handling of patients is often necessary and also the relatives risks. In this kind of structures the stress factor is of the greatest importance, it should therefore have a strong consideration on the valuation of risk by the IRCCS.

  18. Social neuroscience and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Westby, Carol E

    2014-01-01

    The role of theory of mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorders and other communication impairments has been an active area of research in the last 30 years. Advances in neuroimaging in the last 10 years have led to the rise of the field of social neuroscience, which has markedly increased the understanding of the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical and neurochemical nature of ToM functioning and deficits in typically developing individuals and in children and adults with a variety of social and communication impairments. The goal of this paper is to (a) describe the current concepts of ToM based on neuroscience research, and (b) present a framework for the dimensions of ToM that have been identified, which can be used to guide assessment and intervention for persons with deficits in ToM that affect social interactions. This article presents neuroscience research that has documented the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical bases for cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM as well as neurochemical and epigenetic influences on ToM. This information provides an important framework for assessing ToM deficits in persons with social and communication impairments and developing interventions that target the specific dimensions of ToM deficits. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum’s groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of ‘lost’ functions helped shape modern understanding of how motivation circuits operate within the brain. His redefinition of the minimum requirement for identifying motivation raised the conceptual bar for thinking about the topic among behavioral neuroscientists. His meticulous analyses of patterned stages induced by brain manipulations, life development and clinical disorders added new dimensions to our appreciation of how brain systems work. His steadfast highlighting of integrative functions and behavioral complexity helped provide a healthy functionalist counterbalance to reductionist trends in science of the late 20th century. In short, Philip Teitelbaum can be seen to have made remarkable contributions to several domains of psychology and neuroscience, including affective neuroscience. PMID:22051942

  20. Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data.

    PubMed

    Akil, Huda; Martone, Maryann E; Van Essen, David C

    2011-02-11

    Understanding the brain requires a broad range of approaches and methods from the domains of biology, psychology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The fundamental challenge is to decipher the "neural choreography" associated with complex behaviors and functions, including thoughts, memories, actions, and emotions. This demands the acquisition and integration of vast amounts of data of many types, at multiple scales in time and in space. Here we discuss the need for neuroinformatics approaches to accelerate progress, using several illustrative examples. The nascent field of "connectomics" aims to comprehensively describe neuronal connectivity at either a macroscopic level (in long-distance pathways for the entire brain) or a microscopic level (among axons, dendrites, and synapses in a small brain region). The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) encompasses all of neuroscience and facilitates the integration of existing knowledge and databases of many types. These examples illustrate the opportunities and challenges of data mining across multiple tiers of neuroscience information and underscore the need for cultural and infrastructure changes if neuroinformatics is to fulfill its potential to advance our understanding of the brain.

  1. Revolutionary impact of nanodrug delivery on neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. [Social impact of recent advances in neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Mima, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience opened up new technical possibilities, such as enabling possible human mindreading, neuroenhancement, and application of brain-machine-interface into everyday life, as well as the advent of new powerful psychotropic drugs. In addition to the conventional problems in bioethics, such as obtaining informed consent, neuroscience technology has generated new array of ethical questions. The social impact of advanced brain science or neuroscience and its technological applications is a major topic in bioethics, which is frequently termed as "Neuroethics." Here, we summarize the ethical, legal, and social issues of cutting-edge brain science by analyzing a classic science fiction novel entitled "Flowers for Algernon" authored by Daniel Keyes (1966). Three aspects of social problems faced by brain science are apparent: biomedical risk assessment, issues related to human subjectivity and identity, and socio-cultural value of brain science technology. To understand this last aspect, enhancement-achievement and/or enhancement-treatment dichotomy can prove useful. In addition, we introduced the first national poll results in Japan (n=2,500) on the social impact of brain science. Although half the respondents believed that the advancement of brain science can aid individuals in the future, 56% of respondents suggested the necessity for guidelines or regulation policies mediating brain science. Technological application of brain science in treatment is generally accepted; however, not just for the personal purpose or enhancement of the normal function. In this regard, it is important to hold further discussions including the general public.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities in Mining Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Huda; Martone, Maryann E.; Van Essen, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the brain requires a broad range of approaches and methods from the domains of biology, psychology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The fundamental challenge is to decipher the “neural choreography” associated with complex behaviors and functions, including thoughts, memories, actions, and emotions. This demands the acquisition and integration of vast amounts of data of many types, at multiple scales in time and in space. Here, we discuss the need for neuroinformatics approaches to accelerate progress, using several illustrative examples. The nascent field of ‘connectomics’ aims to comprehensively describe neuronal connectivity at either a macroscopic level (long-distance pathways for the entire brain) or a microscopic level (axons, dendrites, synapses in a small brain region). The Neuroscience Information Framework encompasses all of neuroscience and facilitates integration of existing knowledge and databases of many types. These examples illustrate the opportunities and challenges of data mining across multiple tiers of neuroscience information and underscore the need for cultural and infrastructure changes if neuroinformatics is to fulfill its potential to advance our understanding of the brain. PMID:21311009

  4. Cognitive Neuroscience and Single-Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sable, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Early neuroimaging research on language-related function is useful for teaching cognitive neuroscience. In these studies, researchers used relatively simple experimental designs in an attempt to break down complex cognitive processes. In addition, the hypotheses tested in these studies were based on models derived from non-imaging observations, such as lesion studies. Thus, students at all levels may find the research accessible in its simplicity and engaging in its attempt to test existing theories in novel ways. Raichle (1996) describes a series of such studies that used what were, at the time, novel applications of relatively young imaging methods to measure brain activity related to single-word processing. In a short, readable article, he places the studies in their historical context (i.e., models of language function based largely on case studies of patients with brain lesions) and describes the methods and designs used in the research. He summarizes the results and the main takeaways from the research and its practical implications for research and medicine in the future. This paper touches on many important features of cognitive neuroscience, as well as psychology and neuroscience more broadly. It can serve as a springboard into discussion of many topics in many course contexts. PMID:27980487

  5. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C

    2009-06-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of 'functional connectivity' among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and behavioral control. Due to the recent availability of relatively easy-to-use tools for functional connectivity analysis, there has been a sharp upsurge of studies that seek to characterize normal and psychopathologically abnormal brain functional integration. However, relatively few studies have applied functional and effective connectivity analysis techniques to developmental cognitive neuroscience. Functional and effective connectivity analysis methods are ideally suited to advance our understanding of the neural substrates of cognitive development, particularly in understanding how and why changes in the functional 'wiring' of neural networks promotes optimal cognitive control throughout development. The purpose of this review is to summarize the central concepts, methods, and findings of functional integration neuroimaging research to discuss key questions in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience. These ideas will be presented within a context that merges relevant concepts and proposals from different developmental theorists. The review will outline a few general predictions about likely relationships between typical 'executive' cognitive maturation and changes in brain network functional integration during adolescence. Although not exhaustive, this conceptual review also will showcase some of recent findings that have emerged to support these predictions.

  6. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces.

  7. DREADDs: Use and Application in Behavioral Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Bucci, David J.; Luikart, Bryan W.; Mahler, Stephen V.

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS), in behavioral neuroscience research. As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions on behavior and cognition become clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, “tips of the trade” become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also those that are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. PMID:26913540

  8. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-03-16

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering.

