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Sample records for neuroscience information framework

  1. The Neuroscience Information Framework: A Data and Knowledge Environment for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Huda; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Bowden, Douglas M.; Bug, William; Donohue, Duncan E.; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Halavi, Maryam; Kennedy, David N.; Marenco, Luis; Martone, Maryann E.; Miller, Perry L.; Müller, Hans-Michael; Robert, Adrian; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Van Essen, David C.; Williams, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    With support from the Institutes and Centers forming the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, we have designed and implemented a new initiative for integrating access to and use of Web-based neuroscience resources: the Neuroscience Information Framework. The Framework arises from the expressed need of the neuroscience community for neuroinformatic tools and resources to aid scientific inquiry, builds upon prior development of neuroinformatics by the Human Brain Project and others, and directly derives from the Society for Neuroscience’s Neuroscience Database Gateway. Partnered with the Society, its Neuroinformatics Committee, and volunteer consultant-collaborators, our multi-site consortium has developed: (1) a comprehensive, dynamic, inventory of Web-accessible neuroscience resources, (2) an extended and integrated terminology describing resources and contents, and (3) a framework accepting and aiding concept-based queries. Evolving instantiations of the Framework may be viewed at http://nif.nih.gov, http://neurogateway.org, and other sites as they come on line. PMID:18946742

  2. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  3. Federated Access to Heterogeneous Information Resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L.; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF system is designed to treat them as concepts whose meanings are interpreted by the system. Thus, a search for term should find a record containing synonyms of the term. The system is targeted to find information from web pages, publications, databases, web sites built upon databases, XML documents and any other modality in which such information may be published. We have designed a system to achieve this functionality. A central element in the system is an ontology called NIFSTD (for NIF Standard) constructed by amalgamating a number of known and newly developed ontologies. NIFSTD is used by our ontology management module, called OntoQuest to perform ontology-based search over data sources. The NIF architecture currently provides three different mechanisms for searching heterogeneous data sources including relational databases, web sites, XML documents and full text of publications. Version 1.0 of the NIF system is currently in beta test and may be accessed through http://nif.nih.gov. PMID:18958629

  4. Federated access to heterogeneous information resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF system is designed to treat them as concepts whose meanings are interpreted by the system. Thus, a search for term should find a record containing synonyms of the term. The system is targeted to find information from web pages, publications, databases, web sites built upon databases, XML documents and any other modality in which such information may be published. We have designed a system to achieve this functionality. A central element in the system is an ontology called NIFSTD (for NIF Standard) constructed by amalgamating a number of known and newly developed ontologies. NIFSTD is used by our ontology management module, called OntoQuest to perform ontology-based search over data sources. The NIF architecture currently provides three different mechanisms for searching heterogeneous data sources including relational databases, web sites, XML documents and full text of publications. Version 1.0 of the NIF system is currently in beta test and may be accessed through http://nif.nih.gov.

  5. Development and use of Ontologies Inside the Neuroscience Information Framework: A Practical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Fahim T.; Larson, Stephen D.; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Martone, Maryann E.

    2012-01-01

    An initiative of the NIH Blueprint for neuroscience research, the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project advances neuroscience by enabling discovery and access to public research data and tools worldwide through an open source, semantically enhanced search portal. One of the critical components for the overall NIF system, the NIF Standardized Ontologies (NIFSTD), provides an extensive collection of standard neuroscience concepts along with their synonyms and relationships. The knowledge models defined in the NIFSTD ontologies enable an effective concept-based search over heterogeneous types of web-accessible information entities in NIF’s production system. NIFSTD covers major domains in neuroscience, including diseases, brain anatomy, cell types, sub-cellular anatomy, small molecules, techniques, and resource descriptors. Since the first production release in 2008, NIF has grown significantly in content and functionality, particularly with respect to the ontologies and ontology-based services that drive the NIF system. We present here on the structure, design principles, community engagement, and the current state of NIFSTD ontologies. PMID:22737162

  6. A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework.

    PubMed

    Bandrowski, A E; Cachat, J; Li, Y; Müller, H M; Sternberg, P W; Ciccarese, P; Clark, T; Marenco, L; Wang, R; Astakhov, V; Grethe, J S; Martone, M E

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is 'hidden' from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However, as the number of resources grew, manual curation became impractical. This report describes our experiences and successes with developing automated resource discovery and semiautomated type characterization with text-mining scripts that facilitate curation team efforts to discover, integrate and display new content. We also describe the DISCO framework, a suite of automated web services that significantly reduce manual curation efforts to periodically check for resource updates. Lastly, we discuss DOMEO, a semi-automated annotation tool that improves the discovery and curation of resources that are not necessarily website-based (i.e. reagents, software tools). Although the ultimate goal of automation was to

  7. A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bandrowski, A. E.; Cachat, J.; Li, Y.; Müller, H. M.; Sternberg, P. W.; Ciccarese, P.; Clark, T.; Marenco, L.; Wang, R.; Astakhov, V.; Grethe, J. S.; Martone, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is ‘hidden’ from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However, as the number of resources grew, manual curation became impractical. This report describes our experiences and successes with developing automated resource discovery and semiautomated type characterization with text-mining scripts that facilitate curation team efforts to discover, integrate and display new content. We also describe the DISCO framework, a suite of automated web services that significantly reduce manual curation efforts to periodically check for resource updates. Lastly, we discuss DOMEO, a semi-automated annotation tool that improves the discovery and curation of resources that are not necessarily website-based (i.e. reagents, software tools). Although the ultimate goal of automation was to

  8. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  9. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Luis N.; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF’s data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO’s current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation. PMID:25018728

  10. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis N; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF's data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO's current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation.

  11. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  12. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge.

    PubMed

    Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  13. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  14. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  15. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Durka, P. J.; Blinowski, G. J.; Klekowicz, H.; Malinowska, U.; Kuś, R.; Blinowska, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl) with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research. PMID:19753299

  16. Explaining the alluring influence of neuroscience information on scientific reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rebecca E; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking dispositions, and prior beliefs about a claim. We found that neuroscience information, even though irrelevant, made people believe they had a better understanding of the mechanism underlying a behavioral phenomenon. Neuroscience information had a smaller effect on ratings of article quality and scientist quality. Our study suggests that neuroscience information may provide an illusion of explanatory depth.

  17. The NIF DISCO Framework: Facilitating Automated Integration of Neuroscience Content on the Web

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are “harvested” on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource’s content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) “LinkOut” to a resource’s data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource’s lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource’s database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research. PMID:20387131

  18. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  19. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  20. Mathematical Frameworks for Oscillatory Network Dynamics in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashwin, Peter; Coombes, Stephen; Nicks, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The tools of weakly coupled phase oscillator theory have had a profound impact on the neuroscience community, providing insight into a variety of network behaviours ranging from central pattern generation to synchronisation, as well as predicting novel network states such as chimeras. However, there are many instances where this theory is expected to break down, say in the presence of strong coupling, or must be carefully interpreted, as in the presence of stochastic forcing. There are also surprises in the dynamical complexity of the attractors that can robustly appear-for example, heteroclinic network attractors. In this review we present a set of mathematical tools that are suitable for addressing the dynamics of oscillatory neural networks, broadening from a standard phase oscillator perspective to provide a practical framework for further successful applications of mathematics to understanding network dynamics in neuroscience.

  1. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  2. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  3. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  4. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad-hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for a faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers. PMID:24478691

  5. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad-hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for a faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.

  6. How Does Neuroscience Inform the Study of Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles A.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Richmond, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    The fields of developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience have existed independently of one another for many years. This is unfortunate, as knowledge of how the brain develops can inform the study of behavioral development. In this paper, we provide two examples of how knowledge about brain development has improved our understanding of…

  7. How social neuroscience can inform theories of social comparison.

    PubMed

    Swencionis, Jillian K; Fiske, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure-related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people׳s kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons.

  8. How Social Neuroscience Can Inform Theories of Social Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swencionis, Jillian K.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure- related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people's kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. PMID:24486767

  9. Pain Research Forum: application of scientific social media frameworks in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudeshna; McCaffrey, Patricia G.; Talkington, Megan W. T.; Andrews, Neil A.; Corlosquet, Stéphane; Ivinson, Adrian J.; Clark, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions, and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. Methods: We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF) (http://painresearchforum.org). PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Results: Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum (http://msdiscovery.org) and StemBook (http://stembook.org). Discussion: Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned, and ongoing challenges in using PRF as

  10. Pain Research Forum: application of scientific social media frameworks in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeshna; McCaffrey, Patricia G; Talkington, Megan W T; Andrews, Neil A; Corlosquet, Stéphane; Ivinson, Adrian J; Clark, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions, and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF) (http://painresearchforum.org). PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum (http://msdiscovery.org) and StemBook (http://stembook.org). Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned, and ongoing challenges in using PRF as a driving force to develop tools for

  11. Teaching Empathy: A Framework Rooted in Social Cognitive Neuroscience and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; Segal, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Kelly F.; Mullins, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose that a targeted and structured explication of empathy is a useful, if not essential, foundation for social work theory and practice. We outline a social work framework for empathy, one that is rooted in an interdisciplinary context, emphasizes recent findings in the field of social cognitive neuroscience, and yet is embedded in a social…

  12. Gain control in molecular information processing: lessons from neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemenman, Ilya

    2012-04-01

    Statistical properties of environments experienced by biological signaling systems in the real world change, which necessitates adaptive responses to achieve high fidelity information transmission. One form of such adaptive response is gain control. Here, we argue that a certain simple mechanism of gain control, understood well in the context of systems neuroscience, also works for molecular signaling. The mechanism allows us to transmit more than 1 bit (on or off) of information about the signal independent of the signal variance. It does not require additional molecular circuitry beyond that already present in many molecular systems, and in particular, it does not depend on existence of feedback loops. The mechanism provides a potential explanation for abundance of ultrasensitive response curves in biological regulatory networks.

  13. Research review: a neuroscience framework for pediatric anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Pine, Daniel S

    2007-07-01

    Across a range of mammalian species, early developmental variations in fear-related behaviors constrain patterns of anxious behavior throughout life. Individual differences in anxiety among rodents and non-human primates have been shown to reflect early-life influences of genes and the environment on brain circuitry. However, in humans, the manner in which genes and the environment developmentally shape individual differences in anxiety and associated brain circuitry remains poorly specified. The current review presents a conceptual framework that facilitates clinical research examining developmental influences on brain circuitry and anxiety. Research using threat-exposure paradigms might most directly integrate basic and clinical perspectives on pediatric anxiety.

  14. Tuning pathological brain oscillations with neurofeedback: a systems neuroscience framework.

    PubMed

    Ros, Tomas; J Baars, Bernard; Lanius, Ruth A; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) is emerging as a promising technique that enables self-regulation of ongoing brain oscillations. However, despite a rise in empirical evidence attesting to its clinical benefits, a solid theoretical basis is still lacking on the manner in which NFB is able to achieve these outcomes. The present work attempts to bring together various concepts from neurobiology, engineering, and dynamical systems so as to propose a contemporary theoretical framework for the mechanistic effects of NFB. The objective is to provide a firmly neurophysiological account of NFB, which goes beyond traditional behaviorist interpretations that attempt to explain psychological processes solely from a descriptive standpoint whilst treating the brain as a "black box". To this end, we interlink evidence from experimental findings that encompass a broad range of intrinsic brain phenomena: starting from "bottom-up" mechanisms of neural synchronization, followed by "top-down" regulation of internal brain states, moving to dynamical systems plus control-theoretic principles, and concluding with activity-dependent as well as homeostatic forms of brain plasticity. In support of our framework, we examine the effects of NFB in several brain disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In sum, it is argued that pathological oscillations emerge from an abnormal formation of brain-state attractor landscape(s). The central thesis put forward is that NFB tunes brain oscillations toward a homeostatic set-point which affords an optimal balance between network flexibility and stability (i.e., self-organised criticality (SOC)).

  15. Tuning pathological brain oscillations with neurofeedback: a systems neuroscience framework

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Tomas; J. Baars, Bernard; Lanius, Ruth A.; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) is emerging as a promising technique that enables self-regulation of ongoing brain oscillations. However, despite a rise in empirical evidence attesting to its clinical benefits, a solid theoretical basis is still lacking on the manner in which NFB is able to achieve these outcomes. The present work attempts to bring together various concepts from neurobiology, engineering, and dynamical systems so as to propose a contemporary theoretical framework for the mechanistic effects of NFB. The objective is to provide a firmly neurophysiological account of NFB, which goes beyond traditional behaviorist interpretations that attempt to explain psychological processes solely from a descriptive standpoint whilst treating the brain as a “black box”. To this end, we interlink evidence from experimental findings that encompass a broad range of intrinsic brain phenomena: starting from “bottom-up” mechanisms of neural synchronization, followed by “top-down” regulation of internal brain states, moving to dynamical systems plus control-theoretic principles, and concluding with activity-dependent as well as homeostatic forms of brain plasticity. In support of our framework, we examine the effects of NFB in several brain disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In sum, it is argued that pathological oscillations emerge from an abnormal formation of brain-state attractor landscape(s). The central thesis put forward is that NFB tunes brain oscillations toward a homeostatic set-point which affords an optimal balance between network flexibility and stability (i.e., self-organised criticality (SOC)). PMID:25566028

  16. An introductory review of information theory in the context of computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark D; Ikeda, Shiro; Manton, Jonathan H

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces several fundamental concepts in information theory from the perspective of their origins in engineering. Understanding such concepts is important in neuroscience for two reasons. Simply applying formulae from information theory without understanding the assumptions behind their definitions can lead to erroneous results and conclusions. Furthermore, this century will see a convergence of information theory and neuroscience; information theory will expand its foundations to incorporate more comprehensively biological processes thereby helping reveal how neuronal networks achieve their remarkable information processing abilities.

  17. Using Tinbergen’s Four Questions as the Framework for a Neuroscience Capstone Course

    PubMed Central

    Meitzen, John

    2015-01-01

    Capstone courses for upper-division students are a common feature of the undergraduate neuroscience curriculum. Here is described a method for adapting Nikolaas Tinbergen’s four questions to use as a framework for a neuroscience capstone course, in this case with a particular emphasis on neurotoxins. This course is intended to be a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major study, a B.S. in Biological Sciences with a Concentration in Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology. In particular, a broad, integrative approach is favored, with emphasis placed on primary literature, scientific process and effective, professional communication. To achieve this, Tinbergen’s four questions were adapted and implemented as the overarching framework of the course. Tinbergen’s questions range from the proximate to ultimate/evolutionary view, providing an excellent base upon which to teach students an integrative approach to understanding neuroscientific phenomena. For example, a particular neurotoxin can be examined from the proximate level (i.e., mechanism: how does this toxin specifically impact neural physiology) to the ultimate/evolutionary level (i.e., adaptation: why and to what extent did this toxin evolve naturally or the reason that it was initially invented by humans). The mechanics, goals, and objectives of the course are presented as we believe that it will serve as a flexible and useful model for neuroscience capstone courses concerning a wide variety of topics across multiple types of institutions. PMID:26557795

  18. The cognitive neuroscience of human decision making: a review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K

    2004-09-01

    Decision making, the process of choosing between options, is a fundamental human behavior that has been studied intensively by disciplines ranging from cognitive psychology to economics. Despite the importance of this behavior, the neural substrates of decision making are only beginning to be understood. Impaired decision making is recognized in neuropsychiatric conditions such as dementia and drug addiction, and the inconsistencies and biases of healthy decision makers have been intensively studied. However, the tools of cognitive neuroscience have only recently been applied to understanding the brain basis of this complex behavior. This article reviews the literature on the cognitive neuroscience of human decision making, focusing on the roles of the frontal lobes, and provides a conceptual framework for organizing this disparate body of work.

  19. A translational neuroscience framework for the development of socioemotional functioning in health and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Monk, Christopher S

    2013-11-01

    The development of socioemotional functioning is a complex process that occurs over a protracted time period and requires coordinating affective, cognitive, and social faculties. At many points in development, the trajectory of socioemotional development can be deleteriously altered due to a combination of environmental insults and individual vulnerabilities. The result can be psychopathology. However, researchers are just beginning to understand the neural and genetic mechanisms involved in the development of healthy and disordered socioemotional functioning. We propose a translational developmental neuroscience framework to understand the transactional process that results in socioemotional functioning in both healthy and disordered populations. We then apply this framework to healthy socioemotional development, pediatric anxiety, pediatric depression, and autism spectrum disorder, selectively reviewing current literature in light of the framework. Finally, we examine ways that the framework can help to frame future directions of research on socioemotional development and translational implications for intervention.

  20. Neuroscience data and tool sharing: a legal and policy framework for neuroinformatics.

    PubMed

    Eckersley, Peter; Egan, Gary F; Amari, Shun-ichi; Beltrame, Francesco; Bennett, Rob; Bjaalie, Jan G; Dalkara, Turgay; De Schutter, Erik; Gonzalez, Carmen; Grillner, Sten; Herz, Andreas; Hoffmann, K Peter; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P; Koslow, Stephen H; Lee, Soo-Young; Matthiessen, Line; Miller, Perry L; da Silva, Fernando Mira; Novak, Mirko; Ravindranath, Viji; Ritz, Raphael; Ruotsalainen, Ulla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Toga, Arthur W; Usui, Shiro; van Pelt, Jaap; Verschure, Paul; Willshaw, David; Wrobel, Andrzej; Tang, Yiyuan

    2003-01-01

    The requirements for neuroinformatics to make a significant impact on neuroscience are not simply technical--the hardware, software, and protocols for collaborative research--they also include the legal and policy frameworks within which projects operate. This is not least because the creation of large collaborative scientific databases amplifies the complicated interactions between proprietary, for-profit R&D and public "open science." In this paper, we draw on experiences from the field of genomics to examine some of the likely consequences of these interactions in neuroscience. Facilitating the widespread sharing of data and tools for neuroscientific research will accelerate the development of neuroinformatics. We propose approaches to overcome the cultural and legal barriers that have slowed these developments to date. We also draw on legal strategies employed by the Free Software community, in suggesting frameworks neuroinformatics might adopt to reinforce the role of public-science databases, and propose a mechanism for identifying and allowing "open science" uses for data whilst still permitting flexible licensing for secondary commercial research.

  1. Approaches to neuroscience data integration

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ernest; Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Marenco, Luis; Holford, Matthew E.; Morse, Thomas M.; Mutalik, Pradeep; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of neuroscience databases increases, the need for neuroscience data integration grows. This paper reviews and compares several approaches, including the Neuroscience Database Gateway (NDG), Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and Entrez Neuron, which enable neuroscience database annotation and integration. These approaches cover a range of activities spanning from registry, discovery and integration of a wide variety of neuroscience data sources. They also provide different user interfaces for browsing, querying and displaying query results. In Entrez Neuron, for example, four different facets or tree views (neuron, neuronal property, gene and drug) are used to hierarchically organize concepts that can be used for querying a collection of ontologies. The facets are also used to define the structure of the query results. PMID:19505888

  2. Management Framework for Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathezer, Gordon

    1985-01-01

    The development and implementation of an institutional framework to guide the management and use of information technologies (computing, office automation, and telecommunications) at Mount Royal College in Calgary, Alberta, are described. (Author/MLW)

  3. An Affective Neuroscience Framework for the Molecular Study of Internet Addiction.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Sindermann, Cornelia; Becker, Benjamin; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction. The present work aims at providing a framework on the molecular level as a basis for future research on the neural and behavioral level, in order to facilitate a comprehensive neurobiological model of Internet addiction and its clinical symptomatology. To help establish such a molecular framework for the study of Internet addiction, we investigated in N = 680 participants associations between individual differences in tendencies toward Internet addiction measured by the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS-2) and individual differences in primary emotional systems as assessed by the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). Regression analysis revealed that the ANPS scales FEAR and SADNESS were the ANPS scales most robustly positively linked to several (sub)scales of the GPIUS-2. Also the scales SEEKING, CARE and PLAY explain variance in some of the GPIUS-2 subscales. As such, these scales are negatively linked to the GPIUS-2 subscales. As the ANPS has been constructed on substantial available brain data including an extensive molecular body with respect to evolutionary highly conserved emotional circuitry in the ancient mammalian brain, the present study gives first ideas on putative molecular mechanisms underlying different facets of Internet addiction as derived

  4. An Affective Neuroscience Framework for the Molecular Study of Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christian; Sindermann, Cornelia; Becker, Benjamin; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction. The present work aims at providing a framework on the molecular level as a basis for future research on the neural and behavioral level, in order to facilitate a comprehensive neurobiological model of Internet addiction and its clinical symptomatology. To help establish such a molecular framework for the study of Internet addiction, we investigated in N = 680 participants associations between individual differences in tendencies toward Internet addiction measured by the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS-2) and individual differences in primary emotional systems as assessed by the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). Regression analysis revealed that the ANPS scales FEAR and SADNESS were the ANPS scales most robustly positively linked to several (sub)scales of the GPIUS-2. Also the scales SEEKING, CARE and PLAY explain variance in some of the GPIUS-2 subscales. As such, these scales are negatively linked to the GPIUS-2 subscales. As the ANPS has been constructed on substantial available brain data including an extensive molecular body with respect to evolutionary highly conserved emotional circuitry in the ancient mammalian brain, the present study gives first ideas on putative molecular mechanisms underlying different facets of Internet addiction as derived

  5. The RDoC framework: facilitating transition from ICD/DSM to dimensional approaches that integrate neuroscience and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) included in its new Strategic Plan the following aim: "Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures". The implementation of this aim was named the Research Domain Criteria project, or RDoC. RDoC is a programmatic initiative that will fund grants, contracts, early-phase trials, and similar activities for the purpose of generating studies to build a research literature that can inform future versions of psychiatric nosologies based upon neuroscience and behavioral science rather than descriptive phenomenology. RDoC departs markedly from the DSM and ICD processes, in which extensive workgroup meetings generate final and finely-honed sets of diagnoses that are modified in field tests only if problems with clinical utility arise. Rather, in keeping with its provenance as an experimental system, the RDoC provides a framework for conducting research in terms of fundamental circuit-based behavioral dimensions that cut across traditional diagnostic categories. While an important aim of the project is to validate particular dimensions as useful for eventual clinical work, an equally important goal is to provide information and experience about how to conceive and implement such an alternative approach to future diagnostic practices that can harness genetics and neuroscience in the service of more effective treatment and prevention. This paper summarizes the rationale for the RDoC project, its essential features, and potential methods of transitioning from DSM/ICD categories to dimensionally-oriented designs in research studies. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  6. Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-09-01

    Progress in understanding cognition requires a quantitative, theoretical framework, grounded in the other natural sciences and able to bridge between implementational, algorithmic and computational levels of explanation. I review recent results in neuroscience and cognitive biology that, when combined, provide key components of such an improved conceptual framework for contemporary cognitive science. Starting at the neuronal level, I first discuss the contemporary realization that single neurons are powerful tree-shaped computers, which implies a reorientation of computational models of learning and plasticity to a lower, cellular, level. I then turn to predictive systems theory (predictive coding and prediction-based learning) which provides a powerful formal framework for understanding brain function at a more global level. Although most formal models concerning predictive coding are framed in associationist terms, I argue that modern data necessitate a reinterpretation of such models in cognitive terms: as model-based predictive systems. Finally, I review the role of the theory of computation and formal language theory in the recent explosion of comparative biological research attempting to isolate and explore how different species differ in their cognitive capacities. Experiments to date strongly suggest that there is an important difference between humans and most other species, best characterized cognitively as a propensity by our species to infer tree structures from sequential data. Computationally, this capacity entails generative capacities above the regular (finite-state) level; implementationally, it requires some neural equivalent of a push-down stack. I dub this unusual human propensity "dendrophilia", and make a number of concrete suggestions about how such a system may be implemented in the human brain, about how and why it evolved, and what this implies for models of language acquisition. I conclude that, although much remains to be done, a

  7. Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-09-01

    Progress in understanding cognition requires a quantitative, theoretical framework, grounded in the other natural sciences and able to bridge between implementational, algorithmic and computational levels of explanation. I review recent results in neuroscience and cognitive biology that, when combined, provide key components of such an improved conceptual framework for contemporary cognitive science. Starting at the neuronal level, I first discuss the contemporary realization that single neurons are powerful tree-shaped computers, which implies a reorientation of computational models of learning and plasticity to a lower, cellular, level. I then turn to predictive systems theory (predictive coding and prediction-based learning) which provides a powerful formal framework for understanding brain function at a more global level. Although most formal models concerning predictive coding are framed in associationist terms, I argue that modern data necessitate a reinterpretation of such models in cognitive terms: as model-based predictive systems. Finally, I review the role of the theory of computation and formal language theory in the recent explosion of comparative biological research attempting to isolate and explore how different species differ in their cognitive capacities. Experiments to date strongly suggest that there is an important difference between humans and most other species, best characterized cognitively as a propensity by our species to infer tree structures from sequential data. Computationally, this capacity entails generative capacities above the regular (finite-state) level; implementationally, it requires some neural equivalent of a push-down stack. I dub this unusual human propensity "dendrophilia", and make a number of concrete suggestions about how such a system may be implemented in the human brain, about how and why it evolved, and what this implies for models of language acquisition. I conclude that, although much remains to be done, a

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Interdisciplinary Curriculum Design: A Case Study in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Modo, Michel; Kinchin, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Teaching of interdisciplinary fields of study poses a challenge to course organizers. Often interdisciplinary courses are taught by different departments, and hence, at best provide a multidisciplinary overview. Scientific progress in neuroscience, for instance, is thought to depend heavily on interdisciplinary investigations. If students are only taught to think in particular disciplines without integrating these into a coherent framework to study the nervous system, it is unlikely that they will truly develop interdisciplinary thinking. Yet, it is this interdisciplinary thinking that is at the heart of a holistic understanding of the brain. It is, therefore, important to develop a conceptual framework in which students can be taught interdisciplinary, rather than multidisciplinary, thinking. It is also important to recognize that not all teaching needs to be interdisciplinary, but that the type of curriculum design is dependent on the aims of the course, as well as on the background of the students. A rational curriculum design that aligns learning and teaching objectives is, therefore, advocated. PMID:23626496

  9. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Using Neuroscience to Help Understand Fear and Anxiety: A Two-System Framework.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-11-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders. But research on threat processing has not led to significant improvements in clinical practice. The authors propose that in order to take advantage of this progress for clinical gain, a conceptual reframing is needed. Key to this conceptual change is recognition of a distinction between circuits underlying two classes of responses elicited by threats: 1) behavioral responses and accompanying physiological changes in the brain and body and 2) conscious feeling states reflected in self-reports of fear and anxiety. This distinction leads to a "two systems" view of fear and anxiety. The authors argue that failure to recognize and consistently emphasize this distinction has impeded progress in understanding fear and anxiety disorders and hindered attempts to develop more effective pharmaceutical and psychological treatments. The two-system view suggests a new way forward.

  11. How neuroscience can inform the study of individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Dennis J

    2017-02-14

    Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks. The modules that make up these networks use similar computational processes that involve multiple forms of neural plasticity, each having different time constants. Accordingly, these networks might best be characterized in terms of the information they process rather than in terms of abstract psychological processes such as working memory and executive control.

  12. The Vehicular Information Space Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Vivian; Schlichter, Johann; Schweiger, Benno

    Vehicular networks are distributed, self-organizing and highly mobile ad hoc networks. They allow for providing drivers with up-to-the-minute information about their environment. Therefore, they are expected to be a decisive future enabler for enhancing driving comfort and safety. This article introduces the Vehicular Information Space framework (VIS). Vehicles running the VIS form a kind of distributed database. It enables them to provide information like existing hazards, parking spaces or traffic densities in a location aware and fully distributed manner. In addition, vehicles can retrieve, modify and delete these information items. The underlying algorithm is based on features derived from existing structured Peer-to-Peer algorithms and extended to suit the specific characteristics of highly mobile ad hoc networks. We present, implement and simulate the VIS using a motorway and an urban traffic environment. Simulation studies on VIS message occurrence show that the VIS implies reasonable traffic overhead. Also, overall VIS message traffic is independent from the number of information items provided.

  13. Network neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system. PMID:28230844

  14. Network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  15. Psychoanalysis and social cognitive neuroscience: a new framework for a dialogue.

    PubMed

    Georgieff, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    The fields of psychoanalysis and neuroscience use different methods of description, analysis and comprehension of reality, and because each is based on a different methodology, each approach constructs a different representation of reality. Thus, psychoanalysis could contribute to a general psychology involving neuroscience to the extent that a "psychoanalytical psychology" (the theory of mental functioning that is extrapolated from psychoanalytical practice) defines natural objects of study (mind functions) for a multidisciplinary approach. However, the so called "naturalisation" of psychoanalytical concepts (metapsychology) does not imply the reduction of these concepts to biology; rather, it suggests a search for compatibility between psychoanalytical concepts and neuroscientific description. Such compatibility would mean the search for common objects that could be described from either a psychoanalytic or a neuroscientific point of view. We suggest that inter-subjectivity, empathy or "co-thinking" processes, from early development to the psychoanalytic relationship or the interaction between the patient and the analyst, could be such a common object for cognitive social neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Together, neuroscience and psychoanalysis could then contribute to a multidisciplinary approach of psychic inter- or co-activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Translating Neuroscience, Psychology and Education: An Abstracted Conceptual Framework for the Learning Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, Gregory M.; Horvath, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators strive to understand and apply knowledge gained through scientific endeavours. Yet, within the various sciences of learning, particularly within educational neuroscience, there have been instances of seemingly contradictory or incompatible research findings and theories. We argue that this situation arises through confusion between…

  17. Emotional evidence and jurors' judgments: the promise of neuroscience for informing psychology and law.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Bottoms, Bette L

    2009-01-01

    This article is a review of psychological and neuroscience research addressing how juror decision making is influenced by emotion elicited from potentially disturbing evidence such as gruesome autopsy photographs, victim impact statements, and information about a defendant's tragic personal history presented as mitigating evidence. We review (a) converging evidence suggesting that the presence versus absence of such evidence results in more punitive juror judgments, (b) social cognition theories that provide potential explanations for these effects, and (c) neuroscience research aimed at understanding the role of emotion in moral judgments by identifying how brain activity is affected by emotion-eliciting stimuli. We argue that neuroimaging evidence showing that emotional stimuli cause heightened emotion and decreased effortful cognitive processing is relevant in understanding jurors' increased punitiveness after being exposed to emotional evidence, and in turn relevant to debates about the admissibility of emotional evidence in courts of law. Ultimately, we argue for more ecologically valid psychological research to clarify these important issues. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding causal reasoning and the law.

    PubMed

    Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2004-11-29

    Over the past couple of decades, there have been great developments in the fields of psychology and cognitive neuroscience that have allowed the advancement of our understanding of how people make judgements about causality in several domains. We provide a review of some of the contemporary psychological models of causal thinking that are directly relevant to legal reasoning. In addition, we cover some exciting new research using advanced neuroimaging techniques that have helped to uncover the underlying neural signatures of complex causal reasoning. Through the use of functional imaging, we provide a first-hand look at how the brain responds to evidence that is either consistent or inconsistent with one's beliefs and expectations. Based on the data covered in this review, we propose some ideas for how the effectiveness of causal reasoning, especially as it pertains to legal decision-making, may be facilitated.