  9. Revolutionary Impact of Nanodrug Delivery on Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23730260

  10. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  11. FTY720 Phosphate Activates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2 and Selectively Couples to Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK to Induce Myofibroblast Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Katrin; Monnier, Lucile; Menyhart, Katalin; Bolinger, Matthias; Studer, Rolf; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2015-06-01

    FTY720 phosphate (FTY720-P; 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, monodihydrogen phosphate ester) is a nonselective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist thought to be devoid of activity at the S1P2 receptor subtype. However, we have recently shown that FTY720-P displays significant S1P2 receptor agonist activity in recombinant cells and fibroblasts expressing endogenous S1P2 receptors. To elucidate the S1P2-dependent signaling pathways that were activated by FTY720-P, we employed second messenger assays and impedance-based assays in combination with pharmacological and small interfering RNA-based pathway inhibition in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-S1P2 cells as well as human lung myofibroblasts generated in vitro. In CHO-S1P2 cells, FTY720-P did not modulate cAMP or calcium levels. However, reporter-gene assays, impedance-based assays with a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Gα12/13 knockdown and activated Rho-pull-down assays demonstrated that FTY720-P potently activated Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling. S1P similarly activated Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling via S1P2 receptors, whereas the two selective S1P1 receptor agonists (Z,Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy]-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one (ponesimond) and 5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)thiophen-2-yl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]1,2,4-oxadiazole (SEW2871) were inactive. In lung myofibroblasts, which mainly expressed the S1P2 receptor subtype, we showed that FTY720-P selectively activated the Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK pathway via the S1P2 receptor. Moreover, the activation of the Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK pathway in myofibroblasts by FTY720-P caused potent myofibroblast contraction similar to that induced by the natural ligand S1P. Thus, complementing second messenger assays with unbiased label-free assays or phenotypic assays in native expression systems can uncover activation of additional pathways, such as Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling.

  12. Enabling an Open Data Ecosystem for the Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Sommer, Friedrich T; Ives, Zachary G; Poldrack, Russell A; Litt, Brian

    2016-11-02

    As the pace and complexity of neuroscience data grow, an open data ecosystem must develop and grow with it to allow neuroscientists the ability to reach for new heights of discovery. However, the problems and complexities of neuroscience data sharing must first be addressed. Among the challenges facing data sharing in neuroscience, the problem of incentives, discoverability, and sustainability may be the most pressing. We here describe these problems and provide potential future solutions to help cultivate an ecosystem for data sharing.

  13. Applied Neuroscience at the AFRL 711th Human Performance Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Support teaming and collaboration research performed by RHCPT 25 History of Applied Neuroscience Research First EEG studies of workload at AFRL...First to classify mental workload based on integrated EEG /ECG 26 First successful real- time workload classification Measured EEG workload in...complex tasks Closed-loop adaptive aiding based on EEG /ECG History of Applied Neuroscience Research 27 Current Applied Neuroscience Research • Mix of in

  14. Linkage analysis of chromosome 22q12-13 in a United Kingdom/Icelandic sample of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, G.; Read, T.; Butler, R.

    1995-08-14

    A possible linkage to a genetic subtype of schizophrenia and related disorders has been reported on the long arm of chromosome 22 at q12-13. However formal statistical tests in a combined sample could not reject homogeneity and prove that there was linked subgroup of families. We have studied 23 schizophrenia pedigrees to test whether some multiplex schizophrenia families may be linked to the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S283 which span the 22q12-13 region. Two point followed by multipoint lod and non-parametric linkage analyses under the assumption of heterogeneity provided no evidence for linkage over the relevant region. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  16. Integrating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    While both federal agencies and professional associations emphasize the importance of neuroscience outreach, this goal seldom reaches the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. However, incorporating outreach into undergraduate neuroscience classes is an efficient means to reach not only future scientists, but also the future practitioners (K-12 teachers, social service workers, etc.) with whom neuroscientists hope to communicate. It also provides a vehicle for faculty members to engage in outreach activities that are typically un- or under-rewarded in faculty reviews. In this article, a Neuroscience Community Outreach Project (NCOP) is described. The project has been used in three offerings of a Cognitive Neuroscience course at a small liberal arts college, shared and applied at a large state university, and presented at a regional Society for Neuroscience meeting as an example of outreach opportunities for faculty. The NCOP assignment is a student-driven, modular activity that can be easily incorporated into existing neuroscience course frameworks. The assignment builds on student interests and connections in the community, providing a way for faculty at institutions without formal outreach programs to incorporate neuroscience outreach into the classroom and connect students to online resources. Several sample student projects are described across three broad domains (K-12 outreach, presentations to social service organizations, and media / popular press presentations). The article ends with a set of suggestions addressing common faculty concerns about incorporating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

  17. Integrating Community Outreach into the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    While both federal agencies and professional associations emphasize the importance of neuroscience outreach, this goal seldom reaches the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. However, incorporating outreach into undergraduate neuroscience classes is an efficient means to reach not only future scientists, but also the future practitioners (K-12 teachers, social service workers, etc.) with whom neuroscientists hope to communicate. It also provides a vehicle for faculty members to engage in outreach activities that are typically un- or under-rewarded in faculty reviews. In this article, a Neuroscience Community Outreach Project (NCOP) is described. The project has been used in three offerings of a Cognitive Neuroscience course at a small liberal arts college, shared and applied at a large state university, and presented at a regional Society for Neuroscience meeting as an example of outreach opportunities for faculty. The NCOP assignment is a student-driven, modular activity that can be easily incorporated into existing neuroscience course frameworks. The assignment builds on student interests and connections in the community, providing a way for faculty at institutions without formal outreach programs to incorporate neuroscience outreach into the classroom and connect students to online resources. Several sample student projects are described across three broad domains (K-12 outreach, presentations to social service organizations, and media / popular press presentations). The article ends with a set of suggestions addressing common faculty concerns about incorporating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. PMID:23626492

  18. Asian promise: the state and future of collaborations in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Poo, Mu-Ming; Sander, Ley; Fivaz, Marc; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2008-11-01

    As investment in science and technology continues to grow in Asia, countries such as China, Japan and Singapore are witnessing great improvements in their neuroscience research environments; this is reflected in the opening of new research institutions and in the influx of neuroscientists trained abroad. Collaborative projects between researchers in these countries and laboratories in the United States and Europe are not only helping to shape these institutions, they are also leading to a surge in high-quality publications in both basic and translational neuroscience, resulting in increasing international recognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience asks four neuroscientists about their collaborative experiences and the impact that such collaborations are having on neuroscience research.

  19. Neuroethics: the ethical, legal, and societal impact of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J

    2012-01-01

    Advances in cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience raise a host of new questions concerning the ways in which neuroscience can and should be used. These advances also challenge our intuitions about the nature of humans as moral and spiritual beings. Neuroethics is the new field that grapples with these issues. The present article surveys a number of applications of neuroscience to such diverse arenas as marketing, criminal justice, the military, and worker productivity. The ethical, legal, and societal effects of these applications are discussed. Less practical, but perhaps ultimately more consequential, is the impact of neuroscience on our worldview and our understanding of the human person.