  19. A cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding causal reasoning and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2004-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades, there have been great developments in the fields of psychology and cognitive neuroscience that have allowed the advancement of our understanding of how people make judgements about causality in several domains. We provide a review of some of the contemporary psychological models of causal thinking that are directly relevant to legal reasoning. In addition, we cover some exciting new research using advanced neuroimaging techniques that have helped to uncover the underlying neural signatures of complex causal reasoning. Through the use of functional imaging, we provide a first-hand look at how the brain responds to evidence that is either consistent or inconsistent with one's beliefs and expectations. Based on the data covered in this review, we propose some ideas for how the effectiveness of causal reasoning, especially as it pertains to legal decision-making, may be facilitated. PMID:15590615

  20. A Framework for Characterizing Drug Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Mark; Bodenreider, Olivier; Wacholder, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Drug information is complex, voluminous, heterogeneous, and dynamic. Multiple sources are available, each providing some elements of information about drugs (usually for a given purpose), but there exists no integrated view or directory that could be used to locate sources appropriate to a given purpose. We examined 23 sources that provide drug information in the pharmacy, chemistry, biology, and clinical medicine domains. Their drug information content could be categorized with 39 dimensions. We propose this list of dimensions as a framework for characterizing drug information sources. As an evaluation, we show that this framework is useful for comparing drug information sources and selecting sources most relevant to a given use case. PMID:18999182

  1. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health.

  2. Designing Interventions Informed by Scientific Knowledge About Effects of Early Adversity: A Translational Neuroscience Agenda for Next Generation Addictions Research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of extensive scientific knowledge about the neurobiological systems and neural pathways underlying addictions, only limited progress has been made to reduce the population-level incidence of addictions by using prevention and treatment programs. In this area of research the translation of basic neuroscience of causal mechanisms to effective interventions has not been fully realized. In this article we describe how an understanding of the effects of early adverse experiences on brain and biological development may provide new opportunities to achieve impact at scale with respect to reduction of addictions. We propose four categories of new knowledge that translational neuroscience investigations of addictions should incorporate to be successful. We then describe a translational neuroscience-informed smoking cessation intervention based on this model. PMID:26985399

  3. Mining the Mind Research Network: A Novel Framework for Exploring Large Scale, Heterogeneous Translational Neuroscience Research Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bockholt, Henry J.; Scully, Mark; Courtney, William; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Scott, Adam; Caprihan, Arvind; Fries, Jill; Kalyanam, Ravi; Segall, Judith M.; de la Garza, Raul; Lane, Susan; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2009-01-01

    A neuroinformatics (NI) system is critical to brain imaging research in order to shorten the time between study conception and results. Such a NI system is required to scale well when large numbers of subjects are studied. Further, when multiple sites participate in research projects organizational issues become increasingly difficult. Optimized NI applications mitigate these problems. Additionally, NI software enables coordination across multiple studies, leveraging advantages potentially leading to exponential research discoveries. The web-based, Mind Research Network (MRN), database system has been designed and improved through our experience with 200 research studies and 250 researchers from seven different institutions. The MRN tools permit the collection, management, reporting and efficient use of large scale, heterogeneous data sources, e.g., multiple institutions, multiple principal investigators, multiple research programs and studies, and multimodal acquisitions. We have collected and analyzed data sets on thousands of research participants and have set up a framework to automatically analyze the data, thereby making efficient, practical data mining of this vast resource possible. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for capturing and analyzing heterogeneous neuroscience research data sources that has been fully optimized for end-users to perform novel data mining. PMID:20461147

  4. A Framework for Content-based Retrieval of EEG with Applications to Neuroscience and Beyond*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kyungmin; Robbins, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a prototype framework for content-based EEG retrieval (CBER). Like content-based image retrieval, the proposed framework retrieves EEG segments similar to the query EEG segment in a large database. Such retrieval of EEG can be used to assist data mining of brain signals by allowing researchers to understand the association between brain patterns, responses, and the environment. Retrieval might also be used to enhance the accuracy of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems by providing related samples for training. We present key components of CBER and explain how to handle the distinctive characteristics of EEG. To demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, we implemented a simple EEG database of about 37,000 samples from more than 100 subjects. We ran two retrieval scenarios with a set of EEG features and evaluation metrics. The results of finding similar subjects clearly demonstrate the potential of CBER in many EEG applications. PMID:24770451

  5. The functional-cognitive framework as a tool for accelerating progress in cognitive neuroscience: On the benefits of bridging rather than reducing levels of analyses.

    PubMed

    Vahey, Nigel; Whelan, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The subject matter of neuroscience research is complex, and synthesising the wealth of data from this research to better understand mental processes is challenging. A useful strategy, therefore, may be to distinguish explicitly between the causal effects of the environment on behaviour (i.e. functional analyses) and the mental processes that mediate these effects (i.e. cognitive analyses). In this article, we describe how the functional-cognitive (F-C) framework can accelerate cognitive neuroscience and also advance a functional treatment of brain activity. We first highlight that cognitive neuroscience can particularly benefit from the F-C approach by providing an alternative to the problematic practice of reducing cognitive constructs to behavioural and/or neural proxies. Next, we outline how functional (behaviour-environment) relations can serve as a bridge between cognitive and neural processes by restoring mental constructs to their original role as heuristic tools. Finally, we give some examples of how both cognitive neuroscience and traditional functional approaches can mutually benefit from the F-C framework.

  6. Pyff – A Pythonic Framework for Feedback Applications and Stimulus Presentation in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Venthur, Bastian; Scholler, Simon; Williamson, John; Dähne, Sven; Treder, Matthias S.; Kramarek, Maria T.; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Pyff, the Pythonic feedback framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation. Pyff provides a platform-independent framework that allows users to develop and run neuroscientific experiments in the programming language Python. Existing solutions have mostly been implemented in C++, which makes for a rather tedious programming task for non-computer-scientists, or in Matlab, which is not well suited for more advanced visual or auditory applications. Pyff was designed to make experimental paradigms (i.e., feedback and stimulus applications) easily programmable. It includes base classes for various types of common feedbacks and stimuli as well as useful libraries for external hardware such as eyetrackers. Pyff is also equipped with a steadily growing set of ready-to-use feedbacks and stimuli. It can be used as a standalone application, for instance providing stimulus presentation in psychophysics experiments, or within a closed loop such as in biofeedback or brain–computer interfacing experiments. Pyff communicates with other systems via a standardized communication protocol and is therefore suitable to be used with any system that may be adapted to send its data in the specified format. Having such a general, open-source framework will help foster a fruitful exchange of experimental paradigms between research groups. In particular, it will decrease the need of reprogramming standard paradigms, ease the reproducibility of published results, and naturally entail some standardization of stimulus presentation. PMID:21160550

  7. Pyff - a pythonic framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Venthur, Bastian; Scholler, Simon; Williamson, John; Dähne, Sven; Treder, Matthias S; Kramarek, Maria T; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Pyff, the Pythonic feedback framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation. Pyff provides a platform-independent framework that allows users to develop and run neuroscientific experiments in the programming language Python. Existing solutions have mostly been implemented in C++, which makes for a rather tedious programming task for non-computer-scientists, or in Matlab, which is not well suited for more advanced visual or auditory applications. Pyff was designed to make experimental paradigms (i.e., feedback and stimulus applications) easily programmable. It includes base classes for various types of common feedbacks and stimuli as well as useful libraries for external hardware such as eyetrackers. Pyff is also equipped with a steadily growing set of ready-to-use feedbacks and stimuli. It can be used as a standalone application, for instance providing stimulus presentation in psychophysics experiments, or within a closed loop such as in biofeedback or brain-computer interfacing experiments. Pyff communicates with other systems via a standardized communication protocol and is therefore suitable to be used with any system that may be adapted to send its data in the specified format. Having such a general, open-source framework will help foster a fruitful exchange of experimental paradigms between research groups. In particular, it will decrease the need of reprogramming standard paradigms, ease the reproducibility of published results, and naturally entail some standardization of stimulus presentation.

  8. The neurosciences and the search for a unified psychology: the science and esthetics of a single framework.

    PubMed

    Stam, Henderikus J

    2015-01-01

    The search for a so-called unified or integrated theory has long served as a goal for some psychologists, even if the search is often implicit. But if the established sciences do not have an explicitly unified set of theories, then why should psychology? After examining this question again I argue that psychology is in fact reasonably unified around its methods and its commitment to functional explanations, an indeterminate functionalism. The question of the place of the neurosciences in this framework is complex. On the one hand, the neuroscientific project will not likely renew and synthesize the disparate arms of psychology. On the other hand, their reformulation of what it means to be human will exert an influence in multiple ways. One way to capture that influence is to conceptualize the brain in terms of a technology that we interact with in a manner that we do not yet fully understand. In this way we maintain both a distance from neuro-reductionism and refrain from committing to an unfettered subjectivity.

  9. The neurosciences and the search for a unified psychology: the science and esthetics of a single framework

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Henderikus J.

    2015-01-01

    The search for a so-called unified or integrated theory has long served as a goal for some psychologists, even if the search is often implicit. But if the established sciences do not have an explicitly unified set of theories, then why should psychology? After examining this question again I argue that psychology is in fact reasonably unified around its methods and its commitment to functional explanations, an indeterminate functionalism. The question of the place of the neurosciences in this framework is complex. On the one hand, the neuroscientific project will not likely renew and synthesize the disparate arms of psychology. On the other hand, their reformulation of what it means to be human will exert an influence in multiple ways. One way to capture that influence is to conceptualize the brain in terms of a technology that we interact with in a manner that we do not yet fully understand. In this way we maintain both a distance from neuro-reductionism and refrain from committing to an unfettered subjectivity. PMID:26500571

  10. A Framework to Manage Information Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; King, T.; Crichton, D.; Walker, R.; Roberts, A.; Thieman, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Information Model is the foundation on which an Information System is built. It defines the entities to be processed, their attributes, and the relationships that add meaning. The development and subsequent management of the Information Model is the single most significant factor for the development of a successful information system. A framework of tools has been developed that supports the management of an information model with the rigor typically afforded to software development. This framework provides for evolutionary and collaborative development independent of system implementation choices. Once captured, the modeling information can be exported to common languages for the generation of documentation, application databases, and software code that supports both traditional and semantic web applications. This framework is being successfully used for several science information modeling projects including those for the Planetary Data System (PDS), the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), the National Cancer Institute's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), and several Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) projects. The objective of the Space Physics Archive Search and Exchange (SPASE) program is to promote collaboration and coordination of archiving activity for the Space Plasma Physics community and ensure the compatibility of the architectures used for a global distributed system and the individual data centers. Over the past several years, the SPASE data model working group has made great progress in developing the SPASE Data Model and supporting artifacts including a data dictionary, XML Schema, and two ontologies. The authors have captured the SPASE Information Model in this framework. This allows the generation of documentation that presents the SPASE Information Model in object-oriented notation including UML class diagrams and class hierarchies. The modeling information can also be exported to semantic web languages such

  11. Decomposing dendrophilia. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honing, Henkjan; Zuidema, Willem

    2014-09-01

    The future of cognitive science will be about bridging neuroscience and behavioral studies, with essential roles played by comparative biology, formal modeling, and the theory of computation. Nowhere will this integration be more strongly needed than in understanding the biological basis of language and music. We thus strongly sympathize with the general framework that Fitch [1] proposes, and welcome the remarkably broad and readable review he presents to support it.

  12. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  13. Managing information systems: an ethical framework and information needs matrix.

    PubMed

    Caputo, R K

    1991-01-01

    This paper urged administrators in human services to attend to values and ethics in the design and implementation of automated information systems. Toward this end, it presented an ethical framework reasserting the primacy of clients as citizens and encouraging the development of client-driven information systems. Finally, the paper presented the rationale for and two examples of an Information Needs Matrix to assist administrators in their deliberations about allocating discretionary resources among functional units within organizations.

  14. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  15. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  16. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…

  17. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner. PMID:27930289

  18. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2016-12-20

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner.

  19. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  20. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  1. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF.

  2. Understanding vulnerability for depression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective: A reappraisal of attentional factors and a new conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Rudi; Koster, Ernst H W

    2010-03-01

    We propose a framework to understand increases in vulnerability for depression after recurrent episodes that links attention processes and schema activation to negative mood states, by integrating cognitive and neurobiological findings. Depression is characterized by a mood-congruent attentional bias at later stages of information processing. The basic idea of our framework is that decreased activity in prefrontal areas, mediated by the serotonin metabolism which the HPA axis controls, is associated with an impaired attenuation of subcortical regions, resulting in prolonged activation of the amygdala in response to stressors in the environment. Reduced prefrontal control in interaction with depressogenic schemas leads to impaired ability to exert attentional inhibitory control over negative elaborative processes such as rumination, leading in turn to sustained negative affect. These elaborative processes are triggered by the activation of negative schemas after confrontation with stressors. In our framework, attentional impairments are postulated as a crucial process in explaining the increasing vulnerability after depressive episodes, linking cognitive and biological vulnerability factors. We review the empirical data on the biological factors associated with the attentional impairments and detail how they are associated with rumination and mood regulation. The aim of our framework is to stimulate translational research.

  3. [Research on tumor information grid framework].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Qin, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Tan, Jianghao; Cao, Haitao; Chen, Youping; Zhang, Ke; Ding, Yuqing

    2013-10-01

    In order to realize tumor disease information sharing and unified management, we utilized grid technology to make the data and software resources which distributed in various medical institutions for effective integration so that we could make the heterogeneous resources consistent and interoperable in both semantics and syntax aspects. This article describes the tumor grid framework, the type of the service being packaged in Web Service Description Language (WSDL) and extensible markup language schemas definition (XSD), the client use the serialized document to operate the distributed resources. The service objects could be built by Unified Modeling Language (UML) as middle ware to create application programming interface. All of the grid resources are registered in the index and released in the form of Web Services based on Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF). Using the system we can build a multi-center, large sample and networking tumor disease resource sharing framework to improve the level of development in medical scientific research institutions and the patient's quality of life.

  4. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  5. Interactionist Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Badre, David; Frank, Michael J; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-12-02

    We argue that bidirectional interaction between animal and human studies is essential for understanding the human brain. The revolution in meso-scale study of circuits in non-human species provides a historical opportunity. However, to fully realize its potential requires integration with human neuroscience. We describe three strategies for successful interactionist neuroscience.

  6. Telemedicine in neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Ravindra, Aditi

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that in most countries, there is a perennial shortage of specialists in neurosciences. Even the few available neurologists and neurosurgeons are clustered in the metros and urban areas. Those living in suburban and rural areas have limited or no access to neurological care. At the same time there has been an unprecedented growth in ICT (Information and Communication Technology). In this article, the authors review the increasing use of telemedicine in neurosciences.

  7. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. How the early voltage clamp studies of José del Castillo inform "modern" neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    The description of ionic currents that flow across the membrane of the squid giant axon during an action potential sparked an interest in determining whether there were similar currents in vertebrates. The preparation of choice was the node of Ranvier in single myelinated fibers in frog. José del Castillo spent 3 years on the United States mainland from 1956 to 1959. During that time, he collaborated with Jerome Y. Lettvin and John W. Moore. I discuss how these individuals met one another and some of their scientific discoveries using the voltage clamp to study squid giant axons and frog nodes. Much of this work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and I attempt to convey a sense of the unique scientific "melting pot" that existed at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the broader effect that del Castillo had on "modern" neuroscience.

  9. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior.

  10. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  11. Framework for a new dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: is the combined neuro-psychoanalytic approach the missing link?

    PubMed Central

    Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2007-01-01

    Freud's legacy deriving from his work The project for a scientific psychology (1895) could give a new impetus to the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences. A rapproachment phase is warrented. Based on the work of psychoanalysts who are themselves neuroscientists (such as Mauro Mancia, Martha Koukkou and Harold Shevrin) or have a long term dialogue with neuroscientists (Arnold Modell), three points of epistemological congruence are described: 1. dualism is no longer a satisfactory solution 2. cautions for the centrality of interpretation (hermeneutics) 3. the self-criticism of neuroscientists PMID:17976245

  12. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  13. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  14. Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

  15. Neuroscientific information bias in metacomprehension: the effect of brain images on metacomprehension judgment of neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kenji; Kitagami, Shinji; Takahashi, Tomoyo; Hattori, Yosuke; Ito, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated how brain images affect metacomprehension judgments of neuroscience research. Participants made a prereading judgment of comprehension of the text topic and then read a text about neuroimaging findings. In Experiment 1, participants read text only or text accompanying brain images. In Experiment 2, participants read text accompanying bar graphs or text accompanying brain images. Then participants were asked to rate their comprehension of the text. Finally, they completed comprehension tests. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the text accompanying brain images was associated with higher metacomprehension judgments than was the text only, whereas the performance of the comprehension test did not differ between each condition. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the text accompanying brain images was associated not only with credibility of the text, but also with higher metacomprehension judgments than was the text accompanying the bar graphs, whereas the performance of the comprehension test did not differ between each condition. The findings suggest that the readers' subjective judgments differ from actual comprehension.

  16. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning.

    PubMed

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  17. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  18. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  19. The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

  20. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  1. Attitudes toward neuroscience education in psychiatry: a national multi-stakeholder survey.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes of chairs of psychiatry departments, psychiatrists, and psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in residency programs and beyond in order to inform future neuroscience education approaches. This multi-stakeholder survey captured data on demographics, self-assessments of neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interests in specific neuroscience topics. In 2012, the authors distributed the surveys: by paper to 133 US psychiatry department chairs and electronically through the American Psychiatric Association to 3,563 of its members (1,000 psychiatrists and 2,563 trainees). The response rates for the chair, psychiatrist, and trainee surveys were 53, 9, and 18 %, respectively. A large majority of respondents agreed with the need for more neuroscience education in general and with respect to their own training. Most respondents believed that neuroscience will help destigmatize mental illness and begin producing new treatments or personalized medicines in 5-10 years. Only a small proportion of trainees and psychiatrists, however, reported a strong knowledge base in neuroscience. Respondents also reported broad enthusiasm for transdiagnostic topics in neuroscience (such as emotion regulation and attention/cognition) and description at the level of neural circuits. This study demonstrates the opportunity and enthusiasm for teaching more neuroscience in psychiatry among a broad range of stakeholder groups. A high level of interest was also found for transdiagnostic topics and approaches. We suggest that a transdiagnostic framework may be an effective way to deliver neuroscience education to the psychiatric community and illustrate this through a case example, drawing the similarity between this neuroscience approach and problem-based formulations familiar to clinicians.

  2. Alzheimer's disease drug development: translational neuroscience strategies.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.

  3. Ontologies for Neuroscience: What are they and What are they Good for?

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2008-01-01

    Current information technology practices in neuroscience make it difficult to understand the organization of the brain across spatial scales. Subcellular junctional connectivity, cytoarchitectural local connectivity, and long-range topographical connectivity are just a few of the relevant data domains that must be synthesized in order to make sense of the brain. However, due to the heterogeneity of the data produced within these domains, the landscape of multiscale neuroscience data is fragmented. A standard framework for neuroscience data is needed to bridge existing digital data resources and to help in the conceptual unification of the multiple disciplines of neuroscience. Using our efforts in building ontologies for neuroscience as an example, we examine the benefits and limits of ontologies as a solution for this data integration problem. We provide several examples of their application to problems of image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of data across scales and researchers. PMID:19753098

  4. Decision Neuroscience: Neuroeconomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the choices we make. Our decisions – from the mundane to the impossibly complex – continually shape the courses of our lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools of neuroscience to understand the mechanisms that underlie decision making, as part of the new discipline of decision neuroscience. A primary goal of this emerging field has been to identify the processes that underlie specific decision variables, including the value of rewards, the uncertainty associated with particular outcomes, and the consequences of social interactions. Recent work suggests potential neural substrates that integrate these variables, potentially reflecting a common neural currency for value, to facilitate value comparisons. Despite the successes of decision neuroscience research for elucidating brain mechanisms, significant challenges remain. These include building new conceptual frameworks for decision making, integrating research findings across disparate techniques and species, and extending results from neuroscience to shape economic theory. To overcome these challenges, future research will likely focus on interpersonal variability in decision making, with the eventual goal of creating biologically plausible models for individual choice. PMID:22754602

  5. Achieving Information Dominance: Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    1 19 th ICCRTS “C2 Agility: Lessons Learned From Research and Operations” For the paper titled: Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Abstract for Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework One of the key lessons learned from analysis of Joint operations

  6. Epigenetics: An Emerging Framework for Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nursing.

    PubMed

    DeSocio, Janiece E

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to synthesize and report research findings from neuroscience and epigenetics that contribute to an emerging explanatory framework for advanced practice psychiatric nursing. Discoveries in neuroscience and epigenetics reveal synergistic mechanisms that support the integration of psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, and psychoeducation in practice. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses will benefit from an expanded knowledge base in neuroscience and epigenetics that informs and explains the scientific rationale for our integrated practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, John; Dowson, Scott; Hatley, Wes

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety of relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.

  8. Social neuroscience and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Westby, Carol E

    2014-01-01

    The role of theory of mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorders and other communication impairments has been an active area of research in the last 30 years. Advances in neuroimaging in the last 10 years have led to the rise of the field of social neuroscience, which has markedly increased the understanding of the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical and neurochemical nature of ToM functioning and deficits in typically developing individuals and in children and adults with a variety of social and communication impairments. The goal of this paper is to (a) describe the current concepts of ToM based on neuroscience research, and (b) present a framework for the dimensions of ToM that have been identified, which can be used to guide assessment and intervention for persons with deficits in ToM that affect social interactions. This article presents neuroscience research that has documented the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical bases for cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM as well as neurochemical and epigenetic influences on ToM. This information provides an important framework for assessing ToM deficits in persons with social and communication impairments and developing interventions that target the specific dimensions of ToM deficits. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Information Interaction: Providing a Framework for Information Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Elaine G.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)

  10. Information Interaction: Providing a Framework for Information Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Elaine G.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. Framework for a clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Van De Velde, R; Lansiers, R; Antonissen, G

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of Clinical Information System architecture is presented. This architecture has been developed and implemented based on components following a strong underlying conceptual and technological model. Common Object Request Broker and n-tier technology featuring centralised and departmental clinical information systems as the back-end store for all clinical data are used. Servers located in the "middle" tier apply the clinical (business) model and application rules. The main characteristics are the focus on modelling and reuse of both data and business logic. Scalability as well as adaptability to constantly changing requirements via component driven computing are the main reasons for that approach.

  13. Integrated neuroscience program: an alternative approach to teaching neurosciences to chiropractic students.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; La Rose, James; Zhang, Niu

    2009-01-01

    Most chiropractic colleges do not offer independent neuroscience courses because of an already crowded curriculum. The Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida has developed and implemented an integrated neuroscience program that incorporates neurosciences into different courses. The goals of the program have been to bring neurosciences to students, excite students about the interrelationship of neuroscience and chiropractic, improve students' understanding of neuroscience, and help the students understand the mechanisms underpinning the chiropractic practice. This study provides a descriptive analysis on how the integrated neuroscience program is taught via students' attitudes toward neuroscience and the comparison of students' perceptions of neuroscience content knowledge at different points in the program. A questionnaire consisting of 58 questions regarding the neuroscience courses was conducted among 339 students. The questionnaire was developed by faculty members who were involved in teaching neuroscience and administered in the classroom by faculty members who were not involved in the study. Student perceptions of their neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, and knowledge application increased considerably through the quarters, especially among the 2nd-year students. The integrated neuroscience program achieved several of its goals, including an increase in students' confidence, positive attitude, ability to learn, and perception of neuroscience content knowledge. The authors believe that such gains can expand student ability to interpret clinical cases and inspire students to become excited about chiropractic research. The survey provides valuable information for teaching faculty to make the course content more relevant to chiropractic students.

  14. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  15. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  16. Framework for a clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, R

    2000-01-01

    The current status of our work towards the design and implementation of a reference architecture for a Clinical Information System is presented. This architecture has been developed and implemented based on components following a strong underlying conceptual and technological model. Common Object Request Broker and n-tier technology featuring centralised and departmental clinical information systems as the back-end store for all clinical data are used. Servers located in the 'middle' tier apply the clinical (business) model and application rules to communicate with so-called 'thin client' workstations. The main characteristics are the focus on modelling and reuse of both data and business logic as there is a shift away from data and functional modelling towards object modelling. Scalability as well as adaptability to constantly changing requirements via component driven computing are the main reasons for that approach.

  17. Defining neuroscience nursing practice: the 2001 role delineation study.

    PubMed

    Blissitt, Patricia A; Roberts, Stephen; Hinkle, Janice L; Kopp, Elaine M

    2003-02-01

    Studies that provided a blueprint for the Certified Neuroscience Registered Nurse (CNRN) examination were conducted in 1987, 1992, and 1997. In 2000, the American Board of Neuroscience Nursing (ABNN) formed a task force to re-examine the previous role delineation survey, obtain information to define current neuroscience nursing practice, and provide content validity for future CNRN examinations. Previous role delineation studies conducted by ABNN and a review of the literature provided the background for the study. The theoretical framework was the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) taxonomy and the methodology was a survey design. Computer Adaptive Technologies, Inc. (CAT), assisted the task force with survey development and data analysis. The survey, a three-part questionnaire, was mailed to 1,505 CNRNs and returned by 453 participants.

  18. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  19. Textpresso for neuroscience: searching the full text of thousands of neuroscience research papers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Michael; Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-09-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/.

  20. Information and Knowledge: An Evolutionary Framework for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Many definitions of information, knowledge, and data have been suggested throughout the history of information science. In this article, the objective is to provide definitions that are usable for the physical, biological, and social meanings of the terms, covering the various senses important to our field. Argument: Information 1 is…

  1. Neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current neuroscience-informed perspectives for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2012-10-01

    The neuroimaging literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Here, we provide a critical overview of neuroimaging studies published recently, highlighting perspectives that may be of relevance for clinicians. After a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and EMBASE, we located 41 pertinent papers published between January 2011 and April 2012, comprising both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. This literature is increasingly contributing to the notion that the pathophysiology of ADHD reflects abnormal interplay among large-scale brain circuits. Moreover, recent studies have begun to reveal the mechanisms of action of pharmacological treatment. Finally, imaging studies with a developmental perspective are revealing the brain correlates of ADHD over the lifespan, complementing clinical observations on the phenotypic continuity and discontinuity of the disorder. However, despite the increasing potential to eventually inform clinical practice, current imaging studies do not have validated applications in day-to-day clinical practice. Although novel analytical techniques are likely to accelerate the pace of translational applications, at the present we advise caution regarding inappropriate commercial misuse of imaging techniques in ADHD.

  2. Hungry for reward: How can neuroscience inform the development of treatment for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed

    Park, Rebecca J; Godier, Lauren R; Cowdrey, Felicity A

    2014-11-01

    Dysfunctional reward from the pursuit of thinness presents a major challenge to recovery from Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We explore the neuroscientific basis of aberrant reward in AN, with the aim of generating novel hypotheses for translational investigation, and elucidate disease mechanisms to inform the development of targeted interventions. Relevant neuroimaging and behavioural studies are reviewed. These suggest that altered eating in AN may be a consequence of aberrant reward processing combined with exaggerated cognitive control. We consider evidence that such aberrant reward processing is reflected in the compulsive behaviours characterising AN, with substantial overlap in the neural circuits implicated in reward processing and compulsivity. Drawing on contemporary neuroscientific theories of substance dependence, processes underpinning the shift from the initially rewarding pursuit of thinness to extreme and compulsive weight control behaviours are discussed. It is suggested that in AN, weight loss behaviour begins as overtly rewarding, goal-directed and positively reinforced, but over time becomes habitual and increasingly negatively reinforced. Excessive habit formation is suggested as one underlying mechanism perpetuating compulsive behaviour. Ongoing research into the behavioural and neural basis of aberrant reward in AN is required to further elucidate mechanisms. We discuss clinical and transdiagnostic implications, and propose that future treatment innovation may benefit from the development of novel interventions targeting aberrant reward processing in AN.

  3. Fisher information framework for time series modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, R. C.; Plastino, A.

    2017-08-01

    A robust prediction model invoking the Takens embedding theorem, whose working hypothesis is obtained via an inference procedure based on the minimum Fisher information principle, is presented. The coefficients of the ansatz, central to the working hypothesis satisfy a time independent Schrödinger-like equation in a vector setting. The inference of (i) the probability density function of the coefficients of the working hypothesis and (ii) the establishing of constraint driven pseudo-inverse condition for the modeling phase of the prediction scheme, is made, for the case of normal distributions, with the aid of the quantum mechanical virial theorem. The well-known reciprocity relations and the associated Legendre transform structure for the Fisher information measure (FIM, hereafter)-based model in a vector setting (with least square constraints) are self-consistently derived. These relations are demonstrated to yield an intriguing form of the FIM for the modeling phase, which defines the working hypothesis, solely in terms of the observed data. Cases for prediction employing time series' obtained from the: (i) the Mackey-Glass delay-differential equation, (ii) one ECG signal from the MIT-Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital (MIT-BIH) cardiac arrhythmia database, and (iii) one ECG signal from the Creighton University ventricular tachyarrhythmia database. The ECG samples were obtained from the Physionet online repository. These examples demonstrate the efficiency of the prediction model. Numerical examples for exemplary cases are provided.

  4. Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data.

    PubMed

    Akil, Huda; Martone, Maryann E; Van Essen, David C

    2011-02-11

    Understanding the brain requires a broad range of approaches and methods from the domains of biology, psychology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The fundamental challenge is to decipher the "neural choreography" associated with complex behaviors and functions, including thoughts, memories, actions, and emotions. This demands the acquisition and integration of vast amounts of data of many types, at multiple scales in time and in space. Here we discuss the need for neuroinformatics approaches to accelerate progress, using several illustrative examples. The nascent field of "connectomics" aims to comprehensively describe neuronal connectivity at either a macroscopic level (in long-distance pathways for the entire brain) or a microscopic level (among axons, dendrites, and synapses in a small brain region). The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) encompasses all of neuroscience and facilitates the integration of existing knowledge and databases of many types. These examples illustrate the opportunities and challenges of data mining across multiple tiers of neuroscience information and underscore the need for cultural and infrastructure changes if neuroinformatics is to fulfill its potential to advance our understanding of the brain.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in Mining Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Huda; Martone, Maryann E.; Van Essen, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the brain requires a broad range of approaches and methods from the domains of biology, psychology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The fundamental challenge is to decipher the “neural choreography” associated with complex behaviors and functions, including thoughts, memories, actions, and emotions. This demands the acquisition and integration of vast amounts of data of many types, at multiple scales in time and in space. Here, we discuss the need for neuroinformatics approaches to accelerate progress, using several illustrative examples. The nascent field of ‘connectomics’ aims to comprehensively describe neuronal connectivity at either a macroscopic level (long-distance pathways for the entire brain) or a microscopic level (axons, dendrites, synapses in a small brain region). The Neuroscience Information Framework encompasses all of neuroscience and facilitates integration of existing knowledge and databases of many types. These examples illustrate the opportunities and challenges of data mining across multiple tiers of neuroscience information and underscore the need for cultural and infrastructure changes if neuroinformatics is to fulfill its potential to advance our understanding of the brain. PMID:21311009

  6. Information Needs in a Community of Reading Specialists: What Information Needs Say about Contextual Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normore, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perceived information needs of teachers who specialize in reading instruction for at-risk first graders were studied and related to frameworks for the role of social context in information needs, seeking and use. The frameworks considered were: disciplinarity, role theory in work settings, small worlds and information grounds and…

  7. An Information Technology Framework for Strengthening Telehealthcare Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Weng, Yung-Ching; Shang, Rung-Ji; Yu, Hui-Chu; Chung, Yufang; Lai, Feipei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Telehealthcare has been used to provide healthcare service, and information technology infrastructure appears to be essential while providing telehealthcare service. Insufficiencies have been identified, such as lack of integration, need of accommodation of diverse biometric sensors, and accessing diverse networks as different houses have varying facilities, which challenge the promotion of telehealthcare. This study designs an information technology framework to strengthen telehealthcare delivery. Materials and Methods: The proposed framework consists of a system architecture design and a network transmission design. The aim of the framework is to integrate data from existing information systems, to adopt medical informatics standards, to integrate diverse biometric sensors, and to provide different data transmission networks to support a patient's house network despite the facilities. The proposed framework has been evaluated with a case study of two telehealthcare programs, with and without the adoption of the framework. Results: The proposed framework facilitates the functionality of the program and enables steady patient enrollments. The overall patient participations are increased, and the patient outcomes appear positive. The attitudes toward the service and self-improvement also are positive. Conclusions: The findings of this study add up to the construction of a telehealthcare system. Implementing the proposed framework further assists the functionality of the service and enhances the availability of the service and patient acceptances. PMID:23061641

  8. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  9. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2016-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  10. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  11. First Thoughts on Implementing the Framework for Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Trudi E.; Gibson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Following the action of the ACRL Board in February 2015 in accepting the "Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education" as one of the "constellation of documents" that promote and guide information literacy instruction and program development, discussion in the library community continues about steps in implementing…

  12. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  13. Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

    This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

  14. A Framework for Thinking about Informal Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Katie; Rubin, Andee

    2009-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning has shown some promise in developing students' deeper understanding of statistical processes. This paper presents a framework to think about three key principles of informal inference--generalizations "beyond the data," probabilistic language, and data as evidence. The authors use primary school classroom…

  15. Cognitive theory and brain fact: Insights for the future of cognitive neuroscience. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    A central challenge in neuroscience is to understand the relationship between the mechanistic operation of the nervous system and the psychological phenomena we experience everyday (e.g., perception, memory, attention, emotion, and consciousness). Supported by revolutionary advances in technology, knowledge of neural mechanisms has grown dramatically over recent decades, but with few exceptions our understanding of how these mechanisms relate to psychological phenomena remains poor.

  16. A Statistical Framework to Infer Delay and Direction of Information Flow from Measurements of Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Johannes; Wunderle, Thomas; Fries, Pascal; Jäkel, Frank; Pipa, Gordon

    2015-08-01

    In neuroscience, data are typically generated from neural network activity. The resulting time series represent measurements from spatially distributed subsystems with complex interactions, weakly coupled to a high-dimensional global system. We present a statistical framework to estimate the direction of information flow and its delay in measurements from systems of this type. Informed by differential topology, gaussian process regression is employed to reconstruct measurements of putative driving systems from measurements of the driven systems. These reconstructions serve to estimate the delay of the interaction by means of an analytical criterion developed for this purpose. The model accounts for a range of possible sources of uncertainty, including temporally evolving intrinsic noise, while assuming complex nonlinear dependencies. Furthermore, we show that if information flow is delayed, this approach also allows for inference in strong coupling scenarios of systems exhibiting synchronization phenomena. The validity of the method is demonstrated with a variety of delay-coupled chaotic oscillators. In addition, we show that these results seamlessly transfer to local field potentials in cat visual cortex.

  17. Brains rule! fun = learning = neuroscience literacy.

    PubMed

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M; Mu, Keli; Phelps, Cynthia L; Houtz, Lynne E; Royeen, Charlotte B

    2002-10-01

    Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions is a project designed to improve neuroscience literacy among children and the general public by applying a model where neuroscience professionals transfer knowledge and enthusiasm about neuroscience through fun, engaging hands-on activities. This educational model draws strength from many national and local partnerships of neuroscience professionals to coordinate expositions across the country in a variety of local communities. Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions uses a flexible science fair-like format to engage children in the process of science and teach about neuroscience concepts, facts, and professions. Neuroscience literacy is important to everyday life and helps individuals better understand themselves, make informed decisions about health and drug use, participate knowledgeably in governmental and social issues, and better understand scientific advancements. In this study, children's ratings of Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions activities were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of the responses revealed that overall the children perceived the learning activities as fun and interesting and believed that they learned something about the brain and nervous system after engaging in the activities. The Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions education model can be an effective tool in improving neuroscience literacy for both children and adults.

  18. Mindfulness and Coping Are Inversely Related to Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients and Informal Caregivers in the Neuroscience ICU: Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-11-01

    To assess the correlation of psychosocial resiliency factors (mindfulness and coping) with symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression in patients recently admitted to the neuroscience ICU and their primary informal caregivers. A descriptive, cross-sectional correlational study. Neuroscience ICU in a major medical center. A total of 78 dyads of patients (total n = 81) and their primary caregivers (total n = 92) from June to December 2015. Study enrollment occurred within the first 2 weeks of patient admission to the neuroscience ICU. None. Dyads completed self-report measures of mindfulness (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised), coping (Measure of Coping Status-A), posttraumatic stress (Posttraumatic Checklist-Specific Stressor), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D). Rates of clinically significant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were high and comparable between patient and caregiver samples. Own psychological resilience factors and psychiatric symptoms were strongly correlated for both patients and caregivers. Depressive symptoms were interdependent between patients and their caregivers, and one's own mindfulness was independently related to one's partner's depressive symptoms. Rates of clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were high, equally prevalent in patients and caregivers, and interdependent between patients and their caregivers. For both patients and caregivers, psychological resiliency factors were associated with both self and partner psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest that attending to the psychiatric health of both patients and caregivers in the neuroscience ICU is a priority and that patients and their caregivers must be considered together in a system to fully address either individual's psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Conceptual Framework for Developing a Diabetes Information Network.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Hossein; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Shahmoradi, Leila

    2016-06-01

    To provide a conceptual framework for managing diabetic patient care, and creating an information network for clinical research. A wide range of information technology (IT) based interventions such as distance learning, diabetes registries, personal or electronic health record systems, clinical information systems, and clinical decision support systems have so far been used in supporting diabetic care. Previous studies demonstrated that IT could improve diabetes care at its different aspects. There is however no comprehensive conceptual framework that defines how different IT applications can support diverse aspects of this care. Therefore, a conceptual framework that combines different IT solutions into a wide information network for improving care processes and for research purposes is widely lacking. In this study we describe the theoretical underpin of a big project aiming at building a wide diabetic information network namely DIANET. A literature review and a survey of national programs and existing regulations for diabetes management was conducted in order to define different aspects of diabetic care that should be supported by IT solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in this study. In addition to the results of a previous systematic literature review, two brainstorming and three expert panel sessions were conducted to identify requirements of a comprehensive information technology solution. Based on these inputs, the requirements for creating a diabetes information network were identified and used to create a questionnaire based on 9-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was finalized after removing some items based on calculated content validity ratio and content validity index coefficients. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was also calculated (αTotal= 0.98, P<0.05, CI=0.95). The final questionnaire was containing 45 items. It was sent to 13 clinicians at two diabetes clinics of endocrine and metabolism research

  20. Conceptual Framework for Developing a Diabetes Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Hossein; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Shahmoradi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide a conceptual framework for managing diabetic patient care, and creating an information network for clinical research. Background: A wide range of information technology (IT) based interventions such as distance learning, diabetes registries, personal or electronic health record systems, clinical information systems, and clinical decision support systems have so far been used in supporting diabetic care. Previous studies demonstrated that IT could improve diabetes care at its different aspects. There is however no comprehensive conceptual framework that defines how different IT applications can support diverse aspects of this care. Therefore, a conceptual framework that combines different IT solutions into a wide information network for improving care processes and for research purposes is widely lacking. In this study we describe the theoretical underpin of a big project aiming at building a wide diabetic information network namely DIANET. Research design and methods: A literature review and a survey of national programs and existing regulations for diabetes management was conducted in order to define different aspects of diabetic care that should be supported by IT solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in this study. In addition to the results of a previous systematic literature review, two brainstorming and three expert panel sessions were conducted to identify requirements of a comprehensive information technology solution. Based on these inputs, the requirements for creating a diabetes information network were identified and used to create a questionnaire based on 9-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was finalized after removing some items based on calculated content validity ratio and content validity index coefficients. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was also calculated (αTotal= 0.98, P<0.05, CI=0.95). The final questionnaire was containing 45 items. It was sent to 13 clinicians at two

  1. A Security Audit Framework to Manage Information System Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The widespread adoption of information and communication technology have promoted an increase dependency of organizations in the performance of their Information Systems. As a result, adequate security procedures to properly manage information security must be established by the organizations, in order to protect their valued or critical resources from accidental or intentional attacks, and ensure their normal activity. A conceptual security framework to manage and audit Information System Security is proposed and discussed. The proposed framework intends to assist organizations firstly to understand what they precisely need to protect assets and what are their weaknesses (vulnerabilities), enabling to perform an adequate security management. Secondly, enabling a security audit framework to support the organization to assess the efficiency of the controls and policy adopted to prevent or mitigate attacks, threats and vulnerabilities, promoted by the advances of new technologies and new Internet-enabled services, that the organizations are subject of. The presented framework is based on a conceptual model approach, which contains the semantic description of the concepts defined in information security domain, based on the ISO/IEC_JCT1 standards.

  2. A Methodological Framework for Enterprise Information System Requirements Derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinskas, Albertas; Paškevičiūtė, Lina

    Current information systems (IS) are enterprise-wide systems supporting strategic goals of the enterprise and meeting its operational business needs. They are supported by information and communication technologies (ICT) and other software that should be fully integrated. To develop software responding to real business needs, we need requirements engineering (RE) methodology that ensures the alignment of requirements for all levels of enterprise system. The main contribution of this chapter is a requirement-oriented methodological framework allowing to transform business requirements level by level into software ones. The structure of the proposed framework reflects the structure of Zachman's framework. However, it has other intentions and is purposed to support not the design but the RE issues.

  3. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  4. [Framework for the strengthening of health information systems in Peru].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.

  5. Framework for Relating Auditor Reliability to Information Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergquist, Constance C.

    A framework is presented that relates concepts of audit reliability to the uses of information gathered from a discrepancy program audit of Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title IV-C programs in Florida. Three issues are addressed: (1) the meaning of reliability in relation to the audit process; (2) the importance of reliability of auditor…

  6. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  7. Information use and resource competition: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Ounsley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Organisms may reduce uncertainty regarding how best to exploit their environment by collecting information about resource distribution. We develop a model to demonstrate how competition can facilitate or constrain an individual's ability to use information when acquiring resources. As resource distribution underpins both selection on information use and the strength and nature of competition between individuals, we demonstrate interdependencies between the two that should be common in nature. Individuals in our model can search for resources either personally or by using social information. We explore selection on social information use across a comprehensive range of ecological conditions, generalizing the producer–scrounger framework to a wide diversity of taxa and resources. We show that resource ecology—defined by scarcity, depletion rate and monopolizability—determines patterns of individual differences in social information use. These differences suggest coevolutionary processes linking dominance systems and social information use, with implications for the evolutionary demography of populations. PMID:26888031

  8. An information theory framework for dynamic functional domain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Victor M; Miller, Robyn; Calhoun, Vince

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level. Information quantity is based on the probabilities of observing each dynamic state. Mutual information measurement is then obtained from probabilities across domains. Thus, we named this value the cross domain mutual information (CDMI). Strong CDMIs were observed in relation to the subcortical domain. Domains related to sensorial input, motor control and cerebellum form another CDMI cluster. Information flow among other domains was seldom found. Other methods of dynamic connectivity focus on whole brain dFNC matrices. In the current framework, information theory is applied to states estimated from pairs of multi-network functional domains. In this context, we apply information theory to measure information flow across functional domains. Identified CDMI clusters point to known information pathways in the basal ganglia and also among areas of sensorial input, patterns found in static functional connectivity. In contrast, CDMI across brain areas of higher level cognitive processing follow a different pattern that indicates scarce information sharing. These findings show that employing information theory to formally measured information flow through brain domains reveals additional features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  10. Integration framework for design information of electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Sohail Mehboob

    The objective of this research is to develop a framework that can be used to provide an integrated view of electromechanical system design information. The framework is intended to provide a platform where various standard and pseudo standard information models such as STEP and IBIS can be integrated to provide an integrated view of design information beyond just part numbers, CAD drawings, or some specific geometry. A database application can make use of this framework to provide reuse of design information fragments including geometry, function, behavior, design procedures, performance specification, design rationale, project management, product characteristics, and configuration and version. An "Integration Core Model" is developed to provide the basis for the integration framework, and also facilitate integration of product and process data for the purpose of archiving integrated design history. There are two major subdivisions of the integration core model: product core model providing the high level structure needed to associate process information to the product data, and process core model providing the generic process information that is needed to capture and organize process information. The process core model is developed using a hybrid of structure-oriented and process-oriented approaches to process modeling. Using such a scheme the process core model is able to represent information such as hierarchies of processes, logical and temporal relationships between various design activities, and relationships between activities and the product data at various levels of abstraction. Based upon the integration core model, an integration methodology is developed to provide a systematic way of integrating various information models. Mapping theorems have been developed to methodically point out the problems that may be encountered during the integration of two information models. The integration core model is validated through a case study. Design information

  11. A framework for the evaluation of patient information leaflets.

    PubMed

    Garner, Mark; Ning, Zhenye; Francis, Jill

    2012-09-01

      The provision of patient information leaflets (PILs) is an important part of health care. PILs require evaluation, but the frameworks that are used for evaluation are largely under-informed by theory. Most evaluation to date has been based on indices of readability, yet several writers argue that readability is not enough. We propose a framework for evaluating PILs that reflect the central role of the patient perspective in communication and use methods for evaluation based on simple linguistic principles.   The framework has three elements that give rise to three approaches to evaluation. Each element is a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective communication. Readability (focussing on text) may be assessed using existing well-established procedures. Comprehensibility (focussing on reader and text) may be assessed using multiple-choice questions based on the lexical and semantic features of the text. Communicative effectiveness (focussing on reader) explores the relationship between the emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses of the reader and the objectives of the PIL. Suggested methods for assessment are described, based on our preliminary empirical investigations.   The tripartite model of communicative effectiveness is a patient-centred framework for evaluating PILs. It may assist the field in moving beyond readability to broader indicators of the quality and appropriateness of printed information provided to patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A framework for the evaluation of patient information leaflets

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Mark; Ning, Zhenye; Francis, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  The provision of patient information leaflets (PILs) is an important part of health care. PILs require evaluation, but the frameworks that are used for evaluation are largely under‐informed by theory. Most evaluation to date has been based on indices of readability, yet several writers argue that readability is not enough. We propose a framework for evaluating PILs that reflect the central role of the patient perspective in communication and use methods for evaluation based on simple linguistic principles. The proposed framework  The framework has three elements that give rise to three approaches to evaluation. Each element is a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective communication. Readability (focussing on text) may be assessed using existing well‐established procedures. Comprehensibility (focussing on reader and text) may be assessed using multiple‐choice questions based on the lexical and semantic features of the text. Communicative effectiveness (focussing on reader) explores the relationship between the emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses of the reader and the objectives of the PIL. Suggested methods for assessment are described, based on our preliminary empirical investigations. Conclusions  The tripartite model of communicative effectiveness is a patient‐centred framework for evaluating PILs. It may assist the field in moving beyond readability to broader indicators of the quality and appropriateness of printed information provided to patients. PMID:21332620

  13. Performance measurement integrated information framework in e-Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Hilaida; Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Vizán, Antonio; Ríos, José

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Internet technologies has led to e-Manufacturing technologies becoming more widely used and to the development of tools for compiling, transforming and synchronising manufacturing data through the Web. In this context, a potential area for development is the extension of virtual manufacturing to performance measurement (PM) processes, a critical area for decision making and implementing improvement actions in manufacturing. This paper proposes a PM information framework to integrate decision support systems in e-Manufacturing. Specifically, the proposed framework offers a homogeneous PM information exchange model that can be applied through decision support in e-Manufacturing environment. Its application improves the necessary interoperability in decision-making data processing tasks. It comprises three sub-systems: a data model, a PM information platform and PM-Web services architecture. A practical example of data exchange for measurement processes in the area of equipment maintenance is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  14. A Connectivity Framework for Social Information Systems Design in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Andreev, Pavel; Benyoucef, Morad; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Jamaly, Syam

    2016-01-01

    Social information systems (SISs) will play a key role in healthcare systems’ transformation into collaborative patient-centered systems that support care delivery across the entire continuum of care. SISs enable the development of collaborative networks andfacilitate relationships to integrate people and processes across time and space. However, we believe that a “connectivity” issue, which refers to the scope and extent of system requirements for a SIS, is a significant challenge of SIS design. This paper’s contribution is the development of the Social Information System Connectivity Framework for supporting SIS design in healthcare. The framework has three parts. First, it defines the structure of a SIS as a set of social triads. Second, it identifies six dimensions that represent the behaviour of a SIS. Third, it proposes the Social Information System Connectivity Factor as our approximation of the extent of connectivity and degree of complexity in a SIS. PMID:28269869

  15. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  16. Health information systems evaluation frameworks: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eslami Andargoli, Amirhossein; Scheepers, Helana; Rajendran, Diana; Sohal, Amrik

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of health information systems (HISs) is complicated because of the complex nature of the health care domain. Various studies have proposed different frameworks to reduce the complexity in the assessment of these systems. The aim of these frameworks is to provide a set of guidelines for the evaluation of the adequacy of health care information systems. This paper aims to analyse studies on the evaluation of HISs by applying a content, context and process (CCP) framework to address the 'who', 'what', 'how', 'when', and 'why' of the evaluation processes used. This will allow for a better understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of various HISs evaluation frameworks, and will pave the way for developing a more complete framework for HISs. A systematic literature review on HIS evaluation studies was undertaken to identify the currently available HIS evaluation frameworks. Five academic databases were selected to conduct this systematic literature review. Most of the studies only address some, but not all, of the five main questions, i.e. the who, what, how, when, why, and that there was a lack of consensus in the way these questions were addressed. The critical role of context was also largely neglected in these studies. Evaluation of HISs is complex. The health care domain is highly context sensitive and in order to have a complete assessment of HISs, consideration of contextual factors is necessary. Specifically, to have the right set of criteria to measure the 'what', the answer to the 'who' of the evaluation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brains are not just neurons. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    This comment addresses the first component of Fitch's framework: the computational power of single neurons [3]. Although I agree that traditional models of neural computation have vastly underestimated the computational power of single neurons, I am hesitant to follow him completely. The exclusive focus on neurons is likely to underestimate the importance of other cells in the brain. In the last years, two such cell types have received appropriate attention by neuroscientists: interneurons and glia. Interneurons are small, tightly packed cells involved in the control of information processing in learning and memory. Rather than transmitting externally (like motor or sensory neurons), these neurons process information within internal circuits of the brain (therefore also called 'relay neurons'). Some specialized interneuron subtypes temporally regulate the flow of information in a given cortical circuit during relevant behavioral events [4]. In the human brain approx. 100 billion interneurons control information processing and are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson's.

  18. HIRAID: An evidence-informed emergency nursing assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Curtis, Kate; Murphy, Margaret; Strachan, Luke; Buckley, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Emergency nurses must be highly skilled at performing accurate and comprehensive patient assessments. In 2008, the inaugural emergency nursing assessment framework (ENAF) was devised at Sydney Nursing School, to provide emergency nurses with a systematic approach to initial patient assessment. In 2014 the assessment framework was re-developed to reflect the most recent evidence. To describe the process and evidence used to re-develop ENAF, to provide ED nurses with an evidence-informed approach to the comprehensive assessment of patients presenting to ED after triage, so that it may be implemented and tested in the clinical (simulated) setting. A thorough literature review was conducted to inform the re-development of ENAF. Literature review findings were reviewed and ENAF was re-developed by a panel of expert emergency nursing clinicians using the Delphi Technique. Modifications to ENAF were undertaken and a new, more comprehensive assessment framework was developed titled 'HIRAID'. HIRAID is informed by current evidence, comprising of seven assessment components: History; Identify Red flags; Assessment; Interventions; Diagnostics; reassessment and communication. HIRAID provides an evidence-informed systematic approach to initial patient assessment performed by emergency nurses after triage. Evaluation is now needed to determine its impact on clinician performance and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conceptual privacy framework for health information on wearable device.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Seyedmostafa; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Wearable health tech provides doctors with the ability to remotely supervise their patients' wellness. It also makes it much easier to authorize someone else to take appropriate actions to ensure the person's wellness than ever before. Information Technology may soon change the way medicine is practiced, improving the performance, while reducing the price of healthcare. We analyzed the secrecy demands of wearable devices, including Smartphone, smart watch and their computing techniques, that can soon change the way healthcare is provided. However, before this is adopted in practice, all devices must be equipped with sufficient privacy capabilities related to healthcare service. In this paper, we formulated a new improved conceptual framework for wearable healthcare systems. This framework consists of ten principles and nine checklists, capable of providing complete privacy protection package to wearable device owners. We constructed this framework based on the analysis of existing mobile technology, the results of which are combined with the existing security standards. The approach also incorporates the market share percentage level of every app and its respective OS. This framework is evaluated based on the stringent CIA and HIPAA principles for information security. This evaluation is followed by testing the capability to revoke rights of subjects to access objects and ability to determine the set of available permissions for a particular subject for all models Finally, as the last step, we examine the complexity of the required initial setup.

  20. Conceptual Privacy Framework for Health Information on Wearable Device

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyedmostafa; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Wearable health tech provides doctors with the ability to remotely supervise their patients' wellness. It also makes it much easier to authorize someone else to take appropriate actions to ensure the person's wellness than ever before. Information Technology may soon change the way medicine is practiced, improving the performance, while reducing the price of healthcare. We analyzed the secrecy demands of wearable devices, including Smartphone, smart watch and their computing techniques, that can soon change the way healthcare is provided. However, before this is adopted in practice, all devices must be equipped with sufficient privacy capabilities related to healthcare service. In this paper, we formulated a new improved conceptual framework for wearable healthcare systems. This framework consists of ten principles and nine checklists, capable of providing complete privacy protection package to wearable device owners. We constructed this framework based on the analysis of existing mobile technology, the results of which are combined with the existing security standards. The approach also incorporates the market share percentage level of every app and its respective OS. This framework is evaluated based on the stringent CIA and HIPAA principles for information security. This evaluation is followed by testing the capability to revoke rights of subjects to access objects and ability to determine the set of available permissions for a particular subject for all models Finally, as the last step, we examine the complexity of the required initial setup. PMID:25478915

  1. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  2. Defining a framework for health information technology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Juzwishin, Don; Kushniruk, Andre W; Nahm, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Governments and providers are investing in health information technologies with little evidence as to their ultimate value. We present a conceptual framework that can be used by hospitals, clinics, and health care systems to evaluate their health information technologies. The framework contains three dimensions that collectively define generic evaluation types. When these types are combined with contextual considerations, they define specific evaluation problems. The first dimension, domain, determines whether the evaluation will address the information intervention or its outcomes. The second dimension, mechanism, identifies the specific components of the new information technology and/or its health care system that will be the subject of the evaluation study. And, the third dimension, timing, determines whether the evaluation occurs before or after the health information technology is implemented. Answers to these questions define a set of evaluation types each with generic sets of evaluation questions, study designs, data collection requirements, and analytic methods. When these types are combined with details of the evaluation context, they define specific evaluation problems.

  3. On long-only information-based portfolio diversification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raphael A.; Takada, Hellinton H.

    2014-12-01

    Using the concepts from information theory, it is possible to improve the traditional frameworks for long-only asset allocation. In modern portfolio theory, the investor has two basic procedures: the choice of a portfolio that maximizes its risk-adjusted excess return or the mixed allocation between the maximum Sharpe portfolio and the risk-free asset. In the literature, the first procedure was already addressed using information theory. One contribution of this paper is the consideration of the second procedure in the information theory context. The performance of these approaches was compared with three traditional asset allocation methodologies: the Markowitz's mean-variance, the resampled mean-variance and the equally weighted portfolio. Using simulated and real data, the information theory-based methodologies were verified to be more robust when dealing with the estimation errors.

  4. Towards an evaluation framework for Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Maryati M; Arifin, Azila

    Laboratory testing and reporting are error-prone and redundant due to repeated, unnecessary requests and delayed or missed reactions to laboratory reports. Occurring errors may negatively affect the patient treatment process and clinical decision making. Evaluation on laboratory testing and Laboratory Information System (LIS) may explain the root cause to improve the testing process and enhance LIS in supporting the process. This paper discusses a new evaluation framework for LIS that encompasses the laboratory testing cycle and the socio-technical part of LIS. Literature review on discourses, dimensions and evaluation methods of laboratory testing and LIS. A critical appraisal of the Total Testing Process (TTP) and the human, organization, technology-fit factors (HOT-fit) evaluation frameworks was undertaken in order to identify error incident, its contributing factors and preventive action pertinent to laboratory testing process and LIS. A new evaluation framework for LIS using a comprehensive and socio-technical approach is outlined. Positive relationship between laboratory and clinical staff resulted in a smooth laboratory testing process, reduced errors and increased process efficiency whilst effective use of LIS streamlined the testing processes. The TTP-LIS framework could serve as an assessment as well as a problem-solving tool for the laboratory testing process and system. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  6. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  7. Flexible patient information search and retrieval framework: pilot implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2007-03-01

    Medical centers collect and store significant amount of valuable data pertaining to patients' visit in the form of medical free-text. In addition, standardized diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: ICD9-CM) related to those dictated reports are usually available. In this work, we have created a framework where image searches could be initiated through a combination of free-text reports as well as ICD9 codes. This framework enables more comprehensive search on existing large sets of patient data in a systematic way. The free text search is enriched by computer-aided inclusion of additional search terms enhanced by a thesaurus. This combination of enriched search allows users to access to a larger set of relevant results from a patient-centric PACS in a simpler way. Therefore, such framework is of particular use in tasks such as gathering images for desired patient populations, building disease models, and so on. As the motivating application of our framework, we implemented a search engine. This search engine processed two years of patient data from the OSU Medical Center's Information Warehouse and identified lung nodule location information using a combination of UMLS Meta-Thesaurus enhanced text report searches along with ICD9 code searches on patients that have been discharged. Five different queries with various ICD9 codes involving lung cancer were carried out on 172552 cases. Each search was completed under a minute on average per ICD9 code and the inclusion of UMLS thesaurus increased the number of relevant cases by 45% on average.

  8. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a Lifecycle Information Framework and Technology in Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Helu, Moneer; Camelio, Jaime A

    2017-06-01

    Industry has been chasing the dream of integrating and linking data across the product lifecycle and enterprises for decades. However, industry has been challenged by the fact that the context in which data is used varies based on the function / role in the product lifecycle that is interacting with the data. Holistically, the data across the product lifecycle must be considered an unstructured data-set because multiple data repositories and domain-specific schema exist in each phase of the lifecycle. This paper explores a concept called the Lifecycle Information Framework and Technology (LIFT). LIFT is a conceptual framework for lifecycle information management and the integration of emerging and existing technologies, which together form the basis of a research agenda for dynamic information modeling in support of digital-data curation and reuse in manufacturing. This paper provides a discussion of the existing technologies and activities that the LIFT concept leverages. Also, the paper describes the motivation for applying such work to the domain of manufacturing. Then, the LIFT concept is discussed in detail, while underlying technologies are further examined and a use case is detailed. Lastly, potential impacts are explored.

  10. Conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Chang, Shih-Fu

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax and semantics, and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.

  11. Neuroscience in recession?

    PubMed

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  12. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  13. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  14. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people’s behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person’s actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture’s influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes. PMID:20460302

  15. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF), underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a) Provenance collection - during data generation (b) Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c) Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d) Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE) and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance of translational

  16. An emerging research framework for studying informal learning and schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laura M. W.

    2004-07-01

    In recognition of the fact that science centers and other informal educational institutions can play a role in the reform of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, several major research and professional programs are currently underway. This article discusses one such effort, the Center for Informal Learning and Schools (CILS), a collaboration of the Exploratorium, the University of California, Santa Cruz, and King's College, London and the need for a theoretical framework based on socio-cultural theory to link discussion of varied efforts characterizing science learning in informal settings. The article discusses two key problematics related to developments in the science education field of the past decade: (1) integrating studies that are undertaken from multiple disciplinary perspectives, namely, science education, developmental psychology, and cultural studies, and (2) characterizing critical properties of informal learning in museums. It reviews work that has been conducted in nonschool settings and, using examples from research conducted by the Center for Informal Learning and Schools, it reviews questions currently under investigation.

  17. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  18. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  19. The Dolinar Receiver in an Information Theoretic Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication at the quantum limit requires that measurements on the optical field be maximally informative, but devising physical measurements that accomplish this objective has proven challenging. The Dolinar receiver exemplifies a rare instance of success in distinguishing between two coherent states: an adaptive local oscillator is mixed with the signal prior to photodetection, which yields an error probability that meets the Helstrom lower bound with equality. Here we apply the same local-oscillator-based architecture with aninformation-theoretic optimization criterion. We begin with analysis of this receiver in a general framework for an arbitrary coherent-state modulation alphabet, and then we concentrate on two relevant examples. First, we study a binary antipodal alphabet and show that the Dolinar receiver's feedback function not only minimizes the probability of error, but also maximizes the mutual information. Next, we study ternary modulation consistingof antipodal coherent states and the vacuum state. We derive an analytic expression for a near-optimal local oscillator feedback function, and, via simulation, we determine its photon information efficiency (PIE). We provide the PIE versus dimensional information efficiency (DIE) trade-off curve and show that this modulation and the our receiver combination performs universally better than (generalized) on-off keying plus photoncounting, although, the advantage asymptotically vanishes as the bits-per-photon diverges towards infinity.

  20. Text-mining and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ambert, Kyle H; Cohen, Aaron M

    2012-01-01

    The wealth and diversity of neuroscience research are inherent characteristics of the discipline that can give rise to some complications. As the field continues to expand, we generate a great deal of data about all aspects, and from multiple perspectives, of the brain, its chemistry, biology, and how these affect behavior. The vast majority of research scientists cannot afford to spend their time combing the literature to find every article related to their research, nor do they wish to spend time adjusting their neuroanatomical vocabulary to communicate with other subdomains in the neurosciences. As such, there has been a recent increase in the amount of informatics research devoted to developing digital resources for neuroscience research. Neuroinformatics is concerned with the development of computational tools to further our understanding of the brain and to make sense of the vast amount of information that neuroscientists generate (French & Pavlidis, 2007). Many of these tools are related to the use of textual data. Here, we review some of the recent developments for better using the vast amount of textual information generated in neuroscience research and publication and suggest several use cases that will demonstrate how bench neuroscientists can take advantage of the resources that are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. A cognitive information processing framework for distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feiyi; Qi, Hairong

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we present a cognitive agent framework (CAF) based on swarm intelligence and self-organization principles, and demonstrate it through collaborative processing for target classification in sensor networks. The framework involves integrated designs to provide both cognitive behavior at the organization level to conquer complexity and reactive behavior at the individual agent level to retain simplicity. The design tackles various problems in the current information processing systems, including overly complex systems, maintenance difficulties, increasing vulnerability to attack, lack of capability to tolerate faults, and inability to identify and cope with low-frequency patterns. An important and distinguishing point of the presented work from classical AI research is that the acquired intelligence does not pertain to distinct individuals but to groups. It also deviates from multi-agent systems (MAS) due to sheer quantity of extremely simple agents we are able to accommodate, to the degree that some loss of coordination messages and behavior of faulty/compromised agents will not affect the collective decision made by the group.