  20. Simultaneous occurrence of biphenotypic T cell/myeloid lesions involving t(12;13)(p13;q14) in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Carneiro Borba, Claudio; de Lourdes Chauffaille, Maria; Saeed Sanabani, Sabri; Saeed Sanabnai, Sabri; Folloni Fernandes, Juliana; Aiko Kumeda, Cristina; Rodrigues Pereira Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Jarandilha dos Santos, Katia; Puato Vieira Pupim, Marcia; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Odone Filho, Vicente; Bendit, Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper chronicles a 2-year-old girl who presented with acute leukemia/lymphoma syndrome of the T cell immunophenotype. At this time, the cytogenetic analysis of her bone marrow cells showed a reciprocal translocation between the short arm of chromosome 12 and the long arm of chromosome 13, t(12;13)(p13;q14). The immunophenotyping of bone marrow blast cells by flow cytometry revealed a population of cells positive for CD56, CD117, CD45, partial CD33, partial HLA-DR, CD13, CD7, CD2 and CD5. Therefore, a diagnosis of acute leukemia with a mixed T cell/myeloid phenotype was made. The patient had a poor response to classic T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma therapy; thus, her treatment was changed to a myeloid leukemia protocol, which produced a good response. She underwent a successful cord blood transplantation from an unrelated HLA partially matched donor. The coexistence of these two phenotypes prompts questions about the existence of clonal instability, which might influence the choice of therapy. The rarity of the t(12;13)(p13;q14) and the coexistence of T cell/myeloid markers suggest a nonrandom association. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which a cell clone bearing a t(12;13)(p13;q14) translocation in a mixed T cell/myeloid lesion was detected.

  1. Size and structure effects of PtN (N = 12 - 13) clusters for the oxygen reduction reaction: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Kessler, P. L.; Rodríguez-Domínguez, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    Size and structure effects on the oxygen reduction reaction on PtN clusters with N = 12-13 atoms have been investigated using periodic density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation. To describe the catalytic activity, we calculated the O and OH adsorption energies on the cluster surface. The oxygen binding on the 3-fold hollow sites on stable Pt12-13 cluster models resulted more favorable for the reaction with O, compared with the Pt13(Ih) and Pt55(Ih) icosahedral particles, in which O binds strongly. However, the rate-limiting step resulted in the removal of the OH species due to strong adsorptions on the vertex sites, reducing the utility of the catalyst surface. On the other hand, the active sites of Pt12-13 clusters have been localized on the edge sites. In particular, the OH adsorption on a bilayer Pt12 cluster is the closest to the optimal target; with 0.0-0.2 eV weaker than the Pt(111) surface. However, more progress is necessary to activate the vertex sites of the clusters. The d-band center of PtN clusters shows that the structural dependence plays a decisive factor in the cluster reactivity.

  2. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  3. Textpresso for neuroscience: searching the full text of thousands of neuroscience research papers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Michael; Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-09-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/.

  4. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Durka, P. J.; Blinowski, G. J.; Klekowicz, H.; Malinowska, U.; Kuś, R.; Blinowska, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl) with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research. PMID:19753299

  5. Auditory neuroscience: Development, transduction, and integration

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Konishi, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    Hearing underlies our ability to locate sound sources in the environment, our appreciation of music, and our ability to communicate. Participants in the National Academy of Sciences colloquium on Auditory Neuroscience: Development, Transduction, and Integration presented research results bearing on four key issues in auditory research. How does the complex inner ear develop? How does the cochlea transduce sounds into electrical signals? How does the brain's ability to compute the location of a sound source develop? How does the forebrain analyze complex sounds, particularly species-specific communications? This article provides an introduction to the papers stemming from the meeting. PMID:11050196

  6. Neuroscience nanotechnology: progress, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel A

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnologies exploit materials and devices with a functional organization that has been engineered at the nanometre scale. The application of nanotechnology in cell biology and physiology enables targeted interactions at a fundamental molecular level. In neuroscience, this entails specific interactions with neurons and glial cells. Examples of current research include technologies that are designed to better interact with neural cells, advanced molecular imaging technologies, materials and hybrid molecules used in neural regeneration, neuroprotection, and targeted delivery of drugs and small molecules across the blood-brain barrier.

  7. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  8. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  9. The significance of neuroscience for philosophy.

    PubMed

    Churchland, Patricia Smith; Phil, B

    2008-01-01

    The ground is shifting under the traditional approaches to problems in the philosophy of mind. Earlier doctrines concerning the independence of cognition from the brain now appear untenable. As neuroscience uncovers more about the organization and dynamics of the brain, it becomes increasingly evident that theories about our nature must be informed by neuroscientific data. Consistent with this progress, we may expect that philosophical problems about the mind will be productively addressed and perhaps radically transformed by a convergence of neuroscientific, psychological and computational research.

  10. Aeromedical Support in Military Helicopter Operations: Lecture Series Held at Soesterberg, The Netherlands on 4-5 June 1984, Fuerstenfeldbruck, Germany on 7-8 June 1984 and Oslo, Norway on 12-13 June 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    periods shorter - e.g. 6 hre - more elderly persons (over 50 yrs of age) and very young (under 18-20) may not be able to accept shift work as well as...mission of AGARD is to bring together the leading personalities of the NATO nations in the fields of science and technology relating to aerospace for the...psychological stressors will affect performance. My personal belief (based on intuition rather than science) is that reserves of energy, mental strength

  11. Ultrahigh field NMR and MRI: Science at a crossroads. Report on a jointly-funded NSF, NIH and DOE workshop, held on November 12-13, 2015 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenova, Tatyana; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance plays a central role in academic, industrial and medical research. NMR is widely used for characterizing the structure, chemistry and dynamic properties of new materials, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in both the liquid and solid phases. NMR also provides detailed functional information on biological macromolecules and their assemblies, in vitro, in membranes and even in whole cells. In vivo, MRI/S are used for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of disease, for non-invasive studies of human physiology and metabolism in general, and for evaluating brain function, in particular. MRI/S is also a key technology for imaging small organisms at the cellular level, monitoring catalysis in chemical reactors and other scientific areas where non-destructive characterizations of structure and dynamics in complex systems are needed. At the heart of all the MR methods are strong, stable and homogeneous magnets built from low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which are essential to these experiments. Further developments in NMR/MRI are hampered because the ultimate limit of the attainable field strengths of persistent LTS magnets has now been reached. Fortunately, recent breakthroughs in new high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and hybrid LTS/HTS magnet technologies promise to greatly increase the achievable field strength of NMR magnets and to decrease the operational complexity of high field human MRI infrastructures, thereby enabling new applications at the forefront of modern multidisciplinary research.

  12. Vocational Education Improvement Act Amendments of 1967; Hearings before the General Subcommittee on Education...on H.R. 8525 and Related Bills...Held in Washington, D.C., April 12, 13, 17, 1967. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony relative to the Vocational Education Improvement Act Amendments of 1967 as given in three Committee sessions is presented in the form of verbatim oral questions and answers, prepared statements, letters, and supplemental materials. Major prepared statements were by (1) Harold Howe II, (2) Grant Venn, (3) The Division of Adult and…

  13. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans.

  14. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind-morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging-, thereby broadening the scope-molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical- of the brain aspects to be studied.