  4. Defining resilience within a risk-informed assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Holter, Gregory M.; Bass, Robert B.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-08-01

    The concept of resilience is the subject of considerable discussion in academic, business, and governmental circles. The United States Department of Homeland Security for one has emphasised the need to consider resilience in safeguarding critical infrastructure and key resources. The concept of resilience is complex, multidimensional, and defined differently by different stakeholders. The authors contend that there is a benefit in moving from discussing resilience as an abstraction to defining resilience as a measurable characteristic of a system. This paper proposes defining resilience measures using elements of a traditional risk assessment framework to help clarify the concept of resilience and as a way to provide non-traditional risk information. The authors show various, diverse dimensions of resilience can be quantitatively defined in a common risk assessment framework based on the concept of loss of service. This allows the comparison of options for improving the resilience of infrastructure and presents a means to perform cost-benefit analysis. This paper discusses definitions and key aspects of resilience, presents equations for the risk of loss of infrastructure function that incorporate four key aspects of resilience that could prevent or mitigate that loss, describes proposed resilience factor definitions based on those risk impacts, and provides an example that illustrates how resilience factors would be calculated using a hypothetical scenario.

  5. A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan H.C.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge. PMID:27983501

  6. A knowledge framework for the organization of battery information

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Mann, R.F.; Verville, G.

    1996-12-31

    There is presently a lack of a complete, well-utilized, accurate database of batteries throughout the Canadian and U.S. military. Such a tracking tool could dramatically assist in reducing the proliferation of unique batteries and in serving as a designers tool for standardizing families of batteries for particular families of systems. The battery maintenance procedures within the military organizations could be updated, and training of personnel could reduce maintenance costs. Many battery chemistries require standard, periodic maintenance that prolong the life of the battery. If these maintenance procedures or time intervals are not followed, battery life decreases, resulting in unnecessary maintenance or replacement costs. This paper presents a knowledge framework for the organization of battery information in support of the life cycle management of battery systems used in the military.

  7. A framework for modeling emerging diseases to inform management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge.

  8. ISART: A Generic Framework for Searching Books with Social Information.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Zhang, Bo-Wen; Cui, Xiao-Ping; Qu, Jiao; Geng, Bin; Zhou, Fang; Song, Li; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effective book search has been discussed for decades and is still future-proof in areas as diverse as computer science, informatics, e-commerce and even culture and arts. A variety of social information contents (e.g, ratings, tags and reviews) emerge with the huge number of books on the Web, but how they are utilized for searching and finding books is seldom investigated. Here we develop an Integrated Search And Recommendation Technology (IsArt), which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for searching books with rich social information. IsArt comprises a search engine to rank books with book contents and professional metadata, a Generalized Content-based Filtering model to thereafter rerank books with user-generated social contents, and a learning-to-rank technique to finally combine a wide range of diverse reranking results. Experiments show that this technology permits embedding social information to promote book search effectiveness, and IsArt, by making use of it, has the best performance on CLEF/INEX Social Book Search Evaluation datasets of all 4 years (from 2011 to 2014), compared with some other state-of-the-art methods.

  9. ISART: A Generic Framework for Searching Books with Social Information

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao-Ping; Qu, Jiao; Geng, Bin; Zhou, Fang; Song, Li; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effective book search has been discussed for decades and is still future-proof in areas as diverse as computer science, informatics, e-commerce and even culture and arts. A variety of social information contents (e.g, ratings, tags and reviews) emerge with the huge number of books on the Web, but how they are utilized for searching and finding books is seldom investigated. Here we develop an Integrated Search And Recommendation Technology (IsArt), which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for searching books with rich social information. IsArt comprises a search engine to rank books with book contents and professional metadata, a Generalized Content-based Filtering model to thereafter rerank books with user-generated social contents, and a learning-to-rank technique to finally combine a wide range of diverse reranking results. Experiments show that this technology permits embedding social information to promote book search effectiveness, and IsArt, by making use of it, has the best performance on CLEF/INEX Social Book Search Evaluation datasets of all 4 years (from 2011 to 2014), compared with some other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26863545

  10. The changing face of health information and health information work: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in health information and health information work using a conceptual framework and to consider the implication of these changes for health sciences librarians. The notion of what constitutes information depends heavily on the perspective of those defining the term. In the health care domain, numerous established concepts of information exist, many clustering around disciplines and professions. Various information professions-for example, health sciences librarians, information-systems managers, and medical-records administrators--have differing core concepts of information. Although these established concepts of information may seem immutable, they are cultural facts and can and do change. Global networking and changes in health care delivery are just two of many environmental forces that are changing the way the health domain views health information and the way it values the patterns and practices traditionally associated with established types of information and information professions. As new concepts of information arise, the possibility for new expert work surrounding information also arises. Andrew Abbott's systems theory of professions, adapted to the health domain, suggests that some forms of established expert information work may diminish while new types may arise and that both established and new information professions will struggle with each other for official sanction, or jurisdiction, to perform new expert work. This competitive struggle is likely to produce a new balance of information work and roles among the information professions. The specialty areas of library and information science, the heartland of our knowledge base, are as relevant in the electronic environment as in the print environment. Our profession's challenge now is to redefine and communicate our jurisdictional place in the emerging health information environment. PMID:8938324

  11. The changing face of health information and health information work: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in health information and health information work using a conceptual framework and to consider the implication of these changes for health sciences librarians. The notion of what constitutes information depends heavily on the perspective of those defining the term. In the health care domain, numerous established concepts of information exist, many clustering around disciplines and professions. Various information professions-for example, health sciences librarians, information-systems managers, and medical-records administrators--have differing core concepts of information. Although these established concepts of information may seem immutable, they are cultural facts and can and do change. Global networking and changes in health care delivery are just two of many environmental forces that are changing the way the health domain views health information and the way it values the patterns and practices traditionally associated with established types of information and information professions. As new concepts of information arise, the possibility for new expert work surrounding information also arises. Andrew Abbott's systems theory of professions, adapted to the health domain, suggests that some forms of established expert information work may diminish while new types may arise and that both established and new information professions will struggle with each other for official sanction, or jurisdiction, to perform new expert work. This competitive struggle is likely to produce a new balance of information work and roles among the information professions. The specialty areas of library and information science, the heartland of our knowledge base, are as relevant in the electronic environment as in the print environment. Our profession's challenge now is to redefine and communicate our jurisdictional place in the emerging health information environment.

  12. An Information Architecture Framework for the USAF: Managing Information from an Enterprise Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    for the USAF Managing Information from an Enterprise Perspective Mary Ann Malloy , PhD Edward V. Masek Robert W. Miller, PhD Daniel G. Winkowski...An Information Architecture Framework for the USAF Managing Information from an Enterprise Perspective Mary Ann Malloy , PhD Edward V. Masek... Robert W. Miller, PhD Daniel G. Winkowski March 2010 MT R 1 0 00 3 3 MIT R E T E C H N IC A L R E P OR T Report Documentation Page Form

  13. 78 FR 55252 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; State Review Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; State Review Framework AGENCY... Framework (EPA ICR No. 2185.05, OMB Control No. 2020-0031) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... OMB. Abstract: The State Review Framework (``Framework'') is an oversight tool designed to assess...

  14. Attitudes Toward Neuroscience Education Among Psychiatry Residents and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Lawrence K.; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. Methods This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Results Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94 %) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91 %). Nearly all (94 %) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. Conclusions This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education. PMID:24493359

  15. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  16. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) was conceived in the summer of 2007 at a meeting of editors and publishers of neuroscience journals. One of the working groups addressed whether it was possible to construct a system for permitting authors whose manuscript received supportive reviews at one journal but was not accepted to send a revised manuscript together with its first round of reviews to a new journal for the second round. This would speed up the review process and reduce the work for reviewers and editors. The working group not only designed a framework for transferring reviews among journals, but also implemented it as the NPRC. By the fall of 2007, more than a dozen major journals had signed onto the NPRC, sufficient to launch the experiment in January, 2008. We invite authors who have not yet used the NPRC to try this method for appropriate manuscripts. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19149887

  18. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  19. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  20. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  1. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  2. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  3. A conceptual framework for intelligent real-time information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schudy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    By combining artificial intelligence concepts with the human information processing model of Rasmussen, a conceptual framework was developed for real time artificial intelligence systems which provides a foundation for system organization, control and validation. The approach is based on the description of system processing terms of an abstraction hierarchy of states of knowledge. The states of knowledge are organized along one dimension which corresponds to the extent to which the concepts are expressed in terms of the system inouts or in terms of the system response. Thus organized, the useful states form a generally triangular shape with the sensors and effectors forming the lower two vertices and the full evaluated set of courses of action the apex. Within the triangle boundaries are numerous processing paths which shortcut the detailed processing, by connecting incomplete levels of analysis to partially defined responses. Shortcuts at different levels of abstraction include reflexes, sensory motor control, rule based behavior, and satisficing. This approach was used in the design of a real time tactical decision aiding system, and in defining an intelligent aiding system for transport pilots.

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Grant, Nina; Waller, Jo

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know.

  5. A Decision Support Framework for Genomically Informed Investigational Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amber; Holla, Vijaykumar; Bailey, Ann Marie; Brusco, Lauren; Chen, Ken; Routbort, Mark; Patel, Keyur P.; Zeng, Jia; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Eterovic, Agda Karina; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Broaddus, Russell; Bernstam, Elmer V.; Shaw, Kenna R.; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly improving understanding of molecular oncology, emerging novel therapeutics, and increasingly available and affordable next-generation sequencing have created an opportunity for delivering genomically informed personalized cancer therapy. However, to implement genomically informed therapy requires that a clinician interpret the patient’s molecular profile, including molecular characterization of the tumor and the patient’s germline DNA. In this Commentary, we review existing data and tools for precision oncology and present a framework for reviewing the available biomedical literature on therapeutic implications of genomic alterations. Genomic alterations, including mutations, insertions/deletions, fusions, and copy number changes, need to be curated in terms of the likelihood that they alter the function of a “cancer gene” at the level of a specific variant in order to discriminate so-called “drivers” from “passengers.” Alterations that are targetable either directly or indirectly with approved or investigational therapies are potentially “actionable.” At this time, evidence linking predictive biomarkers to therapies is strong for only a few genomic markers in the context of specific cancer types. For these genomic alterations in other diseases and for other genomic alterations, the clinical data are either absent or insufficient to support routine clinical implementation of biomarker-based therapy. However, there is great interest in optimally matching patients to early-phase clinical trials. Thus, we need accessible, comprehensive, and frequently updated knowledge bases that describe genomic changes and their clinical implications, as well as continued education of clinicians and patients. PMID:25863335

  6. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  7. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  8. How understanding the neurobiology of complex post-traumatic stress disorder can inform clinical practice: a social cognitive and affective neuroscience approach.

    PubMed

    Lanius, R A; Bluhm, R L; Frewen, P A

    2011-11-01

    In this review, we examine the relevance of the social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) paradigm for an understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its effective treatment. The relevant literature pertaining to SCAN and PTSD was reviewed. We suggest that SCAN offers a novel theoretical paradigm for understanding psychological trauma and its numerous clinical outcomes, most notably problems in emotional/self-awareness, emotion regulation, social emotional processing and self-referential processing. A core set of brain regions appear to mediate these collective psychological functions, most notably the cortical midline structures, the amygdala, the insula, posterior parietal cortex and temporal poles, suggesting that problems in one area (e.g. emotional awareness) may relate to difficulties in another (e.g. self-referential processing). We further propose, drawing on clinical research, that the experiences of individuals with PTSD related to chronic trauma often reflect impairments in multiple social cognitive and affective functions. It is important that the assessment and treatment of individuals with complex PTSD not only addresses traumatic memories but also takes a SCAN-informed approach that focuses on the underlying deficits in emotional/self-awareness, emotion regulation, social emotional processing and self-referential processing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Issues in the Design of a Pilot Concept-Based Query Interface for the Neuroinformatics Information Framework

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuli; Martone, Maryann E.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot query interface that has been constructed to help us explore a “concept-based” approach for searching the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The query interface is concept-based in the sense that the search terms submitted through the interface are selected from a standardized vocabulary of terms (concepts) that are structured in the form of an ontology. The NIF contains three primary resources: the NIF Resource Registry, the NIF Document Archive, and the NIF Database Mediator. These NIF resources are very different in their nature and therefore pose challenges when designing a single interface from which searches can be automatically launched against all three resources simultaneously. The paper first discusses briefly several background issues involving the use of standardized biomedical vocabularies in biomedical information retrieval, and then presents a detailed example that illustrates how the pilot concept-based query interface operates. The paper concludes by discussing certain lessons learned in the development of the current version of the interface. PMID:18953674

  10. Dyscalculia: neuroscience and education

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Liane

    2010-01-01

    Background Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of numerical cognition. Most studies on developmental dyscalculia are based upon adult calculation models which may not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding and investigating developing calculation systems. Furthermore, the applicability of neuroscience research to pedagogy has, so far, been limited. Purpose After providing an overview of current conceptualisations of numerical cognition and developmental dyscalculia, the present paper (1) reviews recent research findings that are suggestive of a neurofunctional link between fingers (finger gnosis, finger-based counting and calculation) and number processing, and (2) takes the latter findings as an example to discuss how neuroscience findings may impact on educational understanding and classroom interventions. Sources of evidence Finger-based number representations and finger-based calculation have deep roots in human ontology and phylogeny. Recently, accumulating empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis of a neurofunctional link between fingers and numbers has emerged from both behavioural and brain imaging studies. Main argument Preliminary but converging research supports the notion that finger gnosis and finger use seem to be related to calculation proficiency in elementary school children. Finger-based counting and calculation may facilitate the establishment of mental number representations (possibly by fostering the mapping from concrete non-symbolic to abstract symbolic number magnitudes), which in turn seem to be the foundations for successful arithmetic achievement. Conclusions Based on the findings illustrated here, it is plausible to

  11. Dyscalculia: neuroscience and education.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane

    2008-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of numerical cognition. Most studies on developmental dyscalculia are based upon adult calculation models which may not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding and investigating developing calculation systems. Furthermore, the applicability of neuroscience research to pedagogy has, so far, been limited. PURPOSE: After providing an overview of current conceptualisations of numerical cognition and developmental dyscalculia, the present paper (1) reviews recent research findings that are suggestive of a neurofunctional link between fingers (finger gnosis, finger-based counting and calculation) and number processing, and (2) takes the latter findings as an example to discuss how neuroscience findings may impact on educational understanding and classroom interventions. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: Finger-based number representations and finger-based calculation have deep roots in human ontology and phylogeny. Recently, accumulating empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis of a neurofunctional link between fingers and numbers has emerged from both behavioural and brain imaging studies. MAIN ARGUMENT: Preliminary but converging research supports the notion that finger gnosis and finger use seem to be related to calculation proficiency in elementary school children. Finger-based counting and calculation may facilitate the establishment of mental number representations (possibly by fostering the mapping from concrete non-symbolic to abstract symbolic number magnitudes), which in turn seem to be the foundations for successful arithmetic achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings illustrated here, it is plausible

  12. Educational neuroscience: definitional, methodological, and interpretive issues.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, James P; Vu, Lien T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we hope to accomplish three aims as follows: (1) provide greater clarity regarding the nature and scope of the field of educational neuroscience, (2) propose a framework for understanding when and how neuroscientific research could be informative for educational practice, and (3) describe some examples of neuroscientific findings from the domains of reading and mathematics that are informative according to this framework. We propose that psychological models of learning-related processes should be the basis of instructional decisions, and that neuroscientific evidence in combination with traditional evidence from psychological experiments should be used to decide among competing psychological models. Our review of the neuroscientific evidence for both reading and mathematics suggests that while much has been learned over the past 20 years, there is still a 'disconnect' between contemporary psychological models that emphasize higher level skills and neuroscientific studies that focus on lower level skills. Moreover, few researchers have used neuroscientific evidence to decide among psychological models, but have focused instead on identifying the brain regions that subtend component skills of reading and math. Nevertheless, neuroscientific studies have confirmed the intrinsic relationship between reading and spoken language, revealed interesting predictive relationships between anatomical structures and reading and math disabilities, and there is the potential for fruitful collaborations between neuroscientists and psychologists in the future.

  13. Neuroscience and learning: implications for teaching practice.

    PubMed

    Guy, Richard; Byrne, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although neuroscience studies have provided us with an increasingly detailed picture of the basis for learning and memory, very little of this information has been applied within the area of teaching practice. We suggest that a better understanding of neuroscience may offer significant advantages for educators. In this context, we have considered recent studies in the neuroscience of learning and memory, with particular emphasis on working and semantic memory, and also suggest that neuroscience research into self-referential networks may improve our understanding of the learning process. Finally, we propose that advances in understanding the neural basis for metacognition may encourage the development of new perspectives that may help us to motivate students to learn about their own learning processes.

  14. A Strategic Approach to Curriculum Design for Information Literacy in Teacher Education--Implementing an Information Literacy Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebansky, Anna; Fraser, Sharon P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a conceptual framework that situates curriculum design for information literacy and lifelong learning, through a cohesive developmental information literacy based model for learning, at the core of teacher education courses at UTAS. The implementation of the framework facilitates curriculum design that systematically,…

  15. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  16. An integrated healthcare enterprise information portal and healthcare information system framework.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Lai, Feipei; Cheng, P H; Chen, J L; Lee, H H; Tsai, W N; Weng, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Hsu, K P; Ko, L F; Yang, T H; Chen, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated, distributed Healthcare Enterprise Information Portal (HEIP) and Hospital Information Systems (HIS) framework over wireless/wired infrastructure at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A single sign-on solution for the hospital customer relationship management (CRM) in HEIP has been established. The outcomes of the newly developed Outpatient Information Systems (OIS) in HIS are discussed. The future HEIP blueprints with CRM oriented features: e-Learning, Remote Consultation and Diagnosis (RCD), as well as on-Line Vaccination Services are addressed. Finally, the integrated HEIP and HIS architectures based on the middleware technologies are proposed along with the feasible approaches. The preliminary performance of multi-media, time-based data exchanges over the wireless HEIP side is collected to evaluate the efficiency of the architecture.

  17. Social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression’s defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response to treatment and prevention programs. Neuroendocrine, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have identified core neurobiological aspects of early-onset mood disorders. These areas are reviewed using a developmental social neuroscience perspective for integrating disparate observations. The paper introduces a dynamic adaptive systems framework, and it discusses hedonic capacity, stress sensitivity, ruminative self-focus, and attentional impairments as fundamental components of mood disorders. PMID:17624647

  18. Subsurface and Surface Characterization using an Information Framework Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel-Ojo, Olusola

    Groundwater plays a critical dual role as a reservoir of fresh water for human consumption and as a cause of the most severe problems when dealing with construction works below the water table. This is why it is critical to monitor groundwater recharge, distribution, and discharge on a continuous basis. The conventional method of monitoring groundwater employs a network of sparsely distributed monitoring wells and it is laborious, expensive, and intrusive. The problem of sparse data and undersampling reduces the accuracy of sampled survey data giving rise to poor interpretation. This dissertation addresses this problem by investigating groundwater-deformation response in order to augment the conventional method. A blend of three research methods was employed, namely design science research, geological methods, and geophysical methods, to examine whether persistent scatterer interferometry, a remote sensing technique, might augment conventional groundwater monitoring. Observation data (including phase information for displacement deformation from permanent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar and depth to groundwater data) was obtained from the Water District, Santa Clara Valley, California. An information framework model was built and applied, and then evaluated. Data was preprocessed and decomposed into five components or parts: trend, seasonality, low frequency, high frequency and octave bandwidth. Digital elevation models of observed and predicted hydraulic head were produced, illustrating the piezometric or potentiometric surface. The potentiometric surface characterizes the regional aquifer of the valley showing areal variation of rate of percolation, velocity and permeability, and completely defines flow direction, advising characteristics and design levels. The findings show a geologic forcing phenomenon which explains in part the long-term deformation behavior of the valley, characterized by poroelastic, viscoelastic, elastoplastic and

  19. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  20. Collaborative Metaliteracy: Putting the New Information Literacy Framework into (Digital) Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersch, Beate; Lampner, Wendy; Turner, Dudley

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a course-integrated collaborative project between a subject librarian, a communication professor, and an instructional designer that illustrates how the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), and the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy (Framework)…

  1. Collaborative Metaliteracy: Putting the New Information Literacy Framework into (Digital) Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersch, Beate; Lampner, Wendy; Turner, Dudley

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a course-integrated collaborative project between a subject librarian, a communication professor, and an instructional designer that illustrates how the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), and the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy (Framework)…

  2. Use of the ISO/IEC 17799 framework in healthcare information security management.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Luuc

    2004-01-01

    Shared care implies sharing information. This requires a common concept of information security among healthcare providers and a system to maintain compliance to the security requirements within the healthcare community. This paper describes the use of the Code of Practice for Information Security Management ISO/IEC 17799 as a general framework for establishing a set of controls for information security in a particular organisation and as a framework for standards on information security in healthcare and their implementation.

  3. Integrating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    While both federal agencies and professional associations emphasize the importance of neuroscience outreach, this goal seldom reaches the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. However, incorporating outreach into undergraduate neuroscience classes is an efficient means to reach not only future scientists, but also the future practitioners (K-12 teachers, social service workers, etc.) with whom neuroscientists hope to communicate. It also provides a vehicle for faculty members to engage in outreach activities that are typically un- or under-rewarded in faculty reviews. In this article, a Neuroscience Community Outreach Project (NCOP) is described. The project has been used in three offerings of a Cognitive Neuroscience course at a small liberal arts college, shared and applied at a large state university, and presented at a regional Society for Neuroscience meeting as an example of outreach opportunities for faculty. The NCOP assignment is a student-driven, modular activity that can be easily incorporated into existing neuroscience course frameworks. The assignment builds on student interests and connections in the community, providing a way for faculty at institutions without formal outreach programs to incorporate neuroscience outreach into the classroom and connect students to online resources. Several sample student projects are described across three broad domains (K-12 outreach, presentations to social service organizations, and media / popular press presentations). The article ends with a set of suggestions addressing common faculty concerns about incorporating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

  4. Integrating Community Outreach into the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    While both federal agencies and professional associations emphasize the importance of neuroscience outreach, this goal seldom reaches the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. However, incorporating outreach into undergraduate neuroscience classes is an efficient means to reach not only future scientists, but also the future practitioners (K-12 teachers, social service workers, etc.) with whom neuroscientists hope to communicate. It also provides a vehicle for faculty members to engage in outreach activities that are typically un- or under-rewarded in faculty reviews. In this article, a Neuroscience Community Outreach Project (NCOP) is described. The project has been used in three offerings of a Cognitive Neuroscience course at a small liberal arts college, shared and applied at a large state university, and presented at a regional Society for Neuroscience meeting as an example of outreach opportunities for faculty. The NCOP assignment is a student-driven, modular activity that can be easily incorporated into existing neuroscience course frameworks. The assignment builds on student interests and connections in the community, providing a way for faculty at institutions without formal outreach programs to incorporate neuroscience outreach into the classroom and connect students to online resources. Several sample student projects are described across three broad domains (K-12 outreach, presentations to social service organizations, and media / popular press presentations). The article ends with a set of suggestions addressing common faculty concerns about incorporating community outreach into the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. PMID:23626492

  5. Patient with a devastating embolic stroke: using weekly multidisciplinary ethics rounds in the neuroscience intensive care unit to facilitate care and communication.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Jonathan; Jurchak, Martha

    2014-01-01

    The challenges families face in making decisions for loved ones after a severe stroke are best supported when the treatment team has the opportunity to share information and perspectives. Weekly multidisciplinary ethics rounds provides a very good forum for just such discussions. Using a case example, this article describes the framework for ethics rounds and its utility in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

  6. Behaviorism and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R F

    1994-04-01

    The influence of the methods and theories of behaviorism on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of Watson's (1913) original call-to-arms. Behaviorist approaches to animal behavior, particularly in the study of processes of learning and memory, have had a profound and continual influence in the area of neuroscience concerned with animal studies of brain substrates of behavior. Similarly, contemporary behaviorists have not been opposed to the study of neurobiological substrates of behavior. On the other hand, classical behaviorist views of thinking, that is, as reflex chains, have been largely discounted by developments in neuroscience. Classical behaviorism is viewed by many as being most at odds with the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, particularly regarding "mind" and "consciousness." A modest attempt at reconciliation is offered.

  7. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  8. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  9. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    PubMed

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  10. Clinical management departments for the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R; Ramos, M; Soto, J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience-related clinical management departments (UGC in Spanish) represent a means of organising hospitals to deliver patient-centred care as well as specific clinical and administrative management models. The authors review the different UGC models in Spain and their implementation processes as well as any functional problems. We pay special attention to departments treating neurological patients. Neuroscience-related specialties may offer a good framework for the units that they contain. This may be due to the inherent variability and costs associated with neurological patients, the vital level of coordination that must be present between units providing care, and probably to the dynamic nature of the neurosciences as well. Difficulties associated with implementing and gaining acceptance for the new model have limited such UGCs until now. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral neuroscience and the media.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, Sandra; DiChristina, Mariette; Raeburn, Paul; Lambert, Kelly

    2012-12-05

    To provide assurance that accurate summaries of behavioral neuroscience findings are presented in mainstream news sources, it is important for scientists to cooperate with science journalists and, on occasion, write informative articles for lay audiences or contribute scientific knowledge in other relevant venues. Accordingly, three influential science journalists were invited to a special Presidential Symposium at the 2011 IBNS annual meeting to discuss (1) the importance of public dissemination of scientific knowledge, (2) insightful recommendations for effective science writing for mainstream audiences and (3) the potential impact of science blogs on the communication of science information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroscience, moral reasoning, and the law.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S

    2009-01-01

    Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered.

  13. ComTrustO: Composite Trust-Based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    ComTrustO: Composite Trust-based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion Alessandro Oltramari Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh... ontology -based framework for information fusion, as a support system for human decision makers. In particular, we build upon the concept of composite...multidimensional trust, we construct a composite trust ontology framework, called ComTrustO, that embraces four trust ontologies , one for each trust type. We

  14. Teaching neuroscience at a religious institution: pedagogical models for handling neuroscience and theology.

    PubMed

    Struthers, William M

    2003-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience makes it one of the most fascinating and complex subjects to address in the classroom. This can be compounded, however, by the addition of theology or a faith-related context at a religious institution (RI). The addition of theology and faith can enrich student appreciation and understanding of neuroscience and stimulate discussion in the classroom. This provides a practical way to make the course content relevant to students who may see neuroscience as antagonistic towards their faith. Over the past century questions of human experience and personhood that were long held to be under the authority of religion now can be addressed from findings in neuroscience. While there has been debate on a variety of topics which range from positions on origins to ethical questions about the nature of research (i.e. stem cells, cloning), it is important that teaching faculty at RIs be prepared to deal with the hard questions faced by students of faith. Recommendations for faculty are given including: self assessment of personal position on matters of faith and science, framing a number of models for the integration of neuroscience and theology, 'Worldviews', and mentoring students who are struggling with reconciling their faith with neuroscience. While this paper is designed for teachers at RIs, it may also aid teaching faculty at other institutions who may benefit from an awareness of this framework and aid in teaching students of faith in a secular setting.

  15. New Frameworks for Detecting and Minimizing Information Leakage in Anonymized Network Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE NEW FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK...FRAMEWORKS FOR DETECTING AND MINIMIZING INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ANONYMIZED NETWORK DATA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-08-2-0147 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...risk, high-value data is that of trace anonymization - a process of sanitizing data before release so that information of concern cannot be extracted

  16. An extended multivariate autoregressive framework for EEG-based information flow analysis of a brain network.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Imali T; Mohamed, Shady; Nyhof, Luke; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Recently effective connectivity studies have gained significant attention among the neuroscience community as Electroencephalography (EEG) data with a high time resolution can give us a wider understanding of the information flow within the brain. Among other tools used in effective connectivity analysis Granger Causality (GC) has found a prominent place. The GC analysis, based on strictly causal multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) models does not account for the instantaneous interactions among the sources. If instantaneous interactions are present, GC based on strictly causal MVAR will lead to erroneous conclusions on the underlying information flow. Thus, the work presented in this paper applies an extended MVAR (eMVAR) model that accounts for the zero lag interactions. We propose a constrained adaptive Kalman filter (CAKF) approach for the eMVAR model identification and demonstrate that this approach performs better than the short time windowing-based adaptive estimation when applied to information flow analysis.

  17. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  18. Perspectives on Information Literacy: A Framework for Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Colleen; Meyers, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Information literacy, 40 years since the term was coined, remains a conceptually contested aspect of library and information science research. This paper uses a review of the literature related to the concept of information literacy to identify three different perspectives, their historical origins, and connection to library and information…

  19. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  20. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  1. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  2. A Linguistic Framework for Assessing the Quality of Written Patient Information: Its Use in Assessing Methotrexate Information for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Moodie, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Patient information leaflets are an important adjunct to verbal exchange between doctor and patient. Their value is dependent upon whether they contain useful information from the viewpoint of the patient and are easily understood. We developed a framework based upon linguistic theory for assessing the quality of written patient information and…

  3. A Linguistic Framework for Assessing the Quality of Written Patient Information: Its Use in Assessing Methotrexate Information for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Moodie, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Patient information leaflets are an important adjunct to verbal exchange between doctor and patient. Their value is dependent upon whether they contain useful information from the viewpoint of the patient and are easily understood. We developed a framework based upon linguistic theory for assessing the quality of written patient information and…

  4. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  5. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods-cultural neuroscience (CN)-is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings.