  15. "Scientific roots" of dualism in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2006-07-01

    Although the dualistic concept is unpopular among neuroscientists involved in experimental studies of the brain, neurophysiological literature is full of covert dualistic statements on the possibility of understanding neural mechanisms of human consciousness. Particularly, the covert dualistic attitude is exhibited in the unwillingness to discuss neural mechanisms of consciousness, leaving the problem of consciousness to psychologists and philosophers. This covert dualism seems to be rooted in the main paradigm of neuroscience that suggests that cognitive functions, such as language production and comprehension, face recognition, declarative memory, emotions, etc., are performed by neural networks consisting of simple elements. I argue that neural networks of any complexity consisting of neurons whose function is limited to the generation of electrical potentials and the transmission of signals to other neurons are hardly capable of producing human mental activity, including consciousness. Based on results obtained in physiological, morphological, clinical, and genetic studies of cognitive functions (mainly linguistic ones), I advocate the hypothesis that the performance of cognitive functions is based on complex cooperative activity of "complex" neurons that are carriers of "elementary cognition." The uniqueness of human cognitive functions, which has a genetic basis, is determined by the specificity of genes expressed by these "complex" neurons. The main goal of the review is to show that the identification of the genes implicated in cognitive functions and the understanding of a functional role of their products is a possible way to overcome covert dualism in neuroscience.

  16. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind–morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging–, thereby broadening the scope–molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical– of the brain aspects to be studied. PMID:25360109

  17. New small quantum dots for neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.

  18. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  19. Human intracranial recordings and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Roy; Fried, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of neuroscience research is to understand the operating mechanism of the human brain and to exploit this understanding to devise methods for repair when it malfunctions. A key feature of this operating mechanism is electrical activity of single brain cells and cell assemblies. For obvious ethical reasons, scientists rely mostly on animal research in the study of such signals. Research in humans is often limited to electrical signals that can be recorded at the scalp or to surrogates of electrical activity, namely magnetic source imaging and measures of regional blood flow and metabolism. Invasive brain recordings performed in patients during various clinical procedures provide a unique opportunity to record high-resolution signals in vivo from the human brain-data that are otherwise unavailable. Of special value are the rare opportunities to record in awake humans the activity of single brain cells and small cellular assemblies. These recordings provide a unique view on aspects of human cognition that are impossible to study in animals, including language, imagery, episodic memory, volition, and even consciousness. In the current review we discuss the unique contribution of invasive recordings from patients to the field of cognitive neuroscience.

  20. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  1. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  2. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  3. Principles of Learning, Implications for Teaching: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience aims to improve our understanding of aspects of human learning and performance by combining data acquired with the new brain imaging technologies with data acquired in cognitive psychology paradigms. Both neuroscience and psychology use the philosophical assumptions underpinning the natural sciences, namely the scientific…

  4. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  5. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  6. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  7. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  8. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  9. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  10. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  11. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  12. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  13. Principles of Learning, Implications for Teaching: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience aims to improve our understanding of aspects of human learning and performance by combining data acquired with the new brain imaging technologies with data acquired in cognitive psychology paradigms. Both neuroscience and psychology use the philosophical assumptions underpinning the natural sciences, namely the scientific…

  14. Visualizing Neuroscience: Learning about the Brain through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Konrady, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience is a subject that can motivate, excite, and stimulate the curiosity of everyone However, the study of the brain is made difficult by an abundance of new vocabulary words and abstract concepts. Although neuroscience has the potential to inspire students, many teachers find it difficult to include a study of the brain in their…

  15. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  16. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  17. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  18. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  19. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    PubMed Central

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching “applied creativity” and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  20. Reciprocity between second-person neuroscience and cognitive robotics.

    PubMed

    Dominey, Peter Ford

    2013-08-01

    As there is "dark matter" in the neuroscience of individuals engaged in dynamic interactions, similar dark matter is present in the domain of interaction between humans and cognitive robots. Progress in second-person neuroscience will contribute to the development of robotic cognitive systems, and such developed robotic systems will be used to test the validity of the underlying theories.

  1. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  2. Neuroscience Has the Power to Change the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a neuroscientist working in the Department of Justice for the past year, I observed that many of the challenges of crime and justice have solutions rooted in our understanding of neuroscience. However, the neuroscience community seems absent from conversations regarding these solutions. PMID:28144620

  3. Visualizing Neuroscience: Learning about the Brain through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Konrady, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience is a subject that can motivate, excite, and stimulate the curiosity of everyone However, the study of the brain is made difficult by an abundance of new vocabulary words and abstract concepts. Although neuroscience has the potential to inspire students, many teachers find it difficult to include a study of the brain in their…

  4. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  5. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching "applied creativity" and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%.

  6. Neuroscience Has the Power to Change the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Altimus, Cara M

    2016-01-01

    As a neuroscientist working in the Department of Justice for the past year, I observed that many of the challenges of crime and justice have solutions rooted in our understanding of neuroscience. However, the neuroscience community seems absent from conversations regarding these solutions.

  7. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  8. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  9. The practical and principled problems with educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    The core claim of educational neuroscience is that neuroscience can improve teaching in the classroom. Many strong claims are made about the successes and the promise of this new discipline. By contrast, I show that there are no current examples of neuroscience motivating new and effective teaching methods, and argue that neuroscience is unlikely to improve teaching in the future. The reasons are twofold. First, in practice, it is easier to characterize the cognitive capacities of children on the basis of behavioral measures than on the basis of brain measures. As a consequence, neuroscience rarely offers insights into instruction above and beyond psychology. Second, in principle, the theoretical motivations underpinning educational neuroscience are misguided, and this makes it difficult to design or assess new teaching methods on the basis of neuroscience. Regarding the design of instruction, it is widely assumed that remedial instruction should target the underlying deficits associated with learning disorders, and neuroscience is used to characterize the deficit. However, the most effective forms of instruction may often rely on developing compensatory (nonimpaired) skills. Neuroscience cannot determine whether instruction should target impaired or nonimpaired skills. More importantly, regarding the assessment of instruction, the only relevant issue is whether the child learns, as reflected in behavior. Evidence that the brain changed in response to instruction is irrelevant. At the same time, an important goal for neuroscience is to characterize how the brain changes in response to learning, and this includes learning in the classroom. Neuroscientists cannot help educators, but educators can help neuroscientists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. From Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience: Encouraging Innovation in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education by Supporting Student Research and Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Kerchner, Michael; Lom, Barbara; Ramirez, Julio J.; Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2006-01-01

    This article features the organization Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. FUN was established by a group of neuroscientists dedicated to innovation and excellence in undergraduate neuroscience education and research. In the years since its inception, FUN has grown into a dynamic organization making a significant impact on the quality of…

  11. From Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience: Encouraging Innovation in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education by Supporting Student Research and Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Kerchner, Michael; Lom, Barbara; Ramirez, Julio J.; Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2006-01-01

    This article features the organization Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. FUN was established by a group of neuroscientists dedicated to innovation and excellence in undergraduate neuroscience education and research. In the years since its inception, FUN has grown into a dynamic organization making a significant impact on the quality of…

  12. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Oriole Beach, Garcon Point, Holley, South of Holley and Navarre quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Oriole Beach-Garcon Point-Holley-South of Holley-Navarre, Fla., topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Santa Rosa Sound and the Gulf of Mexico from Pensacola Beach eastward to the Narrows near Fort Walton Beach, Fla. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  13. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Heron Bay, Little Dauphin Island, Fort Morgan, and Fort Morgan NW quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the southeastern tip of Mobile County, including Dauphin Island, Alabama. Nearly all the mainland area shown on the map was inundated by the tidal surge. The Dauphin Island Parkway Bridge (Alabama State Highway 163) was almost totally demolished. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  14. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, The Basin, Bay Minette North, and Creola NE quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on The Basin-Bay Minette North-Creola NE, Ala., topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers from Salco and Stockton southward to Creola and Upper Hall Landing, Ala. Minor flooding occurred in this region. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  15. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  16. A short history of neurosciences in Austria.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, K A

    2006-03-01

    Based on internal medicine and psychiatry and in close connection with pathology, the neurosciences in Austria began to develop in the 18(th) century, e.g. with the description of inflammation of the central nervous system by J. P. Franck (1745-1823) and the "phrenology" by F. J. Gall (1745-1823). Under the influence of the great pathologist C. Rokitansky (1804-1878), the tripode of the Vienna neurology - L. Türck (1810-1868), as initiator, Th. v. Meynert (1833-1892) the activator, and H. Obersteiner (1847-1922) as the founder of the Vienna Neurological Institute, presented basic contributions to the morphology and pathology of the nervous system. At the end of the 19(th) and in the early 20(th) century, they were followed by important publications by S. Fred (aphasia), C. Redlich (tabes dorsalis), F. Sträussler (CNS syphilis), A. Spitzer (fiber anatomy of the brain), P. Schilder (diffuse sclerosis), R. Barany (Nobel price for physiology and medicine 1914), J. Wagner v. Jauregg (Nobel price for medicine, 1927), O. Loewi (Nobel Price for Physiology and Medicine together with Sir H. Dale, 1936), A. Schüller (histiocytosis X), C. v. Economo (encephalitis lethargica and cytoarchitectonics of the human cerebral cortex), E. Pollak (Wilson disease), E. Gamper (mesencephalic subject), J. Gerstmann (Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and Gerstmann parietal syndrome), H. Hoff with L. Schönbauer (brain tumors and surgery), and others. Major research institutions were the departments of psychiatry I and II at the University of Vienna School of Medicine (foundation 1870), unification 1911, separation into departments of neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry of children and adolescents in 1971), the Obersteiner Institute in Vienna (foundation 1882, separation 1993), the university departments at Graz and Innsbruck, both founded in 1891, and other laboratories, where renouned clinicans and neuroscientists, like O. Marburg, H. Hoff, O. Pötzl, O. Kauders, F

  17. The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, yet its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity; another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context. PMID:26539887

  18. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  20. Concerns about cultural neurosciences: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez Mateo, Marina; Cabanis, Maurice; Cruz de Echeverría Loebell, Nicole; Krach, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena by using functional MRI. Since then the number of publications in this field, termed cultural neuroscience (CN), has tremendously increased. In these studies, particular concepts of culture are implied, but rarely explicitly discussed. We argue that it is necessary to make these concepts a topic of debate in order to unravel the foundations of CN. From 40 fMRI studies we extracted two strands of reasoning: models investigating universal mechanisms for the formation of cultural groups and habits and, models assessing differences in characteristics among cultural groups. Both strands simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits and specificities. We question this rigid understanding of culture and highlight its hidden evaluative nature.

  1. The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2015-11-04

    Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, but its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity. Another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context.

  2. [Cognitive neuroscience of aging: explanatory models].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Fabrissio; Tirapu Ustárroz, Javier

    2017-05-12

    The aim of the cognitive neuroscience of aging is the study of brain activity and the cognitive processes associated with age. In order to understand the dynamics of neurocognitive activity in older people, the present review highlights four explanatory models. The first one (HAROLD) highlights brain bilaterality, mainly in the pre-frontal cortex. The second paradigm (PASA) places special emphasis on neuronal polarisation (anterior-posterior). The third model (CRUNCH) relates the manifest activity of the brain to the level of complexity of the task. The last one (ELSA) emphasises the spatial and temporal distribution of brain activity in the different phases of recovery. Although different in their content, the four explanatory models are perfectly compatible with the findings reported by neuroimaging techniques, suggesting the use of compensation strategies and cognitive reserve for interventions that may help to optimise the performance of older people. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs.

  4. The neuroscience of social decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rilling, James K; Sanfey, Alan G

    2011-01-01

    Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory setting, and a variety of neuroscience methods have been used to probe the underlying neural systems. This approach is informing our knowledge of the neural mechanisms that support decisions about trust, reciprocity, altruism, fairness, revenge, social punishment, social norm conformity, social learning, and competition. Neural systems involved in reward and reinforcement, pain and punishment, mentalizing, delaying gratification, and emotion regulation are commonly recruited for social decisions. This review also highlights the role of the prefrontal cortex in prudent social decision-making, at least when social environments are relatively stable. In addition, recent progress has been made in understanding the neural bases of individual variation in social decision-making.

  5. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Fluoxetine (Prozac)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) was the first major breakthrough for the treatment of depression since the introduction of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) nearly 30 years earlier. It was the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, offering superior efficacy and reduced side effects relative to TCAs and MAOIs. Though a debate remains regarding the exact mechanism by which the clinical efficacy of fluoxetine is manifested, the importance of fluoxetine and related SSRIs to the field is unquestionable. The trade name Prozac has permeated popular culture, helping to raise awareness of depression and to diminish the prevalence of long-standing stigmas associated with this illness. In this Review, we will showcase the history and importance of fluoxetine to neuroscience in general, as well as for the treatment of depression, and review the synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, and adverse effects of fluoxetine.

  6. [Analgesic placebo effect: contribution of the neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Berna, C; Cojan, Y; Vuilleumier, P; Desmeules, J

    2011-06-29

    Over the past twenty years, neuroscience has changed our understanding of placebo analgesia. Often perceived by researchers as a response bias adding noise to the assessment of efficacy, in the patients' view, it is associated with charlatanism. The origin of the word, qualifying a patient's response to "please" the doctor, did not help its rightful appreciation. However, today the placebo analgesia is considered as a psychobiological phenomenon. Thanks to pharmacological manipulations and the development of functional brain imaging, the neural circuitry involved in this effect as well as the role of endorphins and dopamine have been identified. This article describes our current knowledge about this fascinating phenomenon: a psychological modulation can lead to a biological effect.

  7. Neuroscience and appetitive behavior research: 25 years.

    PubMed

    Hoebel, B G

    1997-10-01

    Neuroscience techniques have made major contributions to the understanding of appetitive behavior. Highlights in six areas are summarized to illustrate progress during the 25 years of the Columbia Appetitive Behavior Seminar: (1) discovery of angiotensin and aldosterone in the control of thirst and salt appetite; (2) electrophysiological decoding of chemoreceptive information in the brain; (3) a new foundation in the hypothalamus built on peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and galanin, interacting with monoamines and steroids in the control of appetite for macronutrients; (4) discovery of numerous peptides that mediate and integrate satiety, such as cholecystokinin, insulin, leptin and enterostatin, and other systems that suppress eating during illness; (5) better understanding of appetite suppressant drugs, and (6) exploration of a circuit that translates hypothalamic signals into behavioral action through connections to brainstem reflex arcs and forebrain instrumental response systems.