  6. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  7. An Integrated Neuroscience Perspective on Formulation and Treatment Planning for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Educational Review.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Travis, Michael J; Dwyer, Jennifer B; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience. Any contemporary neuroscience formulation of PTSD should include an understanding of fear conditioning, dysregulated circuits, memory reconsolidation, epigenetics, and genetic factors. Fear conditioning and other elements of basic learning theory offer a framework for understanding how traumatic events can lead to a range of behaviors associated with PTSD. A circuit dysregulation framework focuses more broadly on aberrant network connectivity, including between the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures. In the process of memory reconsolidation, it is now clear that every time a memory is reactivated it becomes momentarily labile-with implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. Epigenetic changes secondary to various experiences, especially early in life, can have long-term effects, including on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby affecting an individual's ability to regulate the stress response. Genetic factors are surprisingly relevant: PTSD has been shown to be highly heritable despite being definitionally linked to specific experiences. The relevance of each of these themes to current clinical practice and its potential to transform future care are discussed. Together, these perspectives contribute to an integrative, neuroscience-informed approach to case formulation and treatment planning. This may

  8. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  9. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  10. Implications of the Naturalistic Decision Making Framework for Information Dominance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    Information Dominance , defined as an operational advantage obtained through superior effectiveness of informational activity. NDM is the study of how people use their experience to make decisions in field settings. Expertise was considered at both the individual and the team level of decision making. The report defines the components of expertise and identifies obstacles to the acquisition of Information Dominance . These obstacles include: (1) excessive data, (2) pre-processed data, (3) excessive procedures, (4) performing formal analyses, (5) passive

  11. The Cross-domain Information Exchange Framework (CIEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-21

    a useful evolutionary step. We are current probing the functionality of Web 2.0 Internet application that largely connects information resources in...business transactions that simplify the purchasing and arrival of inventory, Web 2.0 can be seen as another level of information integration and services...built around the performance of tasks. 3. The Problem While it is true that isolated pockets of Web 2.0 information exchange do not exist, these

  12. Robotics and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Neurosciences in Bordeaux].

    PubMed

    Le Moal, Michel; Battin, Jacques; Bioulac, Bernard; Bourgeois, Marc Louis; Henry, Patrick; Vital, Claude; Vincent, Jean-Didier

    2008-04-01

    The Bordeaux Neuroscience Institute brings together all the disciplines that constitute the clinical and experimental neurosciences. Outside of the Paris region, the Institute represents the largest community of researchers working on the nervous system. The aim of this brief historical piece is to describe how neuroscientists in Bordeaux are the heirs to a long neuropsychiatric tradition established by pioneers of national and international renown. This tradition has been maintained, without interruption, through many generations. The careers and scientific work of these great neurologists and psychiatrists are briefly evoked, and particularly those of A. Pitres, E. Régis and E. Azam in the 19th century; and, in the 20th century, J. Abadie, H. Verger and R. Cruchet. The determining influence of P Delmas-Marsalet (1898-1977), Professor of Neuropsychiatry, on the development of modern neurosciences in Bordeaux is recalled through his work, his teachings, and his numerous students.

  14. Building a metadata framework for sharing feed information in Spain.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Molina, F; Gómez-Cabrera, A; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Garrido-Varo, A; Pérez-Marín, D C

    2011-03-01

    Information about the nutritional aspects and uses of feed is of widespread interest, hence systematic efforts of laboratories to obtain it. The way this information is currently being handled leaves something to be desired, underscoring the need to use computerized systems and statistical techniques that allow the management of large volumes of heterogeneous information. This project seeks to develop a structure that will facilitate the exchange and exploitation of information on feeds produced in Spain. To this end, metadata and data mining techniques have been adopted by the Feed Information Service at the University of Cordoba. The structure has been designed to work on the basis of a server-client architecture, in which information is stored on local software (Califa) by its own creators so that it can subsequently be incorporated into a database server where it can be accessed online. Various aspects of the structure are described in this paper: organization (participants and data shared), format (physical features), logistics (data description), quality (reliability of information), legality (correct use of data), and financing (revenue and expenditure). An indication is given of the amount of information accumulated to date, now exceeding 200,000 numerical data and associated metadata, arranged in several thematic databases. The activities carried out highlight the heterogeneous nature of the information produced, as well as the large number of errors and ambiguities that slip through the normal filters and reach the end-user of the data.

  15. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  16. A Framework for the Governance of Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Information security is a complex issue, which is very critical for success of modern businesses. It can be implemented with the help of well-tested global standards and best practices. However, it has been studied that the human aspects of information security compliance pose significant challenge to its practitioners. There has been significant…

  17. A Framework for the Governance of Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Information security is a complex issue, which is very critical for success of modern businesses. It can be implemented with the help of well-tested global standards and best practices. However, it has been studied that the human aspects of information security compliance pose significant challenge to its practitioners. There has been significant…

  18. A Framework to Support Research on Informal Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; delMas, Robert; Reading, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning is a relatively recent concept in the research literature. Several research studies have defined this type of cognitive process in slightly different ways. In this paper, a working definition of informal inferential reasoning based on an analysis of the key aspects of statistical inference, and on research from…

  19. A Framework to Support Research on Informal Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; delMas, Robert; Reading, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning is a relatively recent concept in the research literature. Several research studies have defined this type of cognitive process in slightly different ways. In this paper, a working definition of informal inferential reasoning based on an analysis of the key aspects of statistical inference, and on research from…

  20. Terminology for neuroscience data discovery: multi-tree syntax and investigator-derived semantics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P

    2008-09-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org , is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org ; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops.

  1. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops. PMID:18958630

  2. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    SciTech Connect

    De Cooman, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  3. The neuroscience of learning: beyond the Hebbian synapse.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-01-01

    From the traditional perspective of associative learning theory, the hypothesis linking modifications of synaptic transmission to learning and memory is plausible. It is less so from an information-processing perspective, in which learning is mediated by computations that make implicit commitments to physical and mathematical principles governing the domains where domain-specific cognitive mechanisms operate. We compare the properties of associative learning and memory to the properties of long-term potentiation, concluding that the properties of the latter do not explain the fundamental properties of the former. We briefly review the neuroscience of reinforcement learning, emphasizing the representational implications of the neuroscientific findings. We then review more extensively findings that confirm the existence of complex computations in three information-processing domains: probabilistic inference, the representation of uncertainty, and the representation of space. We argue for a change in the conceptual framework within which neuroscientists approach the study of learning mechanisms in the brain.

  4. Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Centric Warfare Topics Information and Knowledge Exploration Information and Knowledge Exploitation Concepts, Theory , and Policy Saša...Transformation Roadmaps are based on the NCW theory [45], and NEC is at the core of 16th ICCRTS: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations...situational awareness, has long been a key aspect of military theory . For instance, Clausewitz talked about the “fog of war” [12, p. 104] and Sun Tzu wrote

  5. Storage of electrical information in metal-organic-framework memristors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok Min; Warren, Scott C; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2014-04-22

    Single crystals of a cyclodextrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) infused with an ionic electrolyte and flanked by silver electrodes act as memristors. They can be electrically switched between low and high conductivity states that persist even in the absence of an applied voltage. In this way, these small blocks of nanoporous sugar function as a non-volatile RRAM memory elements that can be repeatedly read, erased, and re-written. These properties derive from ionic current within the MOF and the deposition of nanometer-thin passivating layers at the anode flanking the MOF crystal. The observed phenomena are crucially dependent on the sub-nanometer widths of the channels in the MOF, allowing the passage of only smaller ions. Conversely, with the electrolyte present but no MOF, there are no memristance or memory effects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  7. Educational Story as a Tool for Addressing the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossler, Joshua J.; Watts, John

    2017-01-01

    To integrate the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education into their professional practice, librarians are called upon to address both the cognitive and emotional aspects of their learners. The Framework does not provide prescriptive details for its own deployment, so it is up to individuals, departments, or entire libraries to…

  8. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  9. Motor cognition and neuroscience in sport psychology.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Paul S; Wright, David J

    2017-08-01

    Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we highlight and discuss the contributions to sport psychology that have been made in recent years by applying these techniques, with a focus on the development of expertise, motor cognition, motor imagery and action observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated Information in Discrete Dynamical Systems: Motivation and Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, φ, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, φ quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) φ varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) φ varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) φ varies as a function of network architecture. High φ values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high φ because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high φ but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, φ is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized to

  11. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized

  12. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  13. Cognitive network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-08-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience.

  14. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  16. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  17. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  18. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  19. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  20. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  1. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  2. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  3. Conceptual challenges and directions for social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-03-25

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the "social brain," and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  5. Cultural neuroscience: a once and future discipline.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2009-01-01

    The study of culture and biology has long stood stratified within the social and natural sciences, a gap that physicist C.P. Snow (1959) famously called "the two cultures." Cultural neuroscience is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that examines the bidirectional influence of culture and genes to brain and behavior across multiple timescales. Integrating theory and methods from cultural psychology, brain sciences, and population genetics, cultural neuroscience is the study of how cultural values, practices and beliefs shape brain function and how the human brain gives rise to cultural capacities and their transmission across macro- (e.g., phylogeny, lifespan) and micro timescales (e.g., situation). The current article presents the aims and methods of cultural neuroscience, highlights recent empirical findings in the field, and discusses the potential implications of this field for bridging the social and natural sciences as well as informing interethnic ideology and population health concerns, more broadly construed.

  6. Telehealth and the national health information technology strategic framework.

    PubMed

    Speedie, Stuart M; Davies, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Telehealth has a role in the federally sponsored plan for health information technology (HIT) that encompasses electronic health records (EHRs) and the National Health Information Network (NHIN). The goals of telehealth and the national plan are complementary. One focuses on improving access to high quality health-care services and the other on the information systems to support those services. Telehealth needs the fully realized EHR to provide the best possible care when patients are geographically and chronologically separated from their providers. Some current telehealth projects are natural examples of how a distributed, accessible EHR such as that envisaged by the plan can be used to provide better care. The experiences of telehealth in organizing large networks of heterogeneous health-care entities can provide useful lessons as the process of implementing HIT moves forward.

  7. Use of historical information in a maximum-likelihood framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Stedinger, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flood-quantile estimators which can employ historical and paleoflood information, both when the magnitudes of historical flood peaks are known, and when only threshold-exceedance information is available. Maximum likelihood, quasi-maximum likelihood and curve fitting methods for simultaneous estimation of 1, 2 and 3 unknown parameters are examined. The information contained in a 100 yr record of historical observations, during which the flood perception threshold was near the 10 yr flood level (i.e., on average, one flood in ten is above the threshold and hence is recorded), is equivalent to roughly 43, 64 and 78 years of systematic record in terms of the improvement of the precision of 100 yr flood estimators when estimating 1, 2 and 3 parameters, respectively. With the perception threshold at the 100 yr flood level, the historical data was worth 13, 20 and 46 years of systematic data when estimating 1, 2 and 3 parameters, respectively. ?? 1987.

  8. NHDPlusHR: A national geospatial framework for surface-water information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland; Rea, Alan H.; Simley, Jeffrey D.; Hanson, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a new geospatial hydrographic framework for the United States, called the National Hydrography Dataset Plus High Resolution (NHDPlusHR), that integrates a diversity of the best-available information, robustly supports ongoing dataset improvements, enables hydrographic generalization to derive alternate representations of the network while maintaining feature identity, and supports modern scientific computing and Internet accessibility needs. This framework is based on the High Resolution National Hydrography Dataset, the Watershed Boundaries Dataset, and elevation from the 3-D Elevation Program, and will provide an authoritative, high precision, and attribute-rich geospatial framework for surface-water information for the United States. Using this common geospatial framework will provide a consistent basis for indexing water information in the United States, eliminate redundancy, and harmonize access to, and exchange of water information.

  9. A security framework for nationwide health information exchange based on telehealth strategy.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, B B; Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Kiah, M L Mat; Muzamel, Hussaen

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the situation of health information exchange (HIE) in the context of a nationwide network. It aims to create a security framework that can be implemented to ensure the safe transmission of health information across the boundaries of care providers in Malaysia and other countries. First, a critique of the major elements of nationwide health information networks is presented from the perspective of security, along with such topics as the importance of HIE, issues, and main approaches. Second, a systematic evaluation is conducted on the security solutions that can be utilized in the proposed nationwide network. Finally, a secure framework for health information transmission is proposed within a central cloud-based model, which is compatible with the Malaysian telehealth strategy. The outcome of this analysis indicates that a complete security framework for a global structure of HIE is yet to be defined and implemented. Our proposed framework represents such an endeavor and suggests specific techniques to achieve this goal.

  10. Applying the Framework for Information Literacy to the Developmental Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    Translating the new Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education (ACRL November 2014) into learning outcomes, instructional content, and assessments might appear to be an overwhelming task; however, in many cases the revision exemplifies how many librarians have been teaching information literacy in the digital information landscape.…

  11. MEMOIR--An Open Framework for Enhanced Navigation of Distributed Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Roure, D.; Hall, W.; Reich, S.; Hill, G.; Pikrakis, A.; Stairmand, M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the MEMOIR project (Managing Enterprise-scale Multimedia using an Open Framework for Information Re-use) that uses trails, open hypermedia link services and software agents to access and navigate information in Intranet environments to share technical information and find colleagues with similar interests. Presents results of evaluations…

  12. Applying the Framework for Information Literacy to the Developmental Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    Translating the new Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education (ACRL November 2014) into learning outcomes, instructional content, and assessments might appear to be an overwhelming task; however, in many cases the revision exemplifies how many librarians have been teaching information literacy in the digital information landscape.…

  13. The Skills Framework for the Information Age: Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Konsky, Brian R.; Miller, Charlynn; Jones, Asheley

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project, examining the role of the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) curriculum design and management. A goal was to investigate how SFIA informs a top-down approach to curriculum design, beginning with a set of skills that define a particular career…

  14. Three requirements for justifying an educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hruby, George G

    2012-03-01

    Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to generate both empirical research and theoretical syntheses of noteworthy promise. Nonetheless, thoughtful and critical scholars in education have expressed concern about both the intellectual coherence and ethical dangers of this new area. It is still an open question whether educational neuroscience is for some time yet to remain only a formative study area for adventurous scholars or is already a fully fledged field of educational scholarship. In this paper, I suggest that to be a worthy field of educational research, educational neuroscience will need to address three issues: intellectual coherence, mutually informing and respected scholarly expertise, and an ethical commitment to the moral implications and obligations shared within educational research generally. I shall set forth some examples of lapses in this regard, focusing primarily on work on reading development, as that is my area of expertise, and make recommendations for due diligence. Arguments. First, intellectual coherence requires both precision in definition of technical terms (so that diverse scholars and professionals may communicate findings and insights consistently across fields), and precision in the logical warrants by which educational implications are drawn from empirical data from the neurosciences. Both needs are facilitated by careful attention to categorical boundary and avoidance of category error. Second, educational neuroscientists require focused and broad expertise in both the neurosciences and educational scholarship on teaching and learning in classrooms (and/or ancillary fields). If history is our guide, neuroscience implications for practice will

  15. A Framework for Managing the Assured Information Sharing Lifecycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-06

    incentives for sharing and exploiting knowledge of underlying social networks and relations, and (4) implementing and evaluating experimental software...protect privacy, (3) analyzing social aspects of information sharing including incorporating incentives for sharing and exploiting knowledge of...mation sharing where devices share and integrate knowledge about their context. This introduces the need for privacy and security mechanisms. They

  16. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Digital Libraries for K-12 Mathematics Education: Part 1, Information Organization, Information Literacy, and Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-liang; Doty, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article is the first of two that present a six-part conceptual framework for the design and evaluation of digital libraries meant to support mathematics education in K-12 settings (see also pt. 2). This first article concentrates on (1) information organization, (2) information literacy, and (3) integrated learning with multimedia materials.…

  18. Arizona Law Enforcement Biometrics Identification and Information Sharing Technology Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    accurate systems were from NEC of Japan, SAGEM of France and Cogent, an American company (Bulman, 2004). The performance of these three systems was...into a docking station attached to a laptop in a patrol car or a docking station attached to a PC at a remote location. The image can also be...transmitted using Bluetooth communications to the laptop in the patrol car. Figure 1 illustrates how images are transmitted and information received by an

  19. The ACRL framework for information literacy in higher education: implications for health sciences librarianship.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Maureen; Brower, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries is developing a new framework of information literacy concepts that will revise and replace the previously adopted standards. This framework consists of six threshold concepts that are more flexible than the original standards, and that work to identify both the function and the feelings behind information literacy education practices. This column outlines the new tentative framework with an eye toward its implications for health sciences libraries, and suggests ways the medical library community might work with this new document.

  20. Financial anatomy of neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, E Ray; Vitticore, Philip; De Roulet, Jason; Thompson, Joel P; Carrasco, Melisa; Johnston, S Claiborne; Holloway, Robert G; Moses, Hamilton

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the level of funding for neuroscience research from federal and industry sources and to examine the therapeutic advances in the neurosciences over the past decade. We examined financing for neuroscience research over the past decade from the following principal sponsors of biomedical research: the National Institutes of Health, the pharmaceutical industry, large biotechnology firms, and large medical device firms. We also examined US Food and Drug Administration approvals for new molecular entities and medical devices for indications within the neurosciences. Neuroscience was defined to include funding and approvals for neurological and psychiatric conditions. Total (nominal) industry and government funding for neuroscience research increased from $4.8 billion in 1995 to $14.1 billion in 2005 and doubled after adjusting for inflation. In 2005, the pharmaceutical industry and the largest biotechnology and medical device firms accounted for 58% of total funding. The US Food and Drug Administration approved 40 new molecular entities for indications within the neurosciences from 1995 to 2005, with the annual number of approvals remaining relatively stagnant during this period. From 1995 to 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration also approved 1,679 medical devices in the neurosciences for use. Financing for neuroscience research has increased significantly over the past decade, but new approvals for drugs in the neurosciences have not kept pace with the rapid increase in funding. This lag may represent a natural delay in realizing the return in the investment in scientific research or a decline in the productivity of neuroscience research.

  1. Representational Similarity Analysis – Connecting the Branches of Systems Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement (e.g., fMRI and invasive or scalp electrophysiology), and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs), which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. Building on a rich psychological and mathematical literature on similarity analysis, we propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA), in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing RDMs. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI in early visual cortex and the fusiform face area to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. The RDMs are simultaneously related via second-level application of multidimensional scaling and tested using randomization and bootstrap techniques. We discuss the broad potential of RSA, including novel approaches to experimental design, and argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience. PMID:19104670

  2. Representational similarity analysis - connecting the branches of systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGE FOR SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE IS TO QUANTITATIVELY RELATE ITS THREE MAJOR BRANCHES OF RESEARCH: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement (e.g., fMRI and invasive or scalp electrophysiology), and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs), which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. Building on a rich psychological and mathematical literature on similarity analysis, we propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA), in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing RDMs. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI in early visual cortex and the fusiform face area to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. The RDMs are simultaneously related via second-level application of multidimensional scaling and tested using randomization and bootstrap techniques. We discuss the broad potential of RSA, including novel approaches to experimental design, and argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience.

  3. A distributed framework for health information exchange using smartphone technologies.

    PubMed

    Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2017-05-01

    Nationwide health information exchange (NHIE) continues to be a persistent concern for government agencies, despite the many efforts and the conceived benefits of sharing patient data among healthcare providers. Difficulties in ensuring global connectivity, interoperability, and concerns on security have always hampered the government from successfully deploying NHIE. By looking at NHIE from a fresh perspective and bearing in mind the pervasiveness and power of modern mobile platforms, this paper proposes a new approach to NHIE that builds on the notion of consumer-mediated HIE, albeit without the focus on central health record banks. With the growing acceptance of smartphones as reliable, indispensable, and most personal devices, we suggest to leverage the concept of mobile personal health records (PHRs installed on smartphones) to the next level. We envision mPHRs that take the form of distributed storage units for health information, under the full control and direct possession of patients, who can have ready access to their personal data whenever needed. However, for the actual exchange of data with health information systems managed by healthcare providers, the latter have to be interoperable with patient-carried mPHRs. Computer industry has long ago solved a similar problem of interoperability between peripheral devices and operating systems. We borrow from that solution the idea of providing special interfaces between mPHRs and provider systems. This interface enables the two entities to communicate with no change to either end. The design and operation of the proposed approach is explained. Additional pointers on potential implementations are provided, and issues that pertain to any solution to implement NHIE are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Information Foraging Theory: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    processus de description de l’environnement de travail dans lequel les analystes évoluent et abordant la question de la définition des concepts clés...K., Pirolli, P., Van Der Wege, M., Morrison, J. B., Reeder, R. W., Schraedley, P. K., & Boshart, J. (2001, March ). Information scent as a driver of...dans le domaine du renseignement militaire est décrit, en commençant par le processus de description de l’environnement de travail dans lequel les

  5. Feasibility of PRIME: A Cognitive Neuroscience-Informed Mobile App Intervention to Enhance Motivated Behavior and Improve Quality of Life in Recent Onset Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Danielle; Campellone, Timothy; Kim, Daniel; Truong, Brandy; Vergani, Silvia; Ward, Charlie; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-04-28

    psychosocial domains, (3) social networking via direct peer-to-peer messaging, and (4) community "moments feed" to capture and reinforce rewarding experiences and goal achievements. Users preferred an experience that highlighted several of the principles of self-determination theory, including the desire for more control of their future (autonomy and competence) and an approach that helps them improve existing relationships (relatedness). IDEO, also recommended an approach that was casual, friendly, and nonstigmatizing, which is in line with the recovery model of psychosis. After 12-weeks of using PRIME, participants used the app, on average, every other day, were actively engaged with its various features each time they logged in and retention and satisfaction was high (20/20, 100% retention, high satisfaction ratings). The iterative design process lead to a 2- to 3-fold increase in engagement from Stage 1 to Stage 2 in almost each aspect of the platform. These results indicate that the neuroscience-informed mobile app, PRIME, is a feasible and acceptable intervention for young people with schizophrenia.

  6. Feasibility of PRIME: A Cognitive Neuroscience-Informed Mobile App Intervention to Enhance Motivated Behavior and Improve Quality of Life in Recent Onset Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Campellone, Timothy; Kim, Daniel; Truong, Brandy; Vergani, Silvia; Ward, Charlie; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    in prognostically important psychosocial domains, (3) social networking via direct peer-to-peer messaging, and (4) community “moments feed” to capture and reinforce rewarding experiences and goal achievements. Users preferred an experience that highlighted several of the principles of self-determination theory, including the desire for more control of their future (autonomy and competence) and an approach that helps them improve existing relationships (relatedness). IDEO, also recommended an approach that was casual, friendly, and nonstigmatizing, which is in line with the recovery model of psychosis. After 12-weeks of using PRIME, participants used the app, on average, every other day, were actively engaged with its various features each time they logged in and retention and satisfaction was high (20/20, 100% retention, high satisfaction ratings). The iterative design process lead to a 2- to 3-fold increase in engagement from Stage 1 to Stage 2 in almost each aspect of the platform. Conclusions These results indicate that the neuroscience-informed mobile app, PRIME, is a feasible and acceptable intervention for young people with schizophrenia. PMID:27125771

  7. Common Data Model for Neuroscience Data and Data Model Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Daniel; Knuth, Kevin H.; Abato, Michael; Erde, Steven M.; White, Thomas; DeBellis, Robert; Gardner, Esther P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Generalizing the data models underlying two prototype neurophysiology databases, the authors describe and propose the Common Data Model (CDM) as a framework for federating a broad spectrum of disparate neuroscience information resources. Design: Each component of the CDM derives from one of five superclasses—data, site, method, model, and reference—or from relations defined between them. A hierarchic attribute-value scheme for metadata enables interoperability with variable tree depth to serve specific intra- or broad inter-domain queries. To mediate data exchange between disparate systems, the authors propose a set of XML-derived schema for describing not only data sets but data models. These include biophysical description markup language (BDML), which mediates interoperability between data resources by providing a meta-description for the CDM. Results: The set of superclasses potentially spans data needs of contemporary neuroscience. Data elements abstracted from neurophysiology time series and histogram data represent data sets that differ in dimension and concordance. Site elements transcend neurons to describe subcellular compartments, circuits, regions, or slices; non-neuroanatomic sites include sequences to patients. Methods and models are highly domain-dependent. Conclusions: True federation of data resources requires explicit public description, in a metalanguage, of the contents, query methods, data formats, and data models of each data resource. Any data model that can be derived from the defined superclasses is potentially conformant and interoperability can be enabled by recognition of BDML-described compatibilities. Such metadescriptions can buffer technologic changes. PMID:11141510

  8. Neuroscience and education.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-03-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional, emotional and mnemonic functions is also making progress, particularly since the advent of the cognitive neurosciences, which focus specifically on understanding higher level processes of cognition via imaging technology. Neuroimaging has enabled scientists to study the human brain at work in vivo, deepening our understanding of the very complex processes underpinning speech and language, thinking and reasoning, reading and mathematics. It seems timely, therefore, to consider how we might implement our increased understanding of brain development and brain function to explore educational questions.

  9. Neuroscience and Global Learning.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience.

  10. Neuroscience and Global Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  11. Regional orientation program for the department of clinical neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frankie W H

    2006-01-01

    A regional orientation program increases the efficient and effective use of resources such as classroom, equipment, and educator time. It provides consistent information to all new nurses and maintains standards of nursing practice throughout the Department of Clinical Neurosciences.

  12. Immunogold cytochemistry in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Ottersen, Ole Petter

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of the central nervous system calls for immunocytochemical procedures that allow target proteins to be localized with high precision and with opportunities for quantitation. Immunogold procedures stand out as particularly powerful in this regard. Although these procedures have found wide application in the neuroscience community, they present limitations and pitfalls that must be taken into account. At the same time, these procedures offer potentials that remain to be fully realized.

  13. Building bridges between neuroscience, cognition and education with predictive modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-05-06

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. In this article, we present a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include representations from the neural level to the policy level. Researchers could calibrate, test, and question the model, potentially providing quicker, more efficient, and more responsible ways of making advances in the developing educational field. Likewise, virtual investigations using models with this sort of capability can supplement themore » valuable information derived from carrying out policy and instructional experiments in real educational contexts.« less

  14. Building bridges between neuroscience, cognition and education with predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-05-06

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. In this article, we present a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include representations from the neural level to the policy level. Researchers could calibrate, test, and question the model, potentially providing quicker, more efficient, and more responsible ways of making advances in the developing educational field. Likewise, virtual investigations using models with this sort of capability can supplement the valuable information derived from carrying out policy and instructional experiments in real educational contexts.

  15. Wikipedia neuroscience stub editing in an introductory undergraduate neuroscience course.

    PubMed

    Burdo, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Society for Neuroscience initiative to help improve the neuroscience related content in Wikipedia, I implemented Wikipedia article construction and revision in my Introduction to Neuroscience course at Boston College as a writing intensive and neuroscience related outreach activity. My students worked in small groups to revise neuroscience "stubs" of their choice, many of which had little or no useful content. The exercise resulted in the successful development of well-written Wikipedia neuroscience articles, and was received well by my students, receiving positive marks in our course evaluations. Much of the student guidance and assessment was done by student peer groups as well as other Wikipedia editors outside of our course, reducing the instructor involvement to below that of a typical term paper.

  16. 75 FR 102 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Framework Adjustment 4 to the Monkfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... regulatory steps taken to carry out the conservation and management objectives is to collect data from users... Information Collection; Comment Request; Framework Adjustment 4 to the Monkfish Fishery Management Plan AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act,...

  17. A Framework for the Utilization of Information Technology in Higher Education Admission Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClea, Michael; Yen, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Through an examination of the admission department at Miami University of Ohio and their use of information technology, a generalized framework for the use of information technology in university admissions is proposed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper was developed to start an introduction to the admission process and the role of…

  18. Brain profiling and clinical-neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Peled, Avi

    2006-01-01

    The current psychiatric diagnostic system, the diagnostic statistic manual, has recently come under increasing criticism. The major reason for the shortcomings of the current psychiatric diagnosis is the lack of a scientific brain-related etiological knowledge about mental disorders. The advancement toward such knowledge is further hampered by the lack of a theoretical framework or "language" that translates clinical findings of mental disorders to brain disturbances and insufficiencies. Here such a theoretical construct is proposed based on insights from neuroscience and neural-computation models. Correlates between clinical manifestations and presumed neuronal network disturbances are proposed in the form of a practical diagnostic system titled "Brain Profiling". Three dimensions make-up brain profiling, "neural complexity disorders", "neuronal resilience insufficiency", and "context-sensitive processing decline". The first dimension relates to disturbances occurring to fast neuronal activations in the millisecond range, it incorporates connectivity and hierarchical imbalances appertaining typically to psychotic and schizophrenic clinical manifestations. The second dimension relates to disturbances that alter slower changes namely long-term synaptic modulations, and incorporates disturbances to optimization and constraint satisfactions within relevant neuronal circuitry. Finally, the level of internal representations related to personality disorders is presented by a "context-sensitive process decline" as the third dimension. For practical use of brain profiling diagnosis a consensual list of psychiatric clinical manifestations provides a "diagnostic input vector", clinical findings are coded 1 for "detection" and 0 for "non-detection", 0.5 is coded for "questionable". The entries are clustered according to their presumed neuronal dynamic relationships and coefficients determine their relevance to the specific related brain disturbance. Relevant equations

  19. A Framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of nationwide health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Overhage, J Marc

    2010-01-01

    Objective The nationwide health information network (NHIN) has been proposed to securely link community and state health information exchange (HIE) entities to create a national, interoperable network for sharing healthcare data in the USA. This paper describes a framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of nationwide data exchange as the NHIN moves toward a production state. The paper further presents the results of an initial assessment of the framework by those engaged in HIE activities. Design Using a literature review and knowledge gained from active NHIN technology and policy development, the authors constructed a framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of data exchange between an HIE entity and the NHIN. Measurement An online survey was used to assess the perceived usefulness of the metrics in the framework among HIE professionals and researchers. Results The framework is organized into five broad categories: implementation; technology; policy; data; and value. Each category enumerates a variety of measures and measure types. Survey respondents generally indicated the framework contained useful measures for current and future use in HIE and NHIN evaluation. Answers varied slightly based on a respondent's participation in active development of NHIN components. Conclusion The proposed framework supports efforts to measure the costs, effort, and value associated with nationwide data exchange. Collecting longitudinal data along the NHIN's path to production should help with the development of an evidence base that will drive adoption, create value, and stimulate further investment in nationwide data exchange. PMID:20442147

  20. Value Assessment Frameworks for HTA Agencies: The Organization of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes.

    PubMed

    Baltussen, Rob; Paul Maria Jansen, Maarten; Bijlmakers, Leon; Grutters, Janneke; Kluytmans, Anouck; Reuzel, Rob P; Tummers, Marcia; der Wilt, Gert Jan van

    2017-02-01

    Priority setting in health care has been long recognized as an intrinsically complex and value-laden process. Yet, health technology assessment agencies (HTAs) presently employ value assessment frameworks that are ill fitted to capture the range and diversity of stakeholder values and thereby risk compromising the legitimacy of their recommendations. We propose "evidence-informed deliberative processes" as an alternative framework with the aim to enhance this legitimacy. This framework integrates two increasingly popular and complementary frameworks for priority setting: multicriteria decision analysis and accountability for reasonableness. Evidence-informed deliberative processes are, on one hand, based on early, continued stakeholder deliberation to learn about the importance of relevant social values. On the other hand, they are based on rational decision-making through evidence-informed evaluation of the identified values. The framework has important implications for how HTA agencies should ideally organize their processes. First, HTA agencies should take the responsibility of organizing stakeholder involvement. Second, agencies are advised to integrate their assessment and appraisal phases, allowing for the timely collection of evidence on values that are considered relevant. Third, HTA agencies should subject their decision-making criteria to public scrutiny. Fourth, agencies are advised to use a checklist of potentially relevant criteria and to provide argumentation for how each criterion affected the recommendation. Fifth, HTA agencies must publish their argumentation and install options for appeal. The framework should not be considered a blueprint for HTA agencies but rather an aspirational goal-agencies can take incremental steps toward achieving this goal.