  8. Neuroscience of self and self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-01-01

    As a social species, humans have a fundamental need to belong that encourages behaviors consistent with being a good group member. Being a good group member requires the capacity for self-regulation, which allows people to alter or inhibit behaviors that would place them at risk for group exclusion. Self-regulation requires four psychological components. First, people need to be aware of their behavior so as to gauge it against societal norms. Second, people need to understand how others are reacting to their behavior so as to predict how others will respond to them. This necessitates a third mechanism, which detects threat, especially in complex social situations. Finally, there needs to be a mechanism for resolving discrepancies between self-knowledge and social expectations or norms, thereby motivating behavior to resolve any conflict that exists. This article reviews recent social neuroscience research on the psychological components that support the human capacity for self-regulation.

  9. RNA interference in neuroscience: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Miller, Victor M; Paulson, Henry L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2005-12-01

    1.RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered biological pathway that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing. The process of RNAi is orchestrated by an increasingly well-understood cellular machinery. 2. The common entry point for both natural and engineered RNAi are double stranded RNA molecules known as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that mediate the sequence-specific identification and degradation of the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). The study and manipulation of these siRNAs has recently revolutionized biomedical research. 3. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of the process of RNAi, focusing on its potential role in brain function and involvement in neurological disease. We then describe the methods developed to manipulate RNAi in the laboratory and its applications to neuroscience. Finally, we focus on the potential therapeutic application of RNAi to neurological disease.

  10. [Elements for a history of neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The spectacular progress ofthe neurosciences, as well as the intense process of popularization by the media of images and information that associate cerebral activity with practically every aspect of life, have produced a growing perception of the brain as the site and agent of all the properties and actions that define us as human beings. Today's socio-cultural context has seen increased interest in 'neuroascese' that is, discourses and practices aimed at maximizing brain performance. Tracing elements of the history of'brain ascese' back to historical moments of the nineteenth century in which neuroascetic practices were commonplace, the article examines their continued use today, taking into account the social, cultural, and historical contexts in which they originated.

  11. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory.

    PubMed

    D'Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-03

    For more than 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a working memory to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory by allocating attention to internal representations, whether semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The "control of the controller" emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals.

  12. Neuroscience of Self and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    As a social species, humans have a fundamental need to belong that encourages behaviors consistent with being a good group member. Being a good group member requires the capacity for self-regulation, which allows people to alter or inhibit behaviors that would place them at risk for group exclusion. Self-regulation requires four psychological components. First, people need to be aware of their behavior so as to gauge it against societal norms. Second, people need to understand how others are reacting to their behavior so as to predict how others will respond to them. This necessitates a third mechanism, which detects threat, especially in complex social situations. Finally, there needs to be a mechanism for resolving discrepancies between self-knowledge and social expectations or norms, thereby motivating behavior to resolve any conflict that exists. This article reviews recent social neuroscience research on the psychological components that support the human capacity for self-regulation. PMID:21126181

  13. The cultural neuroscience of person perception.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, theorists have argued that culture can shape processes of basic visual perception. This work has primarily focused on cultural influences in nonsocial domains, such as cross-cultural differences in seeing and attending to focal stimuli versus backgrounds. Recently, researchers have begun to examine how culture can shape processes of social perception. We review such evidence and describe how culture tunes both the outcomes of social perception (as revealed in behavioral responses) as well as the activity of the neural mechanisms that mediate these outcomes. Such evidence comes from the domains of emotion recognition, social status perception, social group evaluation, and mental state inference. We explicate these findings through our viewpoint that ecologically important aspects of the sociocultural environment shape perceptual processing and its neural basis. More broadly, we discuss the promise of a cultural neuroscience approach to social perception and some of its epistemological challenges as a nascent interdisciplinary enterprise.

  14. Fractals in the Neurosciences, Part I: General Principles and Basic Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jelinek, Herbert; Pellionisz, Andras J; Losa, Gabriele Angelo

    2014-08-01

    The natural complexity of the brain, its hierarchical structure, and the sophisticated topological architecture of the neurons organized in micronetworks and macronetworks are all factors contributing to the limits of the application of Euclidean geometry and linear dynamics to the neurosciences. The introduction of fractal geometry for the quantitative analysis and description of the geometric complexity of natural systems has been a major paradigm shift in the last decades. Nowadays, modern neurosciences admit the prevalence of fractal properties such as self-similarity in the brain at various levels of observation, from the microscale to the macroscale, in molecular, anatomic, functional, and pathological perspectives. Fractal geometry is a mathematical model that offers a universal language for the quantitative description of neurons and glial cells as well as the brain as a whole, with its complex three-dimensional structure, in all its physiopathological spectrums. For a holistic view of fractal geometry of the brain, we review here the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning.

  16. Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis

    PubMed Central

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can

  17. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  18. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  19. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  20. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    PubMed

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding.

  1. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jacqueline K.; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University’s (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the “accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire.” The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU’s neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their “peer mentorship was excellent,” “helped them gain confidence,” and “allowed them to be more successful in their research.” PMID:26240522

  2. For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joshua; Cohen, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of cognitive neuroscience holds the promise of explaining the operations of the mind in terms of the physical operations of the brain. Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people's moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of old arguments, bolstered by vivid new illustrations provided by cognitive neuroscience. We foresee, and recommend, a shift away from punishment aimed at retribution in favour of a more progressive, consequentialist approach to the criminal law. PMID:15590618

  3. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  5. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF.

  6. The utility of fractal analysis in clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    John, Ann M; Elfanagely, Omar; Ayala, Carlos A; Cohen, Michael; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and scientists can use fractal analysis as a tool to objectively quantify complex patterns found in neuroscience and neurology. Fractal analysis has the potential to allow physicians to make predictions about clinical outcomes, categorize pathological states, and eventually generate diagnoses. In this review, we categorize and analyze the applications of fractal theory in neuroscience found in the literature. We discuss how fractals are applied and what evidence exists for fractal analysis in neurodegeneration, neoplasm, neurodevelopment, neurophysiology, epilepsy, neuropharmacology, and cell morphology. The goal of this review is to introduce the medical community to the utility of applying fractal theory in clinical neuroscience.

  7. NeuroTalk: Improving the Communication of Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Mary Anne; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Racine, Eric; Blakeslee, Sandra; Caplan, Arthur; Hayden, Erika Check; Ingram, Jay; Lohwater, Tiffany; McKnight, Peter; Nicholson, Christie; Phillips, Anthony; Sauvé, Kevin D.; Snell, Elaine; Weiss, Sam

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for neuroscientists to communicate their research and the societal implications of their findings to the public. Communicating science is challenging and the transformation of communication by digital and interactive media makes the challenge even greater. To successfully facilitate dialogue with the public in this new media landscape we suggest three courses of action for the neuroscience community: a cultural shift that explicitly recognizes and rewards public outreach, the identification and development of neuroscience communication experts, and ongoing empirical research on public communication of neuroscience. PMID:19953102

  8. ebrain: the electronic learning platform for clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Thomson, S

    2013-10-01

    ebrain (www.ebrainjnc.com) is a comprehensive e-learning platform for the clinical neurosciences. It is owned by the Joint Neurosciences Council which is formed from the UK neuroscience specialty associations including the Society of British Neurosurgeons. ebrain has been developed in association with the European Neurology Associations and University College London. The content was written in 2010/11 and the programme was launched in November 2011. It is now one year old. This article reviews the history of the development, its progress since launch, and the plans for the future of this project.

  9. Behavioral neuroscience, exploration, and K.C. Montgomery's legacy.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Exploration is a key animal and human behavior. Kay C. Montgomery (1921-1956) has made an important contribution to behavioral neuroscience of exploration, as well as motivation and learning. His works have many important applications to current experimental models of stress, fear and memory, continuing to influence research in this field. This paper, dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Montgomery's birth, and 50 years since his tragic death, summarizes Montgomery's contribution to behavioral neuroscience, and discusses its current importance for further progress in this field. It is aimed at neuroscientists with strong interests in both theory of animal exploration and motivation, and the history of behavioral neuroscience.

  10. The influence of Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang on neuroscience in Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chun

    2012-10-25

    As one of the founders of Chinese neuroscience, Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang's return to China has a profound impact on neuroscience in China. As many people expected, this action also may have influenced the development of neuroscience in other Eastern countries. Therefore, Dr. Chang's move may have changed the history of neuroscience in a greater area than China.

  11. Genetics, neuroscience, and psychopathology: clothing the emperor.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    This ground-breaking series of articles reports findings from genome-wide analyses of endophenotypic indicators of psychopathology including electrocortical activity/reactivity, electrodermal and startle blink responses, and neurocognitive task performance. Findings challenge the long-held notion that endophenotypes more clearly reflect the impact of specific genes than referent clinical phenotypes. Implications for the concept of endophenotypes and biological psychopathology research more broadly are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  13. The Neurodynamics of Cognition: A Tutorial on Computational Cognitive Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Helie, Sebastien

    2011-08-01

    Computational Cognitive Neuroscience (CCN) is a new field that lies at the intersection of computational neuroscience, machine learning, and neural network theory (i.e., connectionism). The ideal CCN model should not make any assumptions that are known to contradict the current neuroscience literature and at the same time provide good accounts of behavior and at least some neuroscience data (e.g., single-neuron activity, fMRI data). Furthermore, once set, the architecture of the CCN network and the models of each individual unit should remain fixed throughout all applications. Because of the greater weight they place on biological accuracy, CCN models differ substantially from traditional neural network models in how each individual unit is modeled, how learning is modeled, and how behavior is generated from the network. A variety of CCN solutions to these three problems are described. A real example of this approach is described, and some advantages and limitations of the CCN approach are discussed.

  14. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. [Adaptation and Neuroscience I: Fears, society, methodology, finality].

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This article is a first article in a series of two articles exploring the bidirectional links between the concept of adaptation and of neuroscience. In this first article, first of all we will see that neurosciences can be seen as ambitious and all-powerful oscillating between a reductionist and dehumanizing threat or crystallizing some control fantasies. We will then see that society adapts itself to neurosciences methodologies and incorporate some discoveries in various fields so that we can ask ourselves about the neuro-society of tomorrow. Then we will see that the methodology of neurosciences themselves is frequently challenged and requires that everyone knows the limitations and not only stick to promises. After that, we will see that the adaptation seen as the promise of a determined and finite goal may be reassuring but is most unlikely.

  16. Allegheny College Hosts Neuroscience and Humanities Summer Institute

    PubMed Central

    Macel, Emily M.

    2004-01-01

    The Neuroscience and Humanities Summer Institute, hosted by Allegheny College, opened doors of opportunity, perception, and creativity for faculty and students across the nation. Offered first in 2002, and a second time in June of 2004, this weeklong event was designed to provide a medium for fostering development of interdisciplinary courses linking neuroscience and the humanities (e.g., the fine arts, philosophy and language). During the Institute, participants attended presentations by Allegheny faculty introducing the six courses of this type that they have developed starting in 2000, lectures by guest speakers, workshops, and discussion modules. Participants were encouraged to gather ideas about Allegheny’s neuroscience and humanities courses and formulate specific plans to take back to their schools. These opportunities and experiences resulted in the formation of valuable connections and the development of ideas around the links between neuroscience and humanities. PMID:23493745

  17. Regional orientation program for the department of clinical neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frankie W H

    2006-01-01

    A regional orientation program increases the efficient and effective use of resources such as classroom, equipment, and educator time. It provides consistent information to all new nurses and maintains standards of nursing practice throughout the Department of Clinical Neurosciences.

  18. Allegheny college hosts neuroscience and humanities summer institute.

    PubMed

    Macel, Emily M

    2004-01-01

    The Neuroscience and Humanities Summer Institute, hosted by Allegheny College, opened doors of opportunity, perception, and creativity for faculty and students across the nation. Offered first in 2002, and a second time in June of 2004, this weeklong event was designed to provide a medium for fostering development of interdisciplinary courses linking neuroscience and the humanities (e.g., the fine arts, philosophy and language). During the Institute, participants attended presentations by Allegheny faculty introducing the six courses of this type that they have developed starting in 2000, lectures by guest speakers, workshops, and discussion modules. Participants were encouraged to gather ideas about Allegheny's neuroscience and humanities courses and formulate specific plans to take back to their schools. These opportunities and experiences resulted in the formation of valuable connections and the development of ideas around the links between neuroscience and humanities.

  19. Integrating translational neuroscience to improve drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. The Neurodynamics of Cognition: A Tutorial on Computational Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Helie, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Computational Cognitive Neuroscience (CCN) is a new field that lies at the intersection of computational neuroscience, machine learning, and neural network theory (i.e., connectionism). The ideal CCN model should not make any assumptions that are known to contradict the current neuroscience literature and at the same time provide good accounts of behavior and at least some neuroscience data (e.g., single-neuron activity, fMRI data). Furthermore, once set, the architecture of the CCN network and the models of each individual unit should remain fixed throughout all applications. Because of the greater weight they place on biological accuracy, CCN models differ substantially from traditional neural network models in how each individual unit is modeled, how learning is modeled, and how behavior is generated from the network. A variety of CCN solutions to these three problems are described. A real example of this approach is described, and some advantages and limitations of the CCN approach are discussed. PMID:21841845

  1. The role of neurosciences intensive care in neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Damian, Maxwell; Eynon, C Andy

    2013-10-01

    The neurosciences intensive care unit provides specialized medical and nursing care to both the neurosurgical and neurological patient. This second of two articles describes the role it plays in the management of patients with neurological conditions.

  2. Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Forstmann, Birte U; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2011-08-26

    In theory, a comparison of two experimental effects requires a statistical test on their difference. In practice, this comparison is often based on an incorrect procedure involving two separate tests in which researchers conclude that effects differ when one effect is significant (P < 0.05) but the other is not (P > 0.05). We reviewed 513 behavioral, systems and cognitive neuroscience articles in five top-ranking journals (Science, Nature, Nature Neuroscience, Neuron and The Journal of Neuroscience) and found that 78 used the correct procedure and 79 used the incorrect procedure. An additional analysis suggests that incorrect analyses of interactions are even more common in cellular and molecular neuroscience. We discuss scenarios in which the erroneous procedure is particularly beguiling.

  3. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    PubMed Central

    Strumwasser, F

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances in neuroscience over the last two decades have diminished the span. This article reviews the major advances of neuroscience in six areas with relevance to the behavioral sciences: (a) evolution of the nervous system; (b) visualizing activity in the human brain; (c) plasticity of the cerebral cortex; (d) receptors, ion channels, and second/third messengers; (e) molecular genetic approaches; and (f) understanding integrative systems with networks and circadian clocks as examples. PMID:7513347

  4. A retrospective view on research in neuroscience in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerstad, L; Gilhus, N E; Storstein, A

    2008-01-01

    This brief historical review on neuroscience in Norway shows a comparatively high research activity with many important results. The Norwegian zoologist Fridtjof Nansen, who later became a famous Arctic explorer, was the first to formulate the neuron doctrine. 'The Oslo School of Neuroanatomy' contributed enormously to the understanding of the detailed anatomy and chemistry of the central nervous system. Norwegian neurophysiologists made important findings from studies of hippocampus including the inhibitory basket cell, the LTP phenomenon and the 'hippocampal-slice-technique'. In clinical neuroscience the description of Refsum's disease and studies of myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis have been of particular importance. Two of 13 centres of excellence in Norway selected in 2003 were from neuroscience, and The Norwegian Research Council has its own programme for neuroscience. The Norwegian Neurological Association arranges annual meetings to promote interest in neurological research.