  1. Development of a flexible higher education curriculum framework for geographic information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations means that curricula need to constantly be updated and developed to maintain currency and relevance. This paper reviews the curriculum initiatives and outlines a new and flexible GIScience higher education curriculum framework which complements and utilises existing curricula. This new framework was applied to the GIScience programs at Curtin University in Perth, Australia which has surpassed 25 years of GIScience education. Some of the results of applying this framework are outlined and discussed.

  2. Neuroscience and "real world" practice: music as a therapeutic resource for children in zones of conflict.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nigel

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in music neuroscience are considered a source for reflection on, and evaluation and development of, musical therapeutic practice in the field, in particular, in relation to traumatized children and postconflict societies. Music neuroscience research is related to practice within a broad biopsychosocial framework. Here, examples are detailed of work from North Uganda, Palestine, and South Thailand.

  3. Rethinking health planning: a framework for organising information to underpin collaborative health planning.

    PubMed

    Gudes, Ori; Kendall, Elizabeth; Yigitcanlar, Tan; Pathak, Virendra; Baum, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The field of collaborative health planning faces significant challenges created by the narrow focus of the available information, the absence of a framework to organise that information and the lack of systems to make information accessible and guide decision-making. These challenges have been magnified by the rise of the 'healthy communities movement', resulting in more frequent calls for localised, collaborative and evidence-driven health related decision-making. This paper discusses the role of decision support systems as a mechanism to facilitate collaborative health decision-making. The paper presents a potential information management framework to underpin a health decision support system and describes the participatory process that is currently being used to create an online tool for health planners using geographic information systems. The need for a comprehensive information management framework to guide the process of planning for healthy communities has been emphasised. The paper also underlines the critical importance of the proposed framework not only in forcing planners to engage with the entire range of health determinants, but also in providing sufficient flexibility to allow exploration of the local setting-based determinants of health.

  4. The information cycle as a framework for defining information goals for water-quality monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ottens, J.J.; Ward, R.C.

    2000-03-01

    The necessity to tailor information becomes increasingly urgent as the information revolution continues to generate every-increasing flows of data and so-called information. From European experiences, a new approach for monitoring system design is suggested in this paper. In this approach, careful and detailed specification of information needs is a major contributing factor to the effectiveness of information products. To develop better specifications for information products, the process of collecting and transforming data into useful information requires careful thought and guidance. A dialogue between information users on one hand and information producers on the other is essential. This dialogue can be based on the information cycle, describing the continuous process from specifying information needs for water management and a strategy to collect information through data collection and data analysis up to utilization of information by water management. By following the respective steps in the information cycle, the process of information gathering can be completed. The cyclic character provides a quantitative means of connecting monitoring system design and operations with the information expectations and/or products required by management.

  5. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  6. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  7. Information theory provides a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of protein structure predictions

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Rosemarie; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    Protein structure prediction has a number of important ad hoc similarity measures for evaluating predictions, but would benefit from a measure that is able to provide a common framework for a broad range of comparisons. Here we show that a mutual information-like measure can provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating protein structure prediction of all types. We discuss the concept of information, its application to secondary structure, and the obstacle to applying it to 3D structure. Based on insights from the secondary structure case, we present an approach to work around the 3D difficulties, and develop a method to measure the mutual information provided by a 3D structure prediction. We integrate the evaluation of all types of protein structure prediction into a single frame work, and compare the amount of information provided by various prediction methods, including secondary structure prediction. Within this broadened framework, the idea that structure is better preserved than sequence during evolution is evaluated quantitatively for the globin family. A nearly perfect sequence match in the globin family corresponds to about 300 bits of information, whereas a nearly perfect structural match for the same two proteins corresponds to about 2500 bits of information, where bits of information describes the probability of obtaining a match of similar closeness by chance. Mutual information provides both a theoretical basis for evaluating structure similarity and an explanatory surround for existing similarity measures. PMID:18704942

  8. A Geographic Information System Framework for the Management of Sensor Deployments

    PubMed Central

    Russomanno, David J.; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors’ underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  9. A Hierarchical Framework Combining Motion and Feature Information for Infrared-Visible Video Registration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinglong; Xu, Tingfa; Zhang, Jizhou; Li, Xiangmin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical framework that combines motion and feature information to implement infrared-visible video registration on nearly planar scenes. In contrast to previous approaches, which involve the direct use of feature matching to find the global homography, the framework adds coarse registration based on the motion vectors of targets to estimate scale and rotation prior to matching. In precise registration based on keypoint matching, the scale and rotation are used in re-location to eliminate their impact on targets and keypoints. To strictly match the keypoints, first, we improve the quality of keypoint matching by using normalized location descriptors and descriptors generated by the histogram of edge orientation. Second, we remove most mismatches by counting the matching directions of correspondences. We tested our framework on a public dataset, where our proposed framework outperformed two recently-proposed state-of-the-art global registration methods in almost all tested videos. PMID:28212350

  10. A Geographic Information System framework for the management of sensor deployments.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, David J; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors' underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework.

  11. Defining Information Quality Into Health Websites: A Conceptual Framework of Health Website Information Quality for Educated Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua; LeRouge, Cynthia; Smith, K Jody; De Leo, Gianluca

    2017-10-06

    Today's health care environment encourages health care consumers to take an active role in managing their health. As digital natives, young educated adults do much of their health information management through the Internet and consider it a valid source of health advice. However, the quality of information on health websites is highly variable and dynamic. Little is known about the understandings and perceptions that young educated adults have garnered on the quality of information on health websites used for health care-related purposes. To fill this gap, the aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework of health website information quality with quality dimensions (ie, criteria) and associated quality drivers (ie, attributes) specified in the context of young educated adults' use of health websites for health care-related purposes. This aim was achieved by (1) identifying information quality dimensions of health websites from the perspective of young educated adults; (2) identifying the importance ratings of these quality dimensions; and (3) constructing a framework of health website information quality with quality dimensions and associated drivers specified in the context of young educated adults' use of health websites for health care-related purposes. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. Methods included semistructured group interviews and an individual quality assessment exercise grounded in visiting various websites and responding to Likert scale questions regarding the importance ratings of information quality dimensions and open-ended questions with specifying website quality drivers. Study participants included junior and senior undergraduate and graduate students in business, allied health, and public health majors. Qualitative, open-coding procedures were used to develop the conceptual framework reflecting the participants' means of assessing information quality on health websites. Five dimensions of information

  12. For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joshua; Cohen, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of cognitive neuroscience holds the promise of explaining the operations of the mind in terms of the physical operations of the brain. Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people's moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of old arguments, bolstered by vivid new illustrations provided by cognitive neuroscience. We foresee, and recommend, a shift away from punishment aimed at retribution in favour of a more progressive, consequentialist approach to the criminal law. PMID:15590618

  13. [Origins and first steps of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    I recall the background, the environment, the people and the events that led to the birth of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience (SENC) and remember how and why the multidisciplinary Neurobiology teachers at the Medical School of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid decided to organize the First Meeting of Spanish Neurobiologists in 1979. Our principal aim was to promote Neuroscience research in Spain. For this was necessary: to know each other, support each other and organize and set up a modern and solid framework for training young researchers in Neuroscience. After reporting the results and circumstances of the first two Meetings, in 1980 and 1981, I discuss the impact of the Sixth European Neuroscience Congress held in Torremolinos in 1982 on Neuroscience in our country. The 1983 Meeting of the Spanish Neurobiologists decided to create the Spanish Society for Neuroscience. The effort of the heterogeneous Management Commission, the preparation of the Bylaws, the selection of the first members and the birth of the Society in 1985 are outlined. I continue in describing the components and work of the three first Boards of Directors and events of the corresponding Congresses until the consolidation of SENC in national and international scientific fields. My talk runs through the development of our Society, its growth in membership and quality and our hopes for the future.

  14. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  15. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  16. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR

    2009-01-01

    As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19284614

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  18. Gizmos and gadgets for the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mary Kay

    2006-08-01

    Managing the critical neuroscience patient population challenges practitioners because of both the devastating injury involved and the complexity of care required. Emerging technology provides the neuroscience intensive care unit team with better information on the intricate physiology and dynamics inside the cranium. In particular, the team is better able to detect changes in pressure, oxygen, and blood flow. With improved data in hand, the team can intervene to optimize intracranial dynamics, possibly reducing disability and death among such patients.

  19. Service Learning in Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Kristina S.; Kennedy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources. PMID:23493330

  20. This Is Really Happening: Criticality and Discussions of Context in ACRL's "Framework for Information Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeber, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the ACRL "Framework for Information Literacy" has sparked an immense amount of conversation among academic librarians, though the profession is still far from consensus with regards to if, when, or how the document should be implemented. This essay argues that despite debates over various points within the text, the…

  1. A Land Surface Data Assimilation Framework Using the Land Information System: Description and Application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Land Information System (LIS) is a hydrologic modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatia...

  2. Service-Learning Informing the Development of an Inclusive Ethical Framework for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Saggers, Beth

    2008-01-01

    A social-cultural theory of difference informed the development of a university unit on inclusive education with a focus on broadening students' experience and understanding about the backgrounds and values of people in society. One of the aims of the unit was to "develop and work within legal and ethical frameworks that promote diversity,…

  3. Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…

  4. PRISM framework: a paradigm shift for designing, strengthening and evaluating routine health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Anwer; Lippeveld, Theo; Hozumi, Dairiku

    2009-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of routine health information systems (RHIS) in improving health system performance in developing countries has been questioned. This paper argues that the health system needs internal mechanisms to develop performance targets, track progress, and create and manage knowledge for continuous improvement. Based on documented RHIS weaknesses, we have developed the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework, an innovative approach to design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The PRISM framework offers a paradigm shift by putting emphasis on RHIS performance and incorporating the organizational, technical and behavioural determinants of performance. By describing causal pathways of these determinants, the PRISM framework encourages and guides the development of interventions for strengthening or reforming RHIS. Furthermore, it conceptualizes and proposes a methodology for measuring the impact of RHIS on health system performance. Ultimately, the PRISM framework, in spite of its challenges and competing paradigms, proposes a new agenda for building and sustaining information systems, for the promotion of an information culture, and for encouraging accountability in health systems. PMID:19304786

  5. MSA-PAD: DNA multiple sequence alignment framework based on PFAM accessed domain information.

    PubMed

    Balech, Bachir; Vicario, Saverio; Donvito, Giacinto; Monaco, Alfonso; Notarangelo, Pasquale; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the MSA-PAD application, a DNA multiple sequence alignment framework that uses PFAM protein domain information to align DNA sequences encoding either single or multiple protein domains. MSA-PAD has two alignment options: gene and genome mode.

  6. Promoting Student Learning and Productive Persistence in Developmental Mathematics: Research Frameworks Informing the Carnegie Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ann R.; Beattie, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on two research-based frameworks that inform the design of instruction and promote student success in accelerated, developmental mathematics pathways. These are Learning Opportunities--productive struggle on challenging and relevant tasks, deliberate practice, and explicit connections, and Productive Persistence--promoting…

  7. 76 FR 11243 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), General Services Administration (GSA), and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) are requesting written stakeholder input to inform the national framework for electronics stewardship that is being developed by the Interagency Task Force on Electronics Stewardship. On November 15, 2010, President Obama signed a presidential proclamation celebrating......

  8. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Thinking within a Research-Based Framework: What Informs Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2007-01-01

    A research-based framework for teaching science is a heuristic tool used to help preservice teachers conceptualize many complexities of teaching while making explicit the strategy to use a research-based body of professional knowledge to inform instructional decision-making (Clough, 2003, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association…

  10. Learner Outcomes in Information and Communication Technology ECS to Grade 12: A Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This framework document is the result of an extensive review of information on technology curricula from around the globe--with a focus on the work being done by Canadian education ministries, state and foreign education ministries and school jurisdictions. It is also the result of consultations with Alberta employers, employees, parents, teachers…

  11. Medication information leaflets for patients: the further validation of an analytic linguistic framework.

    PubMed

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Hirsh, Di; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    While clinicians may routinely use patient information leaflets about drug therapy, a poorly conceived leaflet has the potential to do harm. We previously developed a novel approach to analysing leaflets about a rheumatoid arthritis drug, using an analytic approach based on systemic functional linguistics. The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of the linguistic framework by applying it to two further arthritis drug leaflets. The findings confirmed the applicability of the framework and were used to refine it. A new stage or 'move' in the genre was identified. While the function of many of the moves appeared to be 'to instruct' the patient, the instruction was often unclear. The role relationships expressed in the text were critical to the meaning. As with our previous study, judged on their lexical density, the leaflets resembled academic text. The framework can provide specific tools to assess and produce medication information leaflets to support readers in taking medication. Future work could utilize the framework to evaluate information on other treatments and procedures or on healthcare information more widely.

  12. A Transparent and Transferable Framework for Tracking Quality Information in Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek E.; Metzger, Stefan; Taylor, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the validity of data is essential to any investigation, and manual “eyes on” assessments of data quality have dominated in the past. Yet, as the size of collected data continues to increase, so does the effort required to assess their quality. This challenge is of particular concern for networks that automate their data collection, and has resulted in the automation of many quality assurance and quality control analyses. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the resulting data quality flags can become quite challenging with large data sets. We have developed a framework to summarize data quality information and facilitate interpretation by the user. Our framework consists of first compiling data quality information and then presenting it through 2 separate mechanisms; a quality report and a quality summary. The quality report presents the results of specific quality analyses as they relate to individual observations, while the quality summary takes a spatial or temporal aggregate of each quality analysis and provides a summary of the results. Included in the quality summary is a final quality flag, which further condenses data quality information to assess whether a data product is valid or not. This framework has the added flexibility to allow “eyes on” information on data quality to be incorporated for many data types. Furthermore, this framework can aid problem tracking and resolution, should sensor or system malfunctions arise. PMID:25379884

  13. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  14. Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…

  15. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  16. NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF

    PubMed Central

    Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E.; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery, including 3D and interactive visualization of branching, frequently measured morphometrics, and reciprocal links to the original PubMed publications. The integration of NeuroMorpho.Org with version-1 of the NIF (NIFv1) provides the opportunity to access morphological data in the context of other relevant resources and diverse subdomains of neuroscience, opening

  17. NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF.

    PubMed

    Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-09-01

    Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery, including 3D and interactive visualization of branching, frequently measured morphometrics, and reciprocal links to the original PubMed publications. The integration of NeuroMorpho.Org with version-1 of the NIF (NIFv1) provides the opportunity to access morphological data in the context of other relevant resources and diverse subdomains of neuroscience, opening

  18. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  19. A generic spatial-stochastic framework for quantifying noisy information flow in multicellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Thomas; Tkačik, Gašper

    Spatio-temporal protein signals play a crucial role in communicating information within and between cells. However, their ability to convey signals robustly is hampered by noise in gene regulation and biochemical transport, occuring at low copy numbers. While we increasingly understand distinct strategies of biochemical noise control, it remains unclear how nature orchestrates them to maximize information flow. Our recent work extends our information-theoretic framework for gene regulation to an explicitly spatial setting. We constructed a stochastic model enabling fast calculation of local means and variances in a spatially coupled gene regulatory system, which we use for rigorous quantification of information flow in an ensemble of units sensing a spatially distributed input and exchanging information via diffusion. By applying our framework to the paradigmatic Bcd-Hbk system in early fly development, we demonstrate that diffusive coupling can be of substantial benefit in encoding positional information, and uncover a novel optimal regulatory strategy relying on spatial coupling. Thanks to the generic methodology employed, our framework is universally applicable for realistic predictive modeling and data-driven inference of multicellular systems engaging in noisy communication. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.

  20. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  1. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  2. Semantic SenseLab: implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Methods Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. Conclusion We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/ PMID:20006477

  3. Semantic SenseLab: Implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Positional Information, Positional Error, and Readout Precision in Morphogenesis: A Mathematical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tkačik, Gašper; Dubuis, Julien O.; Petkova, Mariela D.; Gregor, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of positional information is central to our understanding of how cells determine their location in a multicellular structure and thereby their developmental fates. Nevertheless, positional information has neither been defined mathematically nor quantified in a principled way. Here we provide an information-theoretic definition in the context of developmental gene expression patterns and examine the features of expression patterns that affect positional information quantitatively. We connect positional information with the concept of positional error and develop tools to directly measure information and error from experimental data. We illustrate our framework for the case of gap gene expression patterns in the early Drosophila embryo and show how information that is distributed among only four genes is sufficient to determine developmental fates with nearly single-cell resolution. Our approach can be generalized to a variety of different model systems; procedures and examples are discussed in detail. PMID:25361898

  5. A Unified Framework for Periodic, On-Demand, and User-Specified Software Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolano, Paul Z.

    2004-01-01

    Although grid computing can increase the number of resources available to a user; not all resources on the grid may have a software environment suitable for running a given application. To provide users with the necessary assistance for selecting resources with compatible software environments and/or for automatically establishing such environments, it is necessary to have an accurate source of information about the software installed across the grid. This paper presents a new OGSI-compliant software information service that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid project. This service is built on top of a general framework for reconciling information from periodic, on-demand, and user-specified sources. Information is retrieved using standard XPath queries over a single unified namespace independent of the information's source. Two consumers of the provided software information, the IPG Resource Broker and the IPG Neutralization Service, are briefly described.

  6. A Curriculum Framework for Implementing Information Technology in School Education to Foster Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of the development of the information technology (IT) curriculum in recent decades in Hong Kong reveals that the aim of the curriculum has shifted from Computer Studies to the development of information literacy (IL). Based on a survey of all schools in Hong Kong and in response to the demand for IL in society, a curriculum…

  7. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  8. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  9. Nature Neuroscience Review

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Ian; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Shao, Ningyi; Mitchell, Amanda; Sun, HaoSheng; Akbarian, Schahram; Allis, C. David; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rapid advances in epigenomics research have extensively characterized critical roles for chromatin regulatory events during normal periods of eukaryotic cell development and plasticity, as well as part of aberrant processes implicated in human disease. Application of such approaches to studies of the central nervous system (CNS), however, is more recent. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of currently available tools to analyze neuroepigenomics data, as well as a discussion of pending challenges specific to the field of neuroscience. Integration of numerous unbiased genome-wide and proteomic approaches will be necessary to fully understand the neuroepigenome and the extraordinarily complex nature of the human brain. This will be critical to the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies aimed at alleviating the vast array of heterogeneous and genetically distinct disorders of the CNS. PMID:25349914

  10. Technical advances power neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  11. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Integrating translational neuroscience to improve drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Beyond the DSM: development of a transdiagnostic psychiatric neuroscience course.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Amit; Cuthbert, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Clinical and neurobiological data suggest that psychiatric disorders, as traditionally defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), are (1) more comorbid than expected by chance, (2) often share neurobiological signatures, and (3) reflect alterations across multiple brain systems that mediate particular mental processes. As such, emerging conceptualizations such at the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC) have suggested that a different way to understand psychopathology may be with respect to the degree of dysfunction in each of these brain systems, seen dimensionally, which both cross traditional diagnostic boundaries and extend to a healthy range of functioning. At present, however, this scientific perspective has not been incorporated into neuroscience education in psychiatry, nor has its relationship to clinical care been made clear. We describe the rationale and implementation of a reformulated neuroscience course given to psychiatric residents at Stanford University centered on the conceptual framework of RDoC. Data are presented on resident feedback before and after revision of the course. A clear motivation and rationale exists for teaching neuroscience in a transdiagnostic framework. This course was taken up well by the residents, with overall feedback significantly more positive than that prior to the course revision. This "proof of concept" neuroscience course illustrates a potential route for bridging between rapid advances in psychiatric neuroscience and the clinical education for trainees not otherwise versed in neuroscience but who are needed for scientific advances to translate to the clinic. The promise of this approach may be in part related to the similarity between this framework and problem-based approaches common in routine clinical care. In such approaches, clinicians focus on the expressed complaints of their individual patient and identify specific symptoms as the

  14. Theories for practitioners: two frameworks for studying consumer health information-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Baker, L M; Pettigrew, K E

    1999-10-01

    Consumer health information studies in library and information science (LIS) are typically not grounded within a theoretical framework. This article explains the importance of theory to LIS research in general, and the specific value of using theories from other disciplines to study consumers' health information-seeking behavior. The argument is supported with two examples: Miller's psychological theory of blunting and monitoring behavior and Granovetter's sociological theory of the strength of weak ties. These theories can be applied by practitioner-researchers to investigate a variety of research problems.

  15. Theories for practitioners: two frameworks for studying consumer health information-seeking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, L M; Pettigrew, K E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer health information studies in library and information science (LIS) are typically not grounded within a theoretical framework. This article explains the importance of theory to LIS research in general, and the specific value of using theories from other disciplines to study consumers' health information-seeking behavior. The argument is supported with two examples: Miller's psychological theory of blunting and monitoring behavior and Granovetter's sociological theory of the strength of weak ties. These theories can be applied by practitioner-researchers to investigate a variety of research problems. PMID:10550029

  16. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heather J; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G; Tirrell, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and "clinical" setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major.

  17. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heather J.; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G.; Tirrell, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and “clinical” setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major. PMID:24319392

  18. Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem.

    PubMed

    Francken, Jolien C; Slors, Marc

    2017-09-10

    To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity. Therefore, scientific findings cannot inform our practical concerns in a straightforward way. How then can neuroscience ultimately help determine if a defendant is legally responsible, or help someone understand their addiction better? Since the above-mentioned problems provide serious obstacles to move from science to common-sense, we call this the 'translation problem'. Here, we describe three promising approaches for neuroscience to face this translation problem. First, neuroscience could propose new 'folk-neuroscience' concepts, beyond the traditional folk-psychological array, which might inform and alter our phenomenology. Second, neuroscience can modify our current array of common-sense concepts by refining and validating scientific concepts. Third, neuroscience can change our views on the application criteria of concepts such as responsibility and consciousness. We believe that these strategies to deal with the translation problem should guide the practice of neuroscientific research to be able to contribute to our day-to-day life more effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Bayesian Framework for Combining Protein and Network Topology Information for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Birlutiu, Adriana; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Heskes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for predicting protein-protein interactions are important tools that can complement high-throughput technologies and guide biologists in designing new laboratory experiments. The proteins and the interactions between them can be described by a network which is characterized by several topological properties. Information about proteins and interactions between them, in combination with knowledge about topological properties of the network, can be used for developing computational methods that can accurately predict unknown protein-protein interactions. This paper presents a supervised learning framework based on Bayesian inference for combining two types of information: i) network topology information, and ii) information related to proteins and the interactions between them. The motivation of our model is that by combining these two types of information one can achieve a better accuracy in predicting protein-protein interactions, than by using models constructed from these two types of information independently.

  20. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  1. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework integrates neuroscience and prevention research and postulates underlying brain regulatory mechanisms that explain the impact of mindfulness on psychological outcomes via self-regulation mechanisms linked to underlying brain systems. We conclude by discussing potential clinical and practice implications of this model and directions for future research.

  2. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  3. Towards a cross-domain interoperable framework for natural hazards and disaster risk reduction information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Robert; Harrison, Matthew; Barredo, José I.; Thomas, Florian; Llorente Isidro, Miguel; Cerba, Otakar; Pfeiffer, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    The vast amount of information and data necessary for comprehensive hazard and risk assessment presents many challenges regarding the lack of accessibility, comparability, quality, organisation and dissemination of natural hazards spatial data. In order to mitigate these limitations an interoperable framework has been developed in the framework of the development of legally binding Implementing rules of the EU INSPIRE Directive1* aiming at the establishment of the European Spatial Data Infrastructure. The interoperability framework is described in the Data Specification on Natural risk zones - Technical Guidelines (DS) document2* that was finalized and published on 10.12. 2013. This framework provides means for facilitating access, integration, harmonisation and dissemination of natural hazard data from different domains and sources. The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the interoperable framework developed in the DS and highlights the key aspects of the interoperability to the various natural hazards communities. Secondly, the paper "translates" into common language the main features and potentiality of the interoperable framework of the DS for a wider audience of scientists and practitioners in the natural hazards domain. Further in this paper the main five aspects of the interoperable framework will be presented. First, the issue of a common terminology for the natural hazards domain will be addressed. A common data model to facilitate cross domain data integration will follow secondly. Thirdly, the common methodology developed to provide qualitative or quantitative assessments of natural hazards will be presented. Fourthly, the extensible classification schema for natural hazards developed from a literature review and key reference documents from the contributing community of practice will be shown. Finally, the applicability of the interoperable framework for the various stakeholder groups will be also

  4. "Writing in neuroscience": a course designed for neuroscience undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroscience students may learn to write in a generic fashion through university writing courses, they receive little training in writing in their field. Here I describe a course that was created at the request of a Neuroscience Department with the intent to teach neuroscience students how to write well in their discipline. I explain the purpose for creating the "Writing in Neuroscience" course and offer a brief overview of the course curriculum, including pertinent pedagogical outcomes for such a course. I describe in depth the major assignment for the course, the literature review, and provide examples of paper titles that students wrote to fulfill the assignment. I briefly describe other relevant course assignments. I evaluate the course and include an overview of who should teach such a course, what support might be helpful, and what can be learned from formative assessment of the course. Using these insights can help others determine whether such a course is a good fit for them.

  5. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  6. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C

    2004-04-01

    Concepts of motivation are vital to progress in behavioral neuroscience. Motivational concepts help us to understand what limbic brain systems are chiefly evolved to do, i.e., to mediate psychological processes that guide real behavior. This article evaluates some major motivation concepts that have historic importance or have influenced the interpretation of behavioral neuroscience research. These concepts include homeostasis, setpoints and settling points, intervening variables, hydraulic drives, drive reduction, appetitive and consummatory behavior, opponent processes, hedonic reactions, incentive motivation, drive centers, dedicated drive neurons (and drive neuropeptides and receptors), neural hierarchies, and new concepts from affective neuroscience such as allostasis, cognitive incentives, and reward 'liking' versus 'wanting'. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Molly M.; Malloy, Timothy F.; Tickner, Joel A.; Edwards, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background Given increasing pressures for hazardous chemical replacement, there is growing interest in alternatives assessment to avoid substituting a toxic chemical with another of equal or greater concern. Alternatives assessment is a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those used in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. Objectives The purposes of this substantive review of alternatives assessment frameworks are to identify consistencies and differences in methods and to outline needs for research and collaboration to advance science policy practice. Methods This review compares methods used in six core components of these frameworks: hazard assessment, exposure characterization, life-cycle impacts, technical feasibility evaluation, economic feasibility assessment, and decision making. Alternatives assessment frameworks published from 1990 to 2014 were included. Results Twenty frameworks were reviewed. The frameworks were consistent in terms of general process steps, but some differences were identified in the end points addressed. Methodological gaps were identified in the exposure characterization, life-cycle assessment, and decision–analysis components. Methods for addressing data gaps remain an issue. Discussion Greater consistency in methods and evaluation metrics is needed but with sufficient flexibility to allow the process to be adapted to different decision contexts. Conclusion Although alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for increased cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment. Citation Jacobs MM, Malloy TF, Tickner JA, Edwards S. 2016. Alternatives assessment frameworks: research

  8. Sensory neural pathways revisited to unravel the temporal dynamics of the Simon effect: A model-based cognitive neuroscience approach.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Yael; de Hollander, Gilles; Forstmann, Birte U

    2017-02-24

    The Simon task is one of the most prominent interference tasks and has been extensively studied in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Despite years of research, the underlying mechanism driving the phenomenon and its temporal dynamics are still disputed. Within the framework of the review, we adopt a model-based cognitive neuroscience approach. We first go over key findings in the literature of the Simon task, discuss competing qualitative cognitive theories and the difficulty of testing them empirically. We then introduce sequential sampling models, a particular class of mathematical cognitive process models. Finally, we argue that the brain architecture accountable for the processing of spatial ('where') and non-spatial ('what') information, could constrain these models. We conclude that there is a clear need to bridge neural and behavioral measures, and that mathematical cognitive models may facilitate the construction of this bridge and work towards revealing the underlying mechanisms of the Simon effect.

  9. A framework for systematic evaluation of health information infrastructure progress in communities.

    PubMed

    Labkoff, Steven E; Yasnoff, William A

    2007-04-01

    It is widely agreed that major improvements in the safety, quality, and efficiency of health care in the US require a National Health Information Infrastructure. To accomplish this, efforts are now underway in many communities to build local or regional health information infrastructures (HIIs) that provide secure, ubiquitous access to complete health care information. To facilitate the assessment and monitoring of the progress of operational HIIs toward completion, we propose a framework of four key measures of requirements that must be ultimately be met: (1) completeness of information, (2) degree of usage, (3) types of usage, and (4) financial sustainability. To evaluate the framework, it was used by the authors to qualitatively assess HII projects in cooperation with four leading communities, resulting in ratings of 78% for Bellingham, WA, 63% for Indianapolis, IN, 60% for South Bend, IN, and 74% for Spokane, WA. Qualitative assessment of community HII systems may be helpful in monitoring progress, comparing projects, and understanding the remaining tasks needed for completion. Additional testing and refinement of the proposed framework is needed to further understand and improve HII progress measurement capabilities.

  10. A framework of a health system responsiveness assessment information system for iran.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, Somayeh; Ahmadi, Maryam; Rashidian, Arash; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2014-06-01

    Responsiveness assessment of health system with the quality information is the key in effective evidence-based management of the health system. This qualitative study defines the necessary components required for the health system responsiveness assessment information system (HS-RAIS). This study was conducted based on mixed-methods approach and by using Delphi technique (29 participants in first round and 25 participants in second round) and semi-structured interviews in Iran 2013. The participant selection strikes a balance between being able to provide valid data, and increasing representative's leverage. The final framework for HS-RAIS was extracted from in-depth interviews with ten key informants. We followed these recommendations and developed a framework in 10 components including: minimum datasets, data sources, data gathering, data analysis, feedback and dissemination, legislative needs, objectives of health system responsiveness assessment, repetition period, executive committee and stewardship. This framework provides useful information for decision-making at all levels about assessment of health system.

  11. Adjusting for population heterogeneity: a framework for characterizing statistical information and developing efficient test statistics.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Daniel

    2003-05-01

    The focus of this work is the TDT-type and family-based test statistics used for adjusting for potential confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies. A variety of heuristics have been used to motivate and derive these statistics, and the statistics have been developed for a variety of analytic goals. There appears to be no general theoretical framework, however, that may be used to evaluate competing approaches. Furthermore, there is no framework to guide the development of efficient TDT-type and family-based methods for analytic goals for which methods have not yet been proposed. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that serves both to identify the information which is available to methods that are immune to confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies, and to inform the construction of efficient unbiased tests in novel settings. The development relies on the existence of a characterization of the null hypothesis in terms of a completely specified conditional distribution of transmitted genotypes. An important observation is that, with such a characterization, when the conditioning event is unobserved or incomplete, there is statistical information that cannot be exploited by any exact conditional test. The main technical result of this work is an approach to computing test statistics for local alternatives that exploit all of the available statistical information. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  13. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  14. Theoretically Informed Correlates of Hepatitis B Knowledge among Four Asian Groups: The Health Behavior Framework

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, AE; Stewart, SL; Glenn, BA; Wong, WK; Yasui, Y; Chang, LC; Taylor, VM; Nguyen, TT; Chen, MS; Bastani, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies is challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. This analysis examines relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Methods Data were collected from 2007–2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. Results While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Discussion Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework. PMID:22799389

  15. Quantum and Information Thermodynamics: A Unifying Framework Based on Repeated Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    We expand the standard thermodynamic framework of a system coupled to a thermal reservoir by considering a stream of independently prepared units repeatedly put into contact with the system. These units can be in any nonequilibrium state and interact with the system with an arbitrary strength and duration. We show that this stream constitutes an effective resource of nonequilibrium free energy, and we identify the conditions under which it behaves as a heat, work, or information reservoir. We also show that this setup provides a natural framework to analyze information erasure ("Landauer's principle") and feedback-controlled systems ("Maxwell's demon"). In the limit of a short system-unit interaction time, we further demonstrate that this setup can be used to provide a thermodynamically sound interpretation to many effective master equations. We discuss how nonautonomously driven systems, micromasers, lasing without inversion and the electronic Maxwell demon can be thermodynamically analyzed within our framework. While the present framework accounts for quantum features (e.g., squeezing, entanglement, coherence), we also show that quantum resources do not offer any advantage compared to classical ones in terms of the maximum extractable work.

  16. Development of a preliminary framework for informing the risk analysis and risk management of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kara

    2005-12-01

    Decisions are often made even when there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes. However, methods for making decisions with uncertainty in the problem framework are scarce. Presently, safety assessment for a product containing engineered nano-scale particles is a very poorly structured problem. Many fields of study may inform the safety assessment of such particles (e.g., ultrafines, aerosols, debris from medical devices), but engineered nano-scale particles may present such unique properties that extrapolating from other types of studies may introduce, and not resolve, uncertainty. Some screening-level health effects studies conducted specifically on engineered nano-scale materials have been published and many more are underway. However, it is clear that the extent of research needed to fully and confidently understand the potential for health or environmental risk from engineered nano-scale particles may take years or even decades to complete. In spite of the great uncertainty, there is existing research and experience among researchers that can help to provide a taxonomy of particle properties, perhaps indicating a relative likelihood of risk, in order to prioritize nanoparticle risk research. To help structure this problem, a framework was developed from expert interviews of nanotechnology researchers. The analysis organizes the information as a system based on the risk assessment framework, in order to support the decision about safety. In the long term, this framework is designed to incorporate research results as they are generated, and therefore serve as a tool for estimating the potential for human health and environmental risk.

  17. Ghosts in machine learning for cognitive neuroscience: Moving from data to theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Thomas; Goddard, Erin; Kaplan, David M; Klein, Colin; Ritchie, J Brendan

    2017-08-06

    The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them. The first ghost arises from difficulties in determining what information machine learning classifiers use for decoding. The second ghost arises from the interplay of experimental design and the structure of information in the brain - that is, our methods embody implicit assumptions about information processing in the brain, and it is often difficult to determine if those assumptions are satisfied. The third ghost emerges from our limited ability to distinguish information that is merely decodable from the brain from information that is represented and used by the brain. Each of the three ghosts place limits on the interpretability of decoding research in cognitive neuroscience. There are no easy solutions, but facing these issues squarely will provide a clearer path to understanding the nature of representation and computation in the human brain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework: evidence from Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS). In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a) to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b) to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater) for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance. Conclusions The study

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework: evidence from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, David R; Aqil, Anwer; Lippeveld, Theo; Mukooyo, Edward

    2010-07-03

    Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS). In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a) to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b) to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater) for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance. The study results provide some empirical support

  20. Ensuring HL7-based information model requirements within an ontology framework.

    PubMed

    Ouagne, David; Nadah, Nadia; Schober, Daniel; Choquet, Rémy; Teodoro, Douglas; Colaert, Dirk; Schulz, Stefan; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Daniel, Christel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the building of an HL7-based Information Model Ontology (IMO) that can be exploited by a domain ontology in order to distribute querying over different clinical data repositories. We employed the Open Medical Development Framework (OMDF) based on a model driven development methodology. OMDF provides model transformation features to build an HL7-based information model that covers the conceptual scope of a target project. The resulting IMO is used to mediate between ontologically queries and information retrieval from semantically less defined Hospital Information Systems (HIS). In the context of the DebugIT project - which scope corresponds to the control of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistances - Information Model Ontology is integrated to the DebugIT domain ontology in order to express queries.

  1. Building Neural Networks Within the Academy: Connecting Neuroscience to Other Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Wichlinski, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    Never before in human history has there been a more exciting time to be studying neuroscience. By extension, the opportunities have never been greater to examine how contemporary findings in neuroscience might relate to other areas of human inquiry. Over the last two decades I have participated in a number of formal and informal attempts to connect neuroscience and psychology to other academic disciplines in the context of interdisciplinary courses. Herein lies a brief overview of my experiences with these undertakings. PMID:23493585

  2. Population neuroscience: why and how.

    PubMed

    Paus, Tomás

    2010-06-01

    Population neuroscience endeavours to identify environmental and genetic factors that shape the function and structure of the human brain; it uses tools and knowledge of genetics, epidemiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Here, I focus on the application of population neuroscience in studies of brain development. By describing in some detail four existing large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of typically developing children and adolescents, I provide an overview of their design, including population sampling and recruitment, assessments of environmental and genetic "exposures," and measurements of brain and behavior "outcomes." I then discuss challenges faced by investigators carrying out such MR-based studies, including quality assurance, quality control and intersite coordination, and provide a brief overview of the achievements made so far. I conclude by outlining future directions vis-à-vis population neuroscience, such as design strategies that can be used to evaluate the presence of absence of causality in associations discovered by observational studies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The unsolved problems of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in neuroscience are nearly solved. For others, solutions are decades away. The current pace of advances in methods forces us to take stock, to ask where we are going, and what we should research next. PMID:25703689

  4. A KPI framework for process-based benchmarking of hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Franziska; Winter, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Benchmarking is a major topic for monitoring, directing and elucidating the performance of hospital information systems (HIS). Current approaches neglect the outcome of the processes that are supported by the HIS and their contribution to the hospital's strategic goals. We suggest to benchmark HIS based on clinical documentation processes and their outcome. A framework consisting of a general process model and outcome criteria for clinical documentation processes is introduced.

  5. Fusion of Imperfect Information in the Unified Framework of Random Sets Theory: Application to Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Informatique WGZ Anne-Laure Jousselme Éloi Bossé DRDC Valcartier Defence R&D Canada – Valcartier Technical Report DRDC Valcartier TR 2003-319 November 2007...Fusion of imperfect information in the unified framework of random sets theory Application to target identification Mihai Cristian Florea Informatique ...Cell CFB Esquimalt P.O. Box 17000 Stn Forces Victoria, British Columbia, V9A 7N2 Attn: Commanding Officer 1 M. C. Florea (author) Informatique WGZ inc

  6. Developing a Framework for Conducting Economic Evaluations of Community-Based Health Information Technology Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Crosslin, David R.; Johnson, Frederick S.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework for conducting economic analyses for health information technology (HIT) interventions, in the context of three interventions that are currently being implemented in a community-based health network caring for 17,779 Medicaid beneficiaries in Durham County, North Carolina. We show that if the HIT interventions were to redirect only 10% of low-severity emergency room encounters to outpatient care, it will result in $12,523 of monthly savings. PMID:16779235

  7. An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-09

    Cyberattack on JP Morgan Chase & Co. [3] reportedly compromised the accounts of 76 million households and 7 million small businesses. Disclosure of this...An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber- threat Information Sharing Deepak Tosh, Shamik Sengupta Dept of Computer Science and Engineering...attacks. Isolated research on cybersecurity threat analysis and indi- vidually developed anti- threat strategies may not be a cost- effective way to

  8. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Pearce, Christopher; Liyanage, Harshana; Liaw, Gladys S S; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework. We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest) and Business Source Premier (EBSCO) using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM), data governance, information governance (IG) and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise. There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly 'big-data' environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle. The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  9. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Buildings, Beauty, and the Brain: A Neuroscience of Architectural Experience.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Alex; Vartanian, Oshin; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-09-01

    A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture are poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry. Here, we draw lessons from recent developments in neuroaesthetics to suggest how neuroarchitecture might mature into an experimental science. We review the extant literature and offer an initial framework from which to contextualize such research. Finally, we outline theoretical and technical challenges that lie ahead.

  11. Nanotechnology In Neurosciences: An Approach.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Rosa Helena; Magdy Sánchez, M; Dominguez, Maria Andrea; Barreto, George E; Lancheros, Daniel; Reynolds, Jorge

    2017-08-15

    The use of nanotechnology in neurosciences has been evolving since new treatments, diagnoses and biomolecule monitoring are needed to find safer treatments for central nervous system diseases (CNDs). Nanotechnology employs devices that interact with biological systems allowing molecular interactions with a high degree of specificity. This review considers concepts associated with nanotechnology and leading areas of neurosciences with nanotechnology research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    PubMed

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  13. A mathematical framework for probabilistic choice based on information theory and psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2006-01-01

    Risky decision-making (e.g. reward dependency) has been associated with substance abuse, psychopathy and pathological gambling; conversely, marked sensitivity to risk and uncertainty have been observed in anxiety disorder patients. In economic decision theory, probability and uncertainty have been dissociated. Frank Knight defined uncertainty as loss of information on the probability distribution of outcomes for choices (i.e., unpredictability), which is referred to as Knightian uncertainty (also as ambiguity). However, even when the probability distribution of outcomes is known, there are different degrees of predictability. In information theory, this type of degrees of uncertainty/unpredictability has been parametrized by introducing Shannon entropy. In the present paper, we show: (i) a mathematical framework combining Shannon entropy in information theory and Weber's law in psychophysics is capable of parametrizing subject's level of both aversion to probabilistic uncertainty (exaggerated in anxiety disorder patients) and reward dependency (enhanced in drug addicts and pathological gamblers), and (ii) this framework has an analogue in thermodynamics, therefore this can readily be utilized in studies in the nascent fields of neuroeconomics and econophysics as well. Future study directions for elucidating maladaptive personality characteristics in neuropsychiatric patients by using the present framework are discussed.

  14. A statistical framework for neuroimaging data analysis based on mutual information estimated via a gaussian copula

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Kayser, Christoph; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Gross, Joachim; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We begin by reviewing the statistical framework of information theory as applicable to neuroimaging data analysis. A major factor hindering wider adoption of this framework in neuroimaging is the difficulty of estimating information theoretic quantities in practice. We present a novel estimation technique that combines the statistical theory of copulas with the closed form solution for the entropy of Gaussian variables. This results in a general, computationally efficient, flexible, and robust multivariate statistical framework that provides effect sizes on a common meaningful scale, allows for unified treatment of discrete, continuous, unidimensional and multidimensional variables, and enables direct comparisons of representations from behavioral and brain responses across any recording modality. We validate the use of this estimate as a statistical test within a neuroimaging context, considering both discrete stimulus classes and continuous stimulus features. We also present examples of analyses facilitated by these developments, including application of multivariate analyses to MEG planar magnetic field gradients, and pairwise temporal interactions in evoked EEG responses. We show the benefit of considering the instantaneous temporal derivative together with the raw values of M/EEG signals as a multivariate response, how we can separately quantify modulations of amplitude and direction for vector quantities, and how we can measure the emergence of novel information over time in evoked responses. Open‐source Matlab and Python code implementing the new methods accompanies this article. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1541–1573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27860095

  15. Hybrid modelling framework by using mathematics-based and information-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaboussi, J.; Kim, J.; Elnashai, A.

    2010-06-01

    Mathematics-based computational mechanics involves idealization in going from the observed behaviour of a system into mathematical equations representing the underlying mechanics of that behaviour. Idealization may lead mathematical models that exclude certain aspects of the complex behaviour that may be significant. An alternative approach is data-centric modelling that constitutes a fundamental shift from mathematical equations to data that contain the required information about the underlying mechanics. However, purely data-centric methods often fail for infrequent events and large state changes. In this article, a new hybrid modelling framework is proposed to improve accuracy in simulation of real-world systems. In the hybrid framework, a mathematical model is complemented by information-based components. The role of informational components is to model aspects which the mathematical model leaves out. The missing aspects are extracted and identified through Autoprogressive Algorithms. The proposed hybrid modelling framework has a wide range of potential applications for natural and engineered systems. The potential of the hybrid methodology is illustrated through modelling highly pinched hysteretic behaviour of beam-to-column connections in steel frames.

  16. Information content-based gene ontology semantic similarity approaches: toward a unified framework theory.

    PubMed

    Mazandu, Gaston K; Mulder, Nicola J

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for computing term information content (IC) and semantic similarity scores within the gene ontology (GO) directed acyclic graph (DAG). These approaches contributed to improving protein analyses at the functional level. Considering the recent proliferation of these approaches, a unified theory in a well-defined mathematical framework is necessary in order to provide a theoretical basis for validating these approaches. We review the existing IC-based ontological similarity approaches developed in the context of biomedical and bioinformatics fields to propose a general framework and unified description of all these measures. We have conducted an experimental evaluation to assess the impact of IC approaches, different normalization models, and correction factors on the performance of a functional similarity metric. Results reveal that considering only parents or only children of terms when assessing information content or semantic similarity scores negatively impacts the approach under consideration. This study produces a unified framework for current and future GO semantic similarity measures and provides theoretical basics for comparing different approaches. The experimental evaluation of different approaches based on different term information content models paves the way towards a solution to the issue of scoring a term's specificity in the GO DAG.

  17. A statistical framework for neuroimaging data analysis based on mutual information estimated via a gaussian copula.

    PubMed

    Ince, Robin A A; Giordano, Bruno L; Kayser, Christoph; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Gross, Joachim; Schyns, Philippe G

    2017-03-01

    We begin by reviewing the statistical framework of information theory as applicable to neuroimaging data analysis. A major factor hindering wider adoption of this framework in neuroimaging is the difficulty of estimating information theoretic quantities in practice. We present a novel estimation technique that combines the statistical theory of copulas with the closed form solution for the entropy of Gaussian variables. This results in a general, computationally efficient, flexible, and robust multivariate statistical framework that provides effect sizes on a common meaningful scale, allows for unified treatment of discrete, continuous, unidimensional and multidimensional variables, and enables direct comparisons of representations from behavioral and brain responses across any recording modality. We validate the use of this estimate as a statistical test within a neuroimaging context, considering both discrete stimulus classes and continuous stimulus features. We also present examples of analyses facilitated by these developments, including application of multivariate analyses to MEG planar magnetic field gradients, and pairwise temporal interactions in evoked EEG responses. We show the benefit of considering the instantaneous temporal derivative together with the raw values of M/EEG signals as a multivariate response, how we can separately quantify modulations of amplitude and direction for vector quantities, and how we can measure the emergence of novel information over time in evoked responses. Open-source Matlab and Python code implementing the new methods accompanies this article. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1541-1573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Information Content-Based Gene Ontology Semantic Similarity Approaches: Toward a Unified Framework Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for computing term information content (IC) and semantic similarity scores within the gene ontology (GO) directed acyclic graph (DAG). These approaches contributed to improving protein analyses at the functional level. Considering the recent proliferation of these approaches, a unified theory in a well-defined mathematical framework is necessary in order to provide a theoretical basis for validating these approaches. We review the existing IC-based ontological similarity approaches developed in the context of biomedical and bioinformatics fields to propose a general framework and unified description of all these measures. We have conducted an experimental evaluation to assess the impact of IC approaches, different normalization models, and correction factors on the performance of a functional similarity metric. Results reveal that considering only parents or only children of terms when assessing information content or semantic similarity scores negatively impacts the approach under consideration. This study produces a unified framework for current and future GO semantic similarity measures and provides theoretical basics for comparing different approaches. The experimental evaluation of different approaches based on different term information content models paves the way towards a solution to the issue of scoring a term's specificity in the GO DAG. PMID:24078912

  19. Causality Analysis of fMRI Data Based on the Directed Information Theory Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Alahmadi, Ahmed; Zhu, David C; Li, Tongtong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to conduct fMRI-based causality analysis in brain connectivity by exploiting the directed information (DI) theory framework. Unlike the well-known Granger causality (GC) analysis, which relies on the linear prediction technique, the DI theory framework does not have any modeling constraints on the sequences to be evaluated and ensures estimation convergence. Moreover, it can be used to generate the GC graphs. In this paper, first, we introduce the core concepts in the DI framework. Second, we present how to conduct causality analysis using DI measures between two time series. We provide the detailed procedure on how to calculate the DI for two finite-time series. The two major steps involved here are optimal bin size selection for data digitization and probability estimation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of DI-based causality analysis using both the simulated data and experimental fMRI data, and compare the results with that of the GC analysis. Our analysis indicates that GC analysis is effective in detecting linear or nearly linear causal relationship, but may have difficulty in capturing nonlinear causal relationships. On the other hand, DI-based causality analysis is more effective in capturing both linear and nonlinear causal relationships. Moreover, it is observed that brain connectivity among different regions generally involves dynamic two-way information transmissions between them. Our results show that when bidirectional information flow is present, DI is more effective than GC to quantify the overall causal relationship.

  20. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  1. [Social impact of recent advances in neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Mima, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience opened up new technical possibilities, such as enabling possible human mindreading, neuroenhancement, and application of brain-machine-interface into everyday life, as well as the advent of new powerful psychotropic drugs. In addition to the conventional problems in bioethics, such as obtaining informed consent, neuroscience technology has generated new array of ethical questions. The social impact of advanced brain science or neuroscience and its technological applications is a major topic in bioethics, which is frequently termed as "Neuroethics." Here, we summarize the ethical, legal, and social issues of cutting-edge brain science by analyzing a classic science fiction novel entitled "Flowers for Algernon" authored by Daniel Keyes (1966). Three aspects of social problems faced by brain science are apparent: biomedical risk assessment, issues related to human subjectivity and identity, and socio-cultural value of brain science technology. To understand this last aspect, enhancement-achievement and/or enhancement-treatment dichotomy can prove useful. In addition, we introduced the first national poll results in Japan (n=2,500) on the social impact of brain science. Although half the respondents believed that the advancement of brain science can aid individuals in the future, 56% of respondents suggested the necessity for guidelines or regulation policies mediating brain science. Technological application of brain science in treatment is generally accepted; however, not just for the personal purpose or enhancement of the normal function. In this regard, it is important to hold further discussions including the general public.

  2. A Health Surveillance Software Framework to deliver information on preventive healthcare strategies.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Alessandra Alaniz; Pollettini, Juliana Tarossi; Baranauskas, José Augusto; Chaves, Julia Carmona Almeida

    2016-08-01

    A software framework can reduce costs related to the development of an application because it allows developers to reuse both design and code. Recently, companies and research groups have announced that they have been employing health software frameworks. This paper presents the design, proof-of-concept implementations and experimentation of the Health Surveillance Software Framework (HSSF). The HSSF is a framework that tackles the demand for the recommendation of surveillance information aiming at supporting preventive healthcare strategies. Examples of such strategies are the automatic recommendation of surveillance levels to patients in need of healthcare and the automatic recommendation of scientific literature that elucidates epigenetic problems related to patients. HSSF was created from two systems we developed in our previous work on health surveillance systems: the Automatic-SL and CISS systems. The Automatic-SL system aims to assist healthcare professionals in making decisions and in identifying children with developmental problems. The CISS service associates genetic and epigenetic risk factors related to chronic diseases with patient's clinical records. Towards evaluating the HSSF framework, two new systems, CISS+ and CISS-SW, were created by means of abstractions and instantiations of the framework (design and code). We show that HSSF supported the development of the two new systems given that they both recommend scientific papers using medical records as queries even though they exploit different computational technologies. In an experiment using simulated patients' medical records, we show that CISS, CISS+, and CISS-SW systems recommended more closely related and somewhat related documents than Google, Google Scholar and PubMed. Considering recall and precision measures, CISS+ surpasses CISS-SW in terms of precision.

  3. Conceptual framework of a geographical information system for environment--public health surveillance in Goa.

    PubMed

    Vaz, F S; Ferreira, A M A; Motghare, D D; Kulkarni, M S

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for establishing a multidiscipline Geographical Information System for environment public health surveillance in the state of Goa. Sectors networking for the Geographical Information System encompass Directorate of Health Services including peripheral health setup, Public Works Department, State Pollution Control Board, Irrigation Department, Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers, Town and Control Planning Department, Meteorological Department etc. the applications of which would predict potential outbreaks / epidemics of water borne diseases, malaria, diseases linked to pollution and would support disease control activities. In addition to health applications, the data generated would be used by the respective sectors for their other planning and programming needs.

  4. Framework for automatic information extraction from research papers on nanocrystal devices

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Masaharu; Hara, Shinjiro; Newton, Marcus C

    2015-01-01

    Summary To support nanocrystal device development, we have been working on a computational framework to utilize information in research papers on nanocrystal devices. We developed an annotated corpus called “ NaDev” (Nanocrystal Device Development) for this purpose. We also proposed an automatic information extraction system called “NaDevEx” (Nanocrystal Device Automatic Information Extraction Framework). NaDevEx aims at extracting information from research papers on nanocrystal devices using the NaDev corpus and machine-learning techniques. However, the characteristics of NaDevEx were not examined in detail. In this paper, we conduct system evaluation experiments for NaDevEx using the NaDev corpus. We discuss three main issues: system performance, compared with human annotators; the effect of paper type (synthesis or characterization) on system performance; and the effects of domain knowledge features (e.g., a chemical named entity recognition system and list of names of physical quantities) on system performance. We found that overall system performance was 89% in precision and 69% in recall. If we consider identification of terms that intersect with correct terms for the same information category as the correct identification, i.e., loose agreement (in many cases, we can find that appropriate head nouns such as temperature or pressure loosely match between two terms), the overall performance is 95% in precision and 74% in recall. The system performance is almost comparable with results of human annotators for information categories with rich domain knowledge information (source material). However, for other information categories, given the relatively large number of terms that exist only in one paper, recall of individual information categories is not high (39–73%); however, precision is better (75–97%). The average performance for synthesis papers is better than that for characterization papers because of the lack of training examples for

  5. Framework for automatic information extraction from research papers on nanocrystal devices.

    PubMed

    Dieb, Thaer M; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Hara, Shinjiro; Newton, Marcus C

    2015-01-01

    To support nanocrystal device development, we have been working on a computational framework to utilize information in research papers on nanocrystal devices. We developed an annotated corpus called " NaDev" (Nanocrystal Device Development) for this purpose. We also proposed an automatic information extraction system called "NaDevEx" (Nanocrystal Device Automatic Information Extraction Framework). NaDevEx aims at extracting information from research papers on nanocrystal devices using the NaDev corpus and machine-learning techniques. However, the characteristics of NaDevEx were not examined in detail. In this paper, we conduct system evaluation experiments for NaDevEx using the NaDev corpus. We discuss three main issues: system performance, compared with human annotators; the effect of paper type (synthesis or characterization) on system performance; and the effects of domain knowledge features (e.g., a chemical named entity recognition system and list of names of physical quantities) on system performance. We found that overall system performance was 89% in precision and 69% in recall. If we consider identification of terms that intersect with correct terms for the same information category as the correct identification, i.e., loose agreement (in many cases, we can find that appropriate head nouns such as temperature or pressure loosely match between two terms), the overall performance is 95% in precision and 74% in recall. The system performance is almost comparable with results of human annotators for information categories with rich domain knowledge information (source material). However, for other information categories, given the relatively large number of terms that exist only in one paper, recall of individual information categories is not high (39-73%); however, precision is better (75-97%). The average performance for synthesis papers is better than that for characterization papers because of the lack of training examples for characterization papers

  6. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition-from entire diets to specific nutrients-affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  7. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  8. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back ∼30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials. PMID:18926873

  9. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S; Stucky, Galen D; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back approximately 30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials.

  11. Neuroscience of meditation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-11-16

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  12. A Physics-Informed Machine Learning Framework for RANS-based Predictive Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heng; Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Numerical models based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are widely used in turbulent flow simulations in support of engineering design and optimization. In these models, turbulence modeling introduces significant uncertainties in the predictions. In light of the decades-long stagnation encountered by the traditional approach of turbulence model development, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative. We will present a data-driven, physics-informed machine-learning framework for predictive turbulence modeling based on RANS models. The framework consists of three components: (1) prediction of discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses based on machine learning algorithms, (2) propagation of improved Reynolds stresses to quantities of interests with a modified RANS solver, and (3) quantitative, a priori assessment of predictive confidence based on distance metrics in the mean flow feature space. Merits of the proposed framework are demonstrated in a class of flows featuring massive separations. Significant improvements over the baseline RANS predictions are observed. The favorable results suggest that the proposed framework is a promising path toward RANS-based predictive turbulence in the era of big data. (SAND2016-7435 A).

  13. p-BioSPRE—an information and communication technology framework for transnational biomaterial sharing and access

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Gabriele; Schröder, Christina; Schera, Fatima; Dobkowicz, Matthias; Kiefer, Stephan; Heidtke, Karsten R; Hänold, Stefanie; Nwankwo, Iheanyi; Forgó, Nikolaus; Stanulla, Martin; Eckert, Cornelia; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks represent key resources for clinico-genomic research and are needed to pave the way to personalised medicine. To achieve this goal, it is crucial that scientists can securely access and share high-quality biomaterial and related data. Therefore, there is a growing interest in integrating biobanks into larger biomedical information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures. The European project p-medicine is currently building an innovative ICT infrastructure to meet this need. This platform provides tools and services for conducting research and clinical trials in personalised medicine. In this paper, we describe one of its main components, the biobank access framework p-BioSPRE (p-medicine Biospecimen Search and Project Request Engine). This generic framework enables and simplifies access to existing biobanks, but also to offer own biomaterial collections to research communities, and to manage biobank specimens and related clinical data over the ObTiMA Trial Biomaterial Manager. p-BioSPRE takes into consideration all relevant ethical and legal standards, e.g., safeguarding donors’ personal rights and enabling biobanks to keep control over the donated material and related data. The framework thus enables secure sharing of biomaterial within open and closed research communities, while flexibly integrating related clinical and omics data. Although the development of the framework is mainly driven by user scenarios from the cancer domain, in this case, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Wilms tumour, it can be extended to further disease entities. PMID:24567758

  14. Application of a Framework to Implement Trauma-Informed Care Throughout a Pediatric Health Care Network.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Danielle; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Murray, Carol; Kohser, Kristen L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura K; Marsac, Meghan L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the initial application of a recently published three-step framework for implementing trauma-informed care (TIC) in a pediatric health care network by applying Framework for Spread. In steps 1 and 2 of the framework, we established commitment from the health care network leadership and initial interest in TIC among clinical providers (step 1), set evidence-based training goals and created the associated TIC training content (step 2). In step 3, 440 health care professionals (from 27 health care teams) participated in single-session, 1-hour training that covered the psychological impact of injury- and illness-related trauma, identification of traumatic stress symptoms, and how to respond to children exposed to potentially traumatic events. A concomitant quality improvement project allowed us to assess potential changes in training participants' favorable attitudes toward the integration of TIC and confidence in delivering TIC. Compared with pretraining, participants demonstrated increases in attitude toward TIC, t(293) = 5.8, P < .001, Cohen's d = 0.32, and confidence in delivering TIC, t(293) = 20.9, P < .001, Cohen's d = 1.09. Trainings were effective in achieving proximal goals targeting attitudes and confidence, thereby demonstrating the feasibility and clinical relevance of TIC training when implemented according to the three-step framework. Future research should examine methods of training to reach wide audiences to promote systematic change and evaluate changes in patient outcomes associated with providers' implementation of TIC.

  15. A service-oriented medical framework for fast and adaptive information delivery in mobile environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2009-11-01

    The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists.

  16. A framework for identifying the applicability of heating or cooling technologies based on initial project information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, Katie Meng

    In order to fully achieve the energy savings and human comfort benefits of many alternative heating and cooling technologies, design considerations for these technologies must be made during the conceptual design stage. However, at this stage architects are often faced with challenges that inhibit the integration of such technologies. At the early stages of design, architects have limited time and technical knowledge to research alternative technologies and mechanical engineers are typically not yet part of the design team to offer their expertise. To address these problems, this research developed a framework for a Technology Identifier that would inform an architect about alternative heating and cooling technologies that are applicable to their specific project at the conceptual design stage. The framework is based on the premise that a quantitative relationship between the initial project information and a technology's critical output variable(s) for heat transfer to the space can be established. Therefore, to be included in the framework a technology must possess a component that provides direct heat transfer to the space for the framework to determine if the technology can maintain the desired space temperature. The climatic influences on a technology's performance and the effect of changing a technology's input variables on the heat transfer output variable(s) were also quantified. Existing building energy simulation programs were used in these analyses. The framework develops simulation input files for multiple technologies, utilizes existing simulation programs to predict the performance of these technologies, and then displays the output results along with other information that is useful to designers at the conceptual stage. Each simulation input file is compiled from a template that queries databases and requires minimal user input. The output display includes the space temperature, energy consumption, and design considerations of each technology. A

  17. Microcephaly Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Information Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ...

  18. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  19. Getting our priorities straight: a novel framework for stakeholder-informed prioritization of cancer genomics research.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Laura C; Roth, Josh; Rangarao, Sneha; Carlson, Josh J; Thariani, Rahber; Ramsey, Scott D; Veenstra, David L; Deverka, Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Prioritization of translational research on genomic tests is critically important given the rapid pace of innovation in genomics. The goal of this study was to evaluate a stakeholder-informed priority-setting framework in cancer genomics. An external stakeholder advisory group including patients/consumers, payers, clinicians, and test developers used a modified Delphi approach to prioritize six candidate cancer genomic technologies during a 1-day meeting. Nine qualitative priority-setting criteria were considered. We used a directed, qualitative content-analysis approach to investigate the themes of the meeting discussion. Stakeholders primarily discussed six of the original nine criteria: clinical benefits, population health impacts, economic impacts, analytical and clinical validity, clinical trial implementation and feasibility, and market factors. Several new priority-setting criteria were identified from the workshop transcript, including "patient-reported outcomes," "clinical trial ethics," and "trial recruitment." The new criteria were incorporated with prespecified criteria to develop a novel priority-setting framework. This study highlights key criteria that stakeholders can consider when prioritizing comparative effectiveness research for cancer genomic applications. Applying an explicit priority-setting framework to inform investment in comparative effectiveness research can help to ensure that critical factors are weighed when deciding between many potential research questions and trial designs.

  20. Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim

    Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.

  1. An Attention-Information-Based Spatial Adaptation Framework for Browsing Videos via Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Houqiang; Wang, Yi; Chen, Chang Wen

    2007-12-01

    With the growing popularity of personal digital assistant devices and smart phones, more and more consumers are becoming quite enthusiastic to appreciate videos via mobile devices. However, limited display size of the mobile devices has been imposing significant barriers for users to enjoy browsing high-resolution videos. In this paper, we present an attention-information-based spatial adaptation framework to address this problem. The whole framework includes two major parts: video content generation and video adaptation system. During video compression, the attention information in video sequences will be detected using an attention model and embedded into bitstreams with proposed supplement-enhanced information (SEI) structure. Furthermore, we also develop an innovative scheme to adaptively adjust quantization parameters in order to simultaneously improve the quality of overall encoding and the quality of transcoding the attention areas. When the high-resolution bitstream is transmitted to mobile users, a fast transcoding algorithm we developed earlier will be applied to generate a new bitstream for attention areas in frames. The new low-resolution bitstream containing mostly attention information, instead of the high-resolution one, will be sent to users for display on the mobile devices. Experimental results show that the proposed spatial adaptation scheme is able to improve both subjective and objective video qualities.