  5. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  6. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound.

  7. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Big Lagoon, Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound, and the Gulf of Mexico from Seaglades eastward to Pensacola Beach, Florida. The still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  8. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination.

  9. Dihalogenated trichodermin (4β-acet­oxy-9,10-dibromo-12,13-epoxy­tri­chothec)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Hao; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Jian-Gong; Cheng, Jing-Li; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    In the title dihalogenated trichodermin mol­ecule, C17H24Br2O4 (systematic name: 9,10-dibromo-12,13-epoxy­trichothec-9-en-4β-yl acetate), the five-membered ring displays an envelope conformation, whereas the two six-membered rings show the same conformation, viz. chair. As for the seven-membered ring, the dihedral angle between the mean planes formed by the four C atoms of the envelope unit and the three C and one O atoms of the six-membered chair is 69.08 (4)°; these two mean planes are nearly perpendicular to the ep­oxy ring with angles of 87.53 (4) and 88.67 (4)°, respectively. PMID:21580095

  10. Brain profiling and clinical-neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Peled, Avi

    2006-01-01

    The current psychiatric diagnostic system, the diagnostic statistic manual, has recently come under increasing criticism. The major reason for the shortcomings of the current psychiatric diagnosis is the lack of a scientific brain-related etiological knowledge about mental disorders. The advancement toward such knowledge is further hampered by the lack of a theoretical framework or "language" that translates clinical findings of mental disorders to brain disturbances and insufficiencies. Here such a theoretical construct is proposed based on insights from neuroscience and neural-computation models. Correlates between clinical manifestations and presumed neuronal network disturbances are proposed in the form of a practical diagnostic system titled "Brain Profiling". Three dimensions make-up brain profiling, "neural complexity disorders", "neuronal resilience insufficiency", and "context-sensitive processing decline". The first dimension relates to disturbances occurring to fast neuronal activations in the millisecond range, it incorporates connectivity and hierarchical imbalances appertaining typically to psychotic and schizophrenic clinical manifestations. The second dimension relates to disturbances that alter slower changes namely long-term synaptic modulations, and incorporates disturbances to optimization and constraint satisfactions within relevant neuronal circuitry. Finally, the level of internal representations related to personality disorders is presented by a "context-sensitive process decline" as the third dimension. For practical use of brain profiling diagnosis a consensual list of psychiatric clinical manifestations provides a "diagnostic input vector", clinical findings are coded 1 for "detection" and 0 for "non-detection", 0.5 is coded for "questionable". The entries are clustered according to their presumed neuronal dynamic relationships and coefficients determine their relevance to the specific related brain disturbance. Relevant equations

  11. Optical Brain Imaging: A Powerful Tool for Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinpei; Xia, Yanfang; Wang, Xuecen; Si, Ke; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    As the control center of organisms, the brain remains little understood due to its complexity. Taking advantage of imaging methods, scientists have found an accessible approach to unraveling the mystery of neuroscience. Among these methods, optical imaging techniques are widely used due to their high molecular specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we overview several optical imaging techniques in neuroscience of recent years, including brain clearing, the micro-optical sectioning tomography system, and deep tissue imaging.

  12. Humans, brains, and their environment: marriage between neuroscience and anthropology?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2010-03-25

    How do we define ourselves as humans and interact with our various environments? Recently, neuroscience has extended into other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, questioning the existence of distinct disciplines like anthropology, which describes the relationship between humans and their various environments. However, rather than being incorporated into neuroscience, anthropology may be considered complementary, and a marriage of the two disciplines can provide deep insight into these fundamental questions.

  13. Putting big data to good use in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Churchland, Patricia S; Movshon, J Anthony

    2014-11-01

    Big data has transformed fields such as physics and genomics. Neuroscience is set to collect its own big data sets, but to exploit its full potential, there need to be ways to standardize, integrate and synthesize diverse types of data from different levels of analysis and across species. This will require a cultural shift in sharing data across labs, as well as to a central role for theorists in neuroscience research.

  14. Gizmos and gadgets for the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mary Kay

    2006-08-01

    Managing the critical neuroscience patient population challenges practitioners because of both the devastating injury involved and the complexity of care required. Emerging technology provides the neuroscience intensive care unit team with better information on the intricate physiology and dynamics inside the cranium. In particular, the team is better able to detect changes in pressure, oxygen, and blood flow. With improved data in hand, the team can intervene to optimize intracranial dynamics, possibly reducing disability and death among such patients.

  15. The future of fMRI in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, fMRI has revolutionized cognitive neuroscience. Here I outline a vision for what the next twenty years of fMRI in cognitive neuroscience might look like. Some developments that I hope for include increased methodological rigor, an increasing focus on connectivity and pattern analysis as opposed to “blobology”, a greater focus on selective inference powered by open databases, and increased use of ontologies and computational models to describe underlying processes. PMID:21856431

  16. Caries risk assessment among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  17. Eating patterns and mental health problems in early adolescence--a cross-sectional study of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Oellingrath, Inger M; Svendsen, Martin V; Hestetun, Ingebjørg

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between eating patterns and mental health problems in young Norwegian adolescents (12-13 years of age). Cross-sectional study. Dietary information was reported by parents using a retrospective FFQ. Eating patterns were identified using principal component analysis. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems. The association between eating patterns and mental health problems was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. Children (n 1095) aged 12-13 years and their parents. Children with high scores on a 'varied Norwegian' eating pattern were less likely to have indications of any psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR = 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0) and hyperactivity-inattention disorders (adjusted OR = 0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·8) than children with low scores on this pattern. Children with high scores on a 'junk/convenient' eating pattern were more likely to have indications of hyperactivity-inattention disorders (adjusted OR = 3·4; 95 % CI 1·3, 8·6) than children with low scores on this pattern. Children with high scores on a 'snacking' eating pattern were more likely to have indications of conduct/oppositional disorders (adjusted OR = 3·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 11·5) than those with low scores on this eating pattern. We identified a significant association between eating patterns and mental health problems in young adolescents, independently of physical activity, sedentary activity and background variables. A diverse diet rich in unrefined plant foods, fish and regular meals was associated with better mental health, while energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets and irregular meals were associated with poorer mental health.

  18. And the Winner Is: Inviting Hollywood into the Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2002-01-01

    Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the “neuro-cinema” pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience. An additional goal of this article is provide the reader with initial resources for the selection of potential film titles for use in neuroscience education. Three extensive tables are included to provide a wide range of title suggestions appropriate for use in activities such as the neuro-cinema, the neuroscience film series, or for more limited use as short “clips” in classroom instruction. PMID:23493171

  19. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heather J; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G; Tirrell, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and "clinical" setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major.

  20. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.