  2. Framework for integration of informal waste management sector with the formal sector in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y

    2013-10-01

    Historically, waste pickers around the globe have utilised urban solid waste as a principal source of livelihood. Formal waste management sectors usually perceive the informal waste collection/recycling networks as backward, unhygienic and generally incompatible with modern waste management systems. It is proposed here that through careful planning and administration, these seemingly troublesome informal networks can be integrated into formal waste management systems in developing countries, providing mutual benefits. A theoretical framework for integration based on a case study in Lahore, Pakistan, is presented. The proposed solution suggests that the municipal authority should draw up and agree on a formal work contract with the group of waste pickers already operating in the area. The proposed system is assessed using the integration radar framework to classify and analyse possible intervention points between the sectors. The integration of the informal waste workers with the formal waste management sector is not a one dimensional or single step process. An ideal solution might aim for a balanced focus on all four categories of intervention, although this may be influenced by local conditions. Not all the positive benefits will be immediately apparent, but it is expected that as the acceptance of such projects increases over time, the informal recycling economy will financially supplement the formal system in many ways.

  3. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  4. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  5. Technology-Assisted Patient Access to Clinical Information: An Evaluation Framework for Blue Button

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on “Blue Button,” a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. Objective We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. Methods A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VA’s ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Results Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. Conclusions The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations. PMID:24675395

  6. Technology-assisted patient access to clinical information: an evaluation framework for blue button.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Timothy P; Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K

    2014-03-27

    Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on "Blue Button," a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VA's ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations.

  7. Beyond criminalization: toward a criminologically informed framework for mental health policy and services research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William H; Silver, Eric; Wolff, Nancy

    2006-09-01

    The problems posed by persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system are vexing ones that have received attention at the local, state and national levels. The conceptual model currently guiding research and social action around these problems is shaped by the "criminalization" perspective and the associated belief that reconnecting individuals with mental health services will by itself reduce risk for arrest. This paper argues that such efforts are necessary but possibly not sufficient to achieve that reduction. Arguing for the need to develop a services research framework that identifies a broader range of risk factors for arrest, we describe three potentially useful criminological frameworks-the "life course," "local life circumstances" and "routine activities" perspectives. Their utility as platforms for research in a population of persons with mental illness is discussed and suggestions are provided with regard to how services research guided by these perspectives might inform the development of community-based services aimed at reducing risk of arrest.

  8. A Framework of 'p'-Benefits in Health Information Technology Implementation.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Keshavjee, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Implementing health information technology (HIT) into clinical settings is still problematic despite extensive efforts and research. HIT issues are caused by a gap in fit between users and technology. The transition from paper (p) to electronic (e) systems is a key factor in the chasm between users and technology. While a significant body of research exists on behavioral or usability evaluation of HIT, there is far less research that looks how to support the transition from p to e systems. This paper presents a framework of 'p' benefits to help us understand why issues occur in the transition from 'p' to 'e' systems. The framework can help us design and evaluate HIT in a manner that bridges the transition from p to e and helps close the user-technology chasm.

  9. Architecture of a framework for providing information services for public transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Pérez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayón, Francisco; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained.

  10. Architecture of a Framework for Providing Information Services for Public Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Pérez, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Álvaro; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Alayón, Francisco; Padrón, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline) and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles) are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained. PMID:22778585

  11. Measuring and improving patient safety through health information technology: The Health IT Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (health IT) has potential to improve patient safety but its implementation and use has led to unintended consequences and new safety concerns. A key challenge to improving safety in health IT-enabled healthcare systems is to develop valid, feasible strategies to measure safety concerns at the intersection of health IT and patient safety. In response to the fundamental conceptual and methodological gaps related to both defining and measuring health IT-related patient safety, we propose a new framework, the Health IT Safety (HITS) measurement framework, to provide a conceptual foundation for health IT-related patient safety measurement, monitoring, and improvement. The HITS framework follows both Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and sociotechnical approaches and calls for new measures and measurement activities to address safety concerns in three related domains: 1) concerns that are unique and specific to technology (e.g., to address unsafe health IT related to unavailable or malfunctioning hardware or software); 2) concerns created by the failure to use health IT appropriately or by misuse of health IT (e.g. to reduce nuisance alerts in the electronic health record (EHR)), and 3) the use of health IT to monitor risks, health care processes and outcomes and identify potential safety concerns before they can harm patients (e.g. use EHR-based algorithms to identify patients at risk for medication errors or care delays). The framework proposes to integrate both retrospective and prospective measurement of HIT safety with an organization's existing clinical risk management and safety programs. It aims to facilitate organizational learning, comprehensive 360 degree assessment of HIT safety that includes vendor involvement, refinement of measurement tools and strategies, and shared responsibility to identify problems and implement solutions. A long term framework goal is to enable rigorous measurement that helps achieve the safety

  12. A Concise and Practical Framework for the Development and Usability Evaluation of Patient Information Websites.

    PubMed

    Peute, L W; Knijnenburg, S L; Kremer, L C; Jaspers, M W M

    2015-01-01

    The Website Developmental Model for the Healthcare Consumer (WDMHC) is an extensive and successfully evaluated framework that incorporates user-centered design principles. However, due to its extensiveness its application is limited. In the current study we apply a subset of the WDMHC framework in a case study concerning the development and evaluation of a website aimed at childhood cancer survivors (CCS). To assess whether the implementation of a limited subset of the WDMHC-framework is sufficient to deliver a high-quality website with few usability problems, aimed at a specific patient population. The website was developed using a six-step approach divided into three phases derived from the WDMHC: 1) information needs analysis, mock-up creation and focus group discussion; 2) website prototype development; and 3) heuristic evaluation (HE) and think aloud analysis (TA). The HE was performed by three double experts (knowledgeable both in usability engineering and childhood cancer survivorship), who assessed the site using the Nielsen heuristics. Eight end-users were invited to complete three scenarios covering all functionality of the website by TA. The HE and TA were performed concurrently on the website prototype. The HE resulted in 29 unique usability issues; the end-users performing the TA encountered eleven unique problems. Four issues specifically revealed by HE concerned cosmetic design flaws, whereas two problems revealed by TA were related to website content. Based on the subset of the WDMHC framework we were able to deliver a website that closely matched the expectancy of the end-users and resulted in relatively few usability problems during end-user testing. With the successful application of this subset of the WDMHC, we provide developers with a clear and easily applicable framework for the development of healthcare websites with high usability aimed at specific medical populations.

  13. A Concise and Practical Framework for the Development and Usability Evaluation of Patient Information Websites

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, S.L.; Kremer, L.C.; Jaspers, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Website Developmental Model for the Healthcare Consumer (WDMHC) is an extensive and successfully evaluated framework that incorporates user-centered design principles. However, due to its extensiveness its application is limited. In the current study we apply a subset of the WDMHC framework in a case study concerning the development and evaluation of a website aimed at childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Objective To assess whether the implementation of a limited subset of the WDMHC-framework is sufficient to deliver a high-quality website with few usability problems, aimed at a specific patient population. Methods The website was developed using a six-step approach divided into three phases derived from the WDMHC: 1) information needs analysis, mock-up creation and focus group discussion; 2) website prototype development; and 3) heuristic evaluation (HE) and think aloud analysis (TA). The HE was performed by three double experts (knowledgeable both in usability engineering and childhood cancer survivorship), who assessed the site using the Nielsen heuristics. Eight end-users were invited to complete three scenarios covering all functionality of the website by TA. Results The HE and TA were performed concurrently on the website prototype. The HE resulted in 29 unique usability issues; the end-users performing the TA encountered eleven unique problems. Four issues specifically revealed by HE concerned cosmetic design flaws, whereas two problems revealed by TA were related to website content. Conclusion Based on the subset of the WDMHC framework we were able to deliver a website that closely matched the expectancy of the end-users and resulted in relatively few usability problems during end-user testing. With the successful application of this subset of the WDMHC, we provide developers with a clear and easily applicable framework for the development of healthcare websites with high usability aimed at specific medical populations. PMID:26171083

  14. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  15. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  16. Sequential Sampling Models in Cognitive Neuroscience: Advantages, Applications, and Extensions

    PubMed Central

    Forstmann, B.U.; Ratcliff, R.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Sequential sampling models assume that people make speeded decisions by gradually accumulating noisy information until a threshold of evidence is reached. In cognitive science, one such model—the diffusion decision model—is now regularly used to decompose task performance into underlying processes such as the quality of information processing, response caution, and a priori bias. In the cognitive neurosciences, the diffusion decision model has recently been adopted as a quantitative tool to study the neural basis of decision making under time pressure. We present a selective overview of several recent applications and extensions of the diffusion decision model in the cognitive neurosciences. PMID:26393872

  17. Trauma-Informed Social Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Policy Analysis and Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-informed care is a service provision model used across a range of practice settings. Drawing on an extensive body of research on trauma (broadly defined as experiences that produce enduring emotional pain and distress) and health outcomes, we have argued that the principles of trauma-informed care can be extended to social policy. Citing a variety of health-related policy examples, we have described how policy can better reflect 6 core principles of trauma-informed care: safety, trustworthiness and transparency, collaboration, empowerment, choice, and intersectionality. This framework conveys a politicized understanding of trauma, reflecting the reality that trauma and its effects are not equally distributed, and offers a pathway for public health professionals to disrupt trauma-driven health disparities through policy action.

  18. Disseminating maternal health information to rural women: a user centered design framework.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vikram

    2010-11-13

    The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. First, the paper presents baseline study to obtain existing knowledge level of women and design requirements for a Primary Health Information System (PHIS). Second, the paper presents a brief description of the PHIS system which was deployed in a village for sixteen months in rural India. Third, the paper explains longitudinal study conducted post intervention of PHIS to measure the impact of PHIS on the knowledge level and health behaviour of rural women in comparison to the baseline study. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the PHIS, a significant improvement in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved.

  19. Mapping Informative Clusters in a Hierarchial Framework of fMRI Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Pattern recognition methods have become increasingly popular in fMRI data analysis, which are powerful in discriminating between multi-voxel patterns of brain activities associated with different mental states. However, when they are used in functional brain mapping, the location of discriminative voxels varies significantly, raising difficulties in interpreting the locus of the effect. Here we proposed a hierarchical framework of multivariate approach that maps informative clusters rather than voxels to achieve reliable functional brain mapping without compromising the discriminative power. In particular, we first searched for local homogeneous clusters that consisted of voxels with similar response profiles. Then, a multi-voxel classifier was built for each cluster to extract discriminative information from the multi-voxel patterns. Finally, through multivariate ranking, outputs from the classifiers were served as a multi-cluster pattern to identify informative clusters by examining interactions among clusters. Results from both simulated and real fMRI data demonstrated that this hierarchical approach showed better performance in the robustness of functional brain mapping than traditional voxel-based multivariate methods. In addition, the mapped clusters were highly overlapped for two perceptually equivalent object categories, further confirming the validity of our approach. In short, the hierarchical framework of multivariate approach is suitable for both pattern classification and brain mapping in fMRI studies. PMID:21152081

  20. E-loyalty towards a cancer information website: applying a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Beekers, Nienke; van Eenbergen, Mies; Becker, Monique; Jongen, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2014-06-01

    To provide more insight into user perceptions related to e-loyalty towards a cancer information website. This is needed to assure adequate provision of high quality information during the full process of cancer treatment-from diagnosis to after care-and an important first step towards optimizing cancer information websites in order to promote e-loyalty. Participants were cancer patients (n = 63) and informal caregivers (n = 202) that visited a website providing regional information about cancer care for all types of cancer. Subsequently, they filled out a questionnaire assessing e-loyalty towards the website and user perceptions (efficiency, effectiveness, active trust and enjoyment) based on a theoretical framework derived from the field of e-commerce. A structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships between user perceptions and e-loyalty. Participants in general could find the information they were looking for (efficiency), thought it was relevant (effectiveness) and that they could act upon it (active trust) and thought the visit itself was pleasant (enjoyment). Effectiveness and enjoyment were both positively related with e-loyalty, but this was mediated by active trust. Efficiency was positively related with e-loyalty. The explained variance of e-loyalty was high (R(2)  = 0.70). This study demonstrates that the importance of user perceptions is not limited to fields such as e-commerce but is also present within the context of cancer information websites. The high information need among participants might explain the positive relationship between efficiency and e-loyalty. Therefore, cancer information websites need to foster easy search and access of information provided. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF): A Portal for the Changing Biogeochemistry of Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. E.; Fernandes, E. C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of societies to adapt to climate and landuse change in aquatic systems is functionally and practically expressed by how regional stakeholders are able to address complex management issues. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics. Implications transcend individual projects and ministries. An immediate challenge is to incorporate the realities of changing environmental conditions in these sectors into the policies and projects of the Ministries nominally responsible. Ideally this would be done on the basis of the absolute best understanding of the issues involved, and done in a way that optimizes a multi-stakeholder return. Central to a response is "actionable information-" the synthesis and "bringing to life" of the key information that integrates the end-to-end knowledge required to provide the high-level decision support to make the most informed decisions. But, in practice, the information necessary and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of especially the developing world. To meet this challenge, we have been developing a Dynamic Information Framework (DIF), primarily through collaborations with the World Bank in Asia, Africa, and Brazil. The DIF is, essentially a decision support structure, built around "earth system" models. The environment is built on progressive information layers that are fed through hydrological and geospatial landscape models to produce outputs that address specific science questions related to water resources management of the region. Information layers from diverse sources are assembled, according to the principles of how the landscape is organized, and computer models are used to bring the information "to life." A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be conveyed, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Deployment of the

  2. Principles of Curriculum Design and Construction Based on the Concepts of Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of a wealth of research-based information in the field of educational neuroscience, educators are now able to make more evidence-based decisions in the important area of curriculum design and construction. By viewing from the perspective of educational neuroscience, we can give a more meaningful and lasting purpose of leading to…

  3. Explain the Brain: Websites to Help Scientists Teach Neuroscience to the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. Educators look to neuroscience to become better teachers; lawyers and judges explore the literature to gain insight into court cases; and marketers consider the use of brain scans to glean information about consumer preferences. With this increased interest in…

  4. Explain the Brain: Websites to Help Scientists Teach Neuroscience to the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. Educators look to neuroscience to become better teachers; lawyers and judges explore the literature to gain insight into court cases; and marketers consider the use of brain scans to glean information about consumer preferences. With this increased interest in…

  5. Neuroscience and the future of early childhood policy: moving from why to what and how.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Levitt, Pat

    2010-09-09

    There is a need for greater synergy between advances in neuroscience and the formulation of innovative policies to improve life outcomes for children experiencing significant adversity. Translational developmental neuroscience can inform new theories of change to catalyze more effective interventions that lead to a more productive and healthier society.

  6. Can frameworks inform knowledge about health policy processes? Reviewing health policy papers on agenda setting and testing them against a specific priority-setting framework.

    PubMed

    Walt, Gill; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This article systematically reviews a set of health policy papers on agenda setting and tests them against a specific priority-setting framework. The article applies the Shiffman and Smith framework in extracting and synthesizing data from an existing set of papers, purposively identified for their relevance and systematically reviewed. Its primary aim is to assess how far the component parts of the framework help to identify the factors that influence the agenda setting stage of the policy process at global and national levels. It seeks to advance the field and inform the development of theory in health policy by examining the extent to which the framework offers a useful approach for organizing and analysing data. Applying the framework retrospectively to the selected set of papers, it aims to explore influences on priority setting and to assess how far the framework might gain from further refinement or adaptation, if used prospectively. In pursuing its primary aim, the article also demonstrates how the approach of framework synthesis can be used in health policy analysis research. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  7. The significance of neuroscience for philosophy.

    PubMed

    Churchland, Patricia Smith; Phil, B

    2008-01-01

    The ground is shifting under the traditional approaches to problems in the philosophy of mind. Earlier doctrines concerning the independence of cognition from the brain now appear untenable. As neuroscience uncovers more about the organization and dynamics of the brain, it becomes increasingly evident that theories about our nature must be informed by neuroscientific data. Consistent with this progress, we may expect that philosophical problems about the mind will be productively addressed and perhaps radically transformed by a convergence of neuroscientific, psychological and computational research.

  8. Translating knowledge: a framework for evidence-informed yoga programs in oncology.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Amanda J; Capozzi, Lauren C; Mackenzie, Michael J; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Culos-Reed, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that yoga may positively influence the negative psychosocial and physical side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. The translation of these findings into sustainable, evidence-informed yoga programming for cancer survivors has lagged behind the research. This article provides (a) an overview of the yoga and cancer research, (b) a framework for successfully developing and delivering yoga to cancer populations, and (c) an example of a successful community-based program. The importance of continued research and knowledge translation efforts in the context of yoga and integrative oncology are highlighted.

  9. The dynamic information architecture system : an advanced simulation framework for military and civilian applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A. P.; Hummel, J. R.

    1998-01-08

    DIAS, the Dynamic Information Architecture System, is an object-oriented simulation system that was designed to provide an integrating framework in which new or legacy software applications can operate in a context-driven frame of reference. DIAS provides a flexible and extensible mechanism to allow disparate, and mixed language, software applications to interoperate. DIAS captures the dynamic interplay between different processes or phenomena in the same frame of reference. Finally, DIAS accommodates a broad range of analysis contexts, with widely varying spatial and temporal resolutions and fidelity.

  10. A framework to identify learning needs for continuing nurse education using information technology.

    PubMed

    Lindner, R

    1998-05-01

    This paper concerns one of the main problems facing continuing nurse education, that of matching the learning needs of the individual nurse with the needs of the care setting. This endeavour is inescapable because of the necessity for giving high quality care within financial restraint. Modern information technology, it is suggested, can be helpful in fulfilling the task more easily. A theoretical framework is introduced as a possible solution for developing a computer program which, it is the hope of the author, will be available in the not so far future.

  11. Employing Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to determine the effectiveness of health information management courses and programs.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Donald Nick

    2011-04-01

    Evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of courses is necessary so that strengths and weaknesses can be identified and improvements made. This article uses Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to present a model that health information management (HIM) instructors can use to improve upon the standard course evaluation form. Kirkpatrick's model stresses evaluation on the levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. The proposed course evaluation model addresses the first three of these levels and focuses on the conditions necessary for transfer of learned knowledge and skills into on-the-job application. The article provides concrete tips that HIM instructors can apply in the process of evaluating the effectiveness of their courses and programs.

  12. On directed information theory and Granger causality graphs.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Michel, Olivier J J

    2011-02-01

    Directed information theory deals with communication channels with feedback. When applied to networks, a natural extension based on causal conditioning is needed. We show here that measures built from directed information theory in networks can be used to assess Granger causality graphs of stochastic processes. We show that directed information theory includes measures such as the transfer entropy, and that it is the adequate information theoretic framework needed for neuroscience applications, such as connectivity inference problems.

  13. eClims: An Extensible and Dynamic Integration Framework for Biomedical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Savonnet, Marinette; Leclercq, Eric; Naubourg, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Biomedical information systems (BIS) require consideration of three types of variability: data variability induced by new high throughput technologies, schema or model variability induced by large scale studies or new fields of research, and knowledge variability resulting from new discoveries. Beyond data heterogeneity, managing variabilities in the context of BIS requires extensible and dynamic integration process. In this paper, we focus on data and schema variabilities and we propose an integration framework based on ontologies, master data, and semantic annotations. The framework addresses issues related to: 1) collaborative work through a dynamic integration process; 2) variability among studies using an annotation mechanism; and 3) quality control over data and semantic annotations. Our approach relies on two levels of knowledge: BIS-related knowledge is modeled using an application ontology coupled with UML models that allow controlling data completeness and consistency, and domain knowledge is described by a domain ontology, which ensures data coherence. A system build with the eClims framework has been implemented and evaluated in the context of a proteomic platform.

  14. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. A general CFD framework for fault-resilient simulations based on multi-resolution information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-10-01

    We develop a general CFD framework for multi-resolution simulations to target multiscale problems but also resilience in exascale simulations, where faulty processors may lead to gappy, in space-time, simulated fields. We combine approximation theory and domain decomposition together with statistical learning techniques, e.g. coKriging, to estimate boundary conditions and minimize communications by performing independent parallel runs. To demonstrate this new simulation approach, we consider two benchmark problems. First, we solve the heat equation (a) on a small number of spatial ;patches; distributed across the domain, simulated by finite differences at fine resolution and (b) on the entire domain simulated at very low resolution, thus fusing multi-resolution models to obtain the final answer. Second, we simulate the flow in a lid-driven cavity in an analogous fashion, by fusing finite difference solutions obtained with fine and low resolution assuming gappy data sets. We investigate the influence of various parameters for this framework, including the correlation kernel, the size of a buffer employed in estimating boundary conditions, the coarseness of the resolution of auxiliary data, and the communication frequency across different patches in fusing the information at different resolution levels. In addition to its robustness and resilience, the new framework can be employed to generalize previous multiscale approaches involving heterogeneous discretizations or even fundamentally different flow descriptions, e.g. in continuum-atomistic simulations.

  16. Development of an Applied Framework for Understanding Health Information Technology in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Degenholtz, Howard B; Resnick, Abby; Lin, Michael; Handler, Steven

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence that Health Information Technology (HIT) can play a role in improving quality of care and increasing efficiency in the nursing home setting. Most research in this area, however, has examined whether nursing homes have or use any of a list of available technologies. We sought to develop an empirical framework for understanding the intersection between specific uses of HIT and clinical care processes. Using the nominal group technique, we conducted a series of focus groups with different types of personnel who work in nursing homes (administrators, directors of nursing, physicians, mid-level practitioners, consultant pharmacists, and aides). The resulting framework identified key domain areas that can benefit from HIT: transfer of data, regulatory compliance, quality improvement, structured clinical documentation, medication use process, and communication. The framework can be used to guide both descriptive and normative research. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of service management framework for dynamic chaining of geographic information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchaga, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Dynamic chaining of geographic information services (geo-services) is gaining popularity as a new paradigm for evolving flexible geo-information systems and for providing on-demand access to geo-information. In dynamic chaining, disparate geo-services are discovered and composed at run time to yield more elaborate functionality and create value-added geo-information. Common approaches to service chaining discover and compose disparate geo-services based on the functional capability of individual geo-services. The primary concern of common approaches is thus the emergent behavior of the resulting composite geo-service. However, as geo-services become mundane and take on a greater and more strategic role in mission critical processes, deliverable quality of service (QoS) becomes an important concern. QoS concerns operational characteristics of a service that determine its utility in an application context. To address pertinent QoS requirements, a new approach to service chaining becomes necessary. In this paper we propose a QoS-aware chaining approach in which geo-services are discovered, composed and executed considering both functional and QoS requirements. We prescribe a QoS management framework that defines fundamental principles, concepts and mechanisms which can be applied to evolve an effective distributed computing platform for QoS-aware chaining of geo-services - the so-called geo-service infrastructure. The paper also defines an extensible QoS model for services delivered by dynamic compositions of geo-services. The process of orthophoto generation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the prescribed framework to service-oriented geographic information processing.

  18. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  19. Ecological Modelling of Individual and Contextual Influences: A Person-in-Environment Framework for Hypothetico-Deductive Information Behaviour Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the person-in-environment framework, which proposes the inclusion of environmental factors, alongside personal factors, as the explanatory factors of individual-level information behaviour and outcome. Method: The paper first introduces the principles and schematic formulas of the person-in-environment framework.…

  20. Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L

    2014-04-01

    The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.

  1. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. From baconian to popperian neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work.

  3. Theory and simulation in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Wulfram; Sprekeler, Henning; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-10-05

    Modeling work in neuroscience can be classified using two different criteria. The first one is the complexity of the model, ranging from simplified conceptual models that are amenable to mathematical analysis to detailed models that require simulations in order to understand their properties. The second criterion is that of direction of workflow, which can be from microscopic to macroscopic scales (bottom-up) or from behavioral target functions to properties of components (top-down). We review the interaction of theory and simulation using examples of top-down and bottom-up studies and point to some current developments in the fields of computational and theoretical neuroscience.

  4. The cognitive neuroscience of ageing.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl

    2012-06-20

    The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive ageing. Although there is a growing consensus that the ageing brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional MRI, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field is also hampered by the complexity of the ageing process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this Review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of ageing are discussed.

  5. From baconian to popperian neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work. PMID:22330680

  6. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-02-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  7. Preface: psychophysiology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    The intersection of psychophysiology and cognitive neuroscience has proved to be fertile ground for advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior. The eight original empirical articles in this special issue contribute a variety of new evidence for how various bodily processes interrelate with brain processes, especially in the service of emotions and feelings. The findings are rich in their own right, and they also underscore the value of psychophysiological approaches in the investigation of brain-behavior relationships. This type of work is helping to shape a new field of "affective neuroscience."

  8. CSP- 5th Champalimaud Neuroscience Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-20

    already identified by the US Naval or Marine Corp Science & Technology, Neuroscience through their Warfighter Performance strategy focus area...Mohamed Edfawy Center for Neuroscience and Cell presentation) - Travel Biology Portugal award Delegate (poster Ida Barlow Universi ty College

  9. Comparative International Education: Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Herrington, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare institutions of higher learning in Poland and universities in Canada using an information technology conceptual framework consisting of three parts: participation, feedback and partnership. (Contains 15 notes.)

  10. Information Theoric Framework for the Earthquake Recurrence Models : Methodica Firma Per Terra Non-Firma

    SciTech Connect

    Esmer, Oezcan

    2006-11-29

    This paper first evaluates the earthquake prediction method (1999 ) used by US Geological Survey as the lead example and reviews also the recent models. Secondly, points out the ongoing debate on the predictability of earthquake recurrences and lists the main claims of both sides. The traditional methods and the 'frequentist' approach used in determining the earthquake probabilities cannot end the complaints that the earthquakes are unpredictable. It is argued that the prevailing 'crisis' in seismic research corresponds to the Pre-Maxent Age of the current situation. The period of Kuhnian 'Crisis' should give rise to a new paradigm based on the Information-Theoric framework including the inverse problem, Maxent and Bayesian methods. Paper aims to show that the information- theoric methods shall provide the required 'Methodica Firma' for the earthquake prediction models.

  11. Hierarchy of Information Processing in the Brain: A Novel 'Intrinsic Ignition' Framework.

    PubMed

    Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-06-07

    A general theory of brain function has to be able to explain local and non-local network computations over space and time. We propose a new framework to capture the key principles of how local activity influences global computation, i.e., describing the propagation of information and thus the broadness of communication driven by local activity. More specifically, we consider the diversity in space (nodes or brain regions) over time using the concept of intrinsic ignition, which are naturally occurring intrinsic perturbations reflecting the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions in a given brain state. Characterizing the profile of intrinsic ignition for a given brain state provides insight into the precise nature of hierarchical information processing. Combining this data-driven method with a causal whole-brain computational model can provide novel insights into the imbalance of brain states found in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory.

    PubMed

    D'Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-03

    For more than 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a working memory to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory by allocating attention to internal representations, whether semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The "control of the controller" emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals.

  13. Understanding decision neuroscience: a multidisciplinary perspective and neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Miyapuram, Krishna P; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    The neuroscience of decision making is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary research area that employs neuroscientific techniques to explain various parameters associated with decision making behavior. In this chapter, we emphasize the role of multiple disciplines such as psychology, economics, neuroscience, and computational approaches in understanding the phenomenon of decision making. Further, we present a theoretical approach that suggests understanding the building blocks of decision making as bottom-up processes and integrate these with top-down modulatory factors. Relevant neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings that have used the building-block approach are reviewed. A unifying framework emphasizing multidisciplinary views would bring further insights into the active research area of decision making. Pointing to future directions for research, we focus on the role of computational approaches in such a unifying framework.

  14. Kalman meets neuron - the intersection of control theory and neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models which provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I will show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, a novel framework for dynamic clamp, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data.

  15. A new framework for modeling decisions about changing information: The Piecewise Linear Ballistic Accumulator model

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the real world, decision making processes must be able to integrate non-stationary information that changes systematically while the decision is in progress. Although theories of decision making have traditionally been applied to paradigms with stationary information, non-stationary stimuli are now of increasing theoretical interest. We use a random-dot motion paradigm along with cognitive modeling to investigate how the decision process is updated when a stimulus changes. Participants viewed a cloud of moving dots, where the motion switched directions midway through some trials, and were asked to determine the direction of motion. Behavioral results revealed a strong delay effect: after presentation of the initial motion direction there is a substantial time delay before the changed motion information is integrated into the decision process. To further investigate the underlying changes in the decision process, we developed a Piecewise Linear Ballistic Accumulator model (PLBA). The PLBA is efficient to simulate, enabling it to be fit to participant choice and response-time distribution data in a hierarchal modeling framework using a non-parametric approximate Bayesian algorithm. Consistent with behavioral results, PLBA fits confirmed the presence of a long delay between presentation and integration of new stimulus information, but did not support increased response caution in reaction to the change. We also found the decision process was not veridical, as symmetric stimulus change had an asymmetric effect on the rate of evidence accumulation. Thus, the perceptual decision process was slow to react to, and underestimated, new contrary motion information. PMID:26760448

  16. A behavioral framework for capturing emotional information in an internet of things environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis-Ferreira, Fernando; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    Life in modern societies implies a close relationship with many types of devices. The diversity of such devices has impact in diverse areas of our life as some provide support for management tasks, others just provide information, and most of them follow us anywhere and anytime. The more widespread example is mobile phones, but others also follow us, like our music devices or even our car with many electronic systems. In a recent past a phone was something to talk with others and a car was just a vehicle, with an engine, to allow displacement of people and goods. A phone would support voice conversation and a car had the equipment needed to take us to some destination. But these days all those devices and vehicles have computer equipment and some include complex functions and sensory abilities. We cannot question how useful those devices are for every day's activities but it is questionable how those devices respect our nature and address our needs of perceptive and emotive human beings. How far can those devices retrieve information about our nature, and our feelings, and what kind of information and reasoning those devices can provide to users? The proposed framework, by capturing and managing sensorial and physiological information, will feed information that enable the reasoning of emotional knowledge in an IoT environment.

  17. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs.

  18. What is important in transdisciplinary pain neuroscience education? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Amarins J; Speksnijder, Caroline M; Crom-Ottens, Astrid F; Knulst-Verlaan, J M Corine; Keizer, Doeke; Nijs, Jo; van Wilgen, C Paul

    2017-05-19

    Neuroscience Education. Repetitions of Pain Neuroscience Education, in different forms (verbal and written information, examples, drawings, etc.) help patients to understand the theory of neurophysiology. Pain Neuroscience Education induces insight into the patient's complaints, improved coping with complaints, improved self-control, and induces in some cases peace of mind. Healthcare professionals providing Pain Neuroscience Education should be aware of the possible confronting nature of the contributing factors.

  19. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  20. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